கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Journal of Development Administration 1974.05

Page 1
త్రిభద్రత విడా డ్రైవిజాతి త్రిభ్రష్ జత నా
JOURNA ()
A Simplified Critical Path Method App
Solne Reflections on Current Administ
istration.
An Appraisal of the Need for Man
Planning with Special Reference to Sri
Professional Dedication as a componen ** 一ー
Evaluation of Administrative Training:
Models of Modernization-II
Sri Lanka Academy of Administratiye Studi
 

DMINISTRATION
,ബ ܡ ܦ ܗܝ
Vol. IV, No. 1, May, 1974.
licable to Developing Countries.
'ative Reforms in District Admin
agement Services in Development
Lanka.
t of Organisational Performance.
Some Experiences.

Page 2
*سمعتمبر k yحکھی یہ اK^تھی - ص - صد سه مصر مس - ص - ص- حصیصه حصت را
TRANIN offere
Sri Lanka Academy o
The Academy offers courses especially fo administrative grade Services and Corpor courses are relevant for the Diploma in
Descriptive course li application are circu from time to time.
Courses are general (varying from three designed to facilitat officials who cannot or places or Work f courses are, of nece and strenuous.
If you are interested in ap) these Courses write for a cu,
list and application form i
The Prog Academy of At 28/10, L
Co
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S S s S s y
S S S S S S S S S S S
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qSAqTASESMSATESE SAMMTMESEESASAqTTTSE SASAMS ASTTScSASqeTTSee .1- فحص حصحص حصن حصحص حصيص
G COURSES d by the
if Administrative Studies
a wide variety of r managerial and s in the State rations. Most of the to the examinations Public Management.
ists and forms of lated to organisations
ly of short duration days to ten) and 2 attendance by busy
leave their desks Dr long periods. Such ssity, very intensive
lying for
Άβ/1ί (014γΙβ
amme Officer, ministrative Studies, ngdon Place, ombo 7.
MTSAqATS MAASTES AqSAS AAAqqAASAALLLLLALLSALLMLSASLSLMLASMAS AMAASSAqAMSSASSASSAASSA
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Page 3
JOURNAL OF DEVELOPM
CONT
VOL. IV, No.
A Simplified Critical Path Method Appli
Developing Countries - -
Some Reflections on Current Administra
forms in District Administration
The Improvement of Hospital Administr
An Appraisal of the Needs for Man Services in Development Planning w cial Reference to Sri Lanka
Professional Dedication as a Component of
zational Performance " به ه
Evaluation of Administrative Training :
Experiences 惨 ●
Models of Modernization-II
2-A 06812-1510 (74/05)

MENT ADMINISTRATION
ENTS
II, MALAY, 1974
Fage
cable to
N. S. LADUWAHETTY . . .
tive Re
. . B. S. WIJEWEERA 13
ation . . KINGSLEY HEENDENIYA ... 2
agement ith. Spe
. . M. W. J. G. MENDIS 33
Organ1 = B, M. SHARMA &. C.
● ° PRASAD 。。42
Some
... FRANJITH M. WITHIANA .. ... 5
ABAYA JAYASUNDERA 70

Page 4


Page 5
CONTF
2KINGSLEY HEENDENIYA, M.B.B.S. (Ce
D.P.H. (Lond.)
ABAYA JAYASUNDERA, B.Sc., (Hons.)
N. S. LADUwAHETTY, B.Sc., (Eng.), M.Sc.
M. W. J. G. MENDIS, B.Sc., (Eng.), M (Urban & Regional Planning), M.R.T.F (Lond.) Chartered Town Planner
C. PRASAD, B.Sc. (Ag.) M.Sc. (Minn.), Ph.
(Wise), U.S.A.
B. MI. SHARIMIA
B. S. WIJE WEERA
R. M. WITHANA, B.Sc. (Cey.), M.P.A. (Ce
M.Com. (Birmingham)
The opinions expressed in t imdividual authors and not nece Administrative Studies or the In

IBUTORS
2y.)
y.),
Supdt. of Health Services, Matara
Trading & Research Associate, Aca
demy of Administrative Studies
Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Town & Country Planning, University of Sri Lanka
Prof. of Agricultural Extension, Indian Agrarian Research Institute, New Delhi
Lecturer in Agricultural Extension,
University of Udaipur, Jabner
Chairman, Oils & Fats Corporation,
Siduwa
Training & Research Associate, Academy of Administrative Studies
his Journal are those of the SSarily those of the Academy of stitutions for which they work.

Page 6


Page 7
JOURNAL OF DEVELOP
EDIT
In this issue attention is turned to currently in public sector administr
Certain problems with the Distric Services, both of which are of maji administrators, are examined by pe these systems for long periods. In b place Over the past few years and thi of these changes as well as other poi are controversial topics and it is poss may like to contribute their own vier
Two articles speak of particular r of developing countries. One sugge: applicable in certain circumstances orthodox network analysic. The othe: management Services in development
The examination of Models Of MO of the Journal is contained in this is
Finally this issue contains two art. tional performance. One article eva dedication as a component of perfor experiences in the evaluation of adm

MENT ADMINISTRATION
ORIAL
R. G. GOMEZ
certain specific problems experienced ation.
t Administration and of the Hospital or interests to the the public and to sons who have been working within oth areas major changes have taken ese articles access the effects of some Inters to what needs to be done. These ible that readers with different views wpoints to the Journal.
methods usable in the administration sts a simplified critical path method in a much simpler fashion then the articles is a note on the need for the t planning.
dernization begun in an earlier issue
SU.e.
icles on different aspects of organisaluation the strength of professional 'mance while the other details Some ministrative training.

Page 8


Page 9
Journal of Development Administration, Vol, IV.
A SIMPLIFIED CRITI APPLICABILE TO DEVE
Introduction
ALL developing countries aspire tow order to achieve this objective have : of complexity. Unfortunately, the full been realised. One of the principal r problems associated with implementat implementation of plans for economic the successful implementation of th becomes relevant to investigate the project implementation.
What does project implementation be planned and programmed. This ini be in such a degree of detail as to ider ment the project. Furthermore, it organisational planning. The second S project during its execution. The thir decisions in the light of the progress the up-dating or modification of the decisions taken in the third stage.
This form of project implementatio cases even in developing countries, is of projects which, though Small in m derably to economic growth. One majority of personnel engaged in t projects, though familiar with the appreciate the benefits of these tech their application.
* The author has developed this techni of the method has left him convinced t before ', he has not been able to locate st that he has read. He would be grateful with him the details of any identical met
The author would also like to express Advisor on Systems Analysis, who by co this article, has assisted in moulding it i

No. 1, May, 1974
CAL PATH METHOD LOPING COUNTRIES *
N. S. Laddusuahetty
ards rapid economic growth, and in ormulated plans of varying degrees benefits of these plans have seldom
asons for this failure has been the ion of the plans. Since the successful growth is invariably connected with he projects that comprise them, it causes underlying the failures in
involve 2 Any project should first tial planning and programming must ntify the activities required to implemust cover financial planning and tage is the review of progress of the di stage is the taking of appropriate made. The fourth and final stage is plan or programme in terms of the
n, whilst being followed in isolated not being used for the vast majority agnitude, together contribute consiof the reasons for this is that the he implementation and control of echniques to some extent, do not hiques to a degree that encourages
ue independently. While the simplicity hat "someone must have thought of it Lch a method in the books and journals o any reader who would communicate lod that has been published earlier. his gratitude to Mr. J. R. Diskin, U. N. instructive criticism of earlier drafts of nto its present form,

Page 10
Present Techniques
During the past few years, variou aids to Project Control. These techni or Ghant-Chart to more sophistical gramme Evaluation and Review T. Methods), to mention a few. W management is effective only if time along with the necessary decision-ma out at the appropriate management technique should be readily unders also lend itself to quick review. With the existing techniques are suitable f
The simplest form of project contr technique can be appreciated and u the further advantage that up-dating physical progress is within the ability personnel. This technique has One convey the interdependencies betwe is required to commission a plant, it bearing any delay in the water suppl. Sioning date. Another drawback is t. only records the work completed up forecast the time for completion as ir
Both PERT and CPM. Overcome interdependencies of activities can b forecasts of completion dates are ba mance. These techniques therefore m to assess what impact the level of on the overall project. Furthermore on an activity to be determined.
There are drawbacks, however, in in developing countries. All stages of tion using these techniques need tra the original network requires train comprehensive enough to enable th time, earliest finish time, latest sta activity. The Project Manager respon should also have an understanding conveyed by the network is to be : an effective training programme mu; must be obtained from some speciali therefore to look for a technique wł of the Bar-Chart with the advanta technique could be developed, Proje incurring much expenses and without and it could be of particular impor
2

s techniques have been developed as ques vary from the simple Bar-Chart led techniques such as PERT (Proechniques) and CPM (Critical Path hatever the technique used, project ly and accurate review is undertaken king functions that need to be carried
level. Therefore the programming tood by management, and it should
this in mind, let us consider whether or application to developing countries.
ol is by means of the Bar-Chart. This inderstood by most managers. It has the programme in the light of actual of most technical and administrative major drawback, in that it does not en activities. For instance, if water will not be possible to indicate what y scheme would have On the commishat, when up-dating a Bar-Chart, One to the date of review and does not 1 CPMI and PERT.
both these drawbacks, namely that e indicated clearly and, at any time, used on the current levels of perforake it possible for a Project Manager performance, at any given time, has , these techniques enable the 'float
the application of these techniques i planning, programming and evaluained personnel. Even the drawing of 2d personnel. This training must be e determination of the earliest start rt time and latest finish time of an Lsible for the execution of the project of the technique, if the information appreciated. This implies that either st be organised, or trained personnel st organisation. It becomes necessary nich could incorporate the simplicity ges of PERT and CPM. If such a ct Control could be effected without the need for highly trained personnel tance in developing countries. The

Page 11
technique presented below, which w, tion of the Lanka Porcelain Factory advantages discussed.
Description of Techniques
The technique suggested consists f representing the various activities by vertical lines. This simple methc Chart and the advantages of PERT
Let us consider construction of a be drawn for the foundations, wall finishes as separate activities. Even ir are interdependent. For instance, th completed without completing the f is drawn, indicating this interdepe completed at least One Week ahead, W This implies that any delay in the ( the latest finish time Would affect th and hence would affect the total pro
FOUNDATIONS
WALLs
RO OF
FLOOR,
FINTSHES
O 2 3
TIME PER
While interdependencies are denot bar:3 can be used to show the earlie Latest Finish date of that activity. cannot start on the date the related a periods could be shown by a dotted activity (Fig. 2).
ACTIVITY A ബ—
ΑΟΤΙνΤTY Β

ls applied successfully to the construcat Rattota, Sri Lanka, combines the
undamentally of drawing a Bar-Chart and indicating the interdependencies d draws on the simplicity of the BarOr CPM.
simple building. A Bar-Chart could s, roof, doors & Windows, floors, and this simple example, all the activities e construction of the walls cannot be Oundations. Therefore a vertical line indency where the foundations are rhich may be the curing time (Fig. 1). :ompletion of the foundations beyond e completion of the wall construction ject.
COD
2d by the vertical bars, the horizontal est start time of an activity and the If, for instance, a particular activity ctivity finishes, the difference in time line which indicates the float on the
FTG. 2.

Page 12
What is the level of detail possible that the major activities needed to e. and the time duration estimated (w any technique). The Bar-Chart interdependencies, as described abov
This macro level of programming of detail required to monitor an ac activities considered in Fig. 1, e.g. F
ORDER STEEL
FABRICATE
TRUSSEs TRANSPORT
TRUSSES
t
CONSTRUCT ROOF HIRE TRAILER
ORDER ROOF
SHEETs
<--
O
TIME PE
If this degree of detail is applied to a we would have to control about 30 electricity, roads, etc. are considered 45 to 50 activities. The technique enab quickly merely by drawing to scale th based on the current level of perfor activity, and the shift of the verti whether the Project is on schedule, b (Fig. 4).
-- l. FOUNIDATIONS DATE
| 2. WALLs -ܠܳܐ ↓. ܝ- ܡܝ --
3. ROOF 一 4. FLOOR j, b
5. FINISHES
TIME PE
If, at the date of review, only part of is made of the time for completion ( made of the final completion date of duration of the activities that have no
4.

with this technique 2 Let us assume ecute a project have been identified nich is a mecessary requirement for an then be drawn showing the
ould then be extended to any level tivity. Let us consider one of the Oof (Fig. 3).
个
---- - ΕΙΟΑΤ
— FIG, 3.
4 5
RIODS
ll the activities considered in Fig. 1, activities. If Services such as Water, one could easily end up with about bles the program to be up-dated very a time for completion of each activity mance at a given time against each cal interdependencies will indicate ehind Schedule or ahead of Schedule
DE REVTEW — PANNED PROGARAMIME
- - - - PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE
ATDATE OF REVIEW
ONLY FIRST AND SECONID ΑOTIVITTES ARE COMPLETED.
-->ܗ
二一 -K: * --> | TIDELAY
| |, Y
- FG. 4
4 5 6
:IODS
an activity is executed, an estimate f that activity. A projection is then the Project assuming the estimated t started.

