கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Journal of Development Administration 1974.11

Page 1
මෙය රාජ්‍ය භාෂාවෙන් වෙනම මුද්‍රණය කර ඇත.
JOURNAL OF
DEWIDIOPMEN A
Guidelines Towards the Improvement Making Process in Public Servict
Relative - Effectiveness of Some Gro Agricultural Information Commun
How to Choose a Leadership Pattern
Agricultural Planning-A Priority
Peasant Colonization in the Dry ZC An Analysis of the Present Patt and Suggestions for the Future
Sri Lanka Academy of Administrative Studi
 

瑟
<
ー//z
of the Decision * Organisations
up Methods in ication in Nepal
@二颚
one of Ceylon : erns, Problems -Part II
Vol. IV, No. 2, November, 1974,
R. G. GOMEZ
P. N. JHA AND J. R. BARAL
ROBERT TANNABAUM and WARREN. H. SCHMIDT
J. M. GUNADASA
S. GUNARATNAM

Page 2
—
TRAIN
offe Sri Lanka Academ
The Academy off
administrative gra Services and Corp courses are releva for the Diploma i
Descriptive cours( application are cir from time to time
Courses are gener (varying from thre designed to facilit officials who cann or places or work courses are, of nec and strenuous.
If you are interested in a لے these courses write for a c
list and application form
The Pro Academy of A 28/10, I
C
A STLSqATSLALASTESESTSTSTSqMTSETSqMEASASMSqTATTAASqSATSASMSqMTSLLATAASqTSALASqATSLSLLASAAAA

LLSSSAAASqAeSSqSSqqSSASqSAeSeSASqSAeSTSSqTSASqAS qSqTSS --------
ING COURSES red by the
y of Administrative Studies
Prs a wide variety of for managerial and des in the State porations. Most of the
in Public Management.
2 lists and forms of culated to organisations
ally of short duration :e days to ten) and ate attendance by busy ot leave their desks for long periods. Such sessity, very intensive
pplying for
tf ffefff C0A fase
10."
gramme Officer, dministrative Studies, Longdon Place, olombo 7.

Page 3
JOURNAL OF DEVELOP
VOL. IV. No. 2.
CON
Guidelines Towards the Improvement of th Making Process in Public Service Org
Relative Effectiveness of Some Group M Agricultural Information Communication
How to Choose a Leadership Pattern
Agricultural Planning-A Priority ..
Peasant Colonization in the Dry Zone of An Analysis of the Present Patterns, Prot Suggestions for the Future-Part II
(Published Semi-Annually by the Sri L 28/10, Longdon
(07/74) 500 و 1سس 08107 Aحصص2
 

MENT ADMINISTRATION
NOVEMBER, 1974
TENTS
Page e Decision R. G. GOMEZ 1. Janisations
ethods in P. N. JHA and J. R. BARAL 11
in Nepal
ROBERT TANNANBAUM 2 AND WARREN. H. SCHMIDT
J. M. GUNADASA 36.
Ceylon : S. GUNARATNAM 49. blems and
anka Academy of Administrative Studies Place, Colombo 7)
S)

Page 4


Page 5
Contri
J. R. BARAL
RAJA GOMEZ, B. Sc. (Hons.) Cey., M. S (Lond.), D.I.C., F.R.I.C., M.B.I.M. M.I.I.E.
J. M. GUNADASA
s
{ S. GUNARATNAM B.A. (Cey.), Dip. in Regior
Development Planning (Israel)
A. B. JAYASUNDERA. B. Sc. (Hons.)
P. N. JHA
ROBERT TANNENBAUM
WARREN. H. SCHMIDT
The opinions expressed in this J authors ... and not necessarily thos Administrative Studies or the Institut

butors
An Official in the Department of Agri
culture, Kathmandu, Nepal
c. Director, Academy of Administrative
Studies
Lecturer, University of Ceylon
al Asst. Land Commissioner,
Land Commr’s Deptartment
Training and Research Associate, Academy of Administrative Studies
Reader, Department of Extension Education, University of Udaipur College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan)
ournal are those of the individual e of the Sri Lanka Academy of ions for which they work.
iii

Page 6


Page 7
This issue of the Journal of De devoted to certain problems in the interest.
In an article on the priorities of makes some pertinent comments : Planning and the problem of maxi
This is backed up by an article of the patterns of the colonization special reference to the Dry Zone the problems that have arisen an they might be faced in the future follow in the next issue of the Jou
Two non-Sri Lanka Authors con effectiveness of some group metho information in another developil comparisons may be drawn with
This issue of the Journal also c. to problems of improving decision ship patterns, whether in agricult reproduced with kind permission where it was recently reproduced

relopment Administration is primarily rea of Agriculture which are of general
agricultural planning, J. M. Gunadasa bout the various aims of Agricultural nising the relevant objective functions.
y S. Gunaratnam which analyses some aspect of the agricultural effort with of the Island. He pin-points some of d makes some suggestions about how . (The second part of this article will rnal).
tribute a research paper on the relative ls in the communication of agricultural ng country, Nepal. Some interesting he experiences of the local scene.
Ontains two articles which are relevant making procedures and choosing leaderure or in other areas. One of them is from the Harvard Business Review, as an “HBR Classic '.

Page 8


Page 9
GUIDELINES TOWARDS THE IM MLAKING PROCESS IN PUBLI
Decision making is probably th manager in the sense that anythin instruction or a suggestion to proce
a certain course of action. Thus the upon to choose in this fashion betwe be various plans open to his organi select to staff it, various styles of l
One may expect at first sight th: the basis of pure rational argument not always the case, but to be able
rational considerations can enter th
to break up the process itself into what other lessons can be learnt frc
able, too, to bring greater order in decision making by making such a
Stages of the Decision Making Proce
Various authors have analysed the
numbers of stages. The analysis tha approach. 2), is perhaps as good as
In the first stage we must be clea particular decision we wish to take. service atmosphere to go on taki clear about what is being aimed at. for the generally poor level of deci it arises from an uncritical acceptar
sat in the desk before you did last agΟ.
At this stage it is also perhaps structure within which one operat adopt (or to avoid) but it may no and it is rational to accept this fac C examine as many alter natives a considerations of this type at thi restraint must be clearly kept in mi that will be developed are being e
* This article is based on a lecture giv Administrative Studies.

PROVEMENT OF THE DECISION D SERVICE ORGANISATIONS *
RAJA. G. GOMEZ
e most fundamental function of a g that proceeds from his desk is an :ed (or not to proceed) according to
managerial decision maker is called en various alternatives, whether they zation, various people whom he may eading his subordinates, and so on.
at every decision would be taken on . It has been pointed out that this is o appreciate the extent to which non
a decision process, it is necessary first
stages. We may also see in this way om the analysis. We may hopefully be
hto our own particular techniques of n analysis.
SS
a decision making process into varying
t follows, which is based on Duncan's
any.
r about what the objectives are of the It is very often possible in the public ng “ decisions” without really being This is undoubtedly one major reason Sion making in the public service, and ce of simply doing what the man who week, last month or even several years
necessary to be clear about the policy
es. Certain policies we may wish to t be up to pass judgment upon them, at this stage. One may perhaps wish s possible without being constricted by S stage : however, in this case, this nd at later stages when the alternatives xamined.
2n by the author at the Sri Lanka Academy of

Page 10
It is also necessary at this early sta of the decision one is trying to take. effect of the decision must be clear though here, too, we may decide at a l decisions we are examining because th are to be avoided.
To enter the next stage of decision ing as much information as possible
we are trying to take. We must ensur we have around us the necessary sk
appreciate the information. One of
stage is that we can never be clear e. we should collect. And when is Ou guideline is to remember that we sh that we need for perfection. If w informed', we should probably never that is to say, the decision itself woulc others may have gone ahead of us a would have taken would really have
There are some specific temptation temptation to postpone decision makir is too little (for then, as we have see a “non-decision”). Another temptati very prone, is to appoint a committe appointment of a committee may be well to remember that there is no g tion being collected by such a commit as Dale and Michelon have pointed (
to spread responsibility 1), but the committee may not quite often justify
In the public services we often find to investigate some problem, to collec recommendations. These are very functions of committees. But it is r make a decision, and in such cases th sense of the word, but some definite
in the organisation. A Cabinet or C Directors or even a Staff Conference
this type of “decision making commit
4)
قص۔

}e to be clear about the significance By this is meant that the level of t least in the very broadest terms, ter stage to drop certam alternative eir possible effects and consequences
making, we must now start collectwhich is relevant to the decision
e that, along with this information, lls and knowledge to examine and
he difficulties encountered at this hough about how much information - information complete 2 A good all never have all the information. 2 were to make ourselves “fully be able to take a decision in time :
be stale by the time is it taken, or ind, in effect, the decision that we been the decision to do nothing.
s that we must resist. One is the 1g on the basis that the information in above, the decision may well be On, to which the public service is e at the slightest provocation. The justified in certain cases, but it is uarantee of any relevant informaee. We tend to appoint committees, ut, to seek safety in numbers and
results of the operations of Such a
the appointment.
it necessary to appoint committees t further information and to make important, valid and legitimate rely that a committee can really y would not be committees in this pint of the decision making process. uncil of Ministers or a Board of in a Department are examples of
y e

Page 11
We come now to the third stage of down of all possible alternatives ope:
that we can never have all the info)
of our decision making process, we s we shall probably never be able eith that may be open to us. This may be
of skills, by lack of knowledge, by reason, it is always realistic to acce
native that has just not surfaced. F
point because in the public services process of listing of alternatives a
strikes us. There is a great difference in this stage between members of pu of commercial organisations. The le
The separation of alternatives will tinction that may have to be made, r decision as well as, or in place of, a content in the public services with ignoring the long-term aspects or, le
It may also be suggested that at draw up a decision table or a decisio)
which will set out with Some degree and the consequences of each decisio of the process becomes somewhat eas
This next stage is making the cho that we have set down in our thi the very core of decision making. becomes very personal for this is a jo one else. True, he may appoint a com a “ decision'. But in such cases his decision making responsibility on to valid delegation) or simply to proci
to him. In real terms there is no e. and all human activity stems from
Several things must be noted abo not the least important of which is t poning a decision are themselves di
These are used perhaps more than public service decision making.
Clearly our assessment of alter scientific methods. The processes of out further experiments on alternat are among the approaches available

lecision making which is the setting to us. However, just as we realised nation we need at the second stage ould realise at this third stage that r to list all the possible alternatives occasioned by lack of time, by lack
ack of resources, etc. Whatever the it that there may be another alter
articular attention is drawn to this
we often tend to short-circuit the d to select the first decision that
in the thinking mechanism involved ilic service institutions and members ssons should be very clear.
also help to highlight another disamely the necessity for a short-term ong term decision. But we are often taking a short-term decision and ss often, vice-versa.
this stage it may be very useful to n tree or other semi-graphical device of visual intensity the alternatives
in alternative so that the next stage Sier.
ice between the various alternatives 'd stage. To many people, this is At this stage the decision process b for the one decision maker and no mittee or ask some one else to make : “ decision' is merely to push the some one else (and this may be a astinate till a further report comes
'cape from this stage of the process he imperatives of this stage.
ut the consideration of alternatives, realise that doing nothing or post!cision alternatives sometimes open. they ought to be in the process of
atives must proceed according to eduction and induction, of carrying
ves and of simulating consequences to uS.
3.

Page 12
It is perhaps necessary to speak b. are experienced in discussing decisio: is experience.
By experience I refer to that peculi which have been gained almost sub
than as the direct effect of consciou pleasant and unpleasant effects of e
concerned or by others. The scie examination plays very little role in would have played a much greater ro are listed below as constituting intui
Intuition, as Duncan points out, " words which people use when they
about and are not going to admit it used in decision making, and he see
different factors, namely, knack or f intensive knowledge, and an interest should add perhaps a fifth factor, r experience.
It is necessary to be clear about particularly from those members of or have long service behind them, tha by experience. As we see from the decisions may carry with them their ( that all reasonable alternatives have
To revert to the question of alter differences in two of the broad appro
One approach may be to consider th terms and this is often quite sufficien to give some sort of quantitative vall us. This is easier in Some instances t we must not adopt a quantitative app We must ask ourselves the question w some quantitative value to the va recently been made in this area and finalicial or other considerations, a available to assist in this process. T
should be based on quantitative consic considerations is one to be settled in
The very mention of quantificatio analysis of alternatives which is S decisions are made from a purely
4.

riefly about two common terms that n making. One is intuition, the other
ar interaction of skills and knowledge consciously or unconsiously (rather
s training) by repeated exposure to arlier decisions made by the person
ntific marshalling of facts or their this process whereas, I suspect, they le in some of the other factors which tion.
has come to be one of those vague do not know what they are talking
3). But nonetheless, it is widely is intuition as a combination of four
lair, skills acquired through training,
in that area of decision. To this we
namely, what we spoke of above as
these terms because we often hear, organisations who are senior in age
ut they make decisions by intuition or : analysis We have just made, Such
own dangers for there is no guarantee been sufficiently considered.
natives, we need perhaps to mention paches available to us at this stage.
e whole problem purely in qualitative
t. But it may also be necessary to try
ue to the various alternatives open to nan in others. But on the other hand,
roach purely for the sake of doing it. hether it is indeed meaningful to give rious decisions. Much progress has measures of utility, as against simple are now becoming more and more he question of how much a decision
lerations and now much on qualitative each case On its merits.
n is a pointer to an element in the ometimes forgotten especially when qualitative base. This is the fact of

Page 13
some quantum of risk or uncertaint decision that is being made. We mu along with the consequences that mi their occurrence.
Many executives in the public ser tions of efficiency and fairness in instance, that in Order to make a f information than they have, but consuming to collect. On the other themselves to admit that a rapid c person or persons affected by it. Th have to learn to adopt in each ins delay in the collection of informatio the final decision.
We do not often in the public making capacity by the efficiency of taking on more and more develop simple routine administrative decisic seems necessary to clarify in wha making should not carry greater w tions of fairness and efficiency is ex
The last stage of our decision p decision. Some of us may not consi but it certainly deserves mention as decision, since it forces considerati decision, since it forces considerati only insufficiently considered.
Efficiency and Fairness in Public S
We noted above that there seen service climate of giving sufficient s It seems sometimes that efficiency c fairness of judgement. If this really and counter-productive. What I do are ont necessarily exclusive of ea making, but rather that, owing to organisations, loss of efficiency seem the emphasis on fairenss. (In cer be true).
The following model I propose ( may be useful in suggesting how t occur and may throw some light taken in each organisation to redu
A 14493 (75/05)

y being allied to the effects of every st therefore, consider each alternative ay flow from it and the probability of
vices are also often troubled by quesdecision making. They often find for air decision, they need much more which would be exceedingly timehand they would be quite willing decision may be more helpful to the his is a trade-off that public servants tance, because as we have seen, the in may itself invalidate or make stale
Services measure executive decision
the decision. With the public services mental decision making, rather than Dn involved in governing a country, it t instances the efficiency of decision eight. A different apect of consideraamined later.
rocess is the implementation of the der this strictly a part of the process a rounding off of the material of the On of aspects of practicability of the On of aspects of practicability of the
ervice Decision Making
s to be some difficulty in the public stress to efficiency in decision making. an be obtained only at the expense of
were SO, it would be both dangerous suggest is that efficiency and fairness ach Other in public Service decision the bureaucratic structuring of these is to be an unintended consequence of tain instances the reverse may also
bn the basis of my own observations
hese unanticipated consequences may on what preventive action must be
ce their occurrence.

Page 14
fairne8 of judgement
ط
r
Recognition Development of 響 θΧοeptions rules
<-- - - -
2ణd
4 Policy Riဖွity
Ο review Ibehaviour
ہس~~~~----- سلاسسسس--س۔
Categorisation used as decision - - - - techniques - - -
- li PN4 T SE N. ro s D REs u r
V N 1 N4" ENarostro Fessu LT ܗܝ ܕ - ܗ .
What I suggest in this model is this. To nave to develop rules. These rules should tues of public bureaucracy to be aimed cretion, flexibility of judgment (permit case) and, of course, speed. The exception: be pointers to the review of policy and th fortunately the use of rules, as all student
are well aware, leads to rigidity of behavi problems to the extent of using categori que. When this happens there is insuffici
tives open to the decision maker, resultir the decision process is concerned. The also leads to dissatisfaction on the part o of individuality involved. Either result v being imposed, resulting in the develop be ad hoc regulations rather than well-c It should be clear therefore that actio points depending on each organisation's st unintended results taking place.
6

Increased Supervision
M
Insufficient consideration
ofalternatives
Client ܕ
- - - dissatisfaction
—l
achieve fairness of judgment, we be such as to permit certain virat, namely, openness, use of disting handling of the exceptional
all cases that are thrown up should ne development of new rules. Un
s of the bureaucratic phenomenon
our and the tendency to categorise, sation itself as a decision technient consideration of the alterna
ng in a loss of efficiency as far as tendency to think in categories f one's clients because of the loss will lead to increased supervision ment of further rules which will onsidered policy formulations. in needs to be taken at various Jructure and task to prevent these

Page 15
It should also be clear that, while it to be unincompatible, the stress on
loss of efficiency owing to the weak making process.
Levels of Decision. Making and Type
We may consider now the levels i may be taken. It may be useful in Simon's division of decisions into pl
5. By a programmed decision is in can be fitted into the routine of an
sion, on the other hand, means one because it has not occurred before. public service structure should be m most such organisations are structu that that routine decisions could be t methods of operation of such organi consideration of decisions within th: the person lower down to make a dec sion is a programmed or unprogram perilous for the organisation as well It is therefore necessary for such or for separating out the non-routine d first instance.
Consideration along these lines wi cess of delegation of duties down delegation progress is not functionir The level within an organisation a be related to the degree of risk inher
ces. As has often been pointed out, long time span are correlated with a
fore taken at a higher level than o mately be considered as carrying li will be valid only for a short period. sions, but it is necessary that the sy the degree of routine is not as great
It would be a very useful exercis spend some of their time analysing or its lack seems to be affecting th exercise that is very rarely done.
Community and the Decision Proces
To be of any use a decision must a
ble after it is taken, to all those who who would be affected by it. (It may :
 

airness and inefficiency do not appear fairness may lead to an unfortunate kening of some point of the decision.
es of Decision
in an organisation at which decisions this regard to keep in mind Herbert rogrammed and unprogrammed areas
neant one that constantly recurs and organisation. An unprogrammed deci
that has to be handled specifically The use of such a dichotomy in the ore or less obvious at first glance, for red in a pyramidal fashion in order taken as far down as possible. But the sations rarely lend themselves to the is very framework. It is often left to bision as to whether the required decilmed one: the consequences can be as for the public who are its clientele. ganisations to have rapid procedures ecisions from the routine ones in the
ill also considerably assist in the prothe line and give a signal when the ng Smoothly.
it which a decision is taken must also rent in the decision and its consequen
decisions which will be valid over a high degree or risk and must be there
therwise. Decisions which can legitittle risk would be those whose effect These will generally be routine decistem should easily provide a signal if t as originally programmed for.
e for public service organisations to specific areas where either delegation eir smooth working. This, too, is an
S
lso be communicated, as soon as possi
have to carry it out as well as to those also be necessary that certain decisions
7

Page 16
be not communicated too widely). We communication adopted to convey and not be suitable towards conveying ar But in the public service structure t dered at all. We tacitly assume that or ing out all decisions. Leavitt and Bav dangers inherent in this assumption
They considered various communic
/ N. A
in which all communication is through like
They found that there is no one ans channels (or any other) will get th qualitative and quantitative aspects C
a very important lesson especially for even consider whether an organisatio
in a given situation (whether in a prok
Rationality and Habit in Decision M.
Lastly we come around to the ques cess of decision making. We now accep
that objective rationality is not alway one thing we may not have comple
8
 

must realize too, that the method of carry Out One particular decision may ld carrying out some other decision. lis is not an approach that is consie structure is good enough for carryelas, among others, have shown the
4.
ations structures such as
boss
2.
a Superior, as well as other channels
D
wer to the question which of these e best results. This depend on both if the problem being tackled. This is
the public services, where we hardly n structure is able to take the strain
lem of communication or otherwise).
aking tion of rationality in the whole prot, as forcefully pointed out by Simon,
possible in decision making 6. For te knowledge of facts and certainly

Page 17
our knowledge of consequences will assigning values to future consequen ly, as we noted earlier, we will net which we have to consider in the p them will be beyond our range of sk
add to this list of the Circumstance t be very seriously affected by the p)
cability, of each alternative being co may not be foreseeable.
We should perhaps end with a bi formation has on decision making, very common be find senior public other audiences that they make dec when analysed, that they react in t! similar. If this means further that t are being separated from the non-rc itself would be achieved. If, on the
being done but an immediate respo should be obvious. While there may
chances are that objectivity would fore be rather suspicious of ourselve
without some degree of hesitation, es at a fairly high level of the admi
necessarily indicate incompetence: needed for the consideration of alter
Conclusion
We have analysed the decision ma to the structure of, and climate surro vices. Clearly there is large scope fo of the process and those stages whic cifically being identified, with Some the particular difficulty. It will cert vants to review the stages they th decisions and to examine in an indi
provements they may be able to m

be always fragmentary. For another. ces is also an imperfect process. Thirder be able to list all the alternatives cocess of decision making for some of tills or knowledge. And finally we may
at the possible range of decisions may acticability, and constraints on appliinsidered, some of which considerations
ief discussion on the effect that habit especially in the public service. It is servants telling their subordinates or isions based on “ habit '. This means, he same way to situations that appear he routine aspects of decision making utine aspects, something important ir: other hand, it means that this is not
nse is being blindly given, the danger be no irrationality in the process, the
be greatly reduced. We should therels if we find ourselves taking decisions
pecially if the decisions are being taken nistrative ladder. Hesitation does not
it should indicate the reacticn time
natives.
king process with particular reference punding this activity in, the public sera general strengthening of each stage n appear weaker than others have speconsideration of what may be causing ainly not be a bad idea for public Ser2mselves use in their own day-to-day vidual and personal manner what im
ake for themselves.

Page 18
References
[11 Dale, E. and Michelon, L.C., " World Publishing Company (
2 Duncan, A. R. C., Lecture to
Queen's University, Kingston,
3 ibid.
4) Leavitt, H. J., “Managerial Psyc of Chicago Press (Chicago, 19
[5] Simon, H. A., “The New Scienc Row (New York, 1960), pp. 5
(6) Simon, H. A., “Administrative
Press (New York, 1965), p. 81.
O

Modern Management Techniques', Cleveland, 1966), p. 109 et seq.
the Executive Development Group,
Ontario (June 1964).
hology” (third edition), University 72), p. 190 et seq.
e of Decision Making', Harper and 3.
Behaviour' (second edition), Free

Page 19
Relative Effectiveness of Agricultural Information (
INTRODI
THE progress in agriculture depends to a gre of the messages of the new technology in the adoption by farmers. In order to extend the than 800 extension personnel of His Majesty in the field. There are a number of communi Communicate the new ideas effectively. Th as individual, group and mass methods. T. group methods have often been preferred to i of farmers could be approached at a time.
discussion, lecture-cum-discussion, flip book, demonstration are most commonly used by 1
Further, while choosing the channels
choose those channels which will bring effectiv The information might vary and all the methoc cating the messages of different innovations. right purposes is the crux of the problem A developing country that Nepal is, no suc extension personnel choose the communica preferences and convenience.
Keeping this in view, the present rese mentally the relative effectiveness of the selects communication. The specific objectives of th effectiveness of lecture-cum-discussion, flip respect to gain in farmers' knowledge abou control of stored grain pests of wheat and (2) retained by farmers about the use of artificia grain pests of wheat after fifteen days of the flip book and group discussion methods.
The past work done in other countries
Geus (1953) studying the influence of that 38:30 per cent of the farmers exposed we and discussion accounted for 44°80 per cent of

Some Group Methods in ommunication in Nepal
P. N. JHA AND J. R. BARAL
JCTION
at extent on the speed of the dissemination ; farming community and their wide scale new agricultural practices to farmers, more S Government of Nepal have been working cation media in hands of these personnel to ese methods have invariably been classified aking into consideration the cost involved, individual contact methods as more number Among the group methods, lecture, group flash cards flannel graphs and methods he extension workers.
of communication, a communicator has to e communication of agricultural information. is might not be equally effective in communi
Hence, the selection of right channels for
an extension worker is confronted with. ph study had ever been conducted and the tion channels according to their personal
arch project was designed to study experi2d group methods in agricultural information e study were : (1) to determine the relative book and group discussion methods with t the use of artificial fertilizers in rice and to assess the amount of knowledge relatively l fertilizers in paddy and control of stored ir exposure through lecture-cum-discussion,
the various methods of presentation reported re influenced by picture only whereas lecture the influence. Bhole (1957) reported lecture

Page 20
meeting and group discussion as first in ra in comparison to literature and result demo as most effective followed by lecture metho the selected practices. Bhaskaram and M more effective than the lecture alone for re ment practice. Rao (1970) studying the ei farmers about foliar spray of urea on wheat were significantly superior to lecture in i discussion method to be superior to the lect (1959) inferred that the group discussion w, cultivators. Hakansson (1953) reported 1 meetings due to the use of supplements to t effectiveness was 21 per cent more than the
Research Methodology
In order to measure the initial know retained by farmers about the two practices, was developed by following the principle of test, four criteria, namely, item difficulty ir coefficients and representatives of that test V for the use of artificial fertilizers in rice (P) : grain pests of wheat (P.) were finally ret knowledge test. The test so prepared was fo number of tickmarked items was the know. The range of score obtained by a responde. each of the two tests in this study. Jha and measuring the knowledge about the high-yi
Setting and the sampling
The study was conducted in Dhan the Eastern Tarai belt of the country. TI and organisations are intensified in a coo of the District, three identical villages : De Care was taken to see that the three villa grown, religion, etc. The purpose in Selec directions at a distance of 5 kilometers was 1 persons twice by each method without the pc method tried in one village occurring in its in
Individuals above 15 years in age in groups on the basis of three levels of each a multi-stage stratified random Sampling, 36 surveyed and grouped were Selected in eac drawn for the study out of a total of 494
12

k while comparing the efficiency per unit cost stration. Roy (1967) stated group discussion in the gain of knowledge of the farmer about hajan (1968) found lecture-cum-flash card as 2ntion of the knowledge about the seed treatectivenss of selected audio-visuals in teaching 'rop observed that flannel-graph and flash cards nparting knowledge. Dietrick (1960) found re method in developing abilities. Lokhande s least effective in changing knowledge of the hat there was an increase in the influence of he lecture (lecture and discussion) in which the 2cture method alone.
vledge, knowledge gained and the knowledge a knowledge test for each of the two practices item analysis. For selecting the items in the dex, discrimination index, biserial correlation vere taken into consideration. Thus, 26 items und again 28 items for the control of the stored ained that formed the actual format of the und to be highly reliable and valid. The total ledge score obtained by an individual farmer. nt on the test might vary between 0 and 26 in Singh (1970) followed the same technique for lding varieties of wheat.
ikha District of Nepal. The district lies on he activities of different agricultural offices dinated manner. Based on the pilot study opura, Kumraura and Bispitti were selected. ges did not differ in caste, education, crops ing three identical villages in three opposite o replicate the exposures to similar groups of ssibility of seepage of the effect of a particular ighbouring village.
all the three villages were categorised into 9 e and education. Following the principle of spondents out of the total male population A village. Thus, a total of 108 samples was male members in three villages. To test the

Page 21
identitiness or the variation, if any, among obtained by the 36 respondents of each villag analysed differently and the analysis of varian
TA]
Combined Analysis of Wariance of the T
Practice
/ー
d.f. Between villages - - 2 Between strata within villages - - 24 Error " " ་ 81
Total . . 107
N.S. = Non-significant at 0.05 level.
From Table 1, it is apparent that the significant in between villages as well as in inferred that there was no existing variationi the selected villages were more or less identica
The design of research
The successional (before and after me by Furfey (1955) was used for the study of methods.
Operationalisation of the concepts used in th
Group methods -Those communica situation. Lecture-cum-discussion, flip boo selected for this study.
Lecture-cum-discussion. -It refers group of farmers followed by discussion. A talk is engaged in a discussion around the t
Flip book.-Flip book consists of bi drawing sheets, arranged and displayed in presentation.
Group discussion. — It is a group co to try to understand and Solve some partic ideas are clarified, systematised and misun
Initial knowledge. -It refers to the about the message before being exposed.
Knowledge gained. --It refers to the farmer on the same knowledge test as an ef

the three selected villages, the initial scores e about both of the practices (P, and P.) were ice is cited in Table 1.
BLE, 1
hree Willages about P and P. Practices
P P
حار یار
- N - y M.S. Calculated F. M.S. Calculated F. 22.62 ... 1.23 N.S. .. 56.69 . . 2.41 N.S. 18.29 1.30 N.S. . . 23.45 1.56 N.S. 13.99 . . . - ... 14.95 . . -
calculated value of “P” was found to be nonbetween strata within villages. It was, thus, n between the three villages. In other words, land the study could be dependable and valid."
asurement) experimental design as suggested the relative effectivenees of the three group
le study
tion channels, which could be used in a group k and group discussion were the group methods
to a prepared informative talk given before a A group of farmers after getting an informative alk.
lief visual messages on spiral-bound convenient a logical order to emphasise key points in a
operative effort where a group meets together ular problem common to it. In this procesS, ierstandings are removed.
pasic knowledge or the knowledge farmers have
difference in the final and initial scores of a ect of the use of a particular group method.
13

Page 22
Knowledge retained.-It is the extento test as the effect due to a group method minu by farmers after a specific interval of fifteen
Hypothesis
Keeping the specific objectives in vi tested :-
H. : There is no difference in the artificial fertilizers in ice by book, and group discussion m:
H. : There is no difference in the a of stored grain pests of wheat flip book, and group discussio
H. : There is no difference in the a
book and group discussion me
H. : There is no difference in the ar of stored grain pests of wheat flip book, and group discussic
EXPERIMENTA
Relative gain in knowledge through the three g
The scores of the knowledge gained subjected to a combined analysis of variance
TAE
Differences in Scores Att)
Practice Use of at
d.f.
Between methods - - - - 2 Between strata within methods ao 24 Error - - - 81.
Total . . 107
* Significant at 0.05 level -- Significant 0.01 level
d.f. = Indicates degree of freedom. M.S. = Indicates mean Sum of square. F. = Indicates variance ratio.
14

knowledge possessed on the same knowledge the extent of the gained knowledge forgotten days.
w, the following null hypotheses were to be
mount of knowledge gained about the use of armers through lecture-cum-discussion, flip ethods.
mount of knowledge gained about the control by farmers through lecture-cum-discussion, in methods.
farmers through lecture-cum-discussion, flip thods.
nount of knowledge retained about the control by farmers through lecture-cum-discussion, on methods.
L FINDINGS
through all the three group methods were
as given in Table 2.
LE 2
ibutable to Methods: Analysis of variance:
tificial fertilizers in rice Control of stored grain
pests of wheat (P) (Ꮲ) ר ۸م Y ܢܚܬܝ M.S. Calculated F. M.S. Calculated F. 27.06,.,3.91* .。53.50 .。10.01+ 45.76 . . 6.61十.. 37.25 . . 6.97+.
6.92 . . - - - 5.34 . . -

Page 23
The calculated value of 'F' (F=3-91 ar tically significant as shown in Table 2 indicatin from one another in increasing the knowledg In other words, the amount of learning was The three methods were not equally effective
The null hypothesis (H.) is, therefore, that there is a difference in the amount of k. fertilizers in rice by farmers through lect discussion methods.
Likewise, the nulhypothesis (H.3) is als amount of knowledge gained about the contr through lecture-cum-discussion, flip book, an
Results with respect to extent of differer and group discussion methods are summarise
TABI
Relative Effectiveness of the three Group Method
Methods Lectul disci
Mean knowledge gained scored about the use 9
of artificial fertilizers in rice (P)
Mean knowledge gained scores about the control 8
of stored grain pests of wheat(P)
* Indicates greater than. -- Significant at 001 level. N.S. = Non-significant at 005 level.
A perusal of Table 3 reveals that for bo cantly less knowledge through group discus and flip book methods. On the other hand ) differ significantly in their effect on gaining o
The analysis was extended further and through the three methods about both the pra

l 10-01 for P. and P. respectively) was statisthat the three methods differed significantly of farmers about both the farm practices. ot equal through the three group methods.
rejected. The data support the proposition owledge gained about the use of artificial re-cum-discussion, flip book, and group
o rejected. Hence, there is a difference in the 1 of stored grain pests of wheat by farmers | group discussion methods.
ce between lecture-cum-discussion, flipbook,
in Table 3.
E 3
ls on Knowledge gained
re-cum- Flip book Group discussion Calculated
ssion * •?
'66 . . 9'39 ... 8-17 For MM, .. 0'75 N. s.
For MM3 ... 4*13+ For MM3 - 3'38--
31 . 9-36 699 For M.M.. ... 194 N. s.
For M.Ma ... 2'44+ For MM3 . 4'38+
th the farm practices, farmers gained signifiion as compared to lecture-cum-discussion, acture-cum-discussion, and flip book did not
the knowledge by farmers.
the percentage gain in knowledge of farmers tices was also worked out.
15

Page 24
T
Percentage gain in knowledge
Source
Use of artificial fertilizers in paddy (P)
Lecture-cum-discussion (M) Flipbook (M)
Group discussion (Ma)
Control of stored grain pests of wheat (P,
Lecture-cum-discussion (M) Flip book (M) Group discussion (M3)
The percentage has been rounded to whole
A critical examination of Table 4, m gain in knowledge, the three group methods cum-discussion, and (3) group discussion, f
Relative retention of knowledge acquired thro
The difference in the score obtained
initial knowledge score was taken as a mea
retention scores were subjected to a combin of variance as given in Table 5.
TA
Knowledge retained
ANALYSS
Practice Use of
--
d.f.
Between methods - - 2 Between strata within methods - - 24 Error ... - 81.
Total ... 107
N.S. = Non-significant
* significant at 005 level. -- significant at 001 level.
16

BLE 4
f farmers through the three methods
Mean score Percentage gain in
knowledge -----------------^س- Initial Knowledge
knowledge gained
-
1242 . . 966 . . 78 1167 . . 939 . . 80 14'04 .. 817 . . . 59
8'23 .. 831. . . 10. 871 .. 936 . . 107 10'60 . . 699 . . 66
number.
akes it clear that on the basis of the percentage could be ordered as : (1) flip book, (2) lectureor both the practices.
ugh the three group methods :
by farmers after 15 days of exposure and the asure of knowledge retained by farmers. The ed analysis through the technique of analysis
ABLE 5
through different Methods
OF VARANCE
artificial fertilizers in rice Control of stored grain pests
(P) of Wheat (P)
سیاستہ
M.S. Calculated F. M.S. Calculated F.
23973 .。1851十 ,. 4167 ... 3'42.
10'22 ... O '56 N.S... 972 O'79 N.S.
1835 ... - ...) 12*19 , -

Page 25
The computed value of 'F' was 18'5 significant at 0:01 level. The null hypothe support the proposition that there is a differen the use of artificial fertilizers in rice by farm and group discussion methods.
Likewise, for the control of stored gre was 342 which is statistically significant at 0: rejected. The data support the propositior knowledge retained about the control of sto lecture-cum-discussion, flip book, and group
It is, thus, inferred that there was a sig about both the farm practices by farmers th group discussion methods. In other words, was not alike in retaining the knowledge.
Results with respect to the differences rised in Table 6.
TTABLE
Relative effectiveness of the selected gr
Methods Lectura discu,
(M
Mean knowledge retained scores about the use 8
of artificial fertilizers in rice (P)
Mean knowledge retained scores about the
control of stored grain pests of wheat (P)
N.S=Non-significant. * Significant at 005 level. -- Significant at 001 level.
From the table, it is evident that ther of knowledge retained by farmers about t lecture-cum-discussion, and flip book methc knowledge through these methods as com lecture-cum-discussion and flip book were ec ledge. Group discussion was significantly ) than lecture-cum-discussion and flip book.

as shown in Table 5 which is statistically is (H.) is, therefore, rejected. The data !e in the amount of knowledge retained about rs through lecture-cum-discussion, flip book
in pests of wheat, the computed value of F
5 level. The null hypothesis (H.) is, hence,
that there is a difference in the amount of ed grain pests of wheat by farmers through discussion methods.
nificant difference in the knowledge retained rough lecture-cum-discussion, flip book, and he effectiveness of the three group methods
between the three group methods are Summa
6
oup methods in retention of knowledge
2-cum- Flip book Group discussion Calculated Ssion f :
1) (M2) (Ma)
300 . . 7-15 - 3'04 For MM2 .. 084 (N.S.)
For MM3 ... 4'91+ For M2M3 ... 4'06+
5'23 . . 4'36 . 3'29 For MM2 .. 221*
For MM2 .. 3'58-H For M.Ms . 1'30 (N.S.)
2 was no significant difference in the amount Le use of artificial fertilizers in rice through ds. But, farmers retained significantly more ared to group discussion. In other words, ually effective in retention of farmers know2ss effective in retaining farmers' knowledge
17

Page 26
As regards control of sto, ed grain p were equally, effective since the differences v proved most effective in retaining farmers knowledge through the three methods is pre
TAB
Percentage Retention of Farmers’ know
Source
Use of artificial fertilizers in rice (P)
Lecture-cum-discussion (M) Flipbook (M) Group discussion (M3)
Control of stored grain pests of wheat (p)
Lecture-cum-discussion (M) Flipbook (M) Group discussion (M3)
From Table 7, it is obvious that on the b, the three group methods could be ordered as : (3) group discussion for both the practices na control of stored grain pests of wheat.
DISCU
The amount of knowledge gained thro cantly. Lecture-cum-discussion, and flip bo their effect on gaining of the knowledge by significantly as compared to group discussio knowledge, the three methods could be orderec and (3) group discussion, for both the practic
Lecture-cum-discussion, and flip book knowledge about the use of artificial fertilizer, with respect to amount of knowledge retain discussion, and flip book methods. As rega flip book and group discussion methods w knowledge, while lecture-cum-discussion prove
18

ts of wheat, flip book, and group discussion ’re non-significant. Lecture-cum-discussion knowledge. The percentage retention of 2nted in Table 7.
E 7
2dge through different group methods
Mean score Percentagell retention in اسسسسسسسسسسسمسم د أسسسسسسسسسسسسسسسسسسسس knowledge
Initial Knowledge knowledge retained
12'42 . . 800 . . 64 1167 . . 7-15 . . 6. 1404 . . 304 . . 22
823 .. 6'23 . . 76 871 . . 435 . 50 1060 . . 329 . . 31
number.
asis of the percentage retention of knowledge, (1) lecture-cum-discussion, (2) flip book, and amely, use of artificial fertilizers in rice and
SSION
gh the three group methods differed signifiok methods did not differ significantly in armers whereas these two methods differed l. On the basis of the percentage gain in as: (1) lecture-cum-discussion (2) flipbook, CS.
sere equally effective in retention of farmers' in rice. Group discussion was less effective d by farmers as compared to lecture-cum'ds control of stored grain pests of wheat, re equally effective in retaining farmers most effective of all the three methods. On

Page 27
the basis of the percentage retention of k (1) lecture-cum-discussion, (2) flip book, (3) grc
The findings furnish a guideline to the group methods for communicating the messag as a first preference use lecture-cum-discussi effectively. Lecture-cum-discussion has some a since it does not require much planning and prep apart from being convenient to handle. Flip being attractive and systematic learning is I workers could use this method while working V programmes for farmers and local functional could be made use of.
དེ་

nowledge, the methods were ordered as : up discussion, for both the practices.
operational field workers in selecting the in the farming community. They should on method to communicate their ideas dvantages as compared to flip book method aration, financial and instrumental supports book involved the use of more senses and hore and faster. Undoubtedly, expansion ith farmers. Even for conducting training leaders, the recommended group methods
19

Page 28
BHASKARAM, K. AND MAHAJAN, B. S.
BHOLAY, D. K. A.
DIETRICK, D. C.
FURFEY, PAUL H.
GEUS, J. D.
HAKANSSON, RICHARD
JHA, P. N. AND
SINGH, K. N.
LOKHANDE, M. R.
RAO, C. S. S. AND RAo, P. R. M.
Roy, D. N.
20
Refe
Effectiveness of extensio Agrosan (GN) seed tr 1968.
Most efective combina programme for wheat Agronomy, I. A. R. ]
A comparative study of li N.Y. The Ford Foun by H. C. Sanders. Pr
The scope and method of
Group methods of Agr Netherlands, 1953.
Audio-visual aids. M.
1953.
A test to measure farmer line 7 (1) Gandhian In
Relative effectiveness of acceptance of improve thesis, IARI, N. Dell
Effectiveness of selected urea on wheat crop.
Comparative effectivene Proceedings of Resea 8&9,113-15。1967.

2IrᎾIlCᎾS
n methods in gaining knowledge about and acceptance of eatment to cotton. Indn.J. of Extn. Edu. 4 (3 & 4). 28-33,
tion of extension methods to make the fertilization crop successful. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. Div. of ..., New Delhi, 1957. -
ecture and discussion methods by Hills, R.J., White-plain dation taken from the Cooperative Extn. Service edited entice Hall, Inc. Cliffs, N.J. (1966), 331-32, 1960.
sociology, 1955.
il. Extin. Methods of Agril. Extension. Wageningen,
ethods of Agril. Extension. Wageningen, Netherlands,
s' knowledge about high-yielding varieties. Interdiscip
St. of Studies Varanasi, India, 1970.
different extension methods and their combinations for d agricultural implements in wheat. Unpublished M.Ss. ni, 1959.
audio-visuals in teaching farmers about foliar spray of Indn. J. of Extn./Edu. 6 (1 & 2), 50e4.
SS of three extension methods for teaching farmers. rch Foundation. Bihar Agril. College, Sabour, India,

Page 29
How to Choose a Le
“I put most problems into my grou ball from there. I serve merely as a catalyst, feelings so that they can better understand them
“It’s foolish to make decisions onese talk things over with my subordinates but I mak has to have the final say ".
"Once I have decided on a course of employees'.
“I’m being paid to lead . If I let a should be making, then I'm not worth my salt
“I believe in getting things done. Ic has to call the shots around here, and I think its
Each of these statements represents a Considerable experience, factual data, and theo1 each statement, even though they seem to be ir contradictions point up the dilemma in which the
NEW PROE
The problem of how the modern m relations with subordinates and at the same til control in the organization for which he is respo recent years.
Earlier in the century this problem was no was generally pictured as possessing intelligenc make rapid (and generally wise) decisions, and 1 tended to think of the world as being divided in
NEW FO
Gradually, however, from the social si dynamics” with its focus on members of the Research efforts of social scientists underscored and participation in decision making. Evidence directive leadership, and increasing attention v human relations.
* Reproduced with permission from Harvard Busi (c) 1973 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

adership Pattern"
ROBERT TANNENBAUM AND WARREN. H. SCHMIDT
b's hands and leave it to them to carry the mirroring back the people's thoughts and
9.
lf on matters that affect people. I always e it clear to them that I am the one who
action, I do my best to sell my ideas to my
lot of other people make the decisions I
9.
an’t waste time calling meetings. Someone hould be me.’’
point of view about "good leadership'. etical principles could be cited to support lconsistent when placed together. Such modern manager frequently finds himself.
BLEM
hanager can be 'democratic’ in his me maintain the necessary authority and nsible has come into focus increasingly in
t so acutely felt. The successful executive te, imagination, initiative, the capacity to he ability to inspire subordinates. People to “leaders' and “followers’.
CUS
piences emerged the concept of “group group rather than solely on the leader. the importance of employee involvement began to challenge the efficiency of highly (as paid to problems of motivation and
ness Review (May-June 1973). All rights reserved.
21

Page 30
Through training laboratories in gr try, many of the newer notions of leade laboratories were carefully designed to giv tion and decision making. The designa their own power and to make group memb goals and methods within the laboratory
It was perhaps inevitable that some tories regarded this kind of leadership as the determination to build fully participati Whenever their bosses made a decision W perceive this as authoritarian behaviour. some was the meeting and the less directed
Some of the more enthusiastic alu the habit of categorizing leader behaviou boss who made too many decisions hims directive behaviour was often attributed se
NIE
The net result of the research based upon them has been to call into Consequently, the modern manager often
Often he is not quite sure how to b exerting “strong’ leadership and “perm pushes him in one direction (“I should ri but at the same time his experience pushe the problem better than the group and til not sure when a group decision is really serves merely as a device for avoiding his
The purpose of our article is to
useful in grappling with this dilemma. leadership behaviour that the manager c ordinates. Then, we shall turn to some of For instance, how important is it for a leadership he is using in a situation ? W. leadership pattern ? What difference d his immediate objective 2
RANGE C
Exhibit 1-Presents the continuu available to a manager. Each type of ac the boss and to the amount of freedom a The actions seen on the extreme left chara
22

oup development that sprang up across the coun
rship began to exert an impact. These training e people a firsthand experience in full participa
ted "leaders ” deliberately attempted to reduce
2rs as responsible as possible for setting their own
experience.
of the people who attended the training laborabeing truly “democratic” and went home with Ve decision making into their own organizations. ithout convening a staff meeting, they tended to The true symbol of democratic leadership to from the top, the more democratic it was.
mni of these training laboratories began to get r as ' democratic or “authoritarian. The elf was thought of as an authoritarian, and his olely to his personality.
W NEED
findings and of the human relations training question the stereotype of an effective leader. finds himself in an uncomfortable state of mind.
behave ; there are times when he is torn between issive’ leadership. Sometimes new knowledge 2ally get the group to help make this decision') is him in another direction (“I really understand nerefore I should make the decision). He is appropriate or when holding a staff meeting own decision-making responsibility.
Suggest a framework which managers may find First, we shall look at the different patterns oi an choose from in relating himself to his subthe questions suggested by this range of patterns. manager's subordinates to know what type of hat factors should be considered in deciding on a o his long-run objectives make as compared to
F BEHAVIOUR
m or range of possible leadership behaviour tion is related to the degree of authority used by 'ailable to his subordinates in reaching decisions. cterize the manager who maintains a high degree

Page 31
of control while those seen on the extreme ri high degree of control. Neither extreme is without their limitations.
Now let us look more closely at each ( continuum.
THE MANAGER MAKES THE DECISION
In this case the boss identifies a probl one of them, and then reports this decision t may or may not give consideraton to what h about his decision ; in any case, he provides no in the decision-making process. Coercion ma
THE MANAGER SELLS’’ HIS DECISION
Here the manager, as before, takes res arriving at a decision. However, rather thans step of persuading his subordinates to accept of some resistance among those who will be this resistance by indicating, for example, what
THE MANGER PRESENTS HIS IDEAS, IN
Here the boss who has arrived at a dec provides an opportunity for his subordinates and his intentions. After presenting the idea can better understand what he is trying to acc the manager and the subordinates to exploren
THE MANGER PRESENTS ATENTATIVE
This kind of behavioui permits the su decision. The initiative for identifying and boss. Before meeting with his staff he has th decision-but only a tentative one. Before f for the reaction of those who will be affect hear what you have to say about this plant frank reactions, but will reserve for myself the
THE MANAGER PRESENTS THE PROBI
AND MAKES HIS DECISION
Up to this point the boss has come be Not so in this case. The subordinates now ge manager's initial role involves identifying t something of this sort : “We are faced with

ght characterizc the manager who releases a absolute authority, and freedom are never
of the behaviour points occurring along this
N AND ANNOUNCES IT
lem, considers alternative solutions, chooses o his subordinates for implementation. He Le believes his subordinates will think or feel ) opportunity for them to participate directly ly or may not be used or implied.
sponsibility for identifying the problem and simply announcing it, he takes the additional it. In doing so, he recognizes the possibility faced with the decision, and seeks to reduce the employees have to gain from his decision.
VITES QUESTIONS
cision and who seeks acceptance of his ideas to get a fuller explanation of his thinking is, he invites questions so that his associates omplish. This “give and take also enables nore fully the implications of the decision.
DECISION SUBJECT TO CHANGE
ubordinates to exert some influence on the
diagnosing the problem remains with the hought the problem through and arrived at a inalizing, it he presents his proposed solution ed by it. He says in effect, “I’d like to hat I have developed. I'll appreciate your final decision”.
LEM, GETS SUGGESTIONS, AND THEN
fore the group with a solution of his own. at the first chance to suggest solutions. The he problem. He might, for example, say a number of complaints from newspapers
23

Page 32
and the general public on our service polic have for coming to grips with this problem
The function of the group becomes possible solutions to the problem. The p experience of those who are on the “firin developed by the manager and his subord that he regards as most promising.
THE MANAGER DEFINES THE LIMI" MAKE A DECISION
At this point the manager passes t member) the right to make decisions. Bef to be solved and the boundaries within whic
An example might be the handling decides that this is something that shoulc calls them together and points up the existen
“There is the open field just north of additional employee parking. We can b as long as the cost does not exceed $100,0 solution that makes sense to us. After v spend the available money in whatever w
THE MANGER PERMITS THE GR PRESCRIBED LIMITS
This represents an extreme degree of in formal organizations, as, for instance i managers or engineers undertakes the identi alternative procedures for solving it, and decic The only limits directly imposed on the gr the superior of the team's boss. If the boss attempts to do so with no more authorit. commits himself in advance to assist in imp
KEY QUESTIONS
As the continuum in Exhibit I demol in which a manager can relate himself to ti the extreme left of the lange, the emphasis how he sees things, how he feels about then end of the continuum, however, the focus they are interested in, how they look at thin
For a fuller explanation of this approach Change.' HBR, January-February, 1956 p. 41.
24.

y. What is wrong here ? What ideas do you.
2 ஒ9
one of increasing the manager's repertory of urpose is to capitalize on the knowledge and g line' from the expanded list of alternatives inates, the manager then selects the solution
TS AND REQUESTS THE GROUP TO
the group (possibly including himself as a ore doing so, however, he defines the problem h the decision must be made.
of a parking problem at a plant. The boss | be worked on by the people involved, so he ce of the problem. Then he tells them:
che main plant which has been designated for uild underground or surface multievel facilities 100. Within these limits we are free to work out ve decide on a specific plan, the company will ay we indicate.”
OUP TO MAKE DECISIONS WITH IN
group freedom only occasionally encountered n many research groups. Here the team of fication and diagnosis of the problem, develops leson one of more of these alternative solutions. up by the organization are those specified by participates in the decision making process, he than any other member of the group. He lementing whatever decision the group makes.
韃
lstrates, there are a number of alternative ways Le group or individuals he is supervising. At S on the manager-on what he is interested in, As we move toward the subordinate centered is increasingly on the subordinates-on what is, how they feel about them.
See Leo Moore, "Too Much Management, Too Little

Page 33
When business leadership is regarded in us take four of especial importance :
CAN BOSS EVER RELINQUISH HIS RE
TO SOMEONE ELSE 2
Our view is that the manager must expec the quality of the decisions made, even thoug been made on a group basis. He should the involved whenever he delegates decision-makin is not a way of passing the buck'. Also it freedom the boss gives to his subordinates can himself has been given by his own superior.
SHOULD THE MANAGER PARTICIPATE HE HAS DELEGATED RESPONSIBILIT
The manager should carefully think over to involving the subordinate group. He should the problem-solving process. There may be group to let it solve the problem for itself. Ty to contribute, and should function as an addit intance it is important that he indicate clearly to role rather than in an authority role.
HOVV IMPORTANT IS IT FOR THE G
OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR THE BC
It makes a great deal of difference. Ma subordinate occur because the boss fails to m If, for example he actually intends to make a c group gets the impression that he has delegat and resentment are likely to follow. Problem * democratic facade to conceal the fact that hopes the group will accept as its own. The idea in the first place is a risky one. We manager to be honest and clear in describing he is asking his subordinate to assume in solvi
CAN YOU TELL HOW “DEMOCRATIC OF DECISIONS HIS SUBOR DINATES
The sheer number of decisions is not an that a subordinate group enjoys. More import the boss entrusts to his subordinates. C desks is of an entirely different order from

his way, a number of questions arise. Let
SPONSIBILITY BY DELEGATING IT
t to be held responsible by his superior for h operationally these decisions may have efore be ready to accept whatever risk is g power to his subordinates. Delegation should be emphasized that the amount of not be greater than the freedom which he
, WITH HIS SUBORDINATES ONCE "Y TO THEM 2
this question and decide on his role prior I ask if his presence will inhibit or facilitate some instances when he should leave the pically, however, the boss has useful ideas ional member of the group. In the latter the group that he sees himself in a member
ROUP TO RECOGNIZE WHAT KIND SS IS USING 2
ny relationship problems between boss and ake clear how he plans to use his authority. ertain decision himself but the subordinate ed this authority, considerable confusion ls may also occur when the boss uses a he has already made a decision which he : attempt “to make them think it was their believe that it is highly important for the what authority he is keeping and what role ng a particular problem.
' A MANAGER IS BY THE NUMBER
MAKE 2
accurate index of the amount of freedom antis the significance of the decisions which bviously a decision on how to arrange a decision involving introduction of
25

Page 34
new electronic data-processing equipment given in dealing with the first issue, the gr bility. For a boss to permit the group t narrow limits would reflect a greater degree
DECIDING. HOW TO LEAD
Now let us turn from the types of situation to the question of what types are should a manager considerin deciding how
O Forces in the manager. O Forces in the subordinates, O Forces in the situation.
We should like briefly to describe influence a manager's action in a decision them will, of course, vary from instance to them can better assess the problems which ship behaviour is most appropriate for him
FORCES IN THE MANGER :
The manager's behaviour in any the many forces operating within his own leadership problems in a unique way on experience. Among the important internal
1. His value system.-How strong share in making the decisions which affect til who is paid to assume responsibility should The strength of his convictions on questio one end or the other of the continuum sh influenced by the relative importance that h growth of subordinates, and company prof
2. His confidence in his subordinat trust they have in other people generally, a they supervise at a given time. In viewingh is likely to consider their knowledge and central question he might ask himself is : 'W Often he may, justifiably or not, have more of his subordinates.
1 See also Robert Tannenbaum and Fred M rial Decision-Making Process,” Canadian Journal C
o See Chris Argyris “ Top Management Di Personnel. September 1955, pp. 123-134.
26

Even though the widest possible limits are oup will sense no particular degree of responsio decide equipment policy, over within rather of confidence in them on his part.
leadership which are possible in a company practical and desirable. What factors or forces o manage?. Three are of particular importance:
these elements and indicate how they might -making situation. The strength of each of ) instance but the manager who is sensitive to face him and determine which mode of leader
l.
given instance will be influenced greatly by personality. He will, of course, perceive his the basis of his background, knowledge, and forces affecting him will be the following:
y does he feel that individuals should have a hem? Or, how convinced is he that the Official personally carry the burden of decision making? ns like these will tend to move the manager to own in Exhibit I. His behaviour will also be e attaches to organizational efficiency, personal tS2.
2s.-Managers differ greatly in the amount of nd this carries over to the particular employees sparticular group of subordinates, the manager competence with respect to the problem. A "ho is best qualified to deal with this problem ? confidence in his own capabilities than in those
issarik" Participation by Subordinates in the ManagerEconomics and Political Science Aguust 1950, p. 413.
2mma : Company Needs vs. Individual Development,'

Page 35
3. His own leadership inclinations.- more comfortably and naturally as highl, issuing orders come easily to them. Other a team role, where they are continually s subordinates.
4. His feelings of Security in an ur. control over the decision-making process outcome. Some managers have a greater r in their environment. This “tolerance fo psychologists as a key Variable in a person's
The manager brings these and other faces. If he can see them as forces whic better, understand what makes him prefer to behaviour, he can often make himself mc
Forces in the subordinate :
Before deciding how to lead a certain
number of forces affecting his subordinate
each employee, like himself, is influenced each subordinate has a set of expectations him (the phrase "expected behavior is o discussions of leadership and teaching). Th the more accurately he can determine what subordinates to act most effectively.
Generally speaking, the manager ca
the following essential conditions exist :-
6 If the subordinates have relati know, people differ greatly in t
If the subordinates have a readin (Some see additional responsibil “passing the buck.') If they have a relatively high prefer to have clear-cut directi of freedom.)
If they are interested in the probl If they understand and identify If they have the necessary know
If they have learned to expect have come to expect strong leac the request to share more fully experience. On the other har amount of freedom resent the bo:
3-A 08.107 (07/74)

There are some managers who seem to function directive leaders. Resolving problems and managers seem to operate more comfortably in haring many of their functions with their
certain situation.-The manager who releases thereby reduces the predictability of the eed than others for predictability and stability rambiguity is being viewed increasingly by manner of dealing with problems.
highly personal variables to each situation he in consciously or unconsciously, influence his act in a given way. And understanding this, ire effective. " |
group, the manager will also want to consider a 's' behaviour. He will want to remember that by many personality variables. In addition, about how the boss should act in relation to ne we hear more and more often these days at le better the manager understands these factors, kind of behaviour on his part will enable his
in permit his subordinates greater freedom if
vely high needs for independence. (As we all he amount of directions that they desire.)
ess to assume responsibility for decision making. ity as a tribute to their ability ; others see it as
tolerance for ambiguity. (Some employees ves given to them ; others prefer a wider area
em and feel that it is important, with the goals of the organization. ledge and experience to deal with the problem.
to share in decision making. (Persons who tership and are then suddenly confronted with in decision making are often upset by this new ld, persons who have enjoyed a considerable ss who begins to make all the decisions himself.)
27

Page 36
conditions do not exist ; at times there may b show’.
The restrictive effect of many of the f general feeling of confidence which Subord learned to respect and trust him he is free t he will not be perceived as an authoritaria decisions by himself. Similarly, he will no decision-making responsibility. In a clima tend to feel less threatened by deviations possible a higher degree of flexibility in th
Forces in the situation :
in addition to the forces which exist certain characteristics of the general situat Among the more critical environmental stem from the organization, the Work group time. Let us look briefly at each of these
Type of organization :
Like individuals organizations have V the behavior of the people who work in th company quickly discovers that certain kin not. He also discovers that to deviate rad to create problems for him.
These values and traditions are co descriptions policy pronouncements and publ tions, for example hold to the notion that t imaginative, decisive and persuasive. Othe importance of the executive's ability to Wor skills. The fact that his superiors have a should be will very likely push the manager range.
variables as the size of the working units, th inter and intra-organizational Security requ the wide geographical dispersion of an orga participative decision making, even though the size of the working units or the need for ki for the boss to exercise more control than w may limit considerably the manager's ability t
28

ake fuller use of his own authority if the above
e no realistic alternative to running a "one-man
orces will of course be greatly modified by the
inates have in the boss. Where they have
o vary his behavior. He will feel certain that n boss on those occasions when he makes t be seen as using staff meetings to avoid his te of mutual confidence and respect, people from normal practice, which in turn makes e whole relationship.
ion Will also affect the manager's behavior. ressures that Surround him are those which the nature of the problem, and the pressures of
alues and traditions which inevitably influence em. The manager Who is a newcomer to a ds of behavior are approved while others are ically from what is generally accepted is likely
mmunicated in numerous job ic statements by top executives. Some organizahe desirable executive is one who is dynamic, r organizations put more emphasis upon the k effectively with people-his human relations defined concept of what the good executive
toward one end or the other of the behavioral
藝
pf employee participation is influenced by such e geographical distribution, and the degree of red to attain company goals. For example, nization may preclude a practical system of this would otherwise be desirable. Similarly, 2eping plans confidential may make it necessary
ould otherwise be the case. Factors like these
o function flexibly on the continuum.

Page 37
Group effectiveness
Before turning decision-making res should consider how effectively its membe
One of the relevant factors here is together. It can generally be expected th will have developed habits of co-operati
effectively than a new group. It can also backgrounds and interests will work mor
backgrounds, because the communication
The degree of confidence that them a group is also a key consideration. Final veness, mutual acceptance, and common influence on the group's functioning.
The problem itself
The nature of the problem may delegated by the manager to his subordi they have the kind of knowledge which disservice by assigning a problem that exp
Since the problems faced in large o ledge of specialists from many different fit a problem, the more anxious a manager will this is not always the case. There will be calls for one person to work it out. For exa and factual data relevant to a given issue himes if than to take the time to fill in his st
The key question to ask, of course has the necessary knowledge to make to : problem" 2
The pressure of time
This is perhaps the most clearly fe that it may sometimes be imagined). Thi decision, the more difficuit it is to involve constant state of “crisis' and 'crash progra using a high gegree of authority with relati time pressure is less intense, however, subordinates in or the decision- making

ponsibility over to a subordinate group, the boss 's Work together as a unit.
the experience the group has had in working at a group which has functioned for some time on and thus be able to tackle a problem more
be expected that a group of people with similar a quickly and easily than people with dissimilar
problems are likely to be less complex.
embers have in their ability to Solve problems as y, such group Variables as cohesiveness, permissiality of purpose will exert subtle but powerful
determine what degree of authority should be
nates. Obviously he will ask himself whether is needed. It is possible to do them a real
erience does not equip them to handle.
r growing industries increasingly require know 2lds, it might be inferred that the more complex it be to get some assistance in solving it. However, times when the very complexity of the problem. Imple if the manager has most of the background 2, it may be easier for him to think it through affon all the pertinent background information
, is: " Have I heard the ideas of everyone who a significant contribution to the solution of this.
It pressure on the manager (in spite of the fact e more that he feels the need for an immediate other people. In organizations which are in a imming one is likely to find managers personally vely little delegation to subordinates, when the it becomes much more possible to bring
OCess
29.

Page 38
These, then are the principal forces instance and that tend to determine his tacti In each case his behaviour ideally will be th attainment of his immediate goal within the lin
LONG-RUN
As the manager WorkS With his organiz day, his choice of a leadership pattern is usu forces just described and within the restriction But as he looks ahead months or even years, he strategy. No longer need he be fettered by : many of them as variables over which he has insights or skills for himself, supply training participative experiences for his employee gro
In trying to bring about a change in challenging question . At which point along t
Attaining objectives
The answer depends largely on what that he is interested in the same objectives tha. they can shift their attention from the pressur To raise the level of employee To increase the readiness of St. To improve the quality of all To develop teamwork and mc To further the individual deve
In recent years the manager has been to achieve these longer run objectives. It is and annoyed. However there are some guidel decision.
Most research and much of the expe basis to the theory that a fairly high degree o with the accomplishment of the five purpos manager should always leave all decisions to the group with greater freedom than they ar. tend to generate anxieties and therefore inh desired objectives. But this should not ke effort to confront his subordinates with the ch
4. For example see Warren H.Schmidt and P (New London, Arthru C. Croft Publications 1954) and New York, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1953).
30

hat impinge on the manager in any given. a behavior in relation to his subordinates. it which makes possible the most effective its facing him.
STRATEGY
lation on the problems that come up day by ally limited. He must take account of the s they impose on him do the best that he can. ran shift his thinking from tactics to large-scale all of the forces mentioned, for he can view some control. He can, for example gain new for individual subordinates , and provide Jp.
these variables, however, he is faced with a he continunn should he act
he wants to accomplish. Let us suppose t most modern managers seek to attain when. e of immediate assignments:
motivation.
bordinates to accept change. managerial decisions.
prale.
slopment of employees.
deluged with a flow of advice on how best
ittle wonder that he is often both bewildered ines which he can usefully follow in making a
rience of recent years give a strong factula
f subordinate-centered behavior is associated es mentioned. This does not meañ that a his assistants. To provide the individual or e ready for at any given time may very well hibit rather than facilitate the attainment of :ep the manager from making a continuing allenge of freedom.
aul C. Buchanan, Techniques that Produce Teamwork. i Morris S. Viteles, Motivation and Morale in industry

Page 39
CONCIL
In summary there are two implicat developing. The first is that the successful forces which are most relevant to his bel understands himself, the individuals and grou broader, social environment in which he ope present readiness for growth of his subordinat
But this sensitivity or understanding i implication. The successful leader is one who of these perceptions. If direction is in order, tive freedom is called for, he is able to provid
Thus, the successful manager of men strong leader nor as a permissive one. Ratl average in accurately assessing the forces that ( at any given time should be and in actually be insightful and flexible, he is less likely to seeth
RETROSPECTIVE
Since this HBR Classic was first publi in organizations and in the world that have aff continued popularity attests to its essential val updated to reflect subsequent societal changes
The reasons for the article's continued
The article contains insights and clarify, the experiences of managers, other lea usefulto individualsina wide variety of organi religious, and community.
The concept of leadership the ai leadership behaviour(see Exhibit I in original a two styles of leadership, democratic or author
The concept does not dictate to own behavior. The continuum permits the of other alternatives, without any style being
(We have sometimes wondered if we ha justify his or her style of leadership. It mayl and giving the impression that all behavior is our intention. Indeed, the thrust or our endo in assessing relevant forces within himself, oth in responding to these forces).
4-A08.107 (07/74)

JSON
ons in the basic thesis that we have been leader is one who is keenly aware of those avior at any given time. He accurately p he is dealing with, and the company and ates. And certainly he is able to assess the
S.
not enough, which brings us to the second is able to behave appropriately in the light he is able to direct; if considerable participa
such freedom.
can be primarily characterized neither as a er, he is one who maintains a high batting letermine what his most appropriate behavior ing able to behave accordingly. Being both e problems of leadership as a dilemma. -
COMMENTARY
shed in 1958, there have been many changes acted leadership patterns. While the article's lidity, we believe it can be reconsidered and and new management concepts.
relevance can be summarized briefly.
perspectives which mesh well with, and help lders and students of leadership. Thus it is zations-industrial, governmental, educational
ticle defines is reflected in a continuum of rticle). Rather than offering a choice between itarian, it sanctions a range of behavior.
managers but helps them to analyze their n to review their behavior within a context
labeled right or wrong.
ve, perhaps, made it too easy for anyone to be a small step between being nonjudgmental :qually valid and useful. The latter was not rsement was for the manger who is insightful 2rs, and the situation, and who can be flexible
31

Page 40
In recognizing that our article can be tions do not exist in a vacuum but are affecte for example, the implications for organizatio
O The youth revolution that expres tions identified with the establishment.
O The civil rights movement that d opportunity for participation and influence in
O The ecology and consumer move make decisions without considering the intere
O The increasing national concern V ship to worker productivity, participation, a
These and other societal changes make ( challenging task, requiring even greater sens 1950's. Today's manager is more likely to de; subordinates, who may be highly critical of consulted and to exert influence, and who of institution that needs their loyalty and commi ted by a highly turbulent, unpredictable envirc
In response to these social pressures in organizations. Open-system theory, with and on the interaction of an organization with O11 managers' approach to problems. Orga behavioral science approach to the improv and inter-organizational performance. New motivation in the work situation. More a with social responsibility and have explored t number of organizations, in Europe and in th in industrial democracy.
In light of these developments, we sub rewrite certain points in our original article.
The article described forces in the man with the leadership pattern a resultant of th tion to the interdependency of these forces. in : (a) the interplay between the manager's co assume responsibility, and the level of grou behavior of the manager on that of his subor
In discussing the forces in the situa phenomena. We would now include force explore the relevant interdependencies betwe
32

pdated, we are acknowledging that organiza| by changes that occur in Society. Consider, ls of these recent social developments:
es distrust and even contempt for organiza
'mands all minority groups be given a greater the organizational processes.
ments that challenge the right of managers to st of people outside the organization.
ith the quality of working life and its relationnd satisfaction.
ffective leadership in this decade a more itivity and flexibility than was needed in the Ll with employees who resent being treated as any organizational system, who expect to be ten stand on the edge of alienation from the tment. In addition, he is frequently confron)nment. ܒܠ
new concepts of management have emerged its emphasis on subsystems' interdependency its environment, has made a powerful impact nization development has emerged as a new ement of individual, group, organizational,
research has added to our understanding of ind more executives have become concerned he feasibility of social audits. And a growing e United States, have conducted experiments
mit the following thoughts on how we would
ager, subordinates, and the situation ås given se forces. We would now give more atten
For example, such interdependency occurs nfidence in his subordinates, their readiness to p effectiveness; and (b) the impact of the inates, and vice versa.
ion, We primarily identified organizational lying outside the organization and would in the organization and its environment.

Page 41
In the original article, we presented til with its boundaries already determined by e would now recognize the possibility of the initiative to change those boundaries throug both within their own organization and in th
The article portrayed the manager as initiated and determined group functions, a Subordinates made inputs and assumed pow
the manager might have taken into account
where to operate on the continuum-that is, to sell his idea to his subordinates, whether an issue, and so on. While the manager organizations, it has been challenged in othe it, however, the balance in the relationship given time is arrived at by interaction—di
Although power and its use by the n realize that our concern with cooperation an trust, and mutual caring limited our vision w not attempt to deal with unions, other forn workers' expressions or resistance. Today, wi available to all parties, and the factors that to use it.
In the original article, we used the are now uncomfortable with “subordinate connotations and prefer“ nonmanager'. Th the terminological difference functional rath
We assumed fairly traditional struct alter our formulation to reflect newer orga1 such as industrial democracy, international new modes are based on observations such a
O Both manager and nonmangers environment, contributing to the definition c
O A group can function without shared by group members.
O A group as a unit can be deleg within a larger organizational context.
Our thoughts on the question of le behavior continuum (see Exhibit II) in whicl and nonmanagers is constantly redefined by the environment.

le size of the rectangle in Exhibit I as a given, Xternal forces-in effect a closed system. We manager and/or his subordinates taking the h interaction with relevant external forcese larger Society.
he principal and almost unilateral actor. He ssumed responsibility, and exercised control. ær only at the will of the manager. Although forces outside himself, it was he who decided whether to announce a decision instead of trying o invite questions, to let subordinates decide has retained this clear prerogative in many rs. Even in situations where he has retained between manager and subordinates at any rect or indirect—between the two parties.
hanager played a role in our article, we now d collaboration, common goals, commitment, lith respect to the realities of power. We did ns of joint worker action, or with individual would recognize much more clearly the power underlie the interrelated decisions on whether
terms “manager' and “subordinate'. We because of its demeaning, dependency-laden e titles “manager' and "nonmanager' make er than hierarchical.
res in our original article. Now we would nizational modes which are slowly emerging, communities, and “phenomenarchy'. These s the following :-
may be governing forces in their group's f the total area of freedom.
a manager with managerial functions being
ted authority and can assume responsibility
ldership hav prompted us to design a new the total area of freedom shared by manager interactions between them and the forces in
33

Page 42
The arrows in the exhibit indicate the among systems and people. The points on th and nonmanager behavior that become possibl to each. The new continuum is both more version, reflecting the organizational and socie
Exhibit I. Continuum of leadership behavior.
Boss-centered leadership a
Use of authority
--a-
by the manager
。个 th Manager Manager Manager Manag makes sellso presents. present decision decision. ideas and, tentativ and învites decisio a 111201îin C€S questions. subject st - - - - - - change,
34

continual flow of interdependent influence e continuum designate the types of manager 2 with any given amount of freedom available complex and more dynamic than the 1958
tal realities of 1973.
Subordina keskeca tered leadership ജ്ഞ>
Area of freedom for subordinates
Manager Manage Manager s presents defines permits re problem, limits, subordinates h gets A. asks group to function tC} suggestions, to make within limits
makes decision, defined by decision. - - - - . لـ supe gior.

Page 43
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35

Page 44
Agricultural Plan
A major task of development in the the development of the agricultural sector its considered as so important, especially by tho: zation to stimulate the self-sustaining process and unambiguous. In the attempt to enjoy countries, the development gap to be filled in It however, varies with each under-developed developed country that is taken for compari comparing the per capita incomes of a few c table 1). But the position revealed from this of the magnitude of their development proble rates between 2.0 and 2.9 per cent (see table . to the problem. Thus, the development effor of improving the present consumption levels same facilities for the annually increasing nu activity in the under-developed countries is goods and services have to be provided at of population increase so that both the impri meeting the needs of the increasing numbers protracted period of development that frustra development and planning. The solution lie goods and services needed to attain the succ The strategy of development therefore, lies ir sectors which contribute to the attainment resource allocation also have to be decided u
The types of goods and services need development depend on the prevailing conditio. developed countries, the prevailing economic a.
36

ling-A Priority
J. M. GUNADASA
under-developed countries like Sri Lanka is :lf. It may be wondered as to why this is
e who advocate a rapid pace of industriali
of development. The rationale here is clear the living standards of the more developed the under-developed countries is sizeable. country and the level of living of the more on. Some idea of it could be formed by ountries falling within the two groups (see comparison is at best an under-estimation m. Rapid population increase with annual 2) and gradually decreasing death rates add t in the under-developed countries consists which are very low and also providing the imbers. The prevailing level of economic nadequate to cope with this need. More a rate of growth that outpaces the rate vement of the existing levels of living and
can be attained without going through a es a nation to be cynical towards efforts at s in the acceleration of the production of 'ssive stages of growth and development.
the identification and promotion of those if the above objective. The priorities of on accordingly.
d to prepare for the successive stages of s of an economy. In almost all the under
d social conditions are more or less similar.

Page 45
TTabl
PER CAPITA GROSS NATIONAL, INCOME UNDER-DEVELOPED AN
(in U.S
Country
Under-developed
Kenya up Malawi Morocco Arjentina Bolivia
擎 Colombia
Ceylon China (Taiwan) India Burma Indonesia Pakistan Average for under-developed 1
economies
Developed
United States United Kingdom Germany, Fed. Rep. of France - Australia
Japan - - Average for the developed
economies
* Source : United Nations, Stat
The general levels of living are very low as of the people live in rural areas as agricultu lower than the average levels of living indi symptoms of this low levels of living are u illiteracy. The immediate cause of the low low due to several reasons. Given agricu depends on the productivity and the size Due to rapid population increase over the whose agricultural dominance is little chal cultural sector decreased at an astonish inheritance resulted in land fragmentatio traditional. It is based on the use of hi. being less productive due to the reasons technology land sub-division results in pro

e重亭
AT FACTOR COST IN 1969 OF SELECTED D DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
... dollars)
1958 1969
69 . . 116 e - 34 . . 56 158 . . 186 489 . . 682 81 .. 167
é a 189 . . 299 s & 118 . . 137 s 151. . . 270
诊 ● 64 . . 73 (1968)
ü @ 53 . . 67 (1968)
s. 82 . . 86 (1968)
62 . . 131. market
110 . . 150 (1966)
2,115 ... 3,814
1,013 ... 1,513
790 ... 1,910
u o 853 . . 2,106 ... 1,120 ... 1,991 (1968)
290 ... 1,288
market
1,070 . . 2,030 (1968)
istical Year Book 1970, pp.597-601.
may be observed from the table 1. A majority rists (see table 3) and their levels of living are cated by the national per capita incomes. The inder-nourishment, malnutrition, ill-health and levels of living is the low income. Incomes are lture as the main source of income, the latter of land holdings of the individual cultivators. past half century within an economic structure nged (see table 4) landsman ratio in the agriing pace. Cultural factors like the laws of n. The technology of production is mostly gher land input for higher incomes. Labour
stated above, therefore, with a traditional gressively deteriorating peasant incomes. This
37

Page 46
Tab
ANNUAL RATE OF POPULATION INCRE UNDER-DEVELOPED ANI
Country
Under-developed
Kenya
Malawi
Morocco
Arjentina
Bolivia Colombia
Ceylon China (Taiwan) India
Burma
Indonesia
Pakistan
Developed
United States United Kingdom Germany, Fed. Rep. of France
Australia
Japan
* Soure: United Nations, Statistical Year Boo
perpetuates and Worsens the ills of the pea developed economies also have an urban sec a commercialized sub-sector of primary pro plantation agriculture. In these sectors th percentage of the total population.
The national development objective this situation should be the improvement of the peasant cultivators. For this more atte agricultural sector itself. As Mellor points sector is contributory to the entire developm to much of conventional thinking, this deve developed countries like Sri Lanka cannot b
38

2*
SE BETWEEN 1963 AND 1969 IN SELECTED DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Annual percentage
29
29
29
15
26
32
24
28
25
22
25
21
12
O'6
1:0
O'9
20
11
k 1970, pp. 80-86.
sant communities. In contrast the under
or with emerging infant industries and also iuction consisting of mining, forestry and : incomes are high and enjoyed by a small
f the under-developed countries placed in he living standards of the large majority of tion is needed for the development of the out, the development of the agricultural nt process in several ways. But contrary opment especially in the context of underinterpreted as a simple task of producing

Page 47
Table
PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION IN AGRI DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPED C.
Country
Under-developed
Arjentina
Bolivia
Colombia
Ceylon
Burma
China (Taiwan)
India
Indonesia
Pakistan
Kenya
Malawi
Morocco
Developed
United States
United Kingdom Germany, Fed. Rep. of
France
Australia
Japan
* Source : UN/FAO, Production Year Book 19.
surpluses in the agricultural sector to me notwithstanding the plight of the agruculturi western societies where individual cultivato regard farmingas a commercial enterprise, agri
of the rural farmers themselves. Increased o to be utilized firstly for the improvement c beneficial effects. 5 With better food, improv nourished, disease-ridden and illiterate farmla the farmers are convinced that opportunities their own labour they begin to respond read to increase farm production. This also leads of problems in agricultural production ; the humanely and realistically. The minority of enjoy living standards which are comparable

*
ULTURE IN SOME SELECTED UNDERDUNTRIES (As ESTIMATED FOR (1965)
percentage
20
63
50
55
62
47
70
67
74
84
80
55
16
e 10
s is 24
70, vol. 24, pp. 21-24.
et the demand elsewhere in the economy sts in the rural areas.4. Unlike some of the rs produce at levels above subsistence and cultural development in the under-developed involves improvement of the living conditions utput in the agricultural sector, thus, has if the farming community. It has several 2d health facilities and education, the underbour can be made more productive. When are provided for them to enjoy the fruits of ily to programmes of development designed to a change of attitude towards the solution cultivator problems tend to be viewed more people in the non-agricultural Sectors already with those of the more developed countries.
39

Page 48
Tab
Industrial Origin of Gross Domestic Production Under-develo
(Percentage distribution for 1968)
Country I 2
Under-developed
Kenya - - - 35 . . 14 Malawi - 35 . . 10 Morocco ao an a 35 . . 21. Arjentina .. 36 .. 14 ܡܸ ܦ Bolivia - - 19 . . 30 Colombia .. a 31. . . 21 Burma - ... 34 . . 10 Ceylon - - a 39 . . 12 China (Taiwan) ... 23 ... 27 India - - in a 52 . . 15 Indonesia . . e e 52 . . 13 Pakistan a 46 . . 12
Developed
United States 3 32 United Kingdom 3 47 Germany, Fed. Rep. of 4 44 France 7 38 Australia 9 34 Japan 10 31
(1) Agriculture ; (2) Total industrial activity; cation ; (5) Wholesale and retail trade; (6) Ot ownership of dwellings, public administration and defe
* Source : United Nations, Year Book of Na tables, pp.67-112,
Therefore, supposing that in keeping improve the living standards of the vast ma income levels begin to rise. Assuming that effect of this is an increase of effective demand already used by them without satisfying the ( low quality food items like grains, yams and and minimum medical and educational needs further rises of income gradually change the clothing, luxury consumer durables, and bet
If by increasing the income level what c income this may be easily attained. But the goods and services asked for in exchange are problem of improving the living conditions oft
40

4*
at Factor Cost in Some Selected Developed and ed Countries
3. 4. 5 6
5 8 ... 10 . . 27 5 5 9 . . 37 5 --- 21 .. 8 6 10 13 ... 21. 7 8 10 . . 26 5 7 14 . , 23 2 7 29 ... 17 (1967) 6 9 12 . . 21. 5 6 13 . . 26 4. 4. 10 ... 15 (1967) 2 2 18 . , 13 5 7 12 ... 18
5 6 16 ... 39 7 8 11 .. 33 7 6 13 . . 26 10 5 11 . . 23
8 8 15 ... 26 (1967) 8 ... 8 17 ". 26
(3) Construction; (4) Transport and Communi
hers (comprising banking, insurance and real estate,
nce and personal and other services).
tional Accounts Statistics 1969, vol. II, International,
with this objective, measures are adopted to jority of the peasant cultivators, then their the prices remain unaffected, the immediate for the types of consumption goods that are xisting needs fully. These are normally the vegetables, cheap clothing, low cost housing 7 Once these basic needs are fully satisfied attern of demand for high quality food and er medical and educational facilities.
he means is an increase of the level of money rise of money income is meaningless if the not available. Therefore, the solution of the le peasant cultivators in the under-developed

Page 49
countries lies firstly in the production of thc with the gradual improvement of their inco are the agricultural products that ale alrea supply. Due to their being caught in a vicio cultivators themselves cannot intensify thei between the prevailing low production and
proceed further to satisfy new needs and des but take priority at a later stage of developm to private initiative. It is less abundant, relu and also incapable of meeting the social nee accepted that governments must take the in under-developed countries. This means tha that mare investment and more production t
Presently, in many under-developed co gap between the need and the level of peasa with the imports made possible by the foreign Therefore, it may be surprising or ever laid on investment and production in this st and production its foreign earnings decreas probable due to adverse plice fluctuations fo When the foreign earnings deteriorate, the i. of living in the peasant sector deteriorate toc be slowed down due to shortage of capital c1 the chain of events if nothing is done regard sector. But when action is taken to make i the production of those goods which are in of its import requirements disappears. Th especially when the development of peasant use of foreign earnings. When this strategy the more vulnerable commercial sector doe better security and resistance against the ac commodities and their price fluctuations. the peasant agricultural Sector is urgently ne
Despite this position many under-dev number of years with the mistaken notion th to industrialization and the related expan seem to have been impressed by the presents economies without ever observing the sequ initial stages manifested characteristics simila economies. 9 Perhaps one may contend t developed countries it is foolhardy to follov available. This is truly a wise approach i nation one wants to reach. Apparently, th

se goods that would be demanded by them mes. As referred to earlier, most of them dy produced by the peasants, but in short is circle of adverse circumstances, the peasant r production effort firstly, to close the gap the satisfying level of need and secondly, to ires which may be secondary or tertiary now ent. It is not possible to leave this challenge Ictant to make the type of investment needed ds effectively. This is why it is undebatably litiative in the economic development of the at, it is in the sector of peasant agriculture hrough government initiative are necessary.
untries including Sri Lanka, the consumption nt production is filled at least to some extent exchange earnings of the commercial sectors. amusing to hear of no emphasis being actor ; because without increased investment se. The likelihood of this decrease is more r these primary products in the world market. mports have to be cut down ; then the levels ) and the investment activity in general has to reated by low foreign earnings. This surely is ing investment and production in the peasant nvestment in the peasant sector and intensify short supply there, the need for a major part us, there will be saving of foreign earnings agriculture is so adjusted as to minimize the is followed the need for further expansion of is not arise. The strategy instead builds up iverse effects of dependence on a few export Therefore, resource mobilization to develop eded in the under-developed countries.
reloped countries have been labouring over a at top priority of development must be given sion of the non-agricultural sector. 8 They tructural characteristics of the more developed ence of their development which also at the ar to those of the present day under-developed hat knowing the path trodden by the more w the same lengthy track when short cuts are f short cuts envisaged take one to the desti. e under-developed countries have believed so
4.

Page 50
So much so, most of the investments have agricultural sectors. Even the savings gene to the expansion of the other sectors. Th prospects of employment opportunities in
drab monotonous and poorly rewarding hard It also gives the hallucination that there is through the setting up of factories and indus better facilities and amenities. But in fact t is so realized already by many under-devel
The futility of this approach must be e strategy is followed for some time. No do from the agricultural sector, the industries 1 begins to expand. This expansion makes dem: also. The most important of them is invaria drawn from the agricultural sector with a productivity of labour there is zero.10 Now their income level rises more than that in the also changes both along with the changed in industrial and urban community. Assumin either through imports or from some tentati also start producing goods which to start w domestic market mainly constituted of an a industrialization to proceed non-stop, indus at the break-even point. This however, is no
The output turned out by the expand domestic market as the effective demand for due to low incomes of large numbers of peas population are still living and producing at It is more likely that their conditions have bi savings found in the agricultural secto1 are di left over for any development within the secto factor of production next to land under this elsewhere. The higher income incentive in t of even more productive labour from the agricultural production. With the typically the agricultural sector is also left with an und more for consumption than contributing to people who tend to be left behind in the agri labour force. The net result therefore, is agriculturists themselves begin to feel foods even the former levels of subsistence. This to ill-health affecting productivity in turn. items of food and even intermediate inputs expanding non-agricultural sector. This di
42

been made in the industrial and other nonated in the agricultural sector were diverted e idea has a popular appeal; because the he non-agricultural sector cut-off from the labour in the countryside, are more attractive. going to be quick attainment of prosperity trial plants promoting more urban life with is strategy has been a misleading one and it oped countries.
kamined in relation to what happens when the ubt with the investment of savings diverted may come up and the non-agricultural sector unds not only on capital but on other resources bly bound to be labour. This also would be other misleading notion that the marginal the non-agricultural labour force increases : agricultural sector. Pattern of consumption comes as well as the new way of life in the g that the intermediate inputs are available ve local sources of supply, the new industries ith in any case are essentially meant for the gricultural population. For this process of trial production must be maintained at least it possible as envisaged by the strategy.
ing industries does not have the anticipated them in the agricultural Sector is negligible ants. They who form a major section of the the same or even worse levels of subsistence. 2come worse than they were as even the little verted to the other sectors ; there is no capital r itself. Labour which is the most important system is also withdrawn and now employed he industrial sector promotes the withdrawal gricultural sector. This further affects the high birth rates and decreasing death rates, 'sirable composition of population demanding
production. Young ones, women and old cultural Sector do not constitute a productive a neglect of agricultural production. The hortages and may find it difficult to maintain makes them further physically weak leading
In the meantime, the demand for various of agrucultural origin begins to rise in the :mand has to be satisfied with production

Page 51
in the agricultural sector itself. If not i expect agricultural supplies of food and ra it cannot meet its own bare minimum requ
It may be imagined as to why the fo of industries cannot be imported and the inc situation deteriorates. This is only a theor remote at least at the initial stages of ind and a solution has to be found urgently. country are unable to enter into successf industries of the more developed countries many of these external markets in the unde identical problem if the same strategy of d a different strategy is followed such count by various policy measures like high tariff In either situation dependence on foreig food and raw material shortage bids prices leave most of the industrial output unsolic short-cut approach to development by me; at once, comes to a grinding halt leaving r The strategy of the expansion of the nonof the agricultural sector without first pro be considered as a road to ruin than de already worse-off peasant cultivators only t elite and industrialists better-off 11.
On the contrary, the position would the agricultural sector, along with other (
tions necessary for agricultural diversific: expansion could be planned and phased ou agricultural sector. It creates a state of su Sectors in an under-developed economy. also most urgently needed in respect of the
But how Should one set about tra making more investment in the peasant : make the optimum use of the available re benefits. A prerequisite of this is the ic yield such maximum social benefits on gi identification of a number of discreet invest production in the peasant sector. Thei unless one familiarizes oneself with the coi economy with a view to understanding th intended or already proposed course of pl:

nports become necessary. It is a fantasy to materials from the agricultural sector when rementS.
d requirements of labour and the other inputs ustrial products be exported when the domestic tical alternative ; its practicability is extremely 1strual expansion when the problem develops Firstly, the infant industries of any developing competition with the already established especially in the external markets. Secondly, r-developed countries would be faced with the evelopment referred to above is followed. If lies may protect their own domestic markets parriers or even total ban of foreign products. markets becomes problematic. Ultimately,
and wages up. Poverty among agriculturists l. Thus, after an initial spurt of activity the ans of the strategy of industrial expansion all uins both in agriculture as well as in industry. agricultural sector by harnessing the resources viding for its own development therefore, can velopment. It leads to the exploitation of the o make a few already fortunate urban dwellers,
have been different if the savings generated in
apital, are invested in the agricultural sector ent opportunities, income levels and the condi|tion and surplus generation. The industrial t to match the rate of progress planned for the stainable mutual dependence between the two This sort of approach is more practicable and
peasant Sub-sector.
islating this strategy into action ? It calls for gricultural sector, not indiscriminately but to Sources ; i.e., to produce the maximum social entification of the investment projects which ten investments. For this the first step is the ment projects that lead to increased agricultural
identification in realistic terms is not possible ditions of agricultural production in a peasant 2 bottlenecks of development in relation to an nned action.
43

Page 52
Cultivators under subsistence agricultu satisficers than as profit maximizers. Their v again by the traditional Way of life. Simila these characteristics are further enhanced b communication, urbanization and also very communities, again the characteristics of t result of all these interrelated factors is the ad only the day to day Subsistence requirements a for special occasions and emergencies dependi of this nature, the level of subsistence is performance. In the usually small peasanth of a traditional technology, is so Small that ve family to go round till the next harvest. W. subsistence deteriorates further and the land ho remain more or less unchanged. Damages vagaries of weather render the position of the highly uncertain economic environment. usually found in such communities make the pe and debilitating diseases. Loss to agricultura the family labour is the most important input c falling sick during a cultivation season can caus
Quite naturally in this state of agricult of the peasant cultivators is very low. Their uncertainty so characteristic of their agricultu farmers who also may happen to be cultural are compelled to make their production decisi long as this position prevails prospects for development proceeds, once the basic needs of becomes necessary both to introduce the peasa the requirements of the expanding non-agricul long as the peasants continue to make their prc this disposition all decisions are made to produ subsistence by incurring the least risk. But i be made to behave as profit maximizers. Prof production as long as they make profits to the living conditions to the cultivators and greater in the economy.
A question that arises at this stage is tha in the planned development of the under-devel this sector be directly undertaken and organi instead of leaving to the individual cultivat unlike industrial production, is dependent on generally accepted that decision making in the centralized to the degree that is achievable in i
44

e make their production decisions more as ants in life are a few and usually determined ly, production for trade is limited. Both the poor development of transport and low levels of literacy among the peasant e very state of under-development. The ustment of agricultural production to meet d perhaps some surpluses to make provision g on the possibility of storage. In a set-up irectly dependent on the seasonal yield ldings the amount produced, with the use ry often it is hardly sufficient for a peasant en the family grows bigger the level of ding as well as the technology of production and yield fluctuations resulting from the peasants extremely shaky. They live in a he under-nourishment and malnutrition asant families more susceptible to ill-health l production fi om this cause is no small as if production next to land. A householder e untold hardships to the entire family.
ural production the risk absorbing capacity ambitions are suppressed by the fears of ural life. Therefore, except for a few rich ly more advanced, the peasants in general ons as satisficers and risk minimizers. As levelopment also remain rather dim. As the peasants are satisfied, Surplus generation hts to new levels of living as well as to meet tural sectors. This cannot be achieved as duction decisions as satisficers ; because in ce only that amount sufficient for their own In planned development the peasants must it motive makes them continue and expand
maximum possible. This provides better surpluses to those who need them elsewhere
, if agricultural production is so important ped economies why can't the production in (ed by some responsible central authority irs themselves 2 Agricultural production, nature to a very great extent. Thus, it is field of agricultural production cannot be hdustrial production. Referring to Indian

Page 53
planning Gadgil says that, "in the field of a play.'14. This is particularly so in relation to 1 agricultural sector consists of a large number production under a multiplicity of varied phy satisfactory decision making by a central aut understanding of this complex background C be considered more as optimistic that realisti production has to be left either to the individ Cultivation Committees and the newly set u Lanka, constituted of cultivators familiar wil to fall back on the cultivators themselves.
How then should the peasant cultiva so that they make their production decisions: dimensional approach. The technology use Efficiency in production could be greatly im increased production. 15 To adapt and dev Contrary to the beliefs and speculations of in the under-developed countries are found to do play a significant role. However, they ancillary services like transport, marketing cultivators are unable to provide by themsel always accompanied by new knowledge anc obtainable, their adoption and use cannot b peasant cultivators do not have sufficient cap ease off their helplessness. Traditional lan the scattering of holdings lead to inefficiency: production. Then suitable forms of land r are two dominant barriers which keep the pe regarding opportunities of production, mark them extension programmes consisting of far Despite all these, still the peasant cultivators m patterns of production due to their low risk the production environment, viz., weather. technological innovations, use of new inputs risks now not only begin to play a very impor and they are no lessin magnitude than those w as satisficers. Thus when the peasant cultiv mizers the risks of production they face are f to them is that now they face a set of quite economic position. It is no wonder then th way of agricultural life where production d level of output with a minimum of risk, viewth as totally unacceptable. Countering this res of insurance schemes and the holding of buff
 

riculture the centre has only a limited role to he less developed countries where the peasant of small scale producers engaged in atomistic sical, economic and social conditions. More ority presupposes a thorough knowledge and fagricultural production. This may have to
Therefore, decision making in agricultural ual cultivators or local organizations like the Agricultural Productivity Committees of Sri h the local conditions ; there is no choice but
tors be made to behave as profit maximizers also accordingly ? The solution lies in a multid in peasant agriculture is mostly primitive. proved by the use of techniques conducive to slop them research programmes are needed. armchair philosophising, peasant cultivators respond to price incentives. Price incentives are of little effect if, there are no satisfactory and irrigation facilities which the individual ves. The use of a new technology is almost | also new inputs. Unless these are readily be expedited as desired. To adopt them the bital; provision of credit can go a long way to d tenure systems and fragmentation causing as well as the under-utilization of full capacity eforms are needed. Illiteracy and isolation :asant cultivators unaware of the information ceting, prices and technology. To overcome mer education and demonstration are needed. ay be hesitant to deviate from their traditional absorbing capacities and the uncertainties of Trade, transport and communication, prices, and availability of the requisite information tant role but each one of them involves certain then the cultivators make production decisions ators are expected to behave as profit maxiurther aggravated. What is more distressing infamiliar risks but with the same vulnerable at peasants who are already used to a certain ecisions are made to obtain some satisfying e requirements of profit maximizing behaviour istance needs careful planning ; the provision 2r stocks and bigger reserves of food are some
45,

Page 54
possible devices 17. Gittinger refers to the policy measures in more details 18.
However, an aspect that has receive deserves particular reference. Despite the ac tural development in the peasant sector ultim building. The significance of this becomes disorganized professional group in the unde handicaps of illiteracy and low incomes. social groups even at the local and district le ingly this situation leads to the exploitation by more affluent social groups which invariab various forms of organizations and institution the adoption of measures for the developm peasants also show the approval of such leade affluent social figures who take in such positic of security against possible threats of this nat to following the leadership of a more depend person however may not be easily identifiable attempt to appear as a prominent social fig stated that it is by building and energizing c genuine leaders that much could be attained in Sector.
46

overwhelming importance of these various
only inadequate attention till recent times option of measures referred to earlier agricultely has to be regarded as a task of institution lear when the peasants are seen as the most -developed economies with all the attendant Hence their bargaining power over different els is quite weak. Knowingly or unknowof the peasant cultivators to a certain degree ly tend to provide leadership to the farmer as is are being created and promoted along with 2nt of the peasant sector. Superficially the rship, as they are helpless in the face of more ins of leadership. But given the opportunity ure the peasant cultivators are more disposed able person from among themselves. Such a by an outsider as he usually does not make an ure. In conclusion, therefore, it should be f the village level institutions around such the agricultural development of the peasant

Page 55
Refer
1. Rossi-Doria remarks that, “the take-off of increase and improvement of agricultural production.) with respect to choice of industrial sectors, size and lo partially be in relation to agriculture and its developr Structure for Regional Planning', Regional Economi Areas. ed. by Walter Isard and John H. Cumberland tion for European Economic Co-operation, 1961), p.
2. This makes an implicit reference to the cont In respect of Sri Lanka, Farmer says that this sc especially in the wet zone areas due to the over This is particularly so in the coconut cultivated are Some Problems of a Plural Society , Essays in (London, Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1968), pp. 147-159. F see, J. H. Boeke et. al. Indonesian Economics :: the Hague, 1961) ; also see A.N. Agarwala & S.P. Si (Oxford University Press, 1969), pp. 289-313.
3. Herman H. Southworth and Bruce F. Johl (New York, Cornell University Press, 1967), pp. 24
4. Times Literary Supplement, 19th Decembe
5. As a usual practice in the under-developec consumption as of lesser value than saving and inves valued above those of immediate consumption. But vincing; see Michael Lipton, 'Yield Saving Debate Planning at the IDS, University of Sussex, 15th Novem
6. Viner believes that when the effectiveness development would readily follow. Although this vic fact its importance is recognized though with reserva nomic Development (Glenco, Illinois, 1952), p. 131; a Agriculture in Economic Development, The Amer footnote 2.
7. Income elasticity of demand for food in while in the high income countries it is 0.2 or 0.3. Th the under-developed countries can be expected to fol p. 572.
8. Perhaps this may be due to the misconstr the role of the agricultural sector towards the devel W. Mellor, The Economics of Agricultural Developmer
9. See Benjamin Higgins, Principles, Proble Constable and Company Ltd., 1968). pp. 188-206.
10. “The available evidence suggests that in 1 positive marginal product from additional incremen John W. Mellor, “The Use and Productivity of Far Development, Journal of Farm Economics, vol. xlv. Traditional Agriculture (Yale University Press, 1964),
 

CeS
conomic development may take place largely through ven planning for industrial development—especially ation of plants and planning overtime-must at least ent.’ see M. Rossi-Doria, "Analysis of Agricultural planning : Techniques of Analysis for Less Developed Paris, European Productivity Agency of the Organiza239.
ept of dual economy in the under-developed countries. rt of economic duality is not so clearly marked apping between the peasant and export sectors. is in the wet zone ; see B.H. Farmer, Ceylon :
Political Geography, ed. by Charles A. Fisher or more details regarding the concept of dual economy
Theory of Dualism in Theory and Practice (The ngh, Accelerating investment in Developing Economies
ston, Agricultural Development and Economic Growth 26.
ar, 1968.
| countries there is a tendency to treat all immediate tment. Thus, reinvestment benefits of a project are this practice though looks rational is not quite con, Paper read at the Seminar on Project Evaluation and berto 19th December, 1970.
of labour is improved in this manner rapid economic w is contested by others it is not totally rejected. In tions ; see Jacob Viner, International Trade and Ecolso Bruce F. Johnston & John W. Mellor, “ Role of can Economic Review, vol. 51, no 4. (1961), p. 568,
ow income countries is estimated to be 0.6 or more e change of demand in the rural and urban sectors of ow a similar trend; see Johnston & Mellor,. op cit.,
led and indiscriminate application of ideas regarding pment and expansion of the other sectors ; see John t (Cornell University Press, 1966), pp. 4-5.
ns and Policies of Economic Development (London,
host densely populated low income countries there is a s of labour applied to agricultural production. ; see Family Labour in Early Stages of Agricultural no 3. (1963), p. 532. Also T. W. Schultz, Transforming ?p. 53-70.
47

Page 56
11. Paul Streeten and Michael Lipton, The Press, 1968), pp. 83-147.
12. Peter O. Steiner, “ Choosing Among A Field'. The American Economic Review (1959), pp
13. See Michael Lipton “The Theory of til Studies, vol. iv, no.3 (1968), pp. 327-351. Also J. V Annals of the Association of American Geographers,
14. D. R. Gadgil, Planning and Economic P
15. Mellor states that " the constraints on major task of agricultural development must be ol change. These are almost by definition primarily task Planning; “The Relation between Agriculture and Growth, Cornell International Development, Mim
16. One example is the response of the cu of potatoes in Sri Lanka when the potato prices ros are observable in the cultivation of other crops like (
17. Streeten and Lipton, op.cit., p. 14.
18. J. Price Gittinger, The Literature of Agt National Planning Association, 1966), pp. 1759.
48

Crisis of Indian Planning (London, Oxford University
ternative Public Investments in the Water Resources,
893-916.
e Optimizing Peasant.' The Journal of Development 'olpert, "The Decision Process in a Spatial Context', ol. 54 (1964), pp. 537-558.
licy in India (London, Asia Publishing House, 1961)
the means of developing agriculture provide that the e of creating and diffusing processes of technological s of institution building.” See John W. Mellor, National Economic Development in the Context of Population ograph-29.
tivators to change over increasingly to the cultivation
e up subsequent to the ban of imports. Similar trends hillies and onions too.
icultural Planning (Centre for Development Planning.

Page 57
Peasant Colonization in t An Analysis of the Prese and Suggestions
PART)
莓
The Dry Zone of Ceylon is a natur: Theoretically, P. G. Cooray's definition of the , below wilting point for at least two months in of the area. Although there is a marked int. based on the differences of rainfall, this is no
Of all the natural regions of this island, t
of Kingdoms, this region became generally de the British administration large parts of these Crown as a result of legislation enacted during once prosperous areas started gradually when heard in the political areas of the country. Pla years of this century. The need for colonizati
(1) To give back to the peasants
property.
(2) To ease the increasing pressure
country and the concern oft
(3) The concern for the peasantry : for its own sake as a “ pro multitude of peasant propri
(4) The constitutional changes v Constitution of 1931 brol time Ceylonese ministers bec, and thus a new sympathy f peasantry was brought to b policy and culminated in 1927-29.

e Dry Zone of Ceylon: nt Patterns. Problems for the Future
S. GUNARATNAM
1 region, geographically and otherwise. one as the area where soil moisture falls the average year, is a fair description rnal differentiation within the Dry Zone
differentiated in this study.
his Zone is the richest in human associations. Ceylon. After witnessing the rise and fall solate and neglected. With the advent of depopulated areas became property of the g this period. The idea of populating these the voice of the Ceylonese people became inned colonization started within the last 40 on could be briefly listed as follows :
the land that were taken over as Crown
of population on the land of the South West he rising population to be redistributed.
is a social institution worthy of preservation sperous, self-supporting and self-respecting
thich culminated in the “ Donoughmore ight new forces into action. For the first me responsible for government departments or the amelioration of the conditions of the ear. These actions crystallised as the land the Report of the Land Commission of
rezone in Ceylon'.
49

Page 58
(5) The legislators and public economic and social pri ܧ ܐ significance of the con growth, food supplies a brought home with trag
(6) The application of D. D.
environmental condition no mere coincidence tha became evident in the ye
(7) The passing of the Land D
appointment of a Land
There are at present 95 peasant col and 339,731 acres under cultivation (Land
The wet season in the Dry Zone ci November to January. The winds and th particular, are apt occassionally to arrive annual rainfall falls in the three North-Eas and as much as 60 per cent. in Jaffna. In the and September), there may be rains due to tions, but at most places these rains are va. a phenomenon to be reckoned with in any two years heavy rainfall may so inflate the very exaggerated impression of the rain) peasants difficulties as are due to the vag that it is apt to fluctuate, especially at ce effective. Effective rainfall may be defin moisture above wilting point, and thus to
Rainfall is generally effective throug fact water logging is common, but there a may spell disaster to chena crops ; and to sa
always ineffective, annual plants wilt an vegetation survives only because of its dee adaptation. In the inter-monsoon period varies from station to station. This is why " It may broadly be stated that without a existence, in the North-Central Province \
1. B.H. Farmer in Pioneer Colonization in
50

servants started to take a wider view of the plems of Ceylon and came to appreciate the 2ction between such problems as population di landlessness. Some of these problems were
force by the years of the depression.
spraying brought a complete revolution in of the Dry Zone by eradicating malaria. It is a new willingness to migrate to the Dry Zone ars following 1946.
velopment Ordinance No. 49 of 1935 and the Iommissioner who became the custodian of all he new trends in no small measure.
nies with a total colonist population of 37,940 Commissioner's Administration Report).
omes with the North-East monsoon in about e rains which they bring are uncertain and, in late. But normally a large proportion of the 'monsoon months, over 40 per cent everywhere, inter-monsoon periods (roughly February-May depressions and to local conventional circulariable and unreliable. Variability of rainfall is assessment of the Dry Zone problem. One or mean for a twenty-year period that it gives a all that may be expected. “ The Dry Zone
rtain seasons about the critical level which is 2d as that which is just enough to keep soil ceep shallow rooted plants alive .
hout the Dry Zone in the wet season, when in
re occassional months of ineffectiveness which
y that rainfallis “effective is far from saying rice. In the dry season the rainfall is nearly L die, and the apparently luxuriant natural roots, deciduous habits, small leaves or other s there is a chance of effective rainfall which R. W. Ivers, who knew the Dry Zone well said tificial irrigation and storage of water, human ould be impossible '.
eylon.

Page 59
كمحا
The Dry Zone is watered for the be mo which rise within the Zone itself and thus fee Therefore there is little scope here for great p can in most places function in Maha only and est type of work. Moreover, because of r greatly from year to year. There are thu failure on the one hand, and of flood and grea difficult to-say what is the safe maximum resources are to be fully utilized. Most the waste of water in years of heavy rainfall
There are one or two major streams tary Amban Ganga which rise in the Wet they are still subject to great seasonal fluct
In the limestone country of the Jaffna) naturally underground, and are tapped by water resources of the Northern part of Cey limestone conditions exist all over the North to Mullaitivu in the East. Only the existen been found in the North of Puttalam area in Mannar Coast line not extending beyond af. in the Eastern coast as well. The Kilinoc floored with crystalline rocks, virtually impé is the case in the rest of the Dry Zone.
This shortage of underground water surface irrigation with all the waste by evapor the Dry Zone is uniformly high throughout the supply of water for domestic purposes p. been experienced in major settlements like K
The soils of the Dry Zone, like so ma like lacking plant nutrients and humus whi There is also the point that tropical rains acti nutrients far more rapidly. But, on the who occasionally rich and the Ceylonese peasan nous techniques and methods. History show Zone has been quite adequate for paddy cult
As stated earlier, there were several 1. planned colonization schemes. The pioneers patterns in these first attempts and this cont zation Settlements in the island. The Cey family farms are the most suited to their 1
. B.H. Farmer in Pioneer Colonization in (

it part by short relatively small radial streams to the full the effects of its seasonal rainfall. rennial canals. Irrrigation direct from rivers storage tanks are, of necessity, the commoninfall variability, yields of catchments vary years of greatly reduced cultivation or total damages to works on the other. It becomes ultivable area beneath a given tank if water nodern engineers have played for safety, but is then collosal.
y such as the Mahawelli Ganga and its tribuZone and have a perennial flow, though lation.
Peninsula, water supplied by the rains is stored shallow wells. Recent investigations of the on have belied the earlier belief that the of a line joining Kalpitiya in the West Coast ce of such limestone waterbearing rocks have the West in a narrow strip running along the :w miles interior. The same may be the case hchi Paranthan and the Vavuniya district are }rvious except for rare and irregular joints as
has made the Dry Zone entirely dependent on ration that accompanies, as the temperature in the year averaging 80 F. It also means that resents a serious problem in settlements as has antalai in the Trincomalee district.
ny other tropical soils, have the same defects ch give the soil their favourable properties. ng at high temperatures, leach away soluable le, the Dry Zone soils are quite adequate and tis capable of utilizing the soils with the indigebeyond doubt, that the average soil of the Dry ivation, to say the least.
easons and aims behind the commencement of chose family farms as the basis of the settlement inued till today as the basis of all the Colonilon peasant is highly individualistic and the emperament. Besides, the pioneers wanted
Seylon.
51.

Page 60
that the family unit, which has been the ba varied values both economic and social, preserving the family farms, the settlements people preferably from the same villag environmental conditions, so that the new fa birth form themselves into nucleus that will Village setup.
The colonists for the Dry Zone schem of Ceylon and from the Kandyan provinces the irrigation schemes were absorbed into convenient. A typical example of the break rated as below :-
for Parakrama Samudra Colony.
* According to the methods of selecti in 1953 fell into five categories :
(1) Compensation (175 colonists area had been acquired int. became landless received
(2) Local 483 colonists. Landle area and in some of the ot also selected as colonists.
(3) Those who had served as lab with the establishment of 1 of their services.
(4) Immigrant (1,198 colonists).
to realize the main aims o from overcrowded village Zone. Some of them we They received allotments procedure.
(5) Exservicemen (571 colonists).
Social and Economic Background of the Colo
A typical example of the social and ecc schemes of the Dry Zone is again illustrated study of the same colony. (Data on 136 cc
4. Parakrama Samudra Colony, an example c Dr. H. N. C. Fonseka.
52

is of Ceylon's subsistence agriculture with its pe preserved in the new settlements. While were planned in Units varying from 150-300
or adjoining villages, with the same mers who are uprooted from their villages of ive them a feeling of security and a feeling of a
às came largely from the South-West country But the villagers who lived in and around the schemes wherever they were found to be lown of the colonists into categories is enume
n employed the 2,780 colonists of this colony
). Most of the lands of the villages of this the colony. The peasants who consequently allotments in the colony.
SS peasants and those with little land in this her villages of the Polonnaruwa district were
ourers in government departments connected 'he colony received allotments in recognition
This category represents a selection intended f peasant colonization. The colonists came of six administrative districts in the Wet re refugees from the landslide at Kotmale. without going through the normal selection
ists
1omic background of colonists in the various y the study of Dr. H. N. C. Fonseka in his lonists interviewed, see next page).
peasant Colonization in the Dry Zone of Ceylon, by

Page 61
i~
ہمسر 《ལ་བ་གང་།།
Agricultural Traditions
The simple wooden plough drawn by in preliminary tillage in paddy cultivation ex bullocks to trample the fields. Unselected v. Most colonists sowed paddy broadcast, but from the Kegalle and Kandy districts and by F and green manure) was used by most colonists Only a few colonists from Kegalle, Kandy a fertilizers on their fields. (In an example colc
Land Use-Physical Set Up of Settlements
Most of the lands in the colonization This division of the land was based only on relief and slope on which the layout of the gravity irrigation depended on levels and the division too followed the gradient of the land other factors like soil also was taken into cons be irrigated were classed as low land and thc land set apart for communal buildings and c and also small extents of land reserved as f needs of the colonists.
The highland allotments which consist extent of 2 acres are thus grouped together channels. It spreads out the farms some 100. of 300-500 allotments which are provided wit
(1) Co-operative Stores (2) Midwife's Quarters (3) Dispensary (4) School with 2 Teachers Quart (5) Post Office.
When these villages are more than 2 o' Hospital and a bigger school with provision f
The low land is also carved out into of the allotments, the older schemes having even 2 acres in some places. However, the e schemes. These allotments are sited along allotments of colonists do not exceed generall allotments'
The cultivation in these settlements ca
(1) Low land cultivation
and (2) Highland cultivation.

a pair of bullocks was generally employed ept in the case of some peasants who used rieties of paddy were planted in all cases. ransplanting was widely practised by those otmale refugees. Organic manure (farmyard except those from the Polonnaruwa district. nd Nuwara Eliya districts applied artificial ny-Parakrama Samudra)
schemes were either lowland or highland. the level of the land on local differences of irrigation channel system depended. Since r invariably followed the contour lines the
into low land, and high land even though ideration in this division. Areas that could se could not, as highland. There were also ivic centre purposes in the highland section orest and pasture reservations to meet the
s of a house, well, latrine and comprises an on land which is higher from the irrigation -200 yards apart. The small village consists h a civic centre with the following buildings :
S
3, a greater centre is provided with a Rural or more number of teachers quarters.
olocks of 3-5 acres depending on the size 5 acres and the newer schemes 3 acres and xtent of the blocks are uniform in individual the channels and the distance of individual y more than 1 to 3 miles from their highland
n also be divided as :
53

Page 62
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Page 63
ܦܬܐܝܼܠ
- , ༤ །
l
e.
--محے جہ:
Lowland Cultivation
Schemes of settlements in the major pa water from tanks which store water either fron diverted from rivers by anicuts. The tank convenient points in a catchment area and tl distributary channels from which water is led fields. These lowland allotments are cultivat
SCaSO.
The former is called Maha and the lat is the dominant crop in these lowland allotme: the whole economy of the peasant depends. an additional supply of water during the Ma irrigation water. The extent of land cultivate of water in the reservoir tanks. It is not u reduced when there is a shortfall in the water
Highland Cultivation
The highland generally has no irrigation in the highland allotments are tree crops (co mango, cashew nut and kapok), plantains, veg dry grains (kurakkan, gingelly, maize and sorg
The tree crops grow especially well wher. mity to the tank, irrigation channels or othe individually watered during the dry season. boundary of the allotment together with other grown in the colony because of their low resista
Many colonists cultivated vegetables di quarter acre plots. This was mainly to meet d. were sold. Quite often, the crop was spoiled cultivation of dry grains were quite widely practi
- but becomes less important due to the gradual in
of continuous cropping. Wherever conditions cultivated half to two acres of paddy during th dependent on the North-East monsoon rains. in the Dry Zone are in a poor state of devel useful cultivation.
Techniques of Paddy Cultivation
The traditional wooden plough or a lig
is still the predominant way of ploughing eve intensified during the 1965-74 food drive of th

it of the Dry Zone were based on irrigation n the rains during the rainy season or water s are constructed by providing bunds at he stored water is distributed by means of by sub-distributary and field channels to the 2d both in the rainy season and in the dry
ter Yala. Paddy grown on irrigated fields ints. It constitutes the basic crop on which
The North-East monsoon rains provided ha, while the Yala depended entirely on d for the Yala depended on the availability nusual that the extent of cultivable land is Storage.
facilities. The crops commonly cultivated conut, jak, citrus, murunga, pomegranate, etables (onions, chillies, yams and manioc), hum) and rainfed paddy.
> the water was artificially raised by proximir water courses, provided the plants were Murunga was normally planted along the trees to serve as a fence. Few plantains are nce to drought and high winds.
uring the Maha season in quarter to threeomestic needs, but wherever in surplus they by the heavy rains during this season. The sed during the first few years of the settlement poverishment of the lands after several years of terrain and soil permitted, the colonists he Maha season and the crop was entirely But on the whole most highland allotments opment due to the lack of water for any
nt iron plough drawn by a pair of buffaloes n though the use of tractors has been more e Government. The colonists are aware of
55

Page 64
the superiority of the tractor even though methods of cultivation with animals. Som deep and brought up the infertile sub-soil.
Some found tractors too expensive like to incur extra expenditure. However, the first ploughing of the hardened earth ploughing methods when the earth is wet an
As a result of a concerted food dri these areas. But even though the Governm from the Agriculture Department once ev from each years harvest for seed. Transp schemes in Polonnaruwa, Anuradhapura a Here the colonists by transplanting the see more per acre and some even 30 to 40 bli carried out in some other schemes to the fulle was too large or there was not enough tra to do so. Very little transplanting was don time in this short season. The Japanese schemes and this method of transplanting regular rows, but fewer seedlings are plant seedlings was narrower. Hence the method
Many people were reluctant to adop The yields obtained were about the same as
It was found in many schemes, most their paddy crops systematically, intensively. widely and weeded their fields regularly. employed additional hired labour.
The application of both organic ma is now growing as a result of the concerted ment projects' as models. The farmers are fertilizers in their cultivation habits.
Agricultural Production and Income
Statistics of yields of paddy in the 1959-60 relating to the colonists of Parakra dry zone colony, indicate that most of them 26-30, 30–40, 46-50, and 56–60 bushels p one group for the Maha season secured yie
1. Dr. H. N.C. Fonseka. Parakrama. Samu th. Dry Zone of Ceylon.
56

lany still preferred to carry on the traditional 2 were of the opinion that the tractor dug too
o buy and those who owned animals did not the colonists preferred the use of tractors for by tractors and followed it by the traditional flooded and mudding conditions prevailed.
e the use of pureline paddy was increased in ent advised them to purchase fresh seed paddy ry three years, the majority still used paddy lanting is extensively practised only in a few ld Ampara districts during the Maha season. lings obtained yields of ten to twenty bushels shels more. But transplanting could not be xent during the Maha, because the area involved ined labour and because it was too expensive e during the Yala season because ofthe lack of method of transplanting was done in certain was practised in Ceylon, planting of paddy in 2d at each point and the interval between the is more labour exacting.
t it because of the high labour costs involved. those obtained by normal transplanting.
... colonists from the Kandyan areas cultivated and adopted methods like transplanting more Most found family labour insufficient and
nure and artificial fertilizers were limited but food drive which organized "Package developslowly realising the profitability of the use of
owland for the two seasons Maha and Yala na Samudra which could be taken as a typical ecured yield in one of the four yield groups : r acre. The majority who secured yields in is within the same group for the Yala season.
tra Colony-An Example of Peasant Colonization in

Page 65
The high yields reflect the better agricultural figures given above for the two harvests could of years for the following reasons :
1. all these allottees had been c
over ten years ;
2. the improve techniques of a
years; and
3. climatically the agricultural ye
The incomes of the colonists were derive
reveal that most of them obtained incomes b strong correspondence to the yields of paddy. paddy cultivation vary from Rs. 300 to 1,000 fo for a five acre allotment. On the basis of th
obtained poor to medium net incomes. The i the highland were quite small and were not for a season.
Identification of Different Patterns in Settle
As said earlier the settlements in the Dry on the basis of lowland and highland cultivatic conceived at the start and the extent allocated available per family as paddy was a labour int
However, some attempts were made to other crops. They are :
1. The settlements based on the l schemes based on a combin farming.
2. Recent attempts on the basis o
.etc. on irrigated land حبیب سراسر
sー In the early 1960, schemes of settleme coconut cultivation. Units of 5 acres of land to a family. It was anticipated that a color income of Rs. 1,750 from his allotment from 1 which is normally from the 6th year. Expen
A came to Rs. 11,250 per family.*
V~
* Parakrama Samudra Colony. Dr. H.N.C. * Administration Report of the Land Commis

practices adopted by these people. The be considered as representative of a series
ultivating their allotments for a period of
griculture had been in operation for some
ar 1959-60 was a normal year.
d mainly from the sale of paddy. Statistics :tween Rs. 500-2,000. The incomes bear a The estimates of expenditure connected with r a 3 acre allotment and Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 ese estimates the majority of the colonists incomes derived from subsidiary crops from regular. It varied from Rs. 30 to Rs. 100
mentS
Zone are mainly based on irrigation schemes pn. This is how colonization schemes were was determined on the basis of labour force ensive crop.
settle peasants on the basis of cultivation of
lighland crops like coconut, vegetables and ation of these two with adoption of poultry
f subsidiary food crops like chillies, onions,
its were started in the Dry Zone based on Suitable for coconut cultivation was given ist family will receive a minimum annual he time the coconut trees come into bearing liture per colonist in these schemes roughly
Fonseka.
oner 1966-67.
57

Page 66
The allottees were expected to subsi adopting poultry or animal husbandry tillth ihe coconutschemes are popular in more fa tn the actual dry zone which is marginal clim in Puttalam district, Kiranchi and Mul in Trincomalee and Vavuniya districts have to this day. My personal experience in man of years makes me to come to the opinion thi in these areas unless it forms part of a mixed dairy farming. Coconut which takes over expected to bring in additional income.
In the recent years settlements have t onions and vegetables. Even though they schemes, in essence they are colonizatior irrigated by channels from reservoirs. Th and the Visuwamadu Kulam and Dri Aru schemes, while the channdl-Irrigated schem where the youth scheme is sited.
In these schemes units of 3 acres of and his family is expected to live on the inc
In all these schemes the Governme earlier paddy schemes.
Assistance to Peasant Colonists
Crown land is alienated to colon Development Ordinance on a permit. Thi the permit-holder who can enjoy the land and obligation.
He cannot dispose of the land to any the conditions of the permit are not observed and in that event the land reverts to Crowr fulfills these conditions he could continue t his spouse or one of his children will in Only one person will inherit it to avoic pays a sum fixed by Government as a rent ca
The State also assists the allottee by development of the land. The first is the This includes the construction of the headw
For detail information see Evalution Rep.
S. B. Gupta & S. Gunaratnam.
58

it by undertaking vegetable cultivation or by e time the coconut comes into bearing. While ourable are as like Chilaw, the schemes started tically to coconut like the Vannathivilla scheme Ingavil in the Jaffna district and schemes not been successful and are problem schemes aging these schemes for a considerable number it no further coconutschemes should be started farming with a properly organized poultry and 10 years in the dry zone for bearing could be
een started on the basis of cultivating chillies, have been initiated as unemployed youth schemes. These are either lift irrigated or > Muthaiyan Kaddu in the Vavuniya district scheme are examples for the Lift-irrigated es could be illustrated by the one at Rajangane
irrigable land was alienated and the allottee Ome derived from this land.
‘nt provides the normal assistance as in the
ists as a protected holding under the Land s means that the permit is only personal to subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions
pne nor can he lease or mortgage the land. If , the Crown has the right to cancel such permits
free of all encumberances. But if the allottee e o enjoy the fruits of the land and on his death -- erit the land subject to the same cohditions. -->
حصے تح fragmentation of the land. The allottee led the annual payment for the lease-hold.
incurring various types of expenditures on the bearing of the cost of irrigation development. orks, main channels and access roads both to - -
افت.
rt on Youth Schemes' by E. M. D. Wickremasinghe,

Page 67
లా
سر = L
سے۔ سمیہ۔
Vʼ
and within the irrigated area. In recent times region of Rs. 1,000 per irrigated acre. As ne engineering and other costs, this cost is likely to
The next item is the cost of developing Land Development has given Rs. 6,500 as ave following items:
Jungle clearing
Fencing
Ridging
Stumping
Cottage or house
Latrine
Proportional cost of communal
弩
Proportional cost of roads
Proportional cost of general bu
The third item are the costs incurred b the colonist from his original village, a subsister
materials for the highland allotment. The approximately. The total cost of producing scheme is as follows :
Irrigation : 3 irrigated acres a Development of allotment . Assistance for settlement
Cost of survey, etc.
The cost includes proportionately the ( such as post offices, schools, dispensaries, etc.
Internally the colonies are served by mi by cart tracks to the highland allotments. M during dry weather. Carts and bicycles are within the colony.
National Planning Council Interim Report.

the cost of these items has averaged in the wer schemes are undertaken with greater ) rise to about Rs. 2,000 per irrigated acre.
individual allotments. The Director of 'rage cost for a standard allotment for the
well
ildings.
by the Land Commissioner in transporting ce allowance for 6 months until the colonist , a few necessary implements and planting
costs total on an average of Rs. 425 g an economic holding in a colonization
RS:
tRs. 1,000 3,000
6,500
42.5
375
10,500
:onstruction of roads and general bulidings administrative buildings, officers' quarters,
nor roads. The minor roads are connected ost of these cart tracks could he used by cars the most widely used mode of conveyance
59

Page 68
Marketing
Paddy is the most important casl which buys the paddy under the guarantee been organized through multipurpose cocolonization scheme. The retail busines stores for each unit of 300 colonists in the
There are three sources of credit ava
1. multipurpose co-operative 2. traders, and 3. fellow colonists.
Generally the greater part of the co by way of not paying agricultural loans obi the traders as well.
(To be

-crop and the customer is the Goverminment i price system at Rs. 25 per bushel. This has perative societies which are organized for each for the colony is organized through smaller schemes.
lable to the colonists:
ocieties,
lonists are in debt to the co-operative societies ained for cultivation and invariably in debt to
continued)

Page 69


Page 70
PRION''' THE DEPARTIMIENT OF
SRI LANKA
 
 
 
 

VED AT GOVERNMENT PRINTING,
(CEYLON)
క్ల్లో؟ܢܣ