கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Lanka Guardian 1988.12.15
PRESIDENTIAL Peace, Democra
Vol. 11 No. 16 December 15
* Lanka's troubled 'South“ — á * Vittachi’s “SUBUD” - expla 4- Violence, State and myth -
a JVP on SLFP O)
cy or market economics P
- Mervyn de Silva
Registered at the GPO, Sri Lanka OJ/84/NEWS/88
tourist's view - John Simkins ration or ego-trip - P. v.
hanging Regional Relations
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T R E N
While the Nation Sleeps . . . That may well have been the title picked by a more imaginative RUPAVAH/W for a short publicity feature on the Armed Forces. The feature makes a regular thrice a week appearance on national T. V. these days.
It is not entirely a starryeyed salute to The Glory Boys, but it does seek to impress on the public the service the Armed Forces and Police render in these turbulent times. The soldiers on combat training does have a touch of the Green Beret - derring do. The main point of the feature however is to awaken the public to the silent services Which guard the nation, and safeguard peace to give the citizen a chance to go about his job.
It is in Short a P. R. effort at the right time. And perfectly in order. Yet, it is also the first glimpse of what could prove a new tendency of the
State - to give th higher profile.
Foreign monitors server teams represe a new international from Marcos Phi Pinochet's Chile, y Zias Pakistan. VM have thought that arguably the Thi liveliest democracy, subjected to this honour?
At first, the ide, officia//y, was alba the government on t that there was no ganise a mission. tion was to be e Inter-Parliamentary Commonwealth Aa
Association and the
Finally, they S. A. A. R. C. i. e. S. A. A. R. C. Secre ing an officia/ moni
F. T., Z.
V/here the WaVes beat breakWater The bases of to is come in She fits to Work for the M. W. C. No time to Walk With him Tall / glinting palms and shadow Sea splash to hold a Whisper stil/ But he walks afone in the mellow
Eve, while whistles trill
calling her to work till dawn While jobless and tame he will
Come as the mist trails the lamps at m To walk her home and watch her yawn Dead beat past the Airfreight gril/ When fat jets roar and the cargoes go value added from the mill. Lets compute again, nett Exchange gain Plus, minus or simply nil.
- U. Karunatia
and obit of course ashion. . . ppines to a General ho Would Sri Lanka, d World's Would be doubtful
, accepted ndoned by he grounds time- to OrThe in Vitaxtended to Union, the r/iamentary
not the tariat Sendtoring team
but ten unofficially picked observers from Pakistan and Bangladesh (three each) India and Wepal, two each.
Sri Lanka celebrated 50 years of Adult Suffrage in 1986. Post-independence Ceylon had regular general elections in 47, 52, 56, 60 (in March and July) 1965, 1970, and 1977 sans foreign observers. Occasionally somebody yelled "rigging. Nobody paid much attention. The arrival of monitors opens a new chapter in Sri Lankas democracy. The rare exception is now moving towards the Third World norm.
Stretched to the limit, the government has sent an S.O.S. to all retired naval personnes below 55 years. The summons includes members of the Volunteer Force Who are on compulsory unpaid leave. The "mobilisation excludes retired Wavy men who have been discharged for disciplinary reasons.
Vol. 11 No. 16 December 15, 1988 Price Rs. 5.00
Published fortnightly by Lanka Guardian Publishing Co. Ltd. No. 246, Union Place, COLOMBO - 2.
Editor: Mervyn de Silva Telephone: 547584
C O N T E M T S
News Background 3 Election File 7 Opinion 6 The Region 7 Book Review 25 Beren ger's Last Tour 27
Printed by Ananda Press 82/5, Wolfendhal Street, Colombo 13. Telephone: 35975
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Mervyn de Silva
Li the symbols speak.
Not the official party "elephant"
'hand' or 'eye', but the "peace
dove” and the pair of scales”.
From the start, Mrs. Bandaranaike, the SLFP leader who entered the lists as the candidate of the newly formed Democratic Peoples Alliance, presented herself as the Sri Lankan President who could restore Peace. Her campaign strategists obviously believed that the largest constituency of the island's 9.4 million was a "peace constituency'. Peace and Democracy or rather Peace through the restoration of Democracy and National Unity formed the principal planks of the Bandaranaike platform.
Prime Minister Premadasa put "performance' first, or rather the UN P’s Economic record, and his own Performance as Minister of Local Government and housing, the architect of GAM UDAWA, a project which has won international recognition. For the UNP candidate, Economics was in command.
"A plague on Both Your Houses' was Mr. Ossie Abeygoonesekera's line of attack as the only candidate from the broad Left. He attacked the UNP on its "open economy'' policies just as vigorously as Prime Minister Premadasa, proudly parading the UNP's market economics warned the voters that a victory for Mrs. B. would mean a return to "era of co-op queues, and ration cards' identified with the SLFP's "closed economy'.
More interesting than the SLMP (USA) candidate's stand on economic was his position on the ethnic issue and the JVP. For him, both major parties were guilty of majority chauvinism and an insensibility to minority rights,
the UNP signing the because its pursuit solution was a paten him, both the UN candidates adopted
appeasement' on the to him was a “fascis (Curiously, the S.L.M closer to the stance of State than to the UN or the DPA leader's
In a common bid JVP vote, Prime Min dasa opened his c identifying the UNP in 'objectives' but not Mrs. Bandaranaj ke v keen on winning the J the JVP which had "talks" with the 7 pa many weeks, turne cannon on Mr. B. an While the PM pointe finger at the SLFP fo
ling violence and un rest, Mrs. B. blame
It was clear fro
however that the \ up its mind not to si party or even a SS with them. This di theless, prevent th "leaning' one way t familiar Maoist appr correct handling of cc Once it could not g dent to accept its in the face of combi from the clergy, the opposition parties managed campaign) pulled back to put main objective - to polls to deny the el any credibility, and new President's manic macy. Failing everyth prefer the UNP to c a genuine regime-c defuse tensions to s and force the JVP in
Accord only of a military t failure. For P and SLFP "a policy of
JVP, which t" movement. .P. line was of the Head NP candidate’s
for the vita ister Premacampaign by with the VP on policies'. was no less VP vote, until been holding rty front for 2d its heavy d her family. d an accusing or the prevaithe student d the UNP.
m the start /P had made upport either ociate itself id not nonee JVP from :actically - a bach, to the bntradictions. et the Presiterms, even ned pressure 2 unions, the (a brilliantly
the JVP Sue itS oWn disrupt the ectoral result thus rob the date of legitining, it would ontinue since hange would Ome eXtent, ito launching
an entirly fresh agitational campaign against the new government.
Prime Minister Premadasa was of course right in attacking the SLFP's most exposed flank - economic policy. The SLFP itself was evidently aware of its weakness months ago. The secret negotiations with the UNP Finance Minister, Mr. Ronnie de Mel, was motivated by nothing else but the perceived, self-protective need to defend this weak flank. Ronnie de Mel, "Mr. Open Economy'' also served a symbolic purpose.
Still advancing on this front and attacking the 'SLFP's economic policies, Mr. Premadasa unveiled his Rs. 2,500 per family per month plan as part of his "poverty alleviation' program. The SLFP, including Mr. de Mel, tried to laugh it off in the same fashion he poked fun at the "One million Houses' project. Ten days before the polls, it was clear that the DPA's fears and anxieties over the 2,500/- offer had by no means diminished. So, on Sunday lith, the DPA put out a long, studied critique of Mr. Premadasa's scheme.
Earlier, the DPA was on the offensive on "prices' (1977 and 1988) to be countered by a "prices vs Wages' UNP defence, pooh-poohing the “Price" argument! Just then, the campaign managers of the UNP appeared to get nervous over the possible success of Mrs. B.'s "peace and democracy” platform... Mrs. B. promised peace of mind", peace among Sri Lanka's diverse communities, and peace with neighbours. Her reading of the psychology of the average Sri Lankan family seems to have convinced the SLFP leader that voter craved for peace and security rather than material welfare.
The "dove' appeared over Prime Minister Premadasa's head in the full-page ads that the newspapers published on Sunday. The banner headline read: THE LEADER WHO CAN RESTORE PEACE. . . . . o 9 The SLMP had a little white bird in a nest of nails.
Meanwhile, the DPA program which proposed its own "ethnic regions' solution to the "National Question' saw an about-face in the on going propaganda battle. Mr. Gamini Dissanayake, a leading architect of the "Accord' and Mr. Lalith Athulath mudali, a prominent critic, both seized the offer of a Muslim unit and a Sinhala unit in the East as a berayal of Sinhala interests. Topsyturvydom was now in command. Mrs. B., regarded traditionally as
ational Security Minister
Laith Athu lath muda li told parliament that the demnity Bill, passed last week, seeking to cover possibly ilegal acts done by security personnel acting in good faith, was the other side of the coin of the amnesty granted to terrori Sts.
'' in the case of the terrorists they were not asked to prove good faith; but here we are giving indemnity only to those who acted in good faith", the Minister said.
"Those who oppose this bill are not arguing a principle but extolling a double standard. The problem is that everyone understands the terrors its and are ready to pardon them, but those who have stood by their country and attempted to maintain law
and order are not understood', he said.
the most r Sinhala-Buddh denly found
Sri Lankar munal politic: would have SU D Dre SS 3 S 蠶。 w Sinha la flag. Y become toda while yesterd Sinhala cham the tribal c pentant seek and devolutic
Knowledge afford a smil moment. Thei split - the
Opposing nist Party's Gunasekera ( the Governn to end its indemnity A bill they pr did not purs
The MP sa present ten country, the frightened t happen afte bill the gov indemnify the Minister and the Ministe them during of eleven y
''Another ment is tha not given. from August vant date. this relevant date is alsc
liable defender of st interests, suderself charged with o the Tamils.
students of com, particularly Tamils, Found it difficult to redonic smile. When ap yourself in a proesterday's "traitors' 7's Sinhala 'heroes', ay's uncompromising pions, quick to beat rum, emerge as reers of racial amity
ble Tami Ils could 2, but only for a own politicians were EPRLF-ENDLF, now
he billi, the Commusole MP, Mr. Dew Kalawana) said that
tent was proposing term , with another it in place of the
esented earlier but Ure,
id: "'In view of the e situation in the people are really see what would elections. By this rnment is trying to Minister, the Deputy at officials under for acts done by the whole period S.
eature of this amenda specific period is he amendment states 1977 to the releto one knows what date is. So relevant
enjoying power in a North and East controlled by the IPKF, helping Ossie, the LTTE which has got such a severe bashing from the IPKF that its best friends in Colombo are those Sinhala leaders who can at least try to get the PKF off the 'tigers' back, supports the Bandaranai kes which has Kumar Ponnambalam's TC in its larger fold while the TULF at the last minute urges the Tamils to vote for Ossie !
Great disorder under the heavens - both in the higher reaches of the Political Establishment as well as on the ground where the anti-Establish ment Sinhala rebel forces are locked in a bitter and bloody battle with the armed
services of a beleagured Sri Lankan state.
''The earlier bill acts related to the Prevention of Terrorism Act. The present bili states any acts done by certain persons with a view to restoring peace in good faith. The new bil i covers a wide area as it refers to the restoration of law and order. It covers almost a officials from the Minister down words.
"My first observation on this bill is that it is grossly immoral.
"If there has been widespread disorder in the country, who is responsible for such a situation The present amendment has to be considered in the light of the prevalent situation.
"If there are instances of acts done in good faith it is a matter that could be dealt under the existing laws, such as the penal code. Under this Act complete
exoneration is being given'.
No early return home f in Sri Lanka - Envoy says
indian peacekeeping troops in Sri Lanka are unlikely to be sent home in the near future
whoever wins the island's presidential election in 10 days' time, India's senior envoy in Colombo said on Friday.
Prime Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa and opposition leader Sirima Bandaranaike, the main candidates in the December 9 poll, have both said they will ask India to withdraw the 50,000 troops it has in Sri Lanka.
But Joytindra Nath Dixit, indlan High Commissioner (ambassador), predicted: "Regardless of the pronouncements by the candidates, whoever comes to power will deal with what should be done in a more realistic manner.'
India sent its tro Tami rebels under a Sri Lankan signed i But the leading reb Liberation Tigers of (LTTE), rejected the forced the Indians guerrilla war.
Nearly 700 Indian died in the campaig
He said the Tiger “marginalised milita ! tically' but that would stay on the least a few months
'There will be ni long-term military said, but the India would go home on tablishing its crec
The Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS) widely regarded as an LTTE ally, has decided to give up arms and enter the democratic process, reports from Jaffna say.
EROS leader, S. Balaku mar, told a press conference in Jaffna, on Monday, that North-East Pro
vincial Council elections in the Eastern Province had clearly shown that the Tamil people wanted peace and EROS had
decided to accept the people's
EROS earlier supported the
LTTE tand had decided not to
contes the North-East PC elec
tions of November 19. EROS w as
the only Tamil mi that escaped LTTE
Mr. Balakumar saic take the Eelam Peo cratic Front and itself as a political
He said he wo contact the LTTE them to return to t path. All other Ta groups - EPRLF, El and PLOT - have : indo - Lanka Peace entered the democr
Mr. Balakumar sa of the Tamil People and reconstruction would assist in the r and rehabilitation pi
or Indian troops
ops to disarm an accord with n July 1987 el group, the
Tami || Eelam e accord and into a bitter
troops have n, Dixit said.
S Were now ily and polithe Indians island for at
o entrenched resence,' he n contingent y “after esentials as a
| EROS would ple’s Demoioon register
uld try to and convince he democratic mi i m i l i tant NOLF, TELO accepted the
Accord and atic process.
id the need was normalcy and his group econstruction "ograms.
force which has fulfillied what it set out to do.'
He said this would be when there was a stable government in the north and east where most Tamils live, when the LTTE had returned fully to the democratic process and when a devolution package giving the Tamil areas a degree of local autonomy had been fully implemented.
Premadasa has said he would ask the Indians to go home after peace was ensured, while Bandaranaike has called for the accord to be redrafted.
The neian envoy acknowledged there was a strong likelihood of violence before and after the presidential poli.
(Continued on page 19)
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ommissioner of Elections
R. K. Chandrananda de Silva in a press release said that his attention has been drawn to news reports in some papers about the excess ballot papers printed for the Presidential Election.
Those press reports he says may tend to create the impression that large quantities of ballot papers have been printed in excess of requirements to serve some ulterior purpose.
Ballot papers are printed on a predetermined basis of the requirements of each polling station to which 10 per cent is added and worked out to the nearest 50 or 100.
The following is the full text of Statement Of the Commissioner of Elections:
My attention has been drawn to a few News Items in some Papers about the quantity of ballot papers printed at this Election. These news items may
tend to create an impression
that large quantitic papers have been excess of the req Serve Some ulterior
I received represer the Election Agent Lanka Freedom P. same issue. I am had the opportunit. the correct positi delegation that met I wish to clarify for the benefit of all the Election Comis
Ballot Papers are a pre-determined b requirements of 6 Station to which 1 and worked out to 50 or the 100. Th to meet three requ
1. The number of issued to a Po is not exactly the total numb tered electors i ling District. be extra ballot meet any shor by spoilt ballot
will launch a mobile P
Mr. R. Premadasa, the UNP Presidential candic ing over the Rupava hini and the SLB C on Sat when he becomes the President he would visit of the country and not direct his activities en
He said he would launch a Presiden
The following is the text of Mr. Premadasa'
ou are aware that I am the
United National Party candidate for the forthcoming Presidential Election. I need your support. I want to ease your worries, I want to appease your hunger. To do this, I need your mandate. I am one of you. This the first time I am asking for your mandate to administer this country. I hope you will give me your fullest support.
I was born anc area where Sinha Muslims and Burg friendship. Since I have enjoyed th of virtuous mem Maha Sangha and inspiration of the E ma. I received my ed Christian and Ca and at the feet Hindu and Islam te
eS Of ballot printed in
ntations from of the Sri arty on the glad that I y to explain on to their me last week. the position 1 concerned' sioner adds.
2 printed on asis of the
0% is added the nearest is is meant irements:
ballot papers lling Station the same as er of regisin that Pol
E papers to tfall caused papers. Bal
lot papers are spoilt on tearing off and the appearance of any marks on them in handling them.
2. In the issue of ballot papers to Polling Stations we cannot afford to break up ballot paper books to issue the exact number equal to the number of registered electors in a Polling Station. If that happens, every Polling Station will have two parts of two books each at the beginning and end of a series which can cause confusion and lead to errors at issues. Hence the issues are always in complete books.
3. Unforeseen situations like the experience of the Dullewa Polling Station in Matale District at the Provincial Councils Elections can also be met on the availability of such stocks.
This is a system that this Department had followed from its inception.
late speakurday said every part tirely from tial Service.
bred in an Lese, Tamils, hers lived in my childhood e association bers of the
received the uddha Dhamucation under tholic clergy
of Buddhist, achers. This
background provided me with a training for, and the habit of, looking at our people and the problems of our country with human compassion, free from any racial, religious, class or caste bias. As you know, it was our government that solved some time ago the language issue that had created serious differences of opinion since 1956. The citizenship issue is also now solved. You are also aware that those people who fished votes by stirring racial passions over these two issues are now publicly accepting the solutions found by us.
When providing employment, I will take into consideration the qualifications of applicants
and provide jobs on an ethnic ratio. I will also ensure that those already employed will continue in their positions. I am already taking action to get the participation of the people in each area in administering that area, and to devolve powers to the elected representatives of the people in the various Provinces. In granting land, priority will be given to the residents of the area.
When I become President II will visit every part of the country and not direct my activities entirely from Colombo. I will also launch a Presidential service. Some ministries will be located outside Colombo. No injustice will be caused to any citizen wherever he may live in Sri Lanka. As you know, it is difficult for a person to be fair and just to the minority. As I have earned the confidence of the majority, I can be just and fair by the minority. That is really the good fortune of the minority.
Those who swore to abolish Provincial Councils are now promising Regional Councils with more powers. This is like that promise of bringing rice from moon. These statements are only meant to win votes and not honest promises of ensuring justice. These are the same people who once clamoured for “Sinhala only' and created dissension among our people, and are today accepting the language policy adopted by us. The factual position first accepted by us is now being endorsed by them belatedly.
You will scarcities tha country befo no sugar f four for even rice f meals W€ Tuesdays and remember all yards of kerc was issued We put an
bel era of sh
Today you any amou. I clothes and What they measures of But, what the single 1 taken away. now know of the rice not mean pl
The masse than us that the coconut the local pri difficulties. weakening til of living c down. It c by strengthe That is why Rs... 2500 p 70 lakhs or who subsist Of this sum consumption and drink e RS. 1042 wil a bank to family. Thi family will leading to
Voting on December than how you vote -
Following is the SLFP presidential can Bandaranaike's campaign address telecast
riends, on December 19th, F: will have the right to elect a new president of Sri Lanka.
My first denti al canc ratic People ask you, to
all remember that it prevailed in this re 1977. There was or a cup of tea, baking bread and or a meal. Rice 2 prohibited on
Fridays. You will these. Only two sene-stinking cloth for a who le year. ind to that miseraortages and queues.
can buy anywhere it of foodstuffs, other requirements. promised was two rice free of charge. happended ? Even measure given was So, the people that the promise ration book does romise of rice.
s know far better if both halves of are given at -/35 cts. oducer will get into You know that by he producer the cost 'annot be brought an be done only ning the consumer. we want to give er month to the more of the poor on food stamps. Rs. 1458 is for - that is, for food to. The remaining l be deposited in the credit of the s ensures that each get nutritious food, good health and
immunity from disease. This would help save the vast amounts
now being spent on health services.
At the same time, we will
get the participation of the poor masses in production of food, clothes and other essential
goods. Such production will bring down inflation, increase means of livelihood, increase
jobs, increase the number of producers of food and other essential items. -
As you know, the peasants of the Dry Zone - in such areas like Jaffna, Hambantota, Anuradhapura undergo immense difficulties in producing goods. Hereafter, we will be able to give them a better price for their produce. The consumer too will have money to pay for
This is not a do le that we will be giving. It is an investment on strengthening the people. So, the money saved by the poor family will add up to Rs. 25,000 in 24 months. It will be a capital for their own use. The family will rise from the ranks of the have nots to the ranks of the haves. This program will also serve to remove frustration. Thanks to the irrigation, power generation and the other development programs and the liberalizing of trade carried out by our Government during the past 11 years, we can now successfully implement this project.
didate Mrs. Sirima over the Rupa
duty as the presiidate of the Democ
's Alliance is to urge you, to cast
your vote. Far more important than how you vote, is that you vote.
Make no mistake. This is your last chance, your very last chance to preserve democracy - to preserve what little is still
left of the vigorous democracy we once knew.
That democracy, the democracy of the past, the democracy of an educated people, was an example to the third world, an object of admiration by all nations. It was this democracy, not only our cultural heritage,
which allowed us, all of us, to say with pride "We are Sri Lankans’’. We have now
lost that right in the eyes of the world. We must recover that right by practising democracy, by proving that the spirit of democracy is still alive in the hearts of our people.
Today, we see the final flickering flame of democracy. If it goes out we will be plunged into darkness, and the world will forget us.
Our democracy was built through the tireless efforts of dedicated patriotic Sri Lankans — D. S. Senana yake, S. W. R. D. Bandara naike, Sir John Kotelawala, Dudley Senanake, to name a few. It is they who left us this precious legacy.
That legacy is now the birthright of your children. If you fail to vote, you will rob them of their birthright. The genera
tions to come will never forgive
Today, gun-law has replaced law and order. You and I, have no guns. Everybody else has. But your ballot is a more powerful weapon. You must have the courage to use it, and use it wisely. If threats, coecion or the climate of fear, keeps you away from the polling booth, on this the last chance to save democracy, you may have to live under the gun, all your life - live with your guilt of betraying your children and the future generations.
So, my first duty, is to appeal to you to get up early on December 19th, join other adult members of you family, perhaps your neighbours, and walk boldly to the nearest polling booth and cast your vote.
I would also lik myself to a group O who have a specia lity . . . the public are the backbone of
I know that you grievances. Politica and political interf order of the day. and privileges for victimisation and di and fair treatment
day for you.
From the Electi sioner downwards, downwards, the peo ing you.
They expect you according to the law service and the for rantee a free- and Show courage. The country is in your
My second task share some though issues, and persuad for me, and the a
What is the basi you?
This government office for eleven el even years. . . the . . . a parliamentar
Now, it is ask: another six years. for seventeen year deserve this? What way of answering The fairest way is record speak for it
But before that matter. No MP, minister, no depu no minister, no p. can say “I am 1 ble . . .” or “ “I had 1 having shared pow years, and enjoyed forts. . . its many, forts. . . no men government can us The first quality is responsibility. such a thing as ponsibility. The of a democratic le answerable to the
to address Sri Lankans
responsibiervants, who the country.
have many 1 hara SS ment erence is the
Promotions he favoured, inial of equal or the others.
is a historic
on Commisfrom the IGP ble are watch
o act strictly . The public ces must guaair election. future of the
to night is to ts on election e you to vote 11iance.
c issue before
has been in
years - Yes, longest ever y record.
ing you for . . in short, S. Do they is the fairest this question?
to let the self.
no district ty minister, ime minister lot responsino power. . . er for eleven all its commany COmber of the e that excuse. f leadership And, there is collective resfirst quality ader is to be people. Those
who deny responsibility or refuse to be accountable to the people are not fit to lead.
Let us then look at their record. Let us start from this very day - at the end of elevenand-a-half years. Soon, on this television screen, you will see the news, and then a report on the “security situation and after that curfew hours'.
In the north and east, is a foreign army bigger than our own army. Indian troops are killing Tamil Tigers', Tamil Tigers are killing Tamils, Sinhalese and Muslims. In the south, the newspapers say there are tigers of other colours while the government says that Sinha lese “subversives” and “terrorists are killing Sinhalese.
Those who promised you a 'free and just society, a dharmista society, have converted Sri Lanka, the dhammadeepa, into the killing fields of South Asia.
Friends, my government you a sovereign, Sri Lanka. We
left independent left you a
peaceful island, at peace with
its neighbours. We left a Sri Lanka respected in the world, with all nations, big or small, our friends, and none an enemy. We left the people of this country a vibrant democracy, a democracy, so powerful that it reduced the ruling party, my party to eight seats
You will soon see the curfew hours on this screen - north, south, east and west. . . curfew.
And in different parts of the island, for days and weeks, no water, no electricity, no transport, no food, no shops, banks or post offices open, hospitals hardly working. And for months
and months, all universities closed. All schools shut, all examinations postponed. Your
parents know what that means.
Tell me, friends, do you even the oldest among you, recall any period in our island's history,
where our people have known such hardships and suffering, such senseless violence and brutality? -
Yet, they ask you for six more years to govern this country! The question you must surely ask them is: 'Do you call this a government?'
If you listen to their speeches or read their statements in the press, what do they say on all the important issues - the IndiaSri Lanka accord and the IPKF, on the dissolution of parliament, on violence, on the JVP. Each leader says the exact opposite of his fellow leader. They may be a party. But are they united? And they ask, dare to ask you, the right to govern you for seventeen years
The other day, after I had finished addressing an election rally, a woman with tears in her eyes, came up to me. She begged me to find her son a Middle-East job. He had passed his 'A' levels, but for 3 years he could not get a place in any university.
Looking for a job he had gone from person to person. Various politicians' clerks had given him
“chits'. Tod who had w keep this ge has many ch but no job. is the only
in a bomb
She told think our cursed'.
Trying ti asked wheth family that some traged times. She
My frienc a family - a ties, each w nality, but united = famil
Today, Sri torn apart. divided.
Friends, su tal violence me. Thirty
In Vijaya's Name
We are undoubtedly capable of extricating the country from its present degrading plight. Also our parties are in a solid position to obtain the necessary foreign co-operation needed to achieve this objective. The militant organizations in the North have agreed to compromise with us to work in amity as in the past and march forward, towards a glorified national re-awakening. India and other socialist countries have placed their full confidence in our capabalities.
Our beloved leader VIJAYA KUMARATUNGE Was aSSaSSinated solely, because, he was the pioneer, confidence. If he is alive today; it is an undoubted fact to which all his friends and foes will agree that the entire country would have rallied under his leadership in his unflinching endeavour in retrieving this
in building up this
country ou predicament. terrorists; r over his dea conception 1 ended with
although flab death, did
the flag falle
both our h brought for y Oung ma Vijaya. OSSIE; whic upheld V ideology, as as Vijaya
political sh friend.
He does utterences O of the existin He also reje votes on the racism.
OSSIE ince against the
ay this young man, orked So hard to vernment in power, its in his possession,
His father, who bread winner in the lost both his legs . . . last in a CTB bus.
me, o “sometimes II family has been
D console her, I er she knew of any had not suffered y in these terrible
ls, a nation is also
family of communiith its own persoall members of one y.
i Lanka is a family . . a nation, bitterly
dden, senseless, bruis not unknown to years ago, the Prime
Minister of this country, the leader who had ushered the era of the common man through the power of the ballot, was struck down by a murderer's bullet in his own house. That was my home too.
Then I faced the most agonising crisis of my life. Should I do my duty as a mother and look after three young, fatherless children?
Or, should I strive alive my husband's serve the people?
to keep ideals and
I know I made the correct choice. It is that knowledge that give me strength.
Now, it is the Sri Lankan family, struck by tragedy, that looks lost and leader less.
Once more, I know where my duty lies.
But this time, I need your support, and your blessings. Thank you.
t of the present Imperialist facsist may have rejoiced th, under the mis:hat everything has that tragedy. We, bergasted over his courageously hoist en from him, with ands. So we have th another valiant 盘 to substitute
re-affirmed and ijaya's political honest and brave is none but his adow and bosom
not make false f instant changes geconomic structure. :cts in toto, begging pretext of extreme
ssantly waged war erosion of culture
and civilization, against corruption, drugs, terror and persecution.
A change, genuine and real, is paramount to restore peace, to send back the Indian forces, to disarm the militants and ultimately to build up a solid and strong economy. No fairy tales crouched with falls promises in OSSIE’s manifesto. If the 11 year reign of the U.N.P. and that of the S.L.F.P. had been on the right path, today this is and would not have been innundated with blood as it really is.
On numerous occasions OSSIE being the one, who stood for 'the genuine change' was also the target of bullets and bombs.
On the other hand his political opponants are engaged in disseminating made up tales to belittle him to the effect that he is inexperienced as he is
young. He marched shoulder shoulder with Vijaya in the Presidential Election campaign of 1982, for Mr. Kobbekaduwa and ended up in jail over the issue of rice-ration books. He accompanied Vijaya to Jaffna and India in quest of a solution for the cataclystic ethnic violence which shook the country.
OSSIE who is considered as one of orators of this c genuine leader capal a propor perspectiv a solution to the racism, youth unir that of the staggeri Imperialists facists, of his political ex foresight are afraid
Resolution of the ethni
The Resolution of the Ethnic problem
Unit of Devolution
а) The concept of Devolution is accepted
for Sri Lanka.
b) There shall be a predominantly Tamil unit comprising of what is the combined Northern and Eastern Provinces but excluding the area covered by the predo
minantly Muslim unit.
c) There shall be a predominantly Muslim unit comprising the predominantly Muslim areas in the Amparai District as the base and identified predominantly Muslim areas in the Batticaloa and Trincomalee
d) The rights of , all persons
in each unit
shall be on the basis of absolute equa
Devolution of Power
a) All state powers, legislative, executive
and judicial, except those
the centre, shall be devolved to democratically elected bodies called regions. Parliament shall, however, be able to over
ride legislation of the
regions by 2/3
majority of its whole membership.
b) The subjects reserved to the be those subjects that are
ensure the sovereignty, integrity and the unity They are:-
centre shall essential to
(i) Defence - Army, Navy, Air Force
(ii) Foreign — Foreign Policy, Foreign
Exchange and Foreign Trade.
(iii) Transport — airways
shipping and harbours railways water
(iv) Money - monetary policy, fiscal policy,
consolidated fund, currency, customs.
(v) Communications - post and telecom
munications, radio, television.
undoubtedly the brilliant ountry, is a ble of taking e leading to problems of est and to ng eCOnO my. quite aware
So they are in quandry, panic stricken make him the target Over and over again. To change the present devastating structure.
Elect OSSIE for the Presidentship. It is the name of the Nation the Religion that we remind you that the occasion for
it will dawn on December 19th.
(S.L. M. P. Notice)
perience and to face him.
(vii) The Supreme Court to be seized with
a) Constitutional matters b) centre-region relations
c) where one of the parties is a govern
ment department or corporation.
The Court of Appeal (viii) Emigration and citizenship
(x) Natural Resources (xi) National Education
(xii) National Health
(xiii) National Planning
(xiv). The Sea
(xv) Archaeological Sites.
(i) There shall be an immediate freeze on
all ongoing colonisation until an accep
table principle of land alocations is put into effect.
(ii) There shall be no state-aided colonisation in such a way as to change the demographic complexion of any area.
Where demographic imbalances have been created through schemes of land settlement since 1971, priority in future land allocations in those areas will be given to correcting such i mbalances and restoring the status quo ante with regard to the demographic proportions of those area S.
(iv) State land available for allocation will be made available to the landless of the area.
(v) Areas from where people have been forced out of lands they have habitually inhabited (including refugees) shall be identified and such inhabitants shall be rehabilitated in those areas completely.
All persons shall be free to purchas land, live and carry on their livelihood in any area of this country.
A Land Commission reflecting the ethni groups will decide on land policy an land alienation on the basis of th foregoing principles.
Existing legislation shall be the basis fo citizenship. There shall be an imme diate implementation of Acts of Parlia ment relevant to citizenship.
All disabilities that exist citizens of Sri Lanka by shall be removed.
Law and Order
The police force in any area shall reflec the ethnic composition of the area an shall be responsible to the Chief Execu
in Law fo registration
tive of the region.
The Armed Forces of the country
be enlisted strictly on the basis of eth
(iii) Recruitment to the Armed Forces shal take place immediately so as to brin them to reflect the percentage of th ethnic composition of the country. Language
(i) Sinhala and Tamil shall be the officia
(ii) English shall be national language.
SLFP attempting to re.
he election manifesto issued by the Five-Party Alliance,
the large m public have
headed by Mrs. Bandaranaike, They well is an insult to the intelligence Bandaranaike of our people. The manifesto Pact which aims at deceiving people in the by the Mah North, South, East and West, sections of t and by presenting this docu- late S. W. ment to the people Mrs. Bandara- abrogated thi naike has proved that she is a of public symbol of political opportunism. inheritors of
This was stated by the ಟ್ಗಳ t Minister of Lands, Land nanne Development and Mahaweli e Development Mr. Gamini Dissa- Referring nayake addressing a presidential manifesto a election campaign meeting at Mr. Dissan Gelli Oya in the Udu Nuwara ha f’M electorate on Friday. is genuine a The Minister explained that the manifes unlike the SLFP leadership, people can
The regions shall have power to obtain finances with the approval of the centre.
The distribution of Parliamentary seats shall reflect the ethnic composition of the country. The electoral system shall be reviewed to ensure this.
The provisions under the various headings above shall be enshrined and entrenched in the Constitution and shall not be changed except with the approval of the legislatures of all Reg1ONS · -
In the case of employment in the state sector, corporations and other semi-government institutions priority shall be given to the people of the area on a basis of competence. In relation to determining competence consideration shall be given to the educational facilities available in the relevant areas.
The above provisions shall be or undertaken towards such within six months.
Any ethnic problem which may arise hereafter shall be resolved forthwith by means of direct dialogue amongst the representatives of the ethnic groups and steps shall be taken forthwith to implement such consensus as may emerge from the said dialogue.
surrect B-C pact - Gamini
a good memory.
down in the North and the East. The UN P on the other the hand has made it very clear
of our voting
— Chelvanayakam was bitterly opposed a Sangha and all he community. The R. D. Bandaranai ke s pact in the face protests. Now the the Bandaranalike trying to re-introbact in a devious
to the five party s a total sellout, yake pointed out 3. Bandaranalike is
bout implementing to, then Sinhala no longer settle
that the future settlement policy would be in accordance with the ethnic ratio and proportion. The Minister posed the question whether sections of the Maha Sangha, which bitterly opposed the Indo Lanka Accord, is prepared to accept Mrs. Bandara naike's settlement policy.
The minister said that the S L. F P manifesto reflects Mrs. Bandaranaike's greed for power and her willingness to sacrifice the interests of the majority community at the altar of political power. Betrayal is part and parcel of the make-up of of the S L. F P leadership, said Mr. Dissanayake.
The Anura-Kumar-Lalith- LTTE to support SLFP
The LTTE has beamed a radio message cal cadres in the north and east to vote SLFP at ti ber 19 presidential election, according to a c
tion source said.
He said the message had also
instructed LTTE to disrupt UNP meetings in the north.
Prime Minister R. Premada sa is due to begin his campaign in the north today, UNP officials said. Mrs. Bandaranalike too, is due in the north later this week, while Mr. Ossie Abeygoonasekera will be campaigning in the northern and
eastern provinces until the
campaign closes on Friday.
Security sources said there
was a possibility of northern
terrorists attempting to disrupt Mr. Abeygoonasekera’s campaign too, in the north. He has twice escaped death when his meetings were attacked by subversives in Colombo.
intercept made last morning, a senior go
On Friday, Nati Minister Lalith. At told parliament that tic People's Allianc talks early last we LTTE. In a statemer Saturday, Messrs. A1 naike and Kumar F confirmed this mee" tradicted some O. made by the mini port on this page)
Political observe the LTTE, which participate in the merged North-Eas Council Election, every effort to disr in the eastern di the election was c
However, the IP to secure the electic
Laith on DPA — LTTE tal
Leaders of the Democratic People’s Alliance (DPA) including Messrs. Anura Bandaranaike, and Kumar Ponnambalam had a meeting with the LTTE in the Vavuniya district, on December 6th, National Security
Minister Lalith Athulath muda li
told parliament. - -
The minister, who was speaking on the debate on the
fifteenth amendment to the Constitution, said that according to Intelligence reports, the
LTTE had been represented at
this meeting by
leader Mahendra Mahattaya.
He said Tamil Col Kumar Ponnambala1 ged the meeting.
Mr. Athulathmus DPA had told the
they were prepared
more than had under the Indo-La but had been unat LTTE support for candidate at the
Anura-Kumar reply to L
In a joint statement issued by Messrs Anura Bandaranaike. Vice President of SLFP and Leader of Opposition 1...and Mr. Kumar Ponnama blam,
General Secretary c Congress said that
correct that some re of the Democratic
ance (DPA) and r
ing on its e DecemDmmunicavernmental
nal Security nulatih muda li the Democrae (DPA) had ek with the t released on lura Bandara'o nnambalam ing, but conthe points ster. (see re
's noted that declined to temporarily t Provincial had made upt the poll Stricts where ontested.
KF was able in and ensure
that it was completed with a surprisingly high voter turnout in some areas, in the face of LTTE efforts to make voters keep away from the poll.
Part of the LTTE strategy then was to coerce public officials not to perform election duties and this led to the department flying officials from
elsewhere to the two provinces,
both for the nominations as well as the election itself.
"If the LTTE is supporting the SLFP, or anybody in the else, on December 19th, then there will be no attempt to prevent public servants from doing election duty in the north and the east, a governmental source said yesterday.
Elections Commissioner Chandramanda de Silva said public servants are prepari ng to perform their election duties not only in the north and the east but in other parts of the country tOO.
its deputy rajah alias
ngress leader, m, had arran
lali said the LTTE that to concede been granted ka Accord - ble to secure the DPA Presidential
f the Tamil while it was presentatives Peoples Allirepresentatives
ber 6, the Security Minister
election because the Tigers were demanding a separate state.
He said discussions were con
tinuing and, the DPA was still
trying to persuade the LTTE to support its candidate.
The DPA had told the LTTE
* that the DPA was better prOS
pect than the UNP.
Mr. Athulathmudali, who said that was all he knew for the moment, added that he would
let the public know whatever information i he hade : on t this matter.
of the LTTE met deep in the
jungles of Vavuniya on Decemrest of National Lalith Athulath muda li’s report to Parliament
on the matter was not, correct.
The statement said:
Mr. Dinesh Goonewardene was not a party to this meeting. The meeting was not at Cheddikulam. There was no deputy leader of the LTTE or anyone called Jothi, present.
Mr. Kumar Ponnambalam did not arrange this meeting through Dr. A. S. Balasingham, who has not been in London, for over a month now.
The defunct Accord not the permanent merger of the North and East was discussed at that meeting. No talk of a separate state came up for discussion.
The LTTE was in possession of the DPA manifesto well before this meeting. The manifesto was prepared with a view to ensuring permanent peace in the North and East if Mrs.
Bandaranalike President. P the North a achieved onl cipation of til
groups. The sented as a separate stat
manifesto is people of th not a secret Accord was 1987. That lath muda li r. accord.
The Stater DPA was a the UNP and ated by the a person wh derstanding Mr. Athulat all the info dal i can giv
Talks with candidates after Oa
N-E Chief Minister wi
l three presidential candidates yesterday assured the North-East province chief Minister, Annamalai Varatharja
Perumal, their co-operation if they win.
Mr. Perumal who took his
oaths before President Jayewardene last morning, later called on the three candidates.
He told a crowded press con ference: 66 feel that I will have no problem from any of them. Actually they inspired me to run an efficient administration.''
Wearing the national dress and exuding confidence. Mr. Perumal said he decided to call on the candidates because he has to work with one of them.
He said the meetings cleared a few vital matters: none of them planned to abrogate the Indo-Lanka Accord unilaterally; they are not going to dissolve the north-east provincial council and they are only thinking of the phased withdrawal of the
IPKF as and situation in prᏅVeS .
“ “ am indi dasa and N for seeing m the new chie
He said had said tha gate the Ind unilaterally. will negotiat work out a She also sai thinking in IPKF to qu nes office working out wal within a
6 &In this v ance with th
to go after security. Th the IPKF si when'', Mr.
Mrs. Banc told Mr. Per formula for
was elected as er manant peace in and East could be lly with the partihe LTTE and other : manifesto is prein alternative to a e demand. The now before all the is country and is document that the till 29th of July is why even Athulan away from the
ment said that the better prospect that that was apprecimere presence of to had a better un)f the situation than hmudali. If this iS rimation Athulah mue the people of this
country from the intelligence information of this Government and if even this intelligence information can be so palpably false, then we call for the immediate resignation of Minister
Athulath muda li, the statement said.
“We see nothing wrong in
the people of this country talking to each other to sort out our own differences in this country without the interference of a third party. Minister Athualthmudali appreciates this point as he had agreed to meet the representatives of the LTTE with Mr. Kumar Ponnambalam in the jungles of the District of Mullaitivu after his return from India where he went with President Jayewardene and Minister Dissanayake earlier this year, the statement added.
AS CO-Operation, pledges
when the security the province im
ebted to Mr. PremavMrs. Bandaranalike he at short notice',
f minister said.
Mrs. Bandaranalike t she will not abroo-Lanka Agreement
She said that she e with India and favourable solution. d that she was not terms of asking the it the day she assubut was thinking of
a phased withdradefinite time frame.
e are not at varie presidential canalso want the IPKF strengthening our e question is how ould be sent and Perumal said.
aranai ke has also mal that the SLFP's ethnic amity enun
ciated in the DPA election manifesto could form the basis
of negotiation for a durable solution.
Mr. Perum al met the Prime
Minister at his office in parliment and Minister Gamini Disu sanayke, S. Thondaman, K. W. Devanayagam, Ranil Wickremasinghe and UNP Chairman Ranjan Wijeratne were also present.
Mr. Premadasa said that today (Thursday) is a historic day as the North-East PC has come into existenee and the bill to make Tamil also an official language was passed', Mr. Perumal said.
He assured Mr. Perumal that he would give all co-operation for the North-East PC to function.
With the SLMP candidade, Mr. Ossie Abeygoonasekera, Mr. Perumal discussed arrangements for holding his meetings in the north and east and about providing security for his public meetings outside the north and ealSt
The EPRLF leader invited the LTTE for talks so that existing differences could be settled. He also said TELO would be soon in the provincial administration. He invited the TULF to join him to work in the administration.
He said another 400 youths
had been recruite citizens’ volunteer the current total
hoped to train abo they would be late the provincial polic
North-East provi Dayan Jayatileke,
A statement issued by Upatissa Gamanayake of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) claimed that the Pera muna was in no way involved or connected with a discussion ai med at ushering in peace in the country as claimed by the media and reported to have been held between a three-member committee of the Maubima Surakeeme Viyaparaya, the President and several Government leaders.
The JVP also disowns any responsibility in regard to any decision or agreement arrived at in the course of such a discussion, if any.
The statement goes on to emphasise that if “real peace” was to be created in the country, the Jayewardene-Thondaman Government should implement all proposals put forward by the JVP. If as stated by Ven. Muruttetuwe Ananda any responsible leader of the JVP took part in discussions with him he should reveal the name of such a leader.
Mr. Gamanayake also points out that the alleged agreements arrived at with Rev. Ananda are contrary to the stance of the
JVP. As such, wh ing the stand of F the statement also that the only pers similar ideas was N Bandaranaike, as f WaS awaC.
Mrs. Siri mavo B concern was not t of the motherland o of democracy. Her was to pave the v self and her kith gain power, the stat claims. Mrs. Band did not refer to gen discussed the top President after h nominations solely of overcoming ob: victory at the Pre: tions it said.
The statement cla Maubima Surekeem and Rev. Ananda a become stooges of perialism and are an exercise to in Bandaranaike in p
When a represel JWP went to see on the matter of nurses’ union in was holding dist
Al expresses concern
mnesty International has ap
pealed to President Jayewardene, National Security Minister Lalith Athulath mudali, the IGP, Mr. Ernst Perera and the Army Commander expressing concern about the promulgation of Emergency Regulations under which the police can bury or cremate
dead bodies witho “The powers giv are similar to th the previous gov an armed insurre and by the prese facing a secession in 1983', it said released to the in
di for the force making 1,200. They ut 6,000 and r taken into :e force.
nce MiniSter P. Kiru baka
ran, and Abu Yusuf were associated with him at the press conference.
At the swearing ceremony at President’s House the Governor, Lt. Gen. Nalin Seneviratne and leaders of the SLMP, CP, LSSP, and NSSP were present,
talks claim by JVP
ile questionRev. Ananda,
points : out on to advance Mrs. Si rimavo ar as the JVP
andaranai ke’s he sovereignty r the survival one objective vay for herand kin to ement further aranaike who eral elections, bic with the anding over to find ways stacles to her Sidential elec.
ims, that the le Viyaparaya ppear to have Indian imengaged in stal Sirimavo OWS.
stative of the Rev. Ananda enlisting the he strike he ussions with
Indian envoy Dixit. This alone the statement claims goes to lend credence to his pro-Indian attitude.
Although Counsel, Prins Gunasekera functioned in the capacity of legal advisor to the JVP on several occasions even he had not been delegated the authority to act for the Pera muna the statement claims further.
For the conduct of fair elections the statement stresses the following steps as proposed by the JVP should be implemented.
* Cancellation of Presidential nominations.
* Dissolution of Parliament, Provincial Councils and local bodies.
* Creation of an atmosphere where the JVP could participate in elections. -
* Sending back foreign armies.
* Cessation of onslaughts on deshapremis and disbanding of the attacking forces.
* Sending back the Indian, international spies AND
* Abrogating the Indo-Lanka Accord.
t an inquest. n to the police pse given by rnment after tion in 1971 t government ist movement In a State met edia.
Expressing deep concern about the reintroduction of these regulations, AI has said that they could “encourage arbitrary killings by the security forces by facilitating a cover-up of such killings.'
“As such it gives the impression that the government condones such killings' it aded.
(Continued on page 28)
The new element
the eleven year rule of the
UNP has brought our country as near chaos as makes little difference. It is the very nature of the rule of the UNP that we have experienced in these years, which has brought about the chaos. The present disastrous outcome of that rule is neither an accident nor the consequence of some external cause of which it was impossible for the government to take account. It is the logical outcome, however unanticipated, of the policies followed by the UNP during these eleven years.
However there are new elements which have come to prominence in the political scene which are so deleterious in themselves that have given a certain desperateness to the prevailing situation. There is one major element in particular which has never before had the decisive character it now seems to have in our politics. That element is the systematic terrorist use in politics of the assassin's gun.
This parti has become to any kind tics but als function ing essential serv brought soc down. Inde threatened w down, with terrors and breakdown of sarily hold people of a
The threat down takes extended bc what is usu politics. Th. tial crisis. I including, of tical aspect element.
As for the manifestly ir than the ma, would seem Their politic the main, W.
In an obvious answer to the growing clamour for dissolving Parliament and forming an alli party interim administration, the Minister of National Security Lalith Athulaith muda li had said in Parliament that the Government was ready for this even "at this stage if the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna gave up violence and entered the main
stream of national politics. He
has added that if all parties did not join, there could be nothing interim in such a form of government. . : On the Minister's own argument, the JVP is the only obstacle for forming an interim government which would conduct the presidential election. However the Minister should know by now that the JVP has placed itself outside the pale of con
After the proscription, on it was
lifted in 1977 into the open.
Wijeweera he impromptu pr the CMU he party staged 1 Show S. It is cor ernment and I
cil, elections a ran for the hi
land at the c presidential el
If at this s
of convention reason is th; proscribed in Government.
* But the ver JVP has not opportunity d
clusively that in practising ventional parliamentary politics. politics.
cular phenomenon a menace not only of democratic polito the effective of society and its ices. It has already ety to near-breaked society stands ith complete breakall the additional
horrors which a society must neces
in store for the country.
of society's breakus beyond the most undaries of even ally called crisistis is no mere polit is a social crisis | course, the polias still its major
: political crisis, it volves much more jor political parties
to comtemplate. s still moves, in ithin the framework
organization and its
of the elections question. However it should not be difficult for even these politicians to comprehend that what is in issue is not merely the likely outcome of the Presidential Elections and the possibility of compelling a General Election.
Even insofar as current politics is concerned what is at its centre is not the question of the Presidential Election. What is at the centre is the political question of terrorism and the use of the assassin's gun as a political weapon.
It must be clearly grasped that the aim of the assassin is not merely his victim. The aim of the new use of assassination as a political weapon is first and foremost the systematic terrorisation of the people into submission to the terrorists
demands and politics.
The consequence of it all is that politics itself goes on amidst a thoroughly terrorised population.
the JVP did come
Its leader Rohana ld a celebrated ess conference at adquarters. The massive May Day tested local govDevelopment Counand its leader even ghest office in the ountry's first ever ection. tage the JVP has outside the pale all politics, the
at the JVP was
July 1983 by the
y fact that the made use of this emonstrates conit is not interested conventional party
On page 28)
It is no secret that the root of the evil that has enveloped the nation and its peoples today
is the ugly Ethnic Factor.
The current battle for the Presidency is evidently fought mainly over the ongoing disputes linked to the Indo-Lankan Accord and the deployment of Indian troops in the country. The rest campaign issues are dwarfed by this major political irritant. °
The JVP and the DJV who are waging an anti-election offensive resorting to violent reprisals, have used the Accord as the
prime target of their dissent.
The elections are in jeopardy.
Sri Lanka and its peoples who have upheld and cherished
democracy for several decades
and elected their governments
(Continued on page 28).
! Gorbachev allays unspo
K. K. Sharma
DE his three-day visit to India, Mr Mikhai || Gorbachev, the Soviet President, went out of his way twice to dismiss what he called 'speculative assertions' about his country’s “special relationship' with India and firmly maintained there was no truth to the comment that Indo-Soviet relations had cooled.
This puzzled most Indians who have not heard of such speculation. But misgivings about a possible dilution in the 'special relationship' have been expressed behind the scenes since Mr Gorbachev initiated his glasnost and perestroika reforms and it was these private fears that he was publicly dispelling. They relate mainly to trade and defence, the two areas that matter most to India.
How far these have been removed is still unknown since not
much has been revealed about what happened in nearly eight hours of face-to-face talks that
Mr Gorbachev held with Mr Rajiv Gandhi, India's Prime Minister.
China is one subject that is certain to have been discussed in
detail because of the impending
visits to that country by both leaders. However, no mention of China is to be found in the joint statement issued by both leaders at the end of the Soviet leader's visit.
Another subject not mentioned was Indian unease over the importance Mr Gorbachev is according East Asian countries such as Japan and Korea as well as the links he is seeking with Pakistan - despite the Afghanistan conflict - as part of his proclaimed policy of being friends with all.
There are practical reasons for this. The Soviet Union is now more choosy about the quality of consumer goods it imports and some orders – of ready-made garments for instance - have been shifted from India to China and Pakistan. More important, Indian companies so far do not figure
in plans to dev This was a subject the Delhi summit
mention in plans to Soviet economic re
Of equal importa that Moscow is no higher prices and for supplying its pr perestroika require show a profit. This also being applied t plies which India h receiving at throw
The Soviet Unior ply defence equipm with 2.5 per cent repayments spread with a two-year gra is now insisting c in 10 years. Term ing stiffened for exp when India faces a exchange crunch.
All this really be the question: whe stand in relation t ral and policy chang in the Soviet Un| public and in priv with Mr Gandhi, insisted that nothir and the fraterna ween the two co only be strengthene Gorbachev’s second interpreted as a vis the Indians.
in concrete term difficult to show. 3.2bn (£3bn) new c clear power station aided thermal and and other agreeme ing the visit come trade protocol for last week providir pansion of 35 per trade volumes. Equ is the decision to the two countries' plans to provide f needs.
But it is what the private meetin two leaders that
elop Siberia. raised during but finds no en large Indolations.
Ince is the fact w insisting on harder terms oducts because s each plant to principle is o defence supas got used to -away prices.
used to supent on Credits
interest and over 15 years ce period. !t in repayments s are also beDfts at a tme serious foreign
pils dovn to e does India o the structuges being made on 2. Both in fate meetings Mr. Gorbachev ng had changed relations betun tries could indeed, Mr
visit is being it to reassure
s, this was not The Roubles redits for nuis and Soviethydro projects nts signed dur! on top of a 1989 signed ng for an excent in mutua ally important | “intermesh"' next five-year or each other's
transpired at gs between the really counts.
Little is known about this yet but their public utterances suggest that they are keen to provide the political push that is needed to make the Indo-Soviet 'special relationship' meaningful.
This could lead to some big concessions for India. For instance, under perestroika all Soviet organisations must insist on what is known as “'unit-to-unit balancing”, which means they must arrange for contracts to export goods of the same value they import. The Indians have said this is impeding growth of trade and so an overal balanced trade, rather than unit-level balance, should be agreed to.
If Mr Gorbachev goes along with this, it will be a significant pointer to the direction Indo-Soviet relations wil i take. He can also provide for a faster pace of approval of contracts that Indian businessmen are seeking in the Soviet Union (so far 55 joint ventures have been proposed but only three approved because of bureaucratic hurdles).
Mr Gorbachev is reported to have given assurances on Soviet defence supplies, on which India is heavily dependent, including sales of the latest in MiG aircraft and Soviet submarines and tanks which are the mainstay of the Indian armed forces.
Yet the big test of the durability of Indo-Soviet relations could come within the next two months when Mr Gandhi is scheduled to visit Peking. This will be followed up by a Sino-Soviet summit early next year.
Both countries are trying to build bridges with China and there could be some conflict of interest in doing so. Mr Gandhi has been given a detailed briefing on glasnost and perestroika but it is how these affect India's vital political and economic interests that
will determine the country's future relations with the Soviet Union,
ndo - Pak
Help remove irritants
he Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, today called for friendship between India and Pakistan to inure both 'against the baleful consequences of outside interference.'"
"We are confident that together we can make our shared subcontinent safe for us to work cut our respective national destinies, in keeping with our national aspirations and the fundamental principles ard ethical values from which each of us draws our moral sustenance,' he said in a personal letter to Ms. Benazir Bhutto on her taking over as Prime Minister of Pakistan today. The letter was handed over to Ms Bhutto by the Indian Ambassador, Mr. S. K. Singh, in lslamabad.
'You and are both children of an era which fowed the creation of Pakistan,' Mr. Rajiv Gandhi said. And, India had always valued its relations with Pakistan. ''Our people share a strong bond of friendship. Affinities of history, culture, language and religion bind us together. It is important that we build a relationship between
our Govern met surate with our peoples ha
in this cont the Shimla by your fathe which provide building toge of mutual tru which promot
Looking O, mae e
Pakistan's ter, Benazir forward to r counterpart, during the here this m
“I hope defuse tensic she told ne chat after b Premier tod to meeting hope the n duce some
Benazir for Simla
akistan's new Prime Minister, Ms. Benazir Bhutto, rejected the idea of a no-war pact with India and said she gave more importance to the Shimla agree
ment to resolve outstanding issues, including the Kashmir problem.
Specifically asked whether she would raise the Kashmir issue at the United Nations, Ms. Bhutto said, “We believe in the Shimla agreement.'
Ms. Bhutto said her father, the late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, had strongly opposed the idea of a no-war pact with India in the
We don't war pact, W Shimla agreer democratic go she observed.
Ms. Bhutto Shimla pact ever peace O The fact that place betwee since 1972 contribution signed by Bh Indra Gandhi.
The no-war was made by 98 and the
fire since th
, Rajiv tells Benazir
hts which is commenthe affection which ve for each other.'"
ext, he referred to Agreement, 'signed :r and my mother s the basis for our ther a relationship Ist and friendship, es peace and Coop
forward it Rajiv"
new Prime MinisBhutto, is looking meeting her Indian Mr. Rajiv Gandhi SAARC summit onth-end.
we can work to on in the region.' ws men in a brief being sworn in has ay. ' look foward Mr. Gandhi and meeting will proresuts.” - PTT
believe in a noa believe in the ent between two ernments (in 1972)
stressed that the rought the longest the subcontinent.
no war had taken India and Pakistan was the greatest of the agreement tto and the late
pact offer to India Gen. Zia-ul-Haq in issue was hanging n despite numerous
eration between our countries, in our time and for generations
India regarded the unity and integrity of Pakistan as a vital element for stability and progress in South Asia, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi said. "We trust you reciprocate this sentiment in regard to the unity and integrity of India."
The Prime Minister looked forward to working with Ms Bhutto in every possible way to ensure that the people of India and Pakistan "live together, strive together build together to ensure peace, prosperity, and a great
and glorious future for both our
countries.”” He would like to se e them setting an example of peaceful coexistence and friendly cooperation to the world.
warm ly Welcomed
The news of her assumption of office as Prime Minister had been warmly and widely welcomed throughout India. "The people of India join me in sending you our since rest felicitations.”
rounds of official-level talks between the two countries.
Talking in detail about the Shimla agreement, she said it envisaged a step by step approach in resolving outstanding problems. Each positive step led to building of confidence and trust between the two neighbours.
Ms Bhutto said she was looking forward to a meeting with the Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi during the SAARC summit to be held here from December 29 and expressed the hope that their first meeting would help defuse tension in the relations between the two countries.
Ershad tough on separa
T Ershad Government has apparently taken a tough stand about the reported activities of the protagonists of 'Swadhin Bangabhumi, 'the idea of a separate home and for those who crossed over to West Bengal during the 1947 partition. Over 100 activists of the organisation have been arrested (briefly reported yester
The demand for an independent country comprising several districts of Bangladesh was mada known recently through wall writings and posters in different parts of the country. Unidentified persons have reportedly distributed posters urging the people to "eminate' the anti-liberation Jamaat-e-Islami and Shibir gang (students front of the Jamaat-e- islami).
AEE, assessment of the electoral prospects in Tamil Nadu, which is expected to go to the polls next month,
was made by key leaders of the National Front here.
A beaming Mr. N.T. Rama Rao, chairman of the National Front and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, predicted that the DMK a constituent of the Front, would emerge victorious and provide the lead in the formation of National Front Ministries in different States.
The question of seat adjustments among Front constituents and their allies in Tamil Nadu would be decided by the DMK, he said. The Front has decided that seat adjustments would be worked out by the leading constituent in each State. The National Front
The daily New Na
that the posters were printed under of the Swadhin
Biplobi Parishad" a in the border belt and Jessore, probab from Calcutta. The
follow an increase
vities, the newsp police as saying.
Among those arre leaders and work Opposition Awami National Awami Par alleged that the p “ “Swadhin Bangabhum carried out under Mr. Kader Siddiqu freedom-fighter of liberation war, who in lndia since the bl changeover of 19.
leaders would visit to extend their DMK, Mr. Rama Rad
The only other n constituent which i. in the Tamil Nadu the Janata Party.
There is no unar Janata Party how question of seat adj the DMK. A majc Mr. Era Sezhian is in favour of coo adjustment with the but, not with the
The Congress(I) F Rajiv Gandhi, appoi member Pradesh E mittee for Tamil N the PCC(1) Preside Moopanar.
tion reported and leaflets the banner | Bangabhumi nd scattered s = of Khulna ly originating latest arrests in their actiaper quoted
ested include ers of the
League and ty (NAP) it is ropaganda for i' was being leadership of e, a valiant che Bangladesh
Chairman of a “Kader Siddique Repatriation Committee." Begum Nasrin Kader recently issued a strong statement condemning “vested quarters' for maligning her husband.
The Awami League Organising Secretary, Mr. Tafail Ahmed, has also issued a statement saying the propaganda against the League and Mr. Kader Siddque was aimed
at tarnishing their image and diverting the real issue. There has been no direct allegation
against Mr. Siddique from Government quarters so far. But the Jamat-e-Islami and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) led by Begum Khaleda Zia, have recently urged the people to keep vigil
is in exile about the activists of a separate oody political land in the border dis75. But the tricts.
No early. . .
(Continued from page 5)
The leftwing People's LiberaTamil Nadu tion Front, most of whose mem
help to the
national Front s taking part elections is
limity in the ever on the justments with brity led by
known to be peration and | left ist parties DMK
President, Mr. nted a nineElection Comladu headed by nt, Mr. G. K.
bers are from the island's Sinhalese majority, has vowed to disrupt the voting and has described the accord as a sellout to India and the Tamils.
Dixit said India would be extremely reluctant to extend the role of its troops to deal with the Front, but did not rule out the possibility.
"We would not like to get involved in this', he said. "So far we have not planned anything of this kind'."
Asked if he saw any possibility of a satisfactory compromise between the LTTE and the Front Dixit said: “ “ do not think their leaderships will ever be happy - their positions are so extreme."
Sino - Soviet
A thaw that Wil afe
he visit of the Chinese Foreign Minister, Mr. Ouian-Qi-Chen to Moscow must be seen against the background of moves for SinoSoviet detente. His meeting with his Soviet counterpart. Mr. Eduard Shevardnadze, marked the first high-level contact between the communist giants in 30 years.
The current talks are expected to focus on the last remaining obstacles to a summit between the Soviet President, Mr. Mikhail Gorbachev and the Chinese leader, Mr. Deng Xiaping proposed in Beijing in May next year. The ground work has been laid already, so the Foreign Ministers are expected to work on the agenda for the summit, the dates for which may be finalised when Mr. Shevardnadze goes to Beijing in January. The new relationship between the two communist powers will have the greatest impact on the strategic balance of power particularly in the Euro-Asian region. The current visit also has a significant importance for India with the Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, visiting China this month. The proposed Gandhi-Deng summit has aroused considerable interest in the major European capitals. The new phase of SinoIndian relations will give fresh cues to the latest Chinese thinking and perceptions on the South Asian region, in the background of closer Indo-Soviet ties.
Since the advent of Mr. Gorbachev on the Soviet scene. Kremlin has shown more flexibility on major issues with China. Since the Sino-Soviet split in the early sixties, Kremlin's deteriorating relationship with China has often been described as the single greatest setback of the Soviet foreign policy since 1945. The current Sino-Soviet thaw thus highlights the single greatest improvement in Soviet strategic position in four-and-half decades.
Ideologically, the two communist powers are now in more harmony than at any time since the early fifties. The Soviet Union and
China are domestic con forms with a to dramatical dard of living life for the determination non-Stalinist, version of so The Soviet munist partie direct dialogu depending on Gorbachev-De powers agree ment in e COn for their on socialist State
Positive re It is noted has accepted on a border positive respon of the three malising bilat relate to the deployment a long common support for the presence in
in recent troops have E along the C
military exerc been reduced. are also be ir Afghanistan u agreed progr: Union has a to Come to te ies of the do flict in Kampt a full withdra
The Soviets ating with Ch Kampuchean c unprecedented preferred sol Vietnam govert by a four-par Prime Nordom head of the
China is als diplomatic fer Observers re favourable new started appeal Television. C month, phase Vietnamese t
st power balance
currently pursuing Sumer-oriented renewly-found quest ly improve the stang and the quality of masses. There is to develop a new and more pragmatic cia alism.
and Chinese comis may also have a e in the near future the outcome of the ng summit. Both that drastic improveomy is indispensable g-term survival as S.
that Mr. Gorbachev the Chinese position dispute and has given ses to Beijings version 'obstacles' to norera ties. The issues massive Soviet troops long the 7,500 km border Kremlin's Vietnamese military Kampuchea and the * Ոչ weeks some Soviet een withdrawn from hinese border and ises in the area have The Soviet troops g withdrawn from nder a phased and amme. The Soviet so urged Vietnam rms with the realitmestic political coni chea and negotiate wal of troops. are also seen negotiina directly on the rises. This has been so far. China's ution for the proment, to be replaced ty coalition led by Sihanouk, the former Cambodian State. o seen mending its ces with Vietnam. port that a few s items have already ing on the Chinese hina wants a ninewithdrawal of the toops from Kampu
chean Vietnam has not publicly agreed to these proposals, but the Chinese feel that the Soviet Union is genuinely trying to persua de Vietnam.
On the economic front there is significant improvement in the Sino-Soviet trade, which is hovering around the $3,000 millions mark. The Soviet Union is China's fifth largest trading partner today, and both countries have agreed to jointly exploit water resources of the Amur and Argun rivers. Joint Sino-Soviet ventures have been proposed for building six hydro-electric plants along the Amur and in the Soviet Far East China may also be invited to participate in new industrial plants.
Amid the reality of a purposeful Sino-Soviet thaw, it is also suggested that both communist powers will move cautiously without endangering their independent relations with major western powers. It will be a pragmatic relationship, and devoid of much trust or intimacy - at least at this stage. The relationship may continue to mature and consolidate itself in the nineties.
A great deal about Sino-Soviet ties will depend on the outcome of the current economic, social and political reforms being pursued in both countries. Western observers are also wondering about Japan being a major beneficiary of better Sino-Soviet relations in the Far East. Apart from helping to exploit the vast mineral and natural resources of the Soviet Far East, Japan may also opt for more intimate political and economic relations with its northeastern neighbours.
With the world's third largest military budget, the Japanese economy is growing faster than that of all other great powers. Japan's perception of the Sino-Soviet thaw could have a significant effect on the politics of the Far East regions. Japan is already a super-monetary power and history
(Continued on page 21)
Sino - Indian
K. K. Katyal
R what was the first authoritative, high-level enunciation of the official Beijing view on the Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi's visit here, the Chinese Vice-Premier, Mr. Wu Xueqian, today expressed confidence that next month's talks will enhance Sino-Indian understanding - on the basis of the improvement of relations in recent years.
During a 40-minute interview with the visiting Indian press team, the Vice-Premier also seemed to spell out the parameters of the dialogue, the first of its type after 34 years. "Of course, we connot expect all problems to be sett led” as a result of discussions during the the visit, he hastened to add. This was an obvious reference to the boundary dispute which, to use the VicePremier's words, would require great efforts for a solution.
With Mr. Rajiv Gandhi due here in a little over a fortnight, Mr. Xueqian elaborated his earlier comment - made after the visit of the Indian officials, led by the Foreign Secretary, Mr. K. P. S. Menon, for preparatory talks - calling the forthcoming talks "historic" and "a great event in Sino-Indian relations." Certain things were bound to emerge out of it, he said.
Mentioning the Chinese Government’s stand on the boundary issue, he said the problem was a leftover of history. Now that the people in the two countries were in power, it needed to be sorted out through mutual understanding and mutual accommodation through friendly discussions. This of course, was repetition of the known generality, stated every now and then in recent years.
Gentle and courteous
The bespectacled Chinese leader dealt with queries on the visit and related matters gently and cour
teously. Not once
his voice, and whe to stress a point stroked his fingers
of his sofa. The it held in the elegant or "Light Violet C part of the Forbidc former Imperial Pala houses offices of th and the Chinese Con
It was in the sa fact style that he Chinese side intenc a forward-looking a cussions with India.
it was in 1985 that nese Pri me Ministe Ziyang - at the tin anniversary of the York - invited Mr. to visit Beijing. " will fructify. The CF ment is pleased great importance ti ment of understandi basis of developin Continuing in the s said China and ind big countries, and the Chinese policy good neighbourly, tions with India.
As for the agenda he said it was fe Gandhi and the C Minister and othe decide how to go cussion, on ways friendly relations countries. They cou up international iss in terest.
What are the ch and China having a entation on global ticular those con Asia? He had no di two sides would views on the imp lasting peaceful inte frOff) est SO, AS O economy. The di hinted, may cover in Asia and other North-South questi nomic disparities
did he raise he wanted he merely
on the arm ter Vie W. Was
Zi Guan Ge, bin' in that en City, the ce, which now 2 Government munist Party.
me matter-ofsaid that the led to adopt : titude in dis
the then Chir, Mr. Zhao he of the 40th U.N. in New Rajiv Gandhi Now ... the visit linese Governand attaches o it. Enrichng will be the g friendship. ame tenor, he a were two it has been to develop friendly rela
for the talks, or Mr. Rajiv hinese Prime
leaders to about the dis:o strengthen between the ld also take Jes of Common
ances of India COmmon Oriissues, in par:erning South pubt that the have common ortance of a rnational envilevelop their cussions, he "hot spots' Continents and ons - of ecobetween the
industrialised and developing countries.
There was a trend towards relaxation in East-West relations but that did not mean that a the problems had been resolved, he said, implying that these issues
could be taken up during Mr. Rajiv Gandhi's talks here.
'What was China's views of
Indias role in South Asia?" a questioner, asked drawing attention to the fact that, while both the U.S. and the Soviet Union had commended India's efforts in Sri Lanka, Beijing's stand was not known. Mr. Xueqian referred to the Chinese faith in the 'Pancha Shila' and noted India's adherence to it in handling its relations appropriately with countries in
What is the course of the
Sino-Soviet relations and what
are the prospects of India, China and the Soviet Union playing a role in world affairs?" If the questioner sought to draw the VicePremier out on the Chinese view of the possibility of joint, triangular efforts, there was no direct reply.
The Vice-Premier concluded the the question-answer session with a general remark on the “indipendent foreign policy of China and longterm strategy for peace." On the basis of this objective, “we are ready to develop relations with others, including India and the Soviet Union.'
A thaw that. . .
(Continued from page 20)
dictates that it also has a fascination for the vast mineral resources of the Euro-Asian region.
The outcome of the Sino-Soviet Foreign Ministers talks will pave the way for the Gorbachev-Deng summit. What comes out of it a remains to be seen, but no one in Europe under-estimates the Sino-Soviet dialogue which
commenced in Moscow.
AARISTAWS FUTURE FOREIG/W
DEPE the mixed outcome of the election for Pakistan's Provincial Assemblies, Benazir Bhutto's comfortable lead in the National Assembly over the rival Islamic alliance puts her in a position to make a strong claim to power. This is a turn of events that should be welcomed by India because a popular, broadbased, regime will have to give priority to the mounting problems at home.
Though Ms. Bhutto has in several
encounters with the Indian and international media presented herself as a responsible leader
interested in promoting stability in the region, this does not necessarily provide a reliable indication of the policies she will pursue. It is much better to go by the objective situation of the country to judge what kind of foreign policy she can afford.
As responsible Pakistanis freely acknowledge, the country is facing a severe resource crunch. This limits the elbow room in several directions, including the build-up of military capabilities. The compulsion to lower sights is evident from several recent decisions, notably for the purchase of 20year-old British frigates instead of brand new ones for which a deal had almost been clinched several months earlier.
Ms. Bhutto is acutely aware of the financial squeeze. In an interview she gave to The Muslim, a Rawalpindi daily, in July, she expressed concern over the country's head long slide into bankruptcy as a result of rising budgetary deficits and a corresponding increase in the burden of debt. Arguing that this could not go on, she pointed out that debt service was pre-empting about 90 percent of new borrowings.
Instead of decrying the ation, she may now be responsible for setting it right. Containing
government been recogni nomic pundi This is refle mendation m Plan for ar defence spe increases the in real term of nearly 7 years. Gen. this advice, budget he pi missing the in May.
Will Ms. different cou under great because of foreign excha has obliged international a loan. If negotiations will have tc usula IMF co them being external defi the World B pressing for. on the econo from its usua sensitive poli out that Pa proportionate defence than ries.
Ms. Bhutto tant it is fo Bank's goodw weight its re with aid-give of workers' it is more i to ensure a to aid.
Yet she ca anything tha military. Th her task is, t Gen. Mirza y Chief of Arn nise the finar country has
expenditures has long sed by Pakistani eco
ts as una voidable. cted in the recomade in the draft 7th initial freeze on Inding, and annual
reafter of 3 per cent
s against a growth per cent in recent Zia-ul-Haq rejected
as evident from the romulgated after disJunejo Government
Bhutto opt for a rse? She will be pressure to do so Pakistan's perilous inge situation which it to
Monetary Fund for she continues the now under way, she reckon with the
nditions, chief among
cuts in internal and cits. This is vhat ank too has been
In its latest report my, the bank departs practice of avoiding itical issues to point kistan is spending :ly far more on
knows how imporr her to reta in the fill because of the commendations carry rs. With the inflow remittances failing, important than ever continu ing acce ess
nnot afford to do t will upset the e hardest part of erefore, to persuade Aslam Beg, the new by Staff, to recogicial constraints the to live with.
turn to the
in sum, she has to settle for a lower-cost foreign policy. An interview she gave to Voice of America last May should be seen as a recognition of this compulsion. Calling upon Indians and Pakistan is to make a choice in favour of peace and prosperity, she called for diverting resources from defence to development. Since India faces the same compulsion, New Delhi should make appropriate gestures to encourage her to live up to her professions.
New Delhi also needs to respond to the posture she is adopting on the nuclear issue. She is accusing Gen. Zia of having sabotaged the two-track programme initiated by her father - a public one for reprocessing plutonium and a clandestine one for uranium enrichment at the facility that has now come up at Kahu ta.
in an interview she gave to The Nation of Lahore, she said that Gen. Zia's bragging had alerted the world to the potential of Kahuta. They have barricated the second route. So we cannot make the bomb and have it.' From this she went on to make the policy recommendation against pursuing the Kahuta option.
As she put it, "'It is a question of what you can have and what you cannot have something, you devise your policy accordingly. But when you can't have something and give the impression that you can have it, you invite nothing but trouble from all sides.' It is noteworthy that she took the stand at a time when the nuclear programme was a very live issue because of the critical attention it was getting in the US Congress apropos of the administration's request for the approval of a second military package for Pakistan.
it is possible that Ms. Bhutto was advocating restraint to win points with the US policy-makers.
This is a likely hypothesis because she has worked hard for several years to assure the US that its interests will be just as safe in her hands as they were in Gen. Zia's. She did this to ensure that the considerable influence the US has in Pakistan was not used to tilt the balance against her in her fight with Gen. Zia.
It is obvious that no civilian Government in Pakistan can make a decision as important to Pakistan's security as that regarding the nuclear option without the military's concurrence. Both she and the military will have to weigh the financial implications because the budget cannot accommodate additional financial expenditures on this account. The military wil i have to i decide whether it needs N-bombs badly enough to make do with less - perhaps much less - for conventional capabilities.
Many people both in india and Pakistan make the mistake of assuming that the bulk of the expenditure for a nuclear arsenal
has already been made. The facilities for making bombs and a delivery system are, indeed,
already in place. The question is whether both will be content to have bombs that are, in a likelihood, already in the respective basements, or will keep trying to get one ahead of the other.
Given the depth of distrust between the two countries, each military establishment will be constantly afraid of being upstaged by the other. Both may, therefore, be pushed into making additional investments to upgrade their quantitative and qualitative capabilities. They will also have to take a vast range of protective measures to safeguard vital targets and areas against nuclear attack.
To cite just two examples, all the key civilian and military
decision-making centres will require underground shelters to which they would move at very short notice. Their ability to
maintain command will depend on h alternative communic to transmit orders feedback. Likewis troops will need r equipment. All t heavy expenditure: which so far been advocates of the b countries.
Since India is aga vigorously for a world, it is incumb Gandhi to take an halt the incipient a the sub-continent. opinion in this cou permit foreclosing option, solutions w less drastic, and he proof. An agreem attack each other's lities would be a start with.
This has been on since December 98 idea was accepted i a meeting in New Mr. Gandhi and Gen.
the details have out, the signing ha up by Indian indi
Pakistan's aid to P With the change in political landscape,
n what is conside
peaceful transfer the 4-year history Ms. Benazir Bhutto th Prime Minister the oath of office affirming to protect ideology of the nat existing Constituti by Zia-ul-Haq.
With this, the Cambridge-educated son of the Pakistan (PPP) also became democratically-elect nister of the count father Zulfi kar Ali posed and later ha
and control ving several ation channels and obtain 2, frontline diation-proof his requires
- an issue ignored by mb in both
n campaigning nuclear-free ent upon Rajiv initiative to rms race in Since public ntry will not the nuclear it have to be nce less foo!- ert not tO nuclear facigood one to
the agenda 5 when the n principle at Delhi between Zia. Although been worked s been held gnation over unjab's ultras. the Pakistan there is an
opportunity to break the log-jam. it should be noted that Ms. Bhutto has publicy urged Islamabad to stop playing games in Punjab, though any decision that she now makes in this regard will be contingent upon the military's wishes.
Ms. Bhutto has affirmed her commitment to the Shimla agreement. Although its provisions can be interpreted in various ways to justify whatever Islamabad wants to do, the concepts that neither should use force to settle disputes and that neither should interfere in the other's internal affairs are fairly unambiguous. This is why New Delhi should take Ms. Bhutto's stand on the agreement at its face value to explore what she is willing do to meet Indian concerns.
Finally, there is the conflict to interest between New Delhi and Islamabad on the future of Afghanistan Ms. Bhutto has carefully planned spelling out her position, although she has publicly expressed her view about the feasibility of Gen. Zia ul Haq to instal a leader of his choice. Qutbad in Hekmatyar, as
(Continued on page 24)
red the first of power in of Pakistan, became its today, taking n Urdu and the slamic ion under the on sponsored
35-year-old Co-ChairperPeople's party the second
d Prime Miry after her
Bhutto, denged by Gen.
Zia. All the three full-fledged party-based elections in the country, held in 1970 and 1977, and now in 1988 have seen the PPP romping home to power.
Administered the oath of office and secrecy by the acting President, Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who has given her 60 days time to prove parliamentary majority, Ms. Bhutto is the world's youngest Prime Minister and the lone woman Head of Government of an Islamic nation. She now joins two other powerful woman leaders - the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher of the U.K. and the President, Mrs. Corazon Aquino, of the Philippines.
Dr. Akma |
n order to develop a stake in
democratic government amongst the people, they must be provided with basic social services. If 63% of the people do not have clean drinking water, if as a consequence 40% of all deaths annually are due to water-borne diseases, if more than half of the labour force is illiterate, if 40% of the people do not have adequate food and if 2 million people do not have a roof over their heads, then the majority of the people have been forced to five under inhuman conditions. This is happening in a country where the elite lives a life of ostentatious comfort. It is these conditions that accentuate regional and ethnic polarization, especially where years of military dictatorship have depoliticised the oppressed. if therefore, the foundations of democracy have to be established and if the social fabric is to be restored, then at least the minimum public services must be provided to the people of Pakis
tan without delay. This task is well within the financial capability of a democratic government, which is committed to the
people. For example, the Honourable Federal Minister for Finance has been brave enough to reveal that almost Rs 20 billion are annually misappropriated in Pakistan, by various government departments, public institutions and individuals. I have estimated that the following basic services
can be prov with only of this annual na
The table shortage of Services can if the new
have wri where on th of our ec crisis has tw deficit and t shortage. Th trade off be provide basic the people a future invest hand and de other. Defus short term
(a) Reduct expend lising would both people (b) increas
fin eaSU r a turs ari agr
· (c) Overcc balance require rium debt s which aid an
COST OF PROVIDING BASIC SE
Clean drinking water for 64 million people
2. 5-fold increse in the number of hospital b
3. Housing for 1.5 million people @ Rs 80,0
for 300 Sq. Meters of construction
for six number of family
4. 1.8 Million jobs in small scale industries
G Rs 5625 per job
5. School coverage for 31 million students
ded to the people e year's of saving of tional loss.
below shows that a the major public be overcome quickly government bends its this vital task.
tten at length elseg e origin and nature onomic crisis. This 'o components: the he foreign exchange ere is now a clear tween the need to : public services to ind infrastructure for : ment on the one :bt servicing on the
sing the crisis in the
requires the followin
ion in administrative iture by decentraadministration. This make government accessible to the and also efficient.
ing tax revenue by
of the following es: Value-added tax, over tax on trade and icultural income tax.
pming the severe 2 of payments problem s a 5 year mortafrom the crippling ervicing burden in almost 87% of gross
nually goes back in
Rs 17 bition eds. Rs 2 bilion 00
Rs 60 billion
RS 0 billion Rs 3 billion
Rs 20 billion
(Special to the L.G. J.
the form of debt servicing. We can negotiate with the MF and the World Bank to guarantee that the money saved as a result of the debt mortarium would be used to develop our real resources, i. e. education, health and employment for a more productive labour force: provision of infrastructure, such as transport, communications and energy to enable increased productivity of investment: and finally soil preservation and salinity control measures to prevent rapid desertification as cultivable land.
If a viable democratic system is to be established, then each of the four elements of the national crisis mentioned above must be dealt with in both the short term as well as the long
(Continued on page 27)
limited options. . .
(Continued from page 23)
the head of a new regime in Kabul. Pointing out that Mr. Hekmatayar does not have broad enough support, she indicated her interest in exploring other possibilities. What she now dene will be guided, however, by Gos. Beg's wishes.
This still leaves room for exploring whether Pakistani decisionmakers are still as willing as Gen. Zia was to cope with the consequences of a prolonged civil war across the border. Given the renewed Soviet commitment to assist its friends in Kabul - these include non-party figures like Prime Minister Mohammed Hussain Hussain Sharq, whose chances of survival are probably better than President Najibullah’s — Ms. Bhutto will need to think it over. New Delhi should encourage her to do this by making it clear that it is ready to welcome any Government in Kabul as long as it is non-aligned not only vis-a-vis the two Superpowers but also the neighbours.
A memoir of Subud
from Varindra Vittachi :
International Ltd. 1988. 88 pages
his book is also sub-titled Bouquets for Bapak. As no effort is made to give any
biographical details of the person
here addressed as Bapak, this slim publication on expensive paper looks as if it is meant
only for the initiates.
Whatever may be the metaphysical reasons for the ommision, the lapse remins an unforgiveable journalistic sin in one who loudly says he belongs to the journalist's trade, and doesn't let you forget it even in this book.
So, for the benefit of the dumb like me, some details of the life of the man, who is referred to also by fellow pilgrims as having been a Thaumaturge, that is a wonder-worker could have been beneficially included.
Bapak, as revealed in this book, was born Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo in 1901. He died last year. As a young man he began to experience an unfamiliar vibration that led to involuntary movements of his body and in turn to many new mental and emotional experiences.
He was undergoing, what was later identified, as latihan kejeewan a link-up with the great lifeforce. He was also urged by some inner force to transmit this experience to others who in turn could pass it on to others in need of setting up contact with the great life-force and in the process in-breathe a renewed life both spiritual and material.
The international community that has expanded across the globe in this vibrant manner now totals around 7000 and is called Subud, not after the man Subuh but in a kind of acronym from the Sanskrit words Susi la Budhi Dharma, Su-bu-d.
Subud is a non-traditional export
from Indonesia. Though the country swarms with spiritist groups, the latihan experience
appears to be free or any Faustian con devil. It beckons into traditional re Christianity, Islam, hist and those bo Parsis and Hindus.
Although this boc memoir of Subud the dominates these pag pak but Varindra, This maladjustment understandable. Ba author mentions in is no teacher, not ment, but because til his method. If th not teaching, then reporter to report.
The author’s bo kind of radiation teaching of Bapak a back-stage figure saws and modern a litt le like Eliot’s
Tiresias have for
But et us come confessions of Varin he has achieved in is due to Bapak and of the latihan he h
This rewarding rela
Bapak, he says, left remarkable discove shown me to concer with the responsibi a journalist and
human values thar daily trivia of the p.
Locking the stabl the horses have bolt a very sad thing. O. that if latihan is whether Mr. Vittac duce it to some o
contacts who are country so that realise that
respo human values are mi than destroying t retain power.
Readers may also
that this book is Vittachi and wond there is caonnecti
man who writes to
from spirits tacts with the
those born ligions like Shinto, Buddrn as Jews,
k is called a 2 subject that es is not i Ba
the author. is, in a way, pak, as the
everal places, In disparageeaching is not e teacher is
there is no
ok is thus a of the nonwho remains "ful of wise nstances" and Tiresias - And "es u ffered a .
back to the dra. All that |ife he claims the 32 years nas practised. tionship with him with a ry, 'lt has myself more lity of being with eterna ... with the assing scene."
e doors after ed is aways he only hopes
so effective hi can introhis political
running this they too can nsibility and bre important he youth to
have noticed by Varindra ared whether on with the the Newsweek
as Varindra Tarzi Vi t tach i. The t wo are the same. The author admits there is a struggle between the two and that Tarzie is trying to grow into Varindra. But the prospects seem to be bleak. Even in this book, which one expects to be a reflection om things spritua, the hand is the hand of Var indra but the voice — peevish, cutting and the egotistic smirkis the voice of Tarzi.
His treatment of John Bennet, the man who helped to introduce Bapak to the West, but later withdrew every word he said about him, is indecent. Latihan may have softened him enough to say the usual polite things about the older man, but he is still the great back-handed player of compliments. And this in spite of the following non-teach ing of Bapak:
“Another social habit, Bapak said, was the tendency to be dismissive of other people, to score easy triumphs of others, to make clever debating points, to put down other people by being smart and glib. Phew. That was even closer to where lived. Allied to this, Bapak continued, was the habit of wanting to be right, which could be satisfied only if the other was shown to be wrong.'
But both Master and Disciple falter when it comes to politics. Varindra brings news of Martin Luther King's assassination to Bapak. Bapak reflects how a mad man with a single bullet can ruin the efforts of a man to "assuage
human cruelty and injustice to their fellowmen. Gandhi, John Kennedy, Robert Kennedy are
some of names mentioned.
But on the other hand tyrants Can't be got rid of, says Bapak, even if the attempt is mad ten times. Then he mentions Sukarno. He escaped being assassinated several times, he says, and repeats the popular belief that he
(Continued on page 28)
by Newton Gunasinghe P A R T III
Bruce Kapferer: Legends of People; Myth,
Washington and London,
this heavily theoretical work
Professor Kapferer also takes into account, the practice of sorcery in Sri Lanka. ‘‘Envy
(irrishiyava) is the most common cause of sorcery that the Sinhalese recognize. I l t is believed to to come from the weak to the powerful, from the poor to the rich, to flow between Competitors, bringing about the failure of those who would otherwise succeed and vice versa'. This concept of "Irishiyaya", which the English term “envy” cannot correctly convey, has also led to individual and factional conflicts in Sinhalese society. According to Kapferer; "Frequently (there) are Buddha danes, involving the chanting of protective pirith by local temple Buddhist monks, and sometimes the principal antisorcery Suniyam ritual. They guard against evil, can appropriately be regar ded in the context as rites of transition "What Kapferer argues in my view, is that there is no disjunction between the danes and Sunyiam rituals; but they are structurally co-ordinated.
Then, let us consider the ethnic intolerance in Australia, and the recent ANZAC nationalist rituals, which in my understanding also involves an aercise of inclusion and exclusion, which includes the older European migrants, while excluding the new immigrants from Eastern Europe and Asia, as well as the aboriginal Australian tribes, although hierarchically and differentially encapsulating those aboriginal gro
ups for nationalistic ideological purposes, while displaying the symbols of the Kangaroo and
aboriginal paintings. This exercise is related to a nationalistic effort to find a separate identity from Europe, even though the aboriginal tribal groups are class-wise exploited, ethnic-wise dominated and generally excluded from the mainstream of Australian social
and political dominant Whi
However, i of social equa and violence, a method of contradicrions are three con clearly theore i. e. (i) Mar: which is rela production an rous formulat formed only weber's conce cation, which h; to form, and at the level centrating at Status in certain soc be in accord, of ancient Hi may be disc different from of class contr Brahmin, Khs: social layers during that p ding to webe base from wh and Jainism a heterodox re to the orthod (iii) Dumont’s which in the from his earli no social inv done in the without a st Indology; basi ding of the c Hindu - Budd tions. Dumor hierarchy is n adder as it i of empiricist
a social syste groups, which which are enc
l am oblige COrrentS Kapferer, whil distancing hin
s of State,
existence, by te-Protestant groups.
n a conceptualisation lity, i negalitarianism; which is basically overcoming these feel that there cepts that one should tically differentiate k's concept of class, ated to modes of id which in a rigoion could be socially through conflict; (ii) 'pt of social stratifas no need of conflict which is analysed of social strata, contention on in come and power, which ial formations may but as in the case ndu society in India ordant (a concept the Marxian theory adictions) among the atriya and Vaishya in Northern India eriod, which accors formed the social ich both Buddhism
rose, which he calls ligions in relation lox vedic religion,
concept of hierarchy last analysis derives er statement that "estigation can be ndian sub-continent plid knowledge of cally an understanassical text of the hist - Jai na tradiht's definition of Ott a sere Staat US s in the context sociology, but a relationship within m, between social encapsulate and apsulated.
d to write these DeCa USe Professor e methodologically nself away from
Dumont, also bases partly his methodological analysis on the important works by Louis Dumont, especially the essay dedicated to our guru Max Cluckman on South Indian kinship, and the seminal work ertited “Home Hierarchicus', on the Indian cast system.
On question of evil however, should stress that the concept articulates itself differently in the Hindu-Buddhist tradition and the Judeo-Christianic tradition. The concept of Satan in meadival Cas tholicism, for instance, as an incarnation of absolute evil, stands in an exclusive binary opposition to God. Whereas the concept of Mara as indicated in the classical Buddhist texts does not to do so.
Because the Buddha encapsulates Mara as well as Devadatta, whereas Satan is completely and irrevocably excluded from the divine domain Both Mara and Devadatta, may attain Nirvana,
the fundamental objective of classi
cal Buddhism, under the guidance of a future Buddha, like Maithriya, whereas no, such possibility is offered to our friend Lucifer who is eternally doomed to be in hell. Therefore the questions, think should be related not to religious ideology per se, but to the social structure that underlies it, which semi-autonomously articulates it.
In this major work on violence, intolerance and political culture as expressed in two very different social formations, Professor Kapferer has coherently focussed attention on the structural commonalities and variations. He has covered a vast social area with masterly precision, which surveys the domains of the state, myths, rituals and sorcery and has also dealt with the difficult problem of comparing and contrasting Sinha lese and Australian nationalism. However, 1 feel that both Sinha lese nationalists as well as Australian nationalists would tend to go against the arguments presented in this book. The Sinhalese nationalists are likely to raise the question as to how they, with two-thousand five hundred year history" and as a social group with a moralistic religious mission, be compared
(Continued on page 27)
Berenger’s Last Tour
he further un rest this week in Sri Lanka, casting doubt on whether presidential elections will be held as planned on December 9, must have confirmed Berenger's fears that he is in for a difficult time.
Along with thousands of others, Berenger works in the tourism business, which was once the country's fourth largest foreign exchange earner, after tea, textiles and rubber, but has now collapsed. His plight differs only in degree from that of government employees who face the sack if they do not turn up for work and yet can be threatened with violence from the People's Liberation Front (JVP) if they do.
There is no sign of a return to the paradise island of Sri Lanka by tour operators who last month evacuated up to 8,000 clients amid fears for their safety just as the peak season began. By disrupting industry and the public services, the JVP, a radical Sinhalese group fanatically opposed to the accord between Sri Lanka and India giving some autonomy to the minority Tamils, forced the withdrawal of tourists from the glorious western beaches and the inland towns of the centre and south. Hotels closed and staff were laid off.
The curfews continue and there is frequently a hartal, or strike, called by the JVP. Public transport is patchy, petrol is reaching only the main towns, and the southern province is virtually at a standstil.
It was shortage of petrol, during a recent spell of paralysis in the public services, that so tested the ingenuity of Berenger, who works as chauffeur and guide to tourists who hire a car from the Colombo garage which employs him.
Berenger (not his real name) is among the one per cent of Sri Lankans who are Burgher, of Dutch descent. Unflappable and humorous, he turned up as a late replacement for a Sinha lese driver who felt himself more exposed to threats from the JVP. Not
that Berenger was the risks: he are: warning from the J had to work thro har tals.
Going south from out of the question 70 miles in and to picturesque former boasts the Buddhist Temple of the Tooth be decked with red a flags, was desert unknown to Berenge indeed a harta, ne\ was spread by post Berenger manage the sight of a tali bloom. The tree years before flower and the phenomenon very un tucky. Howe does not attack touri at se lected Sinhales and government en has killed more tha At one of the fev open in Kandy a g trians, frustrated by of an early return and an end to their soled themselves wit local liquor. The e journey depended There was only 2 li to be had in Kand) of a long queue, a judged the effort no We turned north, wi city of Polonna ruw away, our target.
Halfway, we spen a rest house, as its The owner, a sad Sinha lese, was cutt staff and contempla Hopes of expandin building a swimming had been dashed.
All the agitation sarily mean opposi Government, he saic asked to send two VP rally and my sta to go. But I won't to be certain princi the Tamils, he beli ha ese had receive press. “We let th work among us bu way they would le among them in the inc
He lent us a mo which Berenger si
unaware of ady feared a VP for having ugh previous
Colombo was so we headed Kandy, the capital which : shrine, the . The road, ind white JVP ed because, r, there vas ws of which
er - d a smile at pot palm in may live 75 ing and dying is considered ever, the JVP sts. It strikes e opponents mployees and in 500. v hotels stil roup of Austhe prospect to Colombo holiday, conch arrack, the xtent of our on petrol. i tres per car 7, at the end nd Berenger it worthwhile. th the ancient a 00 miles
t the night at only guests. and puzzled ing down his ting closure. g his hotel, pool even,
did not necestion tron the 1. “I’ve been people to a if are welcome - there have bles.'" As for eved the Sind an unfair em live and t there's no us do that rith and east.' :orcycle, into phoned some
petrol from the car and on which we reached Polonnaruwa, passing sabotaged trucks and telegraph poles and an Indian army convoy. The ruined 12th-century city of Parakramabahu the First, normally Crowded with coaches, was deserted. There was nobody even to take the entrance fee.
That night the Government banned pillion riding on motorcycles to cut down the mobility of its opponents, but by then we were back in Colombo with even Berenger's resourcefulness defeated.
There had been no telephone links with Colombo and he knew his family would be relieved to see him. But it is likely their joy was tempered by the knowledge that he had probably made his last tour for some time.
Post Election. . .
(Continued from page 24)
term dimensions. It will require a team of the finest talent in the country to formulate and implement the policy measures required to defuse the national crisis in the short term. The implementation of the long term policy measures requires party organisations with grass roots
support that can set up the institutional framework for a progressive modern democratic State.
Book Review. . .
(Continued from page 26)
with a 'notion' that merely possesses two hundred years of existence, composed of recent European migrants. The Australian nationalists would probably take exception to the fact that they have been compared with an underdeveloped Asian country where ethnic conflict has taken utterly violent forms of expression. Nevertheless, the problematique that Kapferer formulates and the questions that he raises in relation to that and conclusions that he arrives at remain methodologically accurate in the analysis
of social structure and nationalist ideogy.
Al expresses . . .
(Continued from Page 15)
Amnesty International reports adds:
• On November 9, 1988 the government also issued orders to the security forces to shoot curfew violators and demonstrators on sight. These orders were given at a time of moun
ting and often violent opposition to the government in southern areas of the island.
The government has blamed the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP, People's Liberation Front) for orchestrating widespread strikes and demonstrations in violation of curfew restrictions. It has also held the JVP or the related Deshapremi Janatha Viyaparaya (DJV, People's Patriotic Movement) responsible for over 500 political killings. and widespread
intimidation, in the last year and a half. The JVP or DJV have issued death threats to
the ruling United National Party organisers and to individuals known for their support of the July 1987 Indo-Sri Lankan accord. They have also used intimidation in calling strikes.
“Amnesty International has received reports that at least 15 demonstrators were killed by security forces on November 10, 1988 in several incidents. Reports indicate that six people were killed at Tissamaharama, five were killed at Tangalle after two soldiers were shot, and four Were killed at Badalkumbara after they stoned the security forces. Although some of the demonstrators are repor
ted to have used violenceAmnesty International is concerned that those shot could
include unarmed demonstrators. It is also concerned that the broad powers given to the security forces to shoot people on sight and to dispose of the bodies of those killed without inquest or postmortem could facilitate further extra judicial killings of suspected political activists, including unarmed and peaceful demonstrators’.
It is ther the JVP to all-party ad will the ab make such un representa sary is that t should be Str the attempt existing orc such attem Such a situ isolati ng the and subversi
Dirty. . .
they rightly the captives of terror'.
fire of gun la in the 'no
urban guerill forces of the an internecin
What did land which being the fou eousness?
AS the cou into the blaz conflict poli tated to add
The ruling opposition r each other th 2 CO1 Seph SUS thorny ethnig riably enab gain a covet sovereign lar
False pron the Accord ar around by t
Every cor chicanery is on the peop their politici
Politicians from past m
They conti dirty tricks bled to deat agony of Sri
from page 16) 'fore futile to expect enter an interim ni nistration. Neither sence of the JVP an administration live. What is necesle democratic forces engthened to combat
s to subvert the er from Wherever ) tS may emanate.
ti on will lead to forces of violence O
d from page 6)
deserved are today of the “imperialism they face the cross
w living dangerously
man’s land” where as and the armed 2 state are waging te war of attrjti on.
go wrong in this Once boasted of intain head of right
ntry moved speedily ing fires of ethnic icians hardly hesifuel to the inferno.
party and the emained hostile to us failing to achieve
in resolving the : iSSueS. This invaled the aliens to ed foothold On this d.
tises of abrogating e now being bandied le protagonists.
being perpetrated e once again by a.S.
seem not to learn istakes.
nue to play their as the nation is
... That then is the
A memoir . . .
(Continued from page 25)
carried a charm in his mouth which saved him always.
But he did not need that, says Bapak in his non-teaching manner. The lower forces took care of it.
As I have heard it, the usual practice of the non-teacher or the holy man is to preserve a dignified indifference before the vagaries of politics and politicians of all shades.
Of the spritual experiences Varindra writes about and even about the special qualities of Bapak about which he goes into raptures, I have no right to comment. It has been said that to see the beauty of Laila it requires the eyes of Majnum. So I shall leave it that.
But about some of his lesser 'spritual' experiences he writes of like being threatened with
political assassination for his writings these seem to be the work of his ego, which appears to have
indulged in delusions of selfgrandeur.
This would be true about a
writer living in Sri Lanka today after the landmark year 1977 because journalists have died in mysterious accidents, have had their homes bombed and summoned to the
Fourth Floor for questioning. But anybody who thinks that these were the realities of the late
fifties and the very
early sixties must be joking.
Seeing what is going on today most people are praying for those days when we imagined that Flybynight strode the journalistic world like a Dean Swift when all the time, to judge him from what he is saying, he was ducking the assassin's bullet and lowering the brim of his hat darkly over his eyes.
Part IV of 'Kipling's Homage to Buddhism" will be carried in our next issue.
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