Page 13
ADVANTAGES OF
(1) The only requirement is to e and the logical relationship
(2) No specialist skills are requi.
(3) None of the special nomencl The description of the activ
(4) The entire process is manua
(5) Once the times for completio are estimated, the up-datin in a very short time ent management involvement.
(6) The planned program and th stood readily by top mana present level of performar ciated, thereby enabling de
(7) In simple terms, this techniq and the breadth of inform Special skills and at a mini
(8) The technique is so simpleth technique could be used to this technique uses a graphi it is called GRAPHICAL E
Application of GET to Project Cont
How could GET be applied to time is to draw a programme where each a line, the length of which represents t under consideration. The number of a vary from programme to programme more activities require closer contro any stage of the project to present in
The horizontal bars could then be their interdependencies. This then r
How could one up-date this progra performance 2 Any form of program ment information system which conv regarding the actual physical perforn of the information system is to assess . on each activity, and to ascertain t activity.
The information gathered from the the programme. The manner of up-d: bar from the date of commencemen

THE TECHNIQUE
stimate the duration of each activity
between each activity.
ed.
ature necessary in CPM is required. ity is written along the bar.
l.
n of those activities under execution g of the Program could be completed rely manually without too much
e up-dated program could be undergement and the implications of the Lce could therefore be easily appreacision making to be more effective.
Je has the simplicity of the bar-chart ation of CPM, without the need for mal cost.
at, even at the Supervisory level, the plan work at the shop level. Since cal method when evaluating progress, VALUATION TECHNIQUE (GET).
rol on Time Basis
analyse a programme. The first task ctivity is represented by a horizontal he estimated duration of the activity ctivities and the degree of detail will ... If, during the review stage, one or l, additional bars could be drawn at nore detail than envisaged initially.
connected by vertical lines to show epresents the GET programme.
amme in the light of actual physical lming requires an efficient manageeys timely and accurate information hance of each activity. The objective rapidly the extent of work performed he time required to complete the
information system is used to up-date ating is merely to draw a horizontal t of the activity, up to the date of
5

Page 14
review and extending to a point be time for completion of the activity task, the appropriate vertical line activities. The position of the verti will convey the status of the Projec process of up-dating the planned pri can be performed by a draughtsma the technique.
Up-dating GET programme coul recommendations are followed. Firs senting the duration of the activity number of work units planned to The units of work could be based on the quantum of work done very re assess the work done and estimate t
(Fig. 6).
ERECTION OF TRUSSES
5 O 5 :
Roof. CLADDING
5 10
FIC
The second recommendation is conc for the GET programme. Experienc the activities in terms of objective programme for a chemical plant it is by-products of the process and to d achieve this objective.
This principle could be extended w each organisation engaged in the e programmes could be manually cor entire project at MACRO level co authority.
Resource Analysis
There are two basic objectives w
(1) To level the demand on res
project duration.
(2) To minimise project time w
key resources.
es
 

ond the date of review, indicating the
under review. After completing this are drawn connecting the related !al line at the end of the last activity t as at the date of review (Fig. 4). The gramme is extremely simple. The task with only a minimum of training in
| be done accurately if the following tly, along the length of the bar repreOne could fix markers indicating the be completed in certain time periods. a system that enables one to ascertain adily. This helps the programmer to he time for completion of the activity
(A.) INDICATES NUMBER OF TRUSSES
A.
O 25
- (B.) INDICATES NUMBER OF BAYS TO BE ROOFED. B THE VERTICAL LINE CONVEYs 5 20 24 THAT THE TRUSSES MUST BE ERECTED 5 BAYS AHEAD OF ROOIETTING.
E. O.
erned with the grouping of activities e has shown that it is best to group S. For example, if one is drawing a best to identify the final products and etermine all the activities needed to
here GET programmes are drawn for xecution of projects. Each of these trolled and a clear indication of the uld be followed by the reviewing
hen scheduling resources :
ources with a constraint on the total
th a constraint on the availability of

Page 15
Could these two objectives be achi were to consider the multitude of Small to be implemented in order to achiev resources that restrict a project are fes resources, scheduling of resources can
In the case of Small and medium SI developing countries, the resources tha skilled technical personnel, materials, a constraint because, if the project is available. Skilled and unskilled labou implementation. Therefore, if the re sufficiently few, then the two primary manual process.
The actual process of resource Sche books. If, for instance, a histogram of prepared, it is quite a simple process t this is no longer true if a multiplicity therefore suggested here that the plar to suit the availability of only one or
The levelling of resources would not but would help from an organisationa loping countries, the more relevant e gramme to Suit key resources.
Cost Control
The Standard methods of cost contro programme is prepared. The main fea curve and the actual cost curve. Furthe curve, could also be derived. However curve (an exercise which is possible I collect accurate data to obtain the AC
In developing countries, the type of time, it is possible to ascertain the tota plant and salaries. With this informat spent in any period. This information Cost curve. It is adequate, in a develo 3xecuted within the money allocated and pertinent aspects of cost control cc
if the planning technique is simple. Application of Graphical Evaluatio Factory at Rattot
Description of Project
The Government of Sri Lanka decid hich quality porcelain in collaboration The plant was to have a capacity of 1,

aved by a manual process ? If one and medium scale project that have e economic growth, the number of in number. Considering only those often be done by a manual process.
ale projects to be implemented in ut influence a project are invariably or key equipment. Money is seldom
budgeted for, money provision is r is seldom a constraint on project sources that restrict a project are objectives could be achieved by a
duling is explained in many textthe usage of a specific resource is o carry out a levelling exercise, but of resources are considered. It is ned programme should be modified wo key resources.
; only enable costs to be minimised, l point of view. However, in devexercise would be to plan the pro
ol could readily be applied once the tures are to derive the planned cost !r curves such as the Budgetary Cost ", having prepared the planned cost nanually), the important item is to tual Cost curve.
costing is not sophisticated. At any l money spent on labour, materials, ion, one could calculate the amount is sufficient to derive the Actual ping country, if the project can be
(estimate). Therefore the relevant uld readily be calculated manually,
Technique to Lanka Porcelain a in Sri Lanka
2d to establish a factory to produce with Messrs. Noritake Ltd. of Japan. )00 tons of porcelain annually.

Page 16
At the preliminary discussions decided to programme for comme The civil works alone consisted ( 100,000 sq. ft. of industrial buildin construction of a water supply sch the construction of offices, cante associated works such as effluent d tion of process machinery was to installation of machinery was to b Messrs. Noritake Ltd., it was realis scheme would depend on the prog.
Progress Control
In order to ensure that the civil the planned Schedule, approval w, network, against which progress co package.
The network shown in Appendix level. However, each of the activit down into further detail in Order The construction of each separate b Most of these activities had time di
In view of the short time availab it was agreed that progress on th This meant that each activity had of detail if effective control of the this end in view, each of the activ detailed into activities such as fou columns, erection of trusses, roof cladding and finishes. Those activ buildings were shown as ladder a Each activity in the ladder was gi uniquely. This resulted in the tot approximately 630. The progress r reported and the time for completi stage of the up-date.
The network was up-dated at r programme. Since the machinery in completion dates regarding the ci information was used to calculate required to run each up-date was a
Up-dating Using GET Method
In order to do a comparative st the GET method, a GET programm of each activity to scale so that the
8

with Messrs Noritake Ltd., it was rcial production to start in One year. f the construction of approximately gs including machine foundations, the Leme to deliver 50,000 gallons per day, en, locker room, housing and other isposal, roadways and fencing. Installa2ommence in February 1973. Since the e carried out under the supervision of ed at the outset that the success of the ress made on the civil works.
works would be executed according to as obtained to prepare a critical path uld be monitored using the ICL PERT
I indicates the activities at a macrolies shown in the network was broken o ensure accurate progress evaluation. uilding is shown as one macro activity. urations of three to four months.
le for the execution of the civil works, is project would be reviewed weekly. to be broken down into a great degree
progress was to be maintained. With ities in the main network was further Indations, precast columns, erection of cladding, machine foundations, side rities which were common to all the Lctivities as indicated on Appendix II. ven a separate duration and identified all number of activities amounting to egarding each of these activities was On of each activity calculated at each
egular intervals using the ICL PERT stallation could not be delayed, specific vil Works Were established and this the float. The average computer time Oout one hour.
udy between the CPM technique and e was drawn. This meant the drawing length of the bar denoted the duration,

Page 17
as in the case of a normal bar-cha were also indicated, as in the case of Appendix II. The ladder activities u as a bar-chart in the GET method, w
When up-dating the GET prograr estimate the time for completion of CPM technique, and marking these O. ahead of schedule, the length of the l in the programme, and if the activity would be longer than the original interdependencies which are indicat then used to re-position the remainin last vertical line then indicated the of review.
Conclusion
Rapid economic growth depends la tion of numerous Small and medium : on a few large projects. The technic straight forward, thus enabling field : minimum of training in project plar plan, evaluate progress and take the r implementation of small and medium particularly useful to developing coul
Since the implementation of Civil E significance to developing countries, Civil Engineering projects. For inst earlier, the start time of an activit whereas in Production Engineering st precisely determined. Therefore, the with the start time of activities only i
Further, the main problem in develc of project on schedule. In this respect can be easily applied is particularly
The main intention in developin implementation within the schedul allocation. As evident from the foreg achieved if the planning and program permit resource scheduling and cos technique which is simple enough, sufficiently comprehensive to enable

t. The respective interdependencies the CPM network. This is shown in sed in the CPM network are drawn th. Similar leads and lags.
me, all that was required was to each activity, as in the case of the the programme. If the activity was ar would be shorter than that given
was delayed, the length of the bar ar by a corresponding degree. The ed vertically in this method were g bars, and the final positions of the state of the project as at the date
rgely on the successful implementascale projects, and to a lesser degree que described above is simple and staff and project managers, with the ning and evaluation techniques, to recessary decisions for the successful | Scale projects. In this respect it is Intries.
Engineering projects are of particular this technique is best suited for ance, in the examples referred to y is flexible in Civil Engineering, art times and finish times are more vertical dependencies are connected f there is a physical constraint.
ping countries is the implementation a simple time-based technique that elevant.
g countries is to achieve project ld time and within the budgeted ping, these two objectives could be ming technique is simple enough to control. GET is a programming in terms of skills necessary, yet affective project implementation.

Page 18
The up-dating of the CPM technic (1) Time for completion of eac (2) The appropriate forms for filled in by a trained pers (3) The punched cards for the
into the computer. The c about one hour.
Up-dating the programme prepart following:-
(1) Here, too, the time for comp on the level of performanc was identical to stage 1 ir (2) This information was give
up-dated programme w manually. The entire proc
The comparative costs of the two
aS :
CPM
GET
10

que required the following stages: — h activity had to be established.
the punch-card operator had to be
SO.
computer were then punched and fed :omputer time for each up-date was
2d by the GET Method involved the
letion of each activity was established ‘es as at the date of review. This Stage 1 the CPM technique.
a to a draughtsman who drew the ith the vertical interdependencies :ess took about one hour.
techniques, per up-date are estimated
... Rs. 510
. Rs... 8

Page 19
SAGGER SHSF
CLAZING & FRING SHOP
No. 1
PRE PARATION & FORMING SHOP No. 9
DEcoRATION.& FÖRMING ' | '' SHOP No. 1 w
BUILDINGS No. 16, 17.
18 & 9
DEPOT & 2 No, WAREHOUSES
PRINTING SHOP
WAREHOUSE No. 3
wAREHOUSE FOR SAGGER
FUEl Oil. TANKS AND L. P. G STORES
Α
(
WATER TANK
WATER IN TAKE & DELIVERY (MAN & INTERNAL DISTRIBUm TION LINEs)
 

s
i
-
tజ్ఞ
R e 苓
Nò, ? 0 Civil work
/ ή 04.12.72 Stage 2 f B / / 9.0 سه -- پسته می به oso- - - - - -
/
/ / / A Tirrne di man
A. - - - - - A. / 1 O - O / / / s_ / / No. 9 Civil work —
A. 1112.72 Stage 2 C `ܵ_ , /08-- - - - - 9. O 050 T T T A. 7 / / / / No 9 Civif work
' ' ' '. 252.72 Stage 3 )ே
f - - - - - - - - - * / , 9, O A. A. A. y. o No. Civil work A. , ν A 27, 11.72 Stage 1
A. n n n 丽下一V030广一一一一一一 ν , , Α , . No. 1 Civil work YA / 4 Ao ή 04. 12.72 Stage 2
\s y f /AG。リーーーーーー 8. O - - - -
や、? / / / Time
\Y f / Building No. 16, 17, dummy
W \ť v 7 7 18 & 9 E. E YA Ere( W / / / 9. O 030/4.5VO71 6
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Warehouse No. 31 01.ûኯ.73 Civil work u n- — ബ ബ അ: u u n 9 - O
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SSSS 9. O
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V " '\ \ . ܡ
\ \ 04:12.72 Water tank SS SSSSAASS JK iiiiiS S A \ \ , 25、○ W
Conirạct docum- Cal tenders
ents for intake & awar
d مستنصر =+3.52,72 = & dist, mains/t contract L. - - - - - user 7... O 07 41407
- 63.02.73
A
W 05 2.73 Wate \ SS SS SS - - - - - - - - -Hasse

Page 20
(D
多 諡 ဣဒ္ဓ့် 受 ථු - දී , 穹 తే ಟ್ವಿ så পঞ্জ 。 ක්‍රි. ඩිං ご 。 බී. 茎 *
言 T
Machinery - erection time dunarmy se ses se esa en ons
7.O. 4. O
w | Τ. أمير BY Time dummy Β Α H Erection - Stage 1 Β 03(༡/ ། - ཏ. -- - ཁ་ཐག། ༡༡ ། | 1 3.0 2 ܚ.
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3. Tfirጎጎe ძuულy_ | | L Erection - Stage 2/B S LSSSMSSSS ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــلـــــلـــــــــــــــلـــــــــــــــے ـــــقــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ۔ SO 16... O 9.p S75/
9.0
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---- SS O 13.0
Time dummy - - - - - - - - -ح بھی سجی ہو۔ ص ---------
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I R Depot & 2 Nos. Warehouses F Trne dummy
15, O || ਹਨ
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9. O w
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or Sagger J
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o i
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25、○ 2Ꭼ .05 , 73: – Call tenders Y -& award- a
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v . . . compressed a distribution 2N /
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

,器 స్టోర్షి శక్తి ల్లా ජී. 器 వి చే
و همه سه 2013
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/
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Page 21
STAGE STAGE 2 ST
F COLUMNS (G) 62.
UN COAT" ON S G. O22
ERECTION OF COLUMNS
£RECTION OF ERUSSES
ROOF CLADONG
A CHINE FONDONS
 
 
 

AGE 3
PRECAST ColUv NS
Åppealkix III

Page 22
DECORATION & FÖRMING
SHOP No.
BUILDINGS No. 6, 17.
18 & 9
F DEPOT & 2 No. WAREHOUSES
G PRINTING Shop
WAREHOUSE No. 31
I WAREHOUSE FOR SAGGER
*UEl oil TANKS AND L. P. G STORES
k WATER TANK
WATER IN TAKE a DELIVERY
2. (MAN & INTËRINÄ DISTRIBUs
τION LINES)
M. COMPRESSED AR LINES
N ELECTRICA SUE STATION
POWER CABLES
a STORM WATER & EFFLUENT DRANS
ROADS
3-A 06812 (74/05)
ሃሃ ፳/«
s
A
w 'A \
 

iY (), 3. V-IV 5 yYQ İTK f f 252.72 Stage 3 A. / / }- - - - - - - “কেল্প স্পািন 9. O
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No. 1 Civil work Α' και η 27, 172 Stage 1
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კ` f: A & \ 03 T /— ” ” ” ” ” ” 8 O V A.
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ή Depot אא SSSS ܣܝܘܡܘܗܝ̈ܗܘܿܚܗܘܿܚ--------------!-- -- ܗ݈ܗ ܗܗ ܚ- ܚܙܘܗ ܚܙܗ ܘܚܗ ܕܗܕ )( / )Nܠ
\\
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13.72
Warė ħouse No. 3) 01 ̧ ዕት.73 Civil work
Warehouse 05 02,73 for sagger
9. O
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ents for in ta ke
13.12.72 & dist, mains, C
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distribout C5. G2.73 iOnlines
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V
\
01.01.73 Access roads SSSS SSS B SSSSSSAiAiAieieiehSiS SASASS
12-0

Page 23
حیافته
ఆజ్=
-
-
-
-
-
ァ
3.
Ο
Time dumny i D | Ere con -------- - - - -
vil work
- - - - ل - 1 -- توانائی ایجیئنUT‘- لمــلـــــP - - - - - - - - ---+ i الحسي 2
26- O
- in e E. 17, dummy
E. i Erection o30/4.5VO71
- b in = un n n 碧 Depot 8, 2 Nos, Warehouses (FN
g 15, O
05.02.3 Printing shop - Civil wor ബ ബി ബി ബി ബ - - -it--->
I
Warehouse No. 3
Givil vork - - - 44 - - - - - - - - - - طلب - - - -
Warehouse 5.02,73 for sagger 4- - - - - - - - لـ
= - c e - . n u- — c. I
O gospe lines Extern
i
O
<@
Water tank 250 Pairact çdocu nri- Qa}1 fgeridef*s y nts f & award as . !!-
ËSt. L CO rħi ia Get il
| Հ. 7, O 12 28.5.13 - 63.02.73 G3.373
it. 65 02. Water distribution network لیے } SS S f 6... O
༣༽ | s Compressed a distribution ノ |
O5, G3.73 lines SS SSS ை 1 2 . Ꭴ 35 0.13
羲
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2.. O 65.03. 73 ك جي
مصر Electrical y سمجھیے۔ 韩 distributs MYElectrica i djistribution 1. 05.02.73 ion lines lines 2
a 25.05.73
05.02.1ಕ್ಕಿ Storn water & effluent drais C 、辽/箕 -- ܕ -- - ܣܫ ܗܗܗ ܗܗܘ ܤܘܤ -- --
ಕ್ಷಿಸಿ Access roads internal roads
༼དེ་༽ 12.. O ༥ 72/ 22-0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

|- =
suae
F○し*○4丁○*
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*icn
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E.
ai
28.08.23
事→******乳劑量•湖*******→→
= 也é********
அ ஆ இ ஆ அது அது

Page 24
UNDA丁目○NS ()
ERECTION OF COLUMNS
-ERECTION OF TRUSSES
ROOF CADDING
MACH, INE FOUNDATIONS
SEOE. CLADO ENG & FINS HES
 
 
 
 
 

°R三CAsT CC_U*s
FOUND AT ONS

Page 25
NO. 9
DECORATION & FORMING SHOP
NO, 11
BUILDING NOS, 16, 17, 18 & 19
DEPOT & 2 NOS. WAREHOUSES
PRINTING SHOP
WAREHOSE NO. 31
... ...-...
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - ----
|
ci v li vvv i svo > tago i i i
................................
} }
|
o civił works stage !
T
Ci
vil works stage i |
civil works
civił w of

SAGGER SHOP
GLAZING & FIRING SHOP NO. 10
psas, pa RATION & FORMING SHOP
† 972 | NoveïBER
DECEMBER
New CERAMICS FACTOR’
1973 JANUARYFEBRUARYĤA ARCHÅ ÞRÍt.
| | | cívis works→erectio
●
: ! - civil works stage ! '
civil works stage !!
civil works stage ier
civis works stage ||- 翔》
「Ț

Page 26
* -。鼻竇。鼻員
密
* 嘗 * 員
erection
£T£Cts On
|會sest} 實實鼻**員i*鼻*藏-
warming up
co vis works
***員賈員
員 **員員員*** 農員恩 * * 蒙 vil workserection --------* 員 *員鼻•員員 * 鼻 **員員鼻 | - • * * 靈寶 ** * *!,*寧真**********員******
erection
C O M M E R C {Al_ PRODUCT | O N
 
 

Appendix II
-ORY – RATTOTA PROGRAMME
|-1973 LMAYJUNEJULY| AUGUSTSEPTEMBER OCTOBER NoveMBER
erectionproduction
erection of ki s nswarming
& シ *b y}••••– →→→ ... ···* 實 * 以ra * * * * * * -#シg Q「---- - -*玖 *********
production

Page 27
& INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION LÅNES
COMPRESSED AįR LINES ELECTRICAL SUB-STATION POWER CABLES
STORM WATER & EFFLUENT DRAHNS
ROADS
12
!!!!! ......!!!
----
.......... --
* 員贊 鼻- * * *
... .......... ... - ←→ ∞

PRINTING 8, 10 p.
WAREHOSE NO 31
WAREHOUSE FOR SAGGER SHOP
FUEL OIL TANKS & L P G STORE
WATER TANK
WATER INTAKE & DELEVERY MAIN
civít works|
:... :) ------ ****... --...»
oil tank for sagger shop
*****
main oi! tanks* &

Page 28
*翼**亂**鼻翼賞 ** - *
|- ~ ~ ~ ~*= ***
I
 

±,±,±,±),
影* ) ) )
]
シa g シ *
& L. P. G. stotes
externas
oii
pipe lines
erection
参) ),)、鼻 )交)。具)))),),-)
登 霞a 錢》像 爵
– – –
|}} |
C O M M ER CHAL PRODUCT | O N

Page 29
Journal of Development Administration. Vol. IV, No.
Some Reflections on Curre
in the District
THE year 1973 will earn for itself a special in Sri Lanka. For the first time we have dis mould and modify, to suit local conditio bequeathed to us by the British along with t to the institution of District Political Aut Ministerial fiat! towards the beginning of ( with the political and economic forces that le this idea had been in the air a long time be nor are we commenting very much on the
corollary to this innovation. We single ou unique-an experiment in Government which following Parliamentary-Cabinet type govern
This paper is not an attempt at justi these developments), because we are of th character, and hence will give way to other generate and by which developments it w intention is to surface Some of the problem ar administration, analyse Such problems and i generate, and, if possible, stipulate desirabl harnessed in order that the developments a better management of the affairs of this coun
Constitutionality
We bring this out as the first problem because of our firm belief that any administ constitutionality or be preceded by an app1 also aware that doubts have been exp1
1. The announcement was made by the Prime Memorial International Conference Hall whilst the c The Cabinet formally approved this proposal, which 27th of September.
2. Document No. 13/2/337, Representations Memorandum dated 20th September, 1970 Submit and Subjects Committee. See also Administration Ret Government Printer, 1971.
4-A 06812(74/05)

1, May, 1974
nt Administrative Reforms
Administration.
B. S. WHIJ EWE ERA
place in the history of Public Administration splayed an innovative spirit and an ability to ins, the administrative apparatus that was he Soulbury Reforms. The reference here is hority which was set up almost by Prime October, 1973. We are not concerned here 2d to the setting up of this institution (in fact fore the precipitation of an economic crisis) limited financial decentralization that was a it this institution for comment because it is , to our knowledge, has no parallel in countries ing practices.
fying this institution (in fact we anticipated le view that it is essentially transitional in developments due to the very forces it will vill be superceded eventually. Rather, our eas this institution has created for the present dentify the forces that the institution would e directions in which these forces could be nd changes that will emerge will be for the utry.
area because of its fundamental nature and rative innovation must withstand the test of ropriate constitutional amendment. We are ressed in certain quarters concerning the
Minister on the 20th of September at the Bandaranaike abinet deliberations on this proposal were going on. was by then a fait accompli, at its meeting held on the
from Individuals, Constituent Assembly Proceedings. ted by the Government Agent, Badulla to the Steering port of the Government Agent Badulla District for 69/70,
3.

Page 30
constitutionality of this institution. For this problemat two levels, general (i.e. tak and specific (i. e. taking into account the det
If one searches for the basic principles of ti the principle of political direction of the Ac the confidence of a majority in Parliament.
stares at one's face, and we use the words
cannot think of a leadership that has come ir wise. We would go further and say that this the Order-in-Council of 1947, which provid Parliament, and that this has been a basic
ruled this country since the Soulbury Refori further in time one will realise that our cons has been characterized by a process by wil achieve, in stages, a full control of the adi reckoning, this concept of political diection is it one that is inconsistant with the spirit direction is something that should be mainta or whether it should permeate to other leve and convention and it is in this respect, if at a
When we go from the general to the provision in the present constitution for th In fact it is a truism that no such institutic constitution was promulgated. Two reason expect a written constitution to provide fo place subsequent to its promulgation. Seco inspiration from accepted, tried-out and wide at the time of making of the constitution, District Political Authorities is an unique ex democratic countries.
The more crucial issue is whether th requires a prior amendment to the Constituti existing constitutional provisions. Our vie by appointing the District Political Authori trative areas. We also contend that the De subjects and functions (in respect of whic geographical areas of operation by Order ur
This device of appointing District P two important advantages. Firstly, it cou district level of multi-disciplinary programm departmental and ministry boundaries (an co-ordination. Secondly, it would fix pré Authority in the administrative hierarchyar
4.

urposes of analysis we would like to discuss ng the pith and substance of the constitution) tiled provisions of the constitution).
e present constitution one cannot fail to see ministration by a leadership that commands In fact there is nothing to search, it simply political direction deliberately because we to power on a political platform acting otherwas also the spirit of the former Constitution, 'd for the Executive to be from the ranks of premise to which all Governments that have ns have subscribed. In fact, if one goes back titutional history, from Donoughmore times, lich the elected representatives demand and ninistration of this country. Hence, to our of the Administration is not a new one, nor of the Constitution. Whether this political ned only at the apex where it has so far been, ls of the administration is a matter of detail ll, that a problem of constitutionality arises.
level of detail there is to be found no specific e setting up of District Political Authorities. )n was contemplated at the time the present S may be adduced for this. First, one cannot r every possible development that may take ind, constitution framing has also to draw its cly discussed constitutional practices prevalent and as pointed out earlier, the institution of periment hitherto unheard of in Parliamentary
e setting up of District Political Authorities on or whether it can be accommodated within w is that it could be accommodated, simply, ies as Deputy Ministers in charge of adminisuty Ministers so appointed could be assigned h their assistance is required) and assigned der the hand of the Prime Minister.
olitical Authorities as Deputy Ministers has d provide for the formal co-ordination at a 'S Such as Food Production, which cut across l jealousies) and which entail problems of :isely the position of the District Political its relationship to functional ministries and

Page 31
departments. This latter aspect is somewh; of the fact that in some districts ministers Authorities.
District Political Authorities and the Adminis
We have so far dealt with the probl important issues that this device raises, esp power structure.
First, the District Political Author programmes, but also a disburser of funds f For the present, the financial resources are : but as time goes by it would expand and s pressure groups which had hitherto bein departments--either through their Members
having to lobby the District Political Authori their Member of Parliament that what is bei priority. Further, the Members of Parliam Parliament) who hitherto had to spend quite and chasing files up and down the corridors their follow-up at the regional offices), now very decision-making body which has the po loss of clientele where the ministries are co developments, and a consequent loss of barg
In making the above observations we a allocation of resources can seriously cram instance, this year, some districts did no the educational sector, and, perhaps, the Mi of the affected pressure groups towards the if this happens two years running he is as fundamental issue of the extent to which he discharge of his functions. Having to Planning Ministry and a stringent Treas 22 separate District Political Authorities w
more complex.
The second problem arises from the Office under the new dispensation. Traditi an equally small select staff attending mainly Minister's duties. Its initiative in policy ma function was to serve as the link between the instruments, the Cabinet and the Ministrie, Authorities, which are directly attached to it dimension, and for the first time establishes

at ambiguous and confusing today because I have been appointed as District Political
strative Power Structure
em of constitutionality, but there are equally ecially those pertaining to the Government's
ity is not only a co-ordinator of specific Dr district works of medium and small nature. small (about 7—10 million rupees per district), o would its scope and impact. Hence, local ng lobbying in Colombo-in ministries and of Parliament or other contact men, for small s, etc. now find themselves in the position of ty. In practice, this boils down to convincing ng pursued is something that should be given lent (especially the Government Members of a lot of their time getting ministerial sanctions of ministries and departments (not to mention find themselves to be an integral part of the wer to authorise these items. The result is a oncerned, at least the ones affected by these gaining power.
ure not unmindful of the fact that decentralized p the style of an individual ministry. For it provide any funds for capital works in hister will be able this time to divert the wrath respective District Political Authorities. But good as crippled. This then raises a very could be held responsible for the proper
negotiate ones Way through a scruplons jury was bad enough, but bargaining with
growing importance of the Prime Minister's onally, this has been a very small office with to the public relations aspects of the Prime king was marginal, and in this field its main
Head of Government and the policy making S. With the institution of District Political , the Prime Minister's Office takes on a new
a direct link with the 22 districts and their
15

Page 32
administrations. Admittedly, the District attached to any other Ministry without in tur of super-ministry. Hence, the most approp However, this has vast implications. Now, across ministry boundaries and exerting a d districts, and more important, it will be openi that are functionally the responsibility of mi quoting a circular sent by the Secretary,
Government and Home Affairs, in consultatic
Every Government Agent, A. G. should act in accordance with th Authorities in their District and si co-operation. Wherever there is instructions may run counter ti or Regulation, expect such situa Co-ordinating Secretariat for cla Where necessary, the Co-ordina concerned.
The implications of these instructions are that a greater initiative in policy-making. Over til the ambit of subjects coming within the pu trend could very well lead to the eclipse of Sc and lead to what is commonly called the Minister.
This phenomenon of Presidentialize following a Cabinet form of Government. I for a longtime," and in recent times in Canada it has been regarded, by some, as a means of of charismatic leadership-the prerogative of
The third problem area that we selec premise on which governments are formed a are coalitions, we mean, of interest groups. (and the previous ones) the political nature oft where governments are formed from among coalitions do operate. They are coalitions til religious, caste, regional and sectoral intere: these interest groups and become the chief
3. Circular No. AB/DC/17 dated 10th Dece
4. Richard Crossman, in his Introduction to Humphrey Berkeley, The Power of the Prime Ministe
5. Denis Smith, The Transformation of Par (ed Thomas A. Hockin), Prentice-Hall, 1971.
6

Political Authorities could not have been 1 transforming such Ministry into some sort iate place was the Prime Minister's Office. the Prime Minister's Office will be cutting rect influence on the administration in the ng itself to direct local influences on matters nistries. We would like to amplify this by Ministry of Public Administration, Local in with the Prime Minister's Office :-
A. D. R. O. and other officers concerned 2 decisions and instructions of the Political
a problem arising from the fact that such D a Ministry circular or any other rule tions to be reported to the Prime Minister's rification and resolution of the problem. ting Secretariat will consult the Ministry
the Prime Minister's Office is now assuming he years and with the probable expansion of rview of District Political Authorities, this Dme ministries as policy making instruments Presidentialization of the Office of Prime
Ltion is not something new to countries t has been the subject of comment in Britain , notably under Trudeau. In these countries investing the administration with the quality any Prime Minister.
t for comment is one that concerns a basic nd are maintained. To us, all governments It may be that in the case of the present one he coalition is dominant, but even in instances he ranks of a single, cohesive, political party, at reflect diverse combinations of communal, ts. The ministers inevitably get drawn into spokesmen for them at the decision-making
ber 1973.
he 1964 edition of Bagehot's The English Constitution. ", London, 1968.
amentary Government in Canada in Apex of Power,

Page 33
level. On many an issue the position taken by t or groups whose cause they choose to espouse, and groups constitute their main political support, botl At the apex these differences are reconciled at Cab policy directions, but there is a silent understandin is obliged to cater to sectional interests. At the Sees this very clearly, begins quickly to understar accordingly. The District Political Authority on proposition to an official who has to carry out inst political party man, and, in the context of a coali disfavour those instructions which in his opinion party to which he subscribes. Secondly, he is also a loyalties towards interest groups within the distri leadership. In such a situation it would not be ur some of the instructions emanating from Colomb and how he reacts to them will depend, inter alia, our contention is that in the institution of District of friction which could be a source of constant ir could eventually lead to the undermining of the co
So far we have taken the institution of Distric Some aspects of its impact on the administrative proceeding any further, we would like to lay do developments that are taking place at the Centre. to the institution of District Political Authority, analysis in that they too involve the administrative p
The Planning Process
In the early years after Independence what the Treasury. It was more a control function thar too was not a very difficult task and any persista major programs through whilst the Treasury cont here and there on things like overtime, cadre, travelli was disliked, but it was never a serious threat to c foming the Ministry of Finance into a super-ministry economic planning there emerged the Departmen not till 1965 that the planning process was linked v took hold of the management of the economic affa economist at its head, the Ministry of Planning. helped by two vital factors. First, it has always h Planning the weight of the Prime Minister behin it was commissioned at a time when we were j a deteriorating foreign exchange situation. This, of the financial situation into a crisis, largely c hand of the Planning Ministry in the matter of reso the Ministry of Planning had grown into a very pow

hem reflects the interests of the group i also the extent to which these interest n within the Government and ouside it. inet level by a consensus on improtant g that back in the ministry each person ) operational level, the district official ld its mechanics of operation and acts the other hand, is an entirely different ructions issued to him. Firstly, he is a ion of political parties, may view with Will jeopardise the local interests of the politician in his own right with definite ct, which in turn look up to him for natural for him to be at variance with yo. What he does on these occasions on his political judgement. However, Political Authority there lies this germ itation and which, if allowed to grow, alition nature of any government.
2t Political Authority and have analysed power Structure at the Centre. Before wn a few other comments on certain These developments, though unrelated are very relevant for purposes of our lower structure of the Government.
ever planning there was, was done by a planning job. Resource allocation nt minister was assured of getting his ended itself with saving a few rupees ng, etc. The interference of the Treasury ther ministries to the extent of transy. With increasing interest on national t of National Planning . But it was with the budgetary process and thereby irs of this country. Always with a top , since 1965, has grown in importance ad in the person of the Minister of i it. Second, and no less important, ust beginning to feel the crunch of coupled with the subsequent escalation ontributed towards strengthening the urce allocation. Hence by early 1973, erful institution.
7

Page 34
The country's planning mecha when the Government, acting on rec set up a Planning Council of nine Cabi ning priorities in the matter of alloc through nine sub-committees called Sec colleagues have been co-opted) each de and Fisheries, Administrative Machin for these Sectoral Committees, both f from the Ministries of Planning and Pl:
A noticeable feature of this de is still there in a big way it has certai process. Further it has created a curic the Supplicant and judge.
We are not interested here in get nomic imperatives and political realitie of our belief that the truth lies somewh reasonable approximation to an optim impasse is only a local manifestation especially in developing countries. Our some important conclusions which will Political Authorities.
Nowadays, one does not have tc must and the poorer the country the mo and the allocation of resources, which fi should be both authoritative and rationa ards of modern budgeting. In order to to be done at the highest political lev reflecting the political realities of the sently constituted-a sort of inner cabin allocation of resources. But, could it ful degree of approximation ? Our answer about a cause that he himself has cha. his prestige. Second, the supply side C by a condition of scarcity, which would which are otherwise excellent. In th elimination is bound to cause heartburn to achieve. As we have observed earl
6. Mike Faber and Dudley Seers, (ed),
7. No doubt Wehave introduced progi of programme budgeting without the planning system. In fact, very little of the classical bu
18

lism underwent substantial change in July, 1973, ommendations made by a Cabinet Sub-Committe, het Ministers for the purpose of planning and assigtion of resources. The Council was to function toral Committees (to some of which other Cabinet aling with a broad policy area, such as Agriculture :ry, Industry, Irrigation etc. The supporting staff or secretarial work and research, was to be found In Implementation.
velopment is that though the Planning Ministry nly lost its commanding position in the planning us planning mechanism whereby a minister is both
ting ourselves involved in the conflict between ecos ; partly because it is futile and partly because of ere in-between in a synthesis which provides for a al decision making process. Further, the present of a dilemma being experienced the World over, intention rather is to draw from these developments end support to the theme of our analysis of District
) labour the point that in any country planning is a re this should be so. Hence, expenditure planning orm an integral part of the overall planning process 1. In this respect we are far behind time by any standensure that decision-making is authoritative, it has al, preferably by a small but representative group Covernment. In the Planning Council as it is preet-we have an excellent device for the authoritative uction rationally and objectively evento a reasonable o this is, no. First, no person can be that objective mpioned and on the acceptance of which may rest fresources is going to be increasingly characterized mean the elimination of a large number of programs : context of a coalition of political parties, such and friction, making rationality exceedingly difficult er, one should not be the judge and supplicant at
The Crisis in Planning, Chatto and Windus, 1972.
mme budgeting but we are merely going through the exercise of priorities, an essential pre-requisite to any meaningful PPB getary process has changed.

Page 35
one and the same time, and if judge one must be, ti one has to be the supplicant. In terms of constituti are assigned functions and subjects and are made prescribed agencies and departments the ministeri for the running of these departimemts and for com shortfall in the allocation of resources will not on long run hamper the effectiveness of his administra and in the ultimate analysis his political image. Her issue, namely, the doctrine of ministerial responsib question and to which we address our mind in the 1
The Melting Pot
In view of the sacredness of this concept prefer to preface our remarks by quoting at length
The internal problem relating to the or the result of a self inflicted wound.
have been so reluctant to rationalize ad ministerial control is the doctrine of n requires no exposition here, but it is have invoked this doctrine in orde control of other(their) institutions. A assumed direct control he would : Parliament for every detail of the adn
The ridiculous point about this theoretical features of British constitut No sensible Member of Parliament ex of administration, which is the doctril be a useful tag for harrying ministers rather of a game of verbal cowboys a effectively dismissed, if he really beco front bench, or if he manages to earn party's backbenchers and has the jib closely associated with a policy which or likely to lead to electoral suicides.
Chapman's argument is that no minister has any d departments in any real sense, and hence, by impli of policy through them. We would go further at with resource allocation being characterized by a very few ministers have any direct control in any I of policy pertaining to their functions.
8. Brian Chapman, British Government Observed. A

len we have to pose the question whether onal practice whereby Cabinet Ministers ; responsible for the administration of s responsible for the provision of funds, missioning of new programs. A serious ly curtail his programs, but also, in the Ltion, its ability to deliver the goods, e We come up against another cardinal ility. It is this doctrine that we wish to next section.
of ministerial responsibility we would
some authoritative comments.
ganisation of central ministries is largely The principal reason why the British ministrative institutions and to improve linisterial responsibility. This doctrine clear that ministers and senior advisors r to justify remote rather than direct 2cording to the doctrine if the minister automatically become responsible to ministrative work.
doctrine, which is one of the central ional law, is that no one believes in it. pects a minister to resign over a fault he’s implied ultimate sanction. It may in Parliament, but even then it smacks and Indians. A minister resigns, or is mes too embarrassing to have on the the overwhelming hostility of his own of a scapegoat, or if he becomes too events prove either disastrously wrong
irect control of the administation of his cation, a direct control of the execution nd submit that, at the present juncture
condition of scarcity and uncertainty, meaningful way of even the formulation
|llen and Unwin, 1963, p.38.
19

Page 36
In the future, policy formulatio and initiative of individual ministries bu national priorities dictated by political. ( must surely begin to re-examine our s rational ordering of priorities or whethel at any cost.
in making a case against the dic any way preaching irresponsibility. Ré formulation-on the Government and or responsibility implies. At the level of e follow the European and American ex surrounds the bureaucracy and demand degree of accountability and answerabili are considered to be of a political nature once again.
But fiction or not, this doctl the internal organization a furnished the theoretical gr anonymity and constitution Nobody really believes that creatures without fixed idea advice with all deference anc The cognoscenti know perfec ministry. Their real strength. responsibility, is that they ar
There is another facet of this doctrine th: one of the basic principles of democrat which are binding on the community,
of specialists or experts, but by a co-o) place of each specialism in the life of th
To be able to do this dema the specialist. It demands, good of the Whole communi relations to each other, and
This, of course, is the ideal, but to the ( apparatus approaches this ideal, one ca contention is that the operation of ti militates against the realization of a re the effect of exposing higher decision r the cult of personality which develo
9. Ebid p. 38-39 10. G. C. Field , Political Theory, Met

Will not be merely a matter of vitality, research more a function of resource supply and the overall :onomic and societal realities. In this context, we ocietal goals and objectives—whether we desire a We prefer to perpetuate a constitutional shibboleth
ctrine of ministerial responsibility we are not in sponsibility should be there--at the level of policy the Cabinet as a whole as the doctrine of collective ecution and administration, we could with Success ample and remove the cloak of anonymity that of departmental heads and agency heads a greater y, at least in respect of those whose appointments
In this respect we would like to quote Chapman
ine (of ministerial responsibility) seriously affects nd working of central ministries. First, it has ounds for maintaining, indeed insisting on, the al irresponsibility of civil servants. . . . . . . . . . . . senior civil servants are faceless, pliable, sexless S, or intellectual eunuchs impartially proferring humility to the great man in the ministers office. tly well who are the eminences grises in a particular and the real dangers of the doctrine of ministerial e unassailable9.
at We are very much concerned about. It involves ic theory, namely, the most important decisions should be made not by a leadership that consist dinating authority which can decide the proper 2 community.
lds very special qualities but not the qualities of o put it roughly, the ability to think in terms of the y, to survey all the different specialisms and their ) evaluate the particular contribution of each.
(tent to which a country's higher decision making also be sure of the quality of its decisions. Our 2 doctrine of ministerial responsibility not only sonable approximation to this ideal, but also has aking to the dictates of specialism. We refer to is as a result of this doctrine. Every minister is
len, 1969, p. 108.

Page 37
made to feel that he (as distinct from the Govern results, the more spectacular the better, in order boost his public image. In this pursuit, even well obstruction, and where theory demands objectivity the general good , what dominates is a determina all odds. Our purpose here is neither to highligh politician for the personality cult, but to drive
of institutions must take into account human beha
The third draw back in the application of th work-load on the shoulders of ministers in regard and agencies. Given all the good intentions in the politics and the details of departmental administ that short of Super-human powers only a few col office bring to bear on policy that “very special qui decision-making. In this connection we would li by the Seers Mission.
One great obstacle here, of course, is
ministers, strikingly evidenced, by the offices. Ministers need to be protected time to study and discuss the central iss
This, is in regard to their speciality. When it come individual ministers are far too harassed or overw serious attention to the problems of others.
in this section and the previous one we have
of ministerial responsibility and We have seen how demands of PPB theory, constitutional theory and valuable concept, but its inadequacies in meetin government are too glaring to be glossed over. where do we fit in the political control of executi administration, without which no government cou we would like to go back to the point from which Political Authorities.
A Synthesis
It has been a long way from the District Pol detour in that We had to prepare the ground for W stage we would like to recapitulate the main point District Political Authorities. We demonstrated ministries and even impair their effectiveness throug the power and authority of the Prime Minister's policy making initiative from ministries and, in the the coalition nature of governments. We are not happen. In fact it would not be too off the mark
11. Report of the Seers Missian, Matching Emplo Geneva 1971, PP. 152-153. Our underlining for emphasis.

lent as a whole) has to show positive o account for his stewardship and to ntentioned criticism could become an a delicate balancing of specialism and on to press for ones Specialism against
human failings nor to single out the ome the argument that the design iour.
S doctrine is that it places too heavy a to the administration of departments world, the day-to-day tasks of practical ation weigh so heavily on a person, ld within the span of their period of ality that is the prerequisite to good e to refer to an observation made by
he enormous pressure on the time of queues always present outside their from such pressures so that they have ues of policy 11.
s to the higher function of aggregation helmed with their work to give much
had at the focus of analysis the concept it breaks down in the face of modern lemocratic theory. It had been a very g the stresses and strains of modern if this doctrine is to be modified then on of policy and the control of the ld be effective. It is at this stage that
we left off in the analysis of Districs
tical Authorities but it was a necessary hat is to follow in this section . At this that we made in connection with the low they could reduce the clientele of h a control of funds, indirectly enhance Office vis a-vis the ministries, shift the last analysis, even seriously undermine juggesting that any of these things will if we were to suggest that the District
ment Opportunities and Expectations, I., L.O.
21

Page 38
Political Authority may even succumb t itself. Only time can say, but if this w Beacuse, apart from personalities, the i view, symbolizes two key elements o democratisation.
Decentralization is a key elemen not only have the funds for any apprec tralized, to be controlled, expended and political decision-making process has t disbursement, authoritatively.
In regard to the claim that the II sation, we would like to look at it in r group that is invariably involved in an view we make the claim that the group for decision-making purposes at the dist and their aspirations than any counte) course, of Parliament. This is a strong If one looks at the major decision-makin members fairly closely, one cannot fail that binds them together, whether they c academic sector or the private secto confraternity-in which the members S denying that among them, especially an by birth, upbringing or inclination ha even in these instances, whatever their of having to live in the metropolis, to be and informal gatherings, of having to cu from their lives due to the nature and much the unfortunate victims of this so district level, there is no such alliance They are from mixed backgrounds with above all, the dominant political sector than its counterpart in Colombo. Furt in exposes the decision making process, This, then is the thesis on which our clai a process of democratisation is based no defence. We admit that this is, indee
Our analyses have now brought the breakdown of both the conceptandp about by the demands of modern goverr between this concept and the institution
As an answer to these inco strategy of closing down the ministries thereby absorbing the District Politi terms, involves a modification of th one of functional responsibility to one o
22

o these forces it has unwittingly unleashed upon rere to happen we consider it a national tragedy. institution of District Political Authority, in our if a development strategy-decentralization and
t in this institution because through its functions iable and vital range of programmes been decenaccounted for at a district level but also, the very been decentralized in order to preside over this
District Political Authorities symbolize democratielation to the representative nature of that small y decision-making function. From this point of p associated with the District Political Authority rict level is far more representative of the people rpart group in Colombo with the exception, of : claim to make and we will attempt to justify it. g bodies that are in Colombo and their individual to notice, by and large, the Social homogeneity :ome from the political sector, bureaucratic sector, r. They form a closed corporation-a sort of hare common attitudes and values. We are not long the political elite, there are some who either ve their roots firmly grounded to the soil. But private philosophies may be, the cumulative effect in constant contact with each other both at official toff, to a great extent, the rural and rustic element pressure of their work, is that, they become very ciety than its masters. On the other hand, at the of common attitudes binding the group together. very diffused social contact with each other, and, of this group is very much more rural and rustic her, the very nature of the work they are involved to a very high degree, to rural and local influences. m that the District Political Authorities symbolize To those apologists of 'elitism we offer d, a value judgement. -,
us to the cross-roads. On the one hand there is
practical value of ministerial responsibility brought
ment and on the other hand there is this conflict
of District Political Authorities.
insistencies and anomalies, we suggest a positive in Colombo and setting them up in the districts cal Authorities into them. This, in conceptual Le doctrine of ministerial responsibility from f spatial responsibility.

Page 39
In this pattern, except for the Prime Minist particular district for purposes of co-ordinating a the overall execution of governmental policy th formulation there will be no ministries to presid through the Sectoral Committees, Planning Coun to policy formulation, there is considerable overand the Sectoral Committees. In a country whic this is a criminal duplication. In the Suggested Committees together with the departments will b respect of the areas of policy failing within an explanation of detail we would like to pre structures of policy-making as it is presently cons under the suggested pattern (Fig. II).
At a giance one can notice that a five-tier st tier structure, thus avoiding the duplication referri will be that the new Directorates of Planning and and research needs of the Sectoral Committees, directing and controlling the departments and age unto themselves almost all the functions that ar
The problems of re-organization are such th in the moves, the kings and queens, but also one and the bishops. For this purpose we would like to Committees and their supporting staffs as compon depict them below showing their hierarchical relatio
SECRETARY
-- RECTOR GENERAL
i V
SECRETARY
8 D|REC“fÖR
 
 
 
 
 

r, every Minister will be in charge of a government activities and controlling ough them. For purposes of policy over, but the ministers will function il and the Cabinet. Today, in regard apping in the work done by ministries can scarcely afford valuable expertise, Structure the bureaus of the Sectoral the sole repositories of expertise in their ambit. Without getting into ent diagrammatically (see annex) the tituted (Fig. 1) and how it would be
ructure has been simplified into a four'd to above. The other basic difference Policy will not only serve the secretarial but also be the chief instruments for ncies under their charge, thereby taking e now performed by ministries.
at not only must one take into account, must be able to fit in even the knights take the Planning Council, the Sectoral ents of a single administrative unit and onship under the proposed pattern.
23

Page 40
The administrative head and c Director-General and he will also fun will be supported by the Directors of P Secretaries of the respective Sectoral these key posts one does not have to look there is a ready reservoir of talent ar purpose.
There is also the other possibility the districts some of their key men prese the general Standard and quality of t recent times, too much comment and of the District Administration. This i the ministers themselves in attracting r A reversal of this process would Administration but also provide such at the districts.
A Justification
We do not want to go over the various issues that were raised during t say that the proposed pattern meets th we would like to substantiate the claim of better policy.
In regard to the practice of PPB,
both supplicant and judge, thereby ne: proposed scheme the ministers would n any functional departments or agencies suffer any loss of prestige as a result of Supplicants, i. e. the departmental head for resources and on the strength of wh But unlike what obtains now there will at least, among the ministers. There wi which will get a low priority, but the that every one of them will get the distri The result of this would be, in the lon the ordering of priorities.
In the passage quoted by us, th need to protect ministers from ** the qui they could concentrate on the formulat are left wondering whether this prot minister is first a politician and then a pe a means of contact with the electorate
24

hief executive of the planning unit will be the ction as Secretary to the Planning Council. He 'lanning and Policy, who will also function as the Committees. In the search for persons to man far, because in the present Secretaries of Ministries ld expertise which could be harnessed for this
y of ministers Wanting to take along with them to ntly in departments and ministries, thereby raising he District Administration. There has been, in too little constructive action on the poor quality S due partly to the centripetal forces exerted by then of ability to their ministries and departments. not only lead to the upgrading of the District ple men with the richer experience of working in
ground covered already by taking one by one the he stages of preliminary analysis, but suffice it to em all, adequately. However, before concluding made by us that this would lead to the formulation
We raised the problem of a minister being presently gating the rational ordering of priorities. In the ot be supplicants, because they will not be having s under their direct control and hence would not a denial of funds. Of course, there would be the S and agency heads, who would stake their claims lose claims the ministers will decide the priorities. be no winners or losers in the budgetary stakes, El be certain sectors that will win and cetain others district-wise arrangement of ministries will ensure ct share of the Winnings of the favoured sectors. g run, a more rational and objective approach to
e Seers Mission made a passing reference to the Leues always present outside their offices so that ion of policy. Whilst endorsing this objective we ection is in fact feasible or even desirable. A blicy-maker, and to a politician clientele is strength, ; and no amount of brilliance or success in the

Page 41
functions assigned to him is going to compe “ protecting” himself from his exacting cli by so protecting himself the minister w conditioned by the attitudes and values of have had the occasion to comment. To
can cut oneself away from this only a world. Queues are a necessity and our ai the ministers would get a chance of making the ones in the ministries in Colombo, the C not be confined on functional lines to, say, land matters and so on, but will protray a cr the people living in the district. Throught viewing the performance of the Governn and of identifying the weak and vulnerables having to tread on some other minister's c pushed into the role of co-ordinator of a minister would invariably develop the cha to a specialist, and thereby gradually acquire theory prescribes for its ideal rulers. The
in the long run, to provide for better p
Conclusion
Myrdal once observed that " the key institutions in which their thinking finds e. to take our own institutions and periodical needs of contemporary Society. It may be or even cherish, may not be the answer must have the good Sense to change. Adm re-adjustments. But the story of Mankind, change, adaptability and survival, and so it of today is development, rapid developmei in which one section is reaching out for t grappling with the basic necessities of life. this design-a design for development.

sate for the lack of dialogue that will result in 2ntele. The greater danger, however, is that ill become a pampered but caged bird mainly that 'closed corporation about which we ls, queues are a reflection of reality, and one the risk of alienating oneself from the real gument is that when working in the districts a virtue of them. Our Surmise is that unlike ueues that will form in the district offices will :ducational matters, local government matters, Dss-section of the total needs and aspirations of his device, the ministers would get a chance of ent as a whole as reflected in these demands. actors for remedial ection, without, of course. rns. The second salient feature is that being Il government activities within the district, a racteristics of an “all-rounder as opposed those very special qualities that democratic cumulative effect of these tendencies would be, olicy.
to development lies in men's minds and in the Xpression , and by this token, it is necessary tly evaluate the extent to which they meet the : that something that we have got used to, to the present problems. In such a case we ittedly, changes entail individual and collective and indeed of all living organisms, is one of is with human institutions. The urgent need it which will erase the dichotomy in a society ne fruits of cybernetics whilst the other is still It is to this end, in all humility, that we offer

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Page 43
Journal of Development Administration. Vol. IV
THE IMPROVEM ADMINI
THE Government spends about 3 Health Services in our country. E. and with the increase of populati money is required annually. More have to be employed, more drugs hospitals have to be improved and out in line with trends in sickness ; ment has to compete with othe expectations of the common man. It get the maximum use of every rul efficient ways of spending our resou Services will spiral every year wi health of our people.
In this article I shall confine myse. hospitals better. As an example, I bed General Hospital in a provinci
A General Hospital anywhere in It consists of an Out-Patients Depa. medicine, general surgery, paediatr related clinics and other specialities essential units like blood bank, radi dispensaries, operating theatres, kitchen and pantry's, administrati water, sewerage, telephones, ambil and sometimes even a separate House Officers. Apothecaries, Phar Technicians, Clerks, Overseers, Lak Watchers, Electricians, Plumbers, an unskilled staff. All of this from MONEY. Even the air (Oxygen) bought at a price. In our country and is therefore public property. ' the money is expended and see th
How much does it cost to run a 50 average to treat a patient at the money spent-on salaries, drugs, what many ways can this money

No. 1, May, 1974.
ENT OF HOSPITAL STRATION
Dr. Kingsley Heen deniya.
00 million rupees a year to run the ach year, the services expand a little On and demands of the people, more doctors, nurses and other trained staff 3 and equipment have to be bought, | modernised, services have to be laid and death, and in general, the Govern}r national priorities to satisfy the , is therefore imperative that we try to pee that is spent, and seek better and Lrces. Otherwise, the cost of the Health thout a corresponding progress in the
lf to a discussion of how we can run our shall take the administration of a 500all town.
the world is a big integrated complex.
rtment, the basic specialities of general ics, obstetrics E. N. T., Eye, dentistry;
s like psychiatry and thoracic surgery;
ology and pathology laboratory; Wards,
duty rooms, linen and store rooms,
ve Section, staff quarters, electricity,
ulances, cycles, handcarts, a mortuary
purial ground; there are Consultants, macists, Nurses, Midwives, Attendants.
pourers, Cooks, Stewards, Seamstresses.
and in all over 25 categories of skilled
the O. P. D. to the sewing needle-is that some patients breathe has to be all this money is found from taxation
The public have a right to know how
at it is spent wisely.
0-bed hospital ? What does it cost on the O. P. D., at the indoor ? How is the food, stores, electricity and so on? In be better spent? In short, how can we

Page 44
eliminate WASTE? The chief way in better, or for that matter any instituti ture on personnel, equipment space a
A 500-bed hospital costs the Governm a month or stated in another way, 4 Fig. I ). This is the rent one would city. (In Britain, providing one hosp. up three new houses). There are about ment Hospitals in this country. Of th Government annually on hospitals, abol
Fig. I A 500-bed hospital employs about 35( ting of about 10 Specialists, 30 Hous
Sisters, 200 unskilled employees and th clerks. (See Fig. II).
Fig : II.
In terms of services and in respect of do this data mean? The loyalty and Specialists is crucial to the efficient m services it gives to the patients. A hos team of medical, para-medical and othe that a large team should cost as much measure the value of services rendered. tion to Society is cast upon the team, the medical administrator. Efficiency is we do for 50 cts. what we are now doir standards ? Quite apart from the saving to medical services, this is the approac institution or enterprise in any part o Countries.
Prescribing Habits
The medical profession traditionally C toy both the doctor and his patients tha the best interests of the patients and the nourished by the trade in drugs and to perpetuate these commercialised be patients. For example, nany patients require expensive antibiotics and/or vi how stopping wasteful prescribing of O ment about 250 rupees a week, at one ]
About 300,000 rupees is spent annu Thospital and the bulk of this is in foreig precious foreign exchange is to a devi saving from a change in prescribing ar
28

which we can run our hospitals in, is to identify wasteful expendild time.
ent between 12 to 2 lakhs of rupees 0 rupees per bed per month (see ay for a five-roomed house in the tal bed costs as much as putting 40,000 hospital beds in the Govern2 300 million rupees spent by the it 65% is spent on salaries.
trained and untrained staff consisOfficers, 80 Nurses and Nursing le rest made up of technicians and
better services to the people what devotion to work of a handful of anagement of the hospital and the pital would be nothing without its r personnel and it is not surprising as 65% of the bill. Insofar as Wages a heavy responsibility and obligaespecially upon the Specialists and measured in terms of money-can ng for one rupee, Without imparing involved in this type of approach h to efficient management of any f the world, including the affluent
isdains cost. It is generally thought t cheap items of Service are not in profession. The belief is sedulously medical equipment. It is wasteful liefs and exploit the credibility of who come to the O. P. D., do not tamins. A recent study has shown NE antibiotic can save the Governospital.
ally on drugs for One provincial h exchange. Everybody knows how loping country such as ours. The d investigatory habits can become

Page 45
Cumulative and self-perpetuating. But fiats. It must come about by volunt economics of medical care, by the vas personnel in this country. There are majority of the doctors in this count House Officers in our hospitals) w. therapeutie and investigatory pract when they are shown the way by exa
Diet
The next major item of expenditur bill for a month of a 500-bed hospital recent analysis of dieting of patients re is sometimes spent on extra items of S liver, malted milk, king coconuts (at 40 cts each). No one vould grudge sic serve to cure or relieve them from Su. medical care to give a pregnant mothe ment, a long stay in hospital with its re diet rich in proteins such as eggs and r is generally no medical justification to money on extra diet. In the same v irrational dieting of patients at publi here is that patients in Government adequate diet and not the best that m Fig. III and IV) brought about at til spent on extras to 17 by a simple pro dietary needs of individuals patients nutritionally equivalent food (e.g., lir
Overcrowding
Tied to drugs and dieting is the p in our hospitals. This is a problem all of the West. It is the bugbear of med pects of medical care-nursing, moral mental sanitation of wards, e.g., toilets is designed to carry an overload of pat to give adequate medical attention to s for 32. Some wards in the hospitals overcrowding.
From any point of view of efficienc care-overcrowding has a vicious inf ment. Therefore, overcrowding must it be done ? The problem has to be att of patients to hospital, at the stage of

it cannot be done by administrative ary consent and realisation of the t cadre of medical and para-medical good reasons to believe that the try (the Specialists and the young ill rally round and stop wasteful ice (such as X-Rays voluntarily, mple and leadership.
e in our hospitals is diet. The diet is between 25,000 to 30,000 rupees. A avealed that 25 to 33% of this money pecial diet to patients, Such as eggs, 80 cu.S. each), jelly and oranges (at k people a nourishing diet that Will ffering. For example, it is legitimate r who has come for her fifth confine2cuperative rest from drudgery and a milk. But, as the study showed, there spend as much as 25 to 33% of the vay as for drugs, we cannot afford c expense. The rationale to observe hospitals should be provided an oney can buy. Dietary controls (See his hospital reduced the percentage cedure of medical discrimination of and by substitution with cheaper mes for Oranges).
roblem of overcrowding of patients over Asia and the poorer countries ical administration. It affects all ase of staff and patients and environs. None of the wards in our hospitals ;ients. Besides space, there is no staff say, a ward of 70 patients meant only
studied carried as much as 150%
y-be it cost or standard of medical luence on staff, patients and equipbe reduced or eliminated. How can jacked at three points- at admission diagnosis and during convalescence
29

Page 46
No patient who can equally benef patient. Although the true criterion
of the patients' condition, in our to yield to Social pressure such as
and old age. But such consideration the other two points of the probler importance of the Specialist medica efficiency with which they instruc colleagues and by their anxiety to
quickly as possible. On the averag a patient in our provincial hospita the equivalent is three times as mu In the hospital that has been stud stay up to two weeks, and less than months. Placed in its correct persp crowding is not contributed by th or convalescent homes, but by the
patients. Screening at admission, e under the personal instruction and can control overcrowding. This has under study. (See Tables I, II, III al
Waste
The theme of preceding paragraph how to eliminate it. Waste is of two to disuse. Waste due to use is agair use and waste from under-use. Simil serviceable items are not used and W. Numerous examples can be given to
Health Education
The foregoing discussion is incom of patients and the general public ol aims of Health Education is to teac health services properly. People us aware that it exists and when they Ostensibly, the health services of ol people. * But of course, people knov to run them like any other service. vaguely understood. It is essential what is offered to them free. It is c of the various services that are ava what time) so that they may USE th correct purpose. About 75% of the c
* The paper was written in 1972. A 25 cts. O
30

as an out-patient should be an infor admission should be the curability Ountry (and elsewhere) doctors have poverty, distance, transport problems S can be countervailed by attack at to a great extent. The role and the officers come into focus here, in the t and supervise the work of junior return patients to the community as e, it costs 14 rupees a day to treat S. (It may be noted that in Britain, :h as it costs to stay in a good hotel). ed, about 22 to 26% of the patients
1% go on to stay for longer than six ctive therefore, the problem of overDse who use our hospitals as hotels slow rate of turnover of the bulk of arly diagnosis and adequate nursing
supervision of the Consultant Staff been demonstrated in the hospital nd IV).
s has been waste in our hospitals and types: that due to use and that due divisible into waste from excessive arly, there is waste from disuse when hen repairable items are not repaired.
illustrate this dichotomy of waste.
plete without a word about the duty this country. One of the important h people how to USE the available 2 something properly when they are know how much it costs to provide. ur country are offered free to our 7 that the Government spends money The concept of a cost nevertheless is that our people know the value of ssential that the people be informed lable to them (when, where and at em at the right time and for the Dnditions that our people suffer from
P. D. stamp levy has since been introduced.

Page 47
and bring to hospital can be prevented and curative services properly and g the habits of good living.
Nobody goes to hospital for having in may not come within known signs and the doctor to correct. Yet, there is sol can do for the patient. He can COM sympathy and eagerness in a way that is a great deal of evidence that lack of patient relationship leads not only to human life.
Summary
Our hospitals can be run more effic and the staff conjointly set about to id duce changes to eliminate or control be made aware of the cost of medic available resources of skill, space and

if they use the available preventive ather for themselves the skills and
othing better to do. Their problems symptoms or within the powers of nething inestimable that the doctor MUNICATE with the patient with is intelligible to each patient. There proper communication in the doctorwaste of money but also to waste of
tiently if the medical administrator entify the points of waste and intro
waste. Doctors and patients must all care so that both will use the time efficiently.
3.

Page 48
32
Table I.-Frequency
2}-2 (-
4{}-4号 50-59 60-69
70-79
8U-89
90-99
Number of Daily Admissions
一ー
f
. ' Tota
Table ட.ே Distribution Number of daily Discharges
10-19
40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79
80-89 90-99 (0-09
20-2 -3
-
Αμ
Tota.
Table III. — Frequency
Total Daily Indoor
475-499 5{}{}-524 525-549 550-574 575-599
60G-624 625-649
650-675 (375.699
Ta bie IV.--
Admissions
Discharges
Total Indoor
Wariability of Adini
52
fif)
 

Distribution of Admissions
Pregиепсу
ר ۸ر Une, July, Aug, June, July, Aug.
1970 1971
3 - - 7. g) 12 2. - 24 - - 22 18 8 13 - -
4 4 ()
. . 92 92
of Discharges (excluding Deaths)
Frequency
۸ر - ー 。 re, July, Aug. June, July, Aug.,
1970 1971 -
4. 13 3. 5 13 8
i8 连 25 6 7 8
3. -
S. 2 3.
92 92
-
Distribution of Total End Oor
Frequency
-ܠ ܐܝJuly, 1970 Jull, 1971
O O 2 ()
4 9 7 6
9 l 4
4 t O 3. O
3. 3.
ssions, Discharges and Total Indoor
Αυεγαρε Standard Deration, ༽པ། سیاری. ༽ حخمین۔ 70 1971 I970 1971
53 ... 8 5
49 .. 8 2翰
55.7 ... 38

Page 49
-
அ
Journal of Development Administratio).
An Appraisal of th Services in Deve
Special Refe
THE Scientific study of manage a science is comparatively new.
Services as an instrument Of dev particularly in the developing effectiveness in the planning pro
its need has specifically begun te
national agencies are now incl countries an increasing compon ensure more effective utilization In Sri Lanka (Ceylon), three tance have been in operation Wi Services in various areas of deve the National Institute Of Mana Studies, and the Management C Public Administration. A Cosponsored by the ILO/SIDA Wa
In addition to the above, the inaugurated a specialised agenc ment. Administration (ACDA) in Malaysia, to provide assistar ment Services in the field of dev Asian Region of the World.
The ACDA is intended to hel development from planning stag nation of key level managemer consultancy services.
This paper is being Written wi ment planning machinery whe help particularly in strengthen context of the new framework O In view of the above, it will line the framework of planning Sri Lanka.
Upto July, 1973, the respons cabinet sub-committee on Planr. the Ministry of Planning and agency to this Sub-committee. the Minister for Planning being

ol. IV, No. 1, May, 1974
e needs for Management lopment Planning with
rence to Sri Lanka
M. VV. J. G. Meʼmdis ment and its development as an art and Therefore, the utilization of management elopment planning is also relatively new ; }ountries. Its importance as well as its ceSS has now begun to be recognised and be felt in these countries. In fact, interJding in their Aid programmes to these ent of management services in order to of the inputs of assistance being provided. agencies receiving United Nations assisth the objective of providing management lopment activity. These agencies comprise gement, the Academy of Administrative onsultancy Division of the Department of operative Management Services Centre S also declared Open on 12 July, 1973. UNDP through its sponsorship has just y, namely the Asian Centre for Developwith its headquarters at Kuala Lurpur ce in Management training and Maragerelopment planning to the countries in the
p Asian Governments to speed up their ge to actual execution by offering a combi. it training, problem-solving research and
ith the intention of examining the develop. re management services can be of I, nucli ing the decision-making processes in the f planning that is emerging in Sri Lanka.
therefore be appropriate to initially outmachinery that is presently operative in
ibility of planning was entrusted to the ling (for purposes of policy-making) and to Employment which acted as a Servicing The Chairman of the Sub-committee and g the Prime Minister.
33

Page 50
The methodology adopted by the Min tion of development plans has been to tr Sectors, (e.g., Social overheads, Agricult investments in such sectors through a goals and objectives. This Ministry has with the detailed quantitative economic for formulating overall and sectoral plan it, included the evaluation and assessme prepared by the sponsoring Ministries/Ir. mending such programmes and projects foreign exchange where necessary.
In order to carry out such work, the M. ment comprised the following Divisions
(a) Planning & Progress Control Div (b) External Resources Division ; (c) Economic Affairs Division; (d) Employment Division; and (e) Regional Development Division.
The last named of the above was create of decentralising part of the developmen connection with this, Divisional Dev established through the Regional Develc “ popular participation in the developme Development Division is responsible for activities of the Divisional Development development policy, and to allocate fu approved, projects formulated by the Di
By June, 1973, there were 592 Division throughout the Island in its local author of Government Officials and representativ tions as the people's committees, cultiv societies, village committees, etc., and con: numerous government agencies on the on and its representative institutions on the Divisional Development Councils are to ment development projects in the fielc economic overheads for their respectiv Councils are also expected to prepa. programme for their areas, to co-ordin services made available by the Central progress of the development effort a corrective action.
There was a change of emphasis in Ju planning process and techniques hithert desired impact on economic performance.
34

stry of Planning in its formulaat development programmes by re, etc.) and to co-ordinate the 'onfiguration of macro-economic herefore been largely concerned analysis and research essential ;. The functions carried out by nt of development programmes stitutions with a view to recomfor provision of local funds and
inistry of Planning and Employuntil July, 1973: -
ision ;
d only in 1971 with the intention t efforts of the Government. In elopment Councils have been pment Division to secure the nt effort . . . . . ' The Regional co-ordinating and directing the Councils to lay down regional nds for the implementation of visional Development Councils.
al Development Councils set up ty areas. These Councils consist 'es of the various local Organizaation committees, co-operative stitute the main link between the e hand and the local community other. The main functions of the identify, formulate, and impleis of agriculture, industry and e areas of jurisdiction. These e an integrated development ate the popular effort and the Government and to review the d make recommendations for
y, 1973, as it appeared that the adopted were not having the

Page 51
Thus on 9 July, 1973, the Gov one for Planning and Economic tation. They replaced the earlie The Ministry of Planning an responsible for the formulation the preparation of national an Implementation would chiefly b implementation and the achieve
On 14th July, 1973, the Gove of a National Planning Council. of Cabinet Affairs stated in a latest reform effected to the P Government in pursuance of Programme of 1968 and its sub; means of speeding up of the pac
The “ Ceylon Daily News' ec this re-structuring of the plan. to be said however is that the clearly a fruitful outcome of of how the planning machinery years in office has afforded enou can judge how efficiently its ow this experience has exposed ba problems of personnel, weaknes words, the need for change'.
The National Planning Coun members, with the Prime Minist the Prime Minister, are the Mir the Minister of Foreign and Inte istration, Local Government an the Minister of Industries and S the Minister of Plantation Indus the Minister of Agriculture and Construction. The Secretary to the Council. The Secretaries of Affairs and Plan Implementat functioning of the Council.
A Government communique effectively ensure a genuine a economic development and t. national policies based on the function in close collaboration w Economic Affairs, and Plan I. Prime Minister's Office in its w

ernment created two separate Ministries, Affairs and the other for Plan ImplemenMinistry of Planning and Employment. d Economic Affairs would be mainly
and appraisal of economic policies and di regional plans. The Ministry of Plan e concerned with monitoring progress in ment of targets.
rnment also announced the inauguration In announcing this decision the Director press communique that “ . . . . this is the lanning machinery by the United Front its policy enunciated in the Common sequent election pronouncement and as a 2 of economic development'.
Litorial of 16th July, 1973, commenting on ning machinery stated, “The first thing re-structuring of the planning process is the Government's own critical appraisal has worked in the past three years. Three gh experience by which the Government in machinery has been working. Plainly, usic defects, organizational imperfections, sses in co-ordination and so on. In other
༥
cil consists of nine Cabinet Ministers as er as Chairman. The Members Other than lister of Irrigation, Power and Highways, rnal Trade, the Minister of Public Admind Home Affairs and Minister of Justice, Scientific Affairs, the Minister of Finance, try and Minister of Constitutional Affairs, Lands, and the Minister of Housing and the Cabinet will act as the Secretary to the Ministries of Planning and Economic ion will be closely identified with the
states that “The Planning Council will ccord between the measures adopted for he Government's political outlook and people's aspirations. The Council will rith the two Ministries, (i.e., Planning and mplementation), the Cabinet Office and orking relationship with all ministries.”
35

Page 52
Nine Sectoral Committees have been fo) and each of them will be chaired by a Ministers whose subjects fall under the be members of the Committees.
The Sectoral Committees are
(1) Foreign Finance; (2) Irrigation, Power and Highw
Telecommunications; (3) Trade-Domestic and Foreign,
Tourism ; (4) Administrative Machinery-Cent lopment and Management Dev (5) Industries and Fisheries; (6) Food, Agriculture and Minor Irr (7) Social Overheads (Education, H
and Social Welfare), Housing, (8) Domestic Finance, Employment : (9) Plantation and Labour Relations.
These committees will be supported b relevant subjects and will also draw in ta The inflow of views of persons with gene judgment and correct perspectives drawr expected to reflect broad agreements amc community.
Apart from the institutional framewor) planning and programming units have also Ministries. These units have however coPlanning only on the basis of "ad-hoc arr exist institutional or formal links betwee: Project level operations through the Mini
Meanwhile, the Minister of Public Ad) and Home Affairs has also sponsored the tration and the Budget. The Government'.
was announced in a policy Statement out 23 June, 1972.
The implementation of this proposal this connection, the Minister of Public At and Home Affairs had previously discuss decentralise, with the Government Agen of Local Government with a view to prep
The entire approach by the Governmen from the situation that has so far existed involve the participation of the people in
36

ned under the Planning Council member of the Council. Other espective Committees will also
lys, Construction, Posts and
Co-operative, Shipping and
cal and Local, Regional Development ;
gation ; ealth, Sports, Cultural Affairs, Transport and Mass Media ; und Wage Policy ; and
y Officials concerned with the lent and expertise from outside. ral experience, maturity, sound from various walks of life is ong the various interests of the
K of planning so far described, been established in the various ordinated with the Ministry of angements' and there does not in the Ministry of Planning and stries.
ministration, Local Government lecentralization of the Adminisdecision to adopt this proposal ined by the Prime Minister on
commenced as from 1974. In minstration, Local Government 2d the measures being taken to s and Assistant Commissioners aring the ground for same.
now reflects a massive change in Sri Lanka. The emphasis is to the development effort and to

Page 53
achieve a greater degree of r economy. In fact, an U. N. Repo. recognised that planning in th excessive an emphasis on top/dc interaction between the centre ai past this had not been carried thr macro-economic plans had been
thinking that was going on in Government is therefore geared between the sectors but also bet
as to forge new active links be Centre.
It is against Such an institutic àccepted strategy of development ment services are needed and ( Government's development Prog
The analysis of the situation de management services at the Suk needed at the national level. As r tional components of the total pla towards its own sectoral planning of co-ordination or relation betw fore, appears logical to conclude services can be of much help in overall goals and objectives incC connection management Services functional co-ordination and its Systems as there is sufficient techniques in the various individu core of the national planning or Of this process of functional co-o: provide Support Services and a fee of development planning that oug management service provided a strengthen the decision-making I back to justify its assumptions ar.
At the sub-national level, ther ment Services geared essentially tives. It is at the Sub-national lev "grass roots' characteristics of at this scale that one finds various at introducing systematic method Further, at the sub-national level technology and skills and therefo service at this level be in harmo)

lationship between the sectors of the it has stated that “ . . . it has now been e past had tended to suffer from too wn approaches. Although some form of ld the sectors has been introduced in the Dugh on a systematic basis and as a result formulated in relative isolation from the he sectors'. This new approach of the not only toward a greater co-ordination ween the different spatial hierarchies so tween the Village, the district and the
nal background and the Government's , that One must examine where managean be of much help in Supporting the ( ՅՈՈՈՈՅ,
scribed so far points to a greater need for -national levels as compared with that oted earlier, at the national level instituanning Organisation is fairly well geared but is distinctly deficient in the element een them and the central core. It, therethat this is One area where management securing co-ordination and in achieving orporated in Government policy. In this will be specifically required to ensure techniques may include PERT, O.R. and understanding of Such Sophisticated al Sectoral institutions and in the central ganisation. It will be necessary, as part rdination, to establish a research base to ad-back medium. This, in fact, is one area ght to be thoroughly Organised through a t the national level. It Will serve to mechanism which depends on such feedld interpretations.
e is a great need for providing managetowards action-oriented goals and objecel that one is directly in touch with the numan and material resources. It is also S forms of in-built resistances to attempts ologies into the existing planning system. , there is a lack of high Sophistication in bre it is necessary that any management ny with the specific level of appreciation
37

Page 54
of its inputs. As noted earlier, developme most intense at the sub-national scale C services will be most needed in several a this level. For example, the organizational tration will hence be one element of dev provided with assistance through a man increasing responsibilities for developr different agencies of the sectoral Ministrie ment service could in particular assist the individual provincial Departments visadministrative machinery, namely, the F
In servicing the provincial institutional be taken to employ simple management t hierarchies of administration, (including Grama Sevaka), involved in the total O must be clearly understood and the prin towards motivating individuals to parti of work and to establish an Organisation such an objective.
It is also necessary in planning for deve to rationalise the area relationships of This is an area of spatial management V different agencies and their services are by location for the convenience of the p reckoned with in this process and it hae improving the goals and objectives of de tely, however, in Sri Lanka the spatial di integrated to the economic-dominated p an area of development planning wil provide a basis for introducing the tota and spatial dimensions in the planning p)
A feature that is more common at the national level is the existence of a mul poses an additional effort to co-ordinate with the regular Government institution particular skill of management very tho] nisations reflect an active participation effort. The harnessing of these energies is be an useful area of reference to a manag level.
The mass media is also an important ins to involve the popular participation of th and thereby to evoke local initiative an communication is an area of developme services can be of much use in motivati
38

2nt activity will in the future be f space. Therefore, management areas of development planning at l form of the Provincial Adminiselopment activity which can be agement service, in view of the ment being thrust upon it by 2s. In this connexion, the managea functional responsibilities of the vis the core of the provincial Kachcheri.
framework, particular note must echniques since there are several the most informed and useful rganisation. The techniques used ciple objective should be geared cipate in a common programme all form that is Oriented towards
'lopment at the sub-national level the different sectoral agencies. where inter-linkages between the
identified and then rationalised eople. Distance relationships are ls proved to be a useful tool in 2velopment planning. Unfortunamension has not yet been closely lanning process. It is, therefore, nere management services can l integration of economic, social
OCeSS.
è sub-national level than at the titude of advisory bodies. This Voluntary and advisory agencies S. It is necessary to develop this coughly as these voluntary orga
of the people in the planning : absolutely important and would ement service at the sub-national
trument of development planning Le people in the planning process d leadership. In such a context, int planning where management ng people to participate actively

Page 55
in achieving the goals and obje cation in this process, should be system.
At this stage, it must be stated ment services exclusively at completely divorced from one an system or medium to link the tw goals and objectives. In fact, at improve the development relatio institutional framework. Recentl stated that the Government Age from Colombo giving various in frequently contradict one anoth not know where to begin”. F. there is no central authority to priorities should be . . . . " and crisis could be traced to this mi this is an area of development pl to improve the management sys national levels.
The Local Government institut the total force aimed at stimula sub-national levels. The share of by these Local Authorities is fair efficiency and productivity of t impact on the nation's economy. raised to promote the establishin Services Unit for Local Governn of the Ministry of Local Governn Government be integrated more organisation of the Central Gover ment services will be of much a productivity of the Local Author development.
The provision of management Sub-national level, may be adva national activities at two scalesment services provided at the la problem-solving. Therefore, it v even at the sub-national level to lopment activity and to analyse S at the local level. The problem material resources. Both howev to achieve the desired goals and be usefully managed.

tives of a development plan. Communiviewed as part of a data management
hat it is not sufficient to provide managethe national and sub-national scales, other. It is necessary to have an efficient O levels so as to achieve common overall present, there appears to be a need to nship between the central and provincial 7, an experienced District Administrator ntS ʻʻ ... are inundated with circulars structions . . . . and that these circulars er so that the Government Agent does e therefore concluded that “ . . . . . . tell the Government Agents what the
claimed that “A part of the present k-up of priorities'. Obviously, therefore, anning where special attention is needed item linking the national with the sub
ions also constitute an important part of ting and Supporting development at the the nation's economic resources consumed y considerable, so much so that increased hese Authorities can have a favourable In fact, a point of view has already been hent of a ' ...... centralised Management nent in this country, under the direction hent ”. It is therefore essential that Local closely with the development planning nment and these are areas where managessistance in increasing the efficiency and ities in the context of a total strategy for
services in development planning at the ntageously utilized by treating the subnamely, regional and local. The Managetter should be directly oriented towards ill be useful to establish a research base
monitor information in respect of deveach information to solve specific problems S may be connected with human and/or r are elements that have to be harnessed bjectives of development and hence must
39

Page 56
This paper has thus Outlined various the planning process that may be partic ment services. It has discussed the nat development planning so as to focus att requiring assistance through appropriat hoped that more discussion will be gener, the Sub-national scale and particular att niques and styles of management that c. priate management service. This is part new framework of planning that is em. discussed earlier in this Paper. It may assistance through agencies Such as th management Services but also in training of management in development planning

areas of development activity in ularly assisted through manageional and sub-national levels of 2ntion on the different problems e management services. It is ated on this subject in relation to ention paid to the various techan be incorporated in the approcularly important in view of the erging in Sri Lanka which was be useful to seek international e ACDA in not only acquiring local personnel in various fields , Outlined in this paper.

Page 57
麗 E F E R E]
(1) National Economic Programming Nations Development Programme
(2) Regional Administration in Sri L Administrative Studies, Colombo,
(3) “ Divisional Development Council Sri Lanka ”, ABEYSINGHE, ARIYA, ( No. 4, January–March, 1973.
(4) “ The Role of Cost & Management
the Five Year Plan', DE SILVA, Journal of the Society of Cost & Lanka, 1972.
(5) MASS MEDIA Editorial of the Ceyl
(6) ις Local Government : need for moll S. L., Ceylon " Observer' of 23 a
(7) “Development at Base', IDDAGODA,
13 February, 1973.
(8) “Towards Comprehensive Planning
Colombo, 1971.
(9) An Integrated Approach to Develo A. DENIS, N., Presidential Add Twenty-fifth Annual Sessions of t ment of Science, Colombo, 1969.
(10) “ New Perspectives in Managemer
Vol. 1, No. 1, Colombo, 1971. (11) : A Management System for Plann
systems approach to planning', Town Planning Institute, London,
 

N CES
and Planning-Sri Lanka, United United Nations, New York, 1972.
anka, FERNANDO, NEIL., Academy of
July, 1973.
in the Economic Development of Ceylon Management Accountant, Vol. I,
Accountants in the Implementation of BASIL, Dynamic Accountant, Vol. IV, Management Accountant Students, Sri
On Daily News of 17 July, 1973.
'e efficient management', RANASINGHE, nd 24 May, 1973.
GUNAPALA, Ceylon " Daily News of
”, PERIES, RALPH, MARGA Vol. 1, No. 1
pment Planning in Ceylon, FERNANDO, ress (Section C. Proceedings of the he Ceylon Association for the Advance
nt ”, WANASINGHE, SHIELTON, MARGAo
var
ing—a Review of the application of a CRIPPs, ERIC L., Journal of the Royal
Vol. 55, No. 5, May, 1969, pp. 187-195.
4.

Page 58
Journal of Deveopment Admi,
PROFESSIONAL DEDICAT ORGANIZATION
ADMINISTRATION of organizati recognized as an universal and discipline. Its influence cuts across its poor functioning is painfully ultimated performance of the syste. and management, however, has ye prelude to production in developil sectors. The concept of develop currency. This appears to be a ha subjects of developmental tasks ar while marshalling the material an for efficient production.
Broadly speaking, a dynamic ar. like to deliberately, consistently points for better performance : fi Sional and situational backgrounds these aspects; second, professional personnel performance, for its inac potentialities in the dormancy whic and third, the organizational workin to the working army-even the be utilized if the personnel lack profes dedication is an area which shoul in administration. Chavan (1969) profession leads to paralysis, detach turns into procrastination, cross C responsibility and thoroughness re. of administration however, laudab
Identification, and quantificat dedication is not an easy task in An attempt, nevertheless, has bee the context of the extension per organization working at the C. D further lead to more precise and d standing the vital component organizational incumbents.
42

nistration, Vol. IV, No. 1, May 1974
TION AS A COMPONENT OF NAL PERFORMANCE
B. M. Sharma (S. C. Prasad
Ons, large or Small, has come to be indispensible phenomenon-a worthy all the social and economic system and felt at the production points-at the m. Scientific and efficient administration t to be fully realized as a fundamental ng nations and more so in their public ment administration has now gained aply development where problems and
ld complexes are given due cognizance
d non-material organizational resources
ld Scientific management system would and carefully strike at three crucial ost, personnel ; initial personal, profes} and continued concern for sharpening dedication as a strong determinant of lequacy can even leave the initial basic 2h would rust with the passage of time; ng conditions being created and provided st working conditions may not be fully Sional dedication. Thus, the professional d attract the attention of the students has rightly stressed, “If devotion to hment becomes remoteness, examination :Onsultation brings about abdication of Sults in debilitating delay, the objectives le, are to a large extent, defeated.'
on of constituents of professional view of its difficult subjective nature. -n made in this study to this effect in Sonnel of the community development . Blocks. This exploratory study would epth studies contributing toward under. like professional dedication of the

Page 59
Concepts and 1
lin order to identify the basic constit term professional dedication was conc and devotion to one's profession an commonly used for any occupation, but The occupations which require speci qualified individuals can enter for th Dedication is something eternal, a ch may vary in degree from individual tc giving the best of one's potentiality an In subjective terms, several factors c the professional dedication. Neverth measured; one has to be selective at in view a good number of items wer literature, discussion with the concerni ment departments, various professors experiences and observations.
A pilot study was further undertaken into the problem. All the items so colle major components. Each major compor sisted of several sub-components-the
A list of the major components and prepared was then sent to 80 judges among the administrators in the field Social and psychological Scientists wit the components or sub-componentS. Fu the judges were asked to give w out of ten marks keeping in view it; measuring the professional dedication ol of 67 judges out of 80 were received. ponses, the opinion of only fifty judg The coefficient of concordance 'W' pr to know the consistency in weights giv agreement and the least agreement a is known when the value of 'W' is on was also calculated to test the significa are presented in Table 1. It was found components was considerably high and or one per cent level of probability. It II for each such components as assigned b sistent. As such, all the major compone were sent to the judges were considere professional dedication of extension p. divergence of opinion between the ju sub-components, the procedure would h

[ethodology
ents of professional dedication, the aptualized as a sincere attachment duties. The word profession is all occupations are not professions. lized competence and where only 2 jobs are really the professions. racteristic of an individual which individual; it is the expression of d talents in his or her assignments. In be conceived of contributing to 2less, all can not be accurately that. With this theoretical concept : collected making use of relevant 2d Staff of the community developin the Universities, and personal
With a view to gain deeper insight cted were then grouped into a few nent of professional dedication conindices or indicators.
their respective sub-components so who were specially selected from of C.D. and extension services and h a view to add, delete or modify rther, to quantity the components, eightage to each sub-component ; (sub-component) importance in extension personnel. The responses After deleting the ambiguous reses were considered for the study. Oposed by Knedall was calculated en by different judges. The perfect nong the judgments of the judges 2 and Zero respectively. Chi-square nce of the value of ' W '... The data
that the value of W for all the
significant either at five per cent heans that the ranks of the weights y the judges Were significantly connts and the Sub-components whIch as the constituent components of arsonnel. Had there been a sharp ges on any of the components or ave been to drop out or modify the
43

Page 60
controversial component. As such components (excluding subject. items) were finally indentified as the
On the principle stipulated by G. that all the components and the s importance and therefore, there n results. So to further strengthen th each of the component and the Sub. The average mark for each sub-con cular sub-component. The weight fo weight of the respective sub-comp.
Table I.-Major constituent components ( e One ordanee Wai
Components
Knowledge and understanding Public responsibility Initiative . .
Anxiety for work Aspiration. . . Job responsibility Career satisfaction Contribution Professional relations
* Significant at . ) i level of Probability.
Data in Table 1 revealed that the for measuring the professional ded. efficient of Concordance values age that the judgements of the selected particular component was significal Weightage for major components ledge and understanding was give the professional dedication. It Sco. eight components which followed v Anxiety for work; Aspiration ; j contribution and professional rela nents are dealt with while describi
Components ar.
Subject Matter, Knowledge and U
This component was given the to fessional dedication of an extensi that man can not import rare insigh skill in any activity without a ce standing of basic principles involv ferent type and varied amount O
44

nine major components and 56 Sub-matter-knowledge and undertaking 2 constituents of professional dedication.
oode and Hatt (1952) it was presumed ub-components might not be of equal night be variation in interpreting the e validity of the scale, the weights for -components was calculated separately. mponent was the weight for that partiDr the major component was the pooled Onent taking 100 as the base.
of professional dedication of extension personnel ues and average Weights
Co-efficient
of Weight taking concordance 100 as base
a lates
0.98% 93.50 0.62* - - 74.50. 0.95米 - 70. 10 0.93% . . 69.80 0.89米 - - 69-70 0.95* 68.33 0,95米 - 66. O() G。95米 - - 真4.86 (). 49* - - 59.00
nine major components were identified ication of extension personnel. The Coinst all the nine components indicated i judges in assisgning the weight for a ht at .01 level of probalility. The pooled showed that the subject-matter-know}n the highest importance in assessing red 93.50 marks out of 100. The other vere : Public responsibility ; Initiative ; ob responsibility ; career satisfaction : tions. The weights of the sub-compong the major components.
ld their Weightages
nderstanding
pmost importance in assessing the proOn personnel. It is an established fact hts into his work and exhibit innovating rtain degree of knowledge and underred. Each category of job requires diff subject-matter-knowledge. With an

Page 61
appropriate knowledge test the subjec ing of an individual can be judged dedication may be allotted considering
Public Responsibility
The second vital components of pro responsibility. It was believed that t keep a sense of moral obligations fic recruited, be rated high on the dedic;
While further analysing the data, I to assess the “Public responsibility” component under this head was “ hab the public (8.0). The other eight Suk in rural welfare programmes (7.7) ; targets (7.6); sense of responsibility talents in extention Work (7.4) ; esta (7.4); prepared to work beyond the official work than to personal ones public (6.5).
Initiative
The component Initiative occupie sional dedication. This component w capacity of an individual. It was assu nities for every individual where he work done quickly and effectively. demonstrating self generated action as a YYhan Of initiative.
There were six sub-components or individual could be measured. They in the emergency (7.5) ; taking pri personal hardship for work (7.1) ; t oversight of certain rules and regul design new ways and means for grea
Anxiety for Work
Anxiety for work was identified component of professional dedication the context of the intensity of the professional achievements. Four subAnxiety for work were identified. I that extension personnel should sinc extension work is somehow mis-rep as the pivotal one in assessing the The weighted average for this sub-c
(74/05) 063812فيجيےټ*

t matter knowledge and understandand the scores for his professional
the weights,
ofessional dedication was the public hose who pay more respect to and or the public for whom they were ation Scale.
line sub-components were identified of an individual. The first important Dit of taking impartial decisions for D-components were personal interest
efforts made in achieving the job for assigned duties (7.6); use of blishing relations with the clientele
official schedule (7.0) ; priority to (6.6) ; and helping attitude for the
'd third rank in the scale of profesas referred to as the risk taking lmed that there are certain opportu
may overlook some risk to get the The person who has capabilities of in a particular situation is regarded
which the level of initiative of an were : application of own judgement Ompt decisions (7.1) ; unmindful of rying new things and ideas (7.0); ations for effective work (6.5); and iter service to the public (6.4),
as the fourth important constituent l. This component was referred to in concern of the individuals for their components of the major component it was the apprehension of the judges !erely defend the situation when the resented. This view was considered Anxiety for Work of the personnel. omponent was 76. The second, third
4ಿ

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and fourth important sub-compor feelings of an individual when his gramme (7.2) ; concern after Some cern for the work when on leave
Aspiration
Aspiration of an individual for professional dedication. The judges component of professional dedicatio aspiration in the profession acceler man decides to act for a particula situation. Ten sub-components were an extension personnel. They were with extension workers (8.0) ; hol higher education and training (7.8) cations (7.1) ; enlarging extension (6.4); maintaining personal library place (6.3) ; and own farming (6.3)
Job Responsibility
The component Job responsibility constituent component of professi were recorded to analyse the ‘Job re. first one was “ knowledge and und followed by the duties of co-workers programmes in action (7.1) ; servic given to the Senior extension pers extension programmes (5.6).
Career Satisfaction
Attitude of extension personnel to was identified as the seventh impo) cation. It was realised that a person present job might not necessarily be extension as a professional career. In component was further analysed ar and quantified. The first importan talents and energy (7.0) followed extension as a profession (6.8) ; advi (6.6) ; satisfaction with the relative and satisfaction with the recognitio in general (6.0).
Contribution
While identifying the component the circumstances whatever contril enhancing the extension profession i

nts of the Anxiety of work were : Work is left behind the scheduled prolecisions are taken (7.0) ; and the con6.9) ; respectively.
his professional prosperity reflect his ranked this component fifth constituent 1. It may be spelled that higher level of te the developmental programme, as a job what he perceives of the whole identified to measure the aspiration of
Aspirations for maintaining relations ling higher positions in future (7.9) ; encouraging others for higher qualifiactivities (6.6); extension publication (6.3) ; staying longer in service at one
was identified as the sixth important Onal dedication. Six sub-components sponsibility level of an individual. The arstanding of his own duties . (7.6) ;
(7.5) ; knowledge of various extension e rules and regulations (6.6) ; power Onnel (6.5); and progress trends in
Ward extension profession as a career tant component of professional dediwho has negative attitude towards his having negative attitude towards the this context, the Career satisfaction d six sub-components were identified of them was satisfaction in use of y further prospects (7.0) ; liking for ing others to join extension profession importance of extension work (6.1) ; and awards in extension profession
Contribution o it was felt that under tion is made by the personnel for dicates their contribution potentiality

Page 63
and thereby professional dedication. T placed at eight position according to its
tion scale. There were seven importants scale on which the total contribution o The Sub-component Achievements in e the top priority. The rest six sub-compo Welfare programmes (6.8) ; arranging tri ing teaching aids (6.3) and solving rural
Professional Relations
The ' professional relation was ident tuent component of professional dedica component was considered on the scal tried to keep relations with professional interested in their profession too. Nir identified to know the professional relati were : participation in professional gat fessional Societies and educational ins' shown in professional Societies (6.3) ; co Sonnel (6.2), interest shown in extensi district level officers (6.0) ; relations w village to National level (5.4) ; contact (5.2) ; and contact with National level e
The scale points in the present study W intervals and the scale points ranged fro interpreted according to the continum u: will get 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, score when he get somewhat, much, very much respectively
Analysis Pro
The statistical analysis for assessing individual or a group of personnel may average. The weighted average, for an i be calculated as follows :-
Individual Weighted Average
Individual Weighted average on a par the summation of multiple of weightage scores to the weightage of the compone
X. W -,*ā - - as-WA - y W. for an individual.
Where WA = Weighted ave
S = Scale scores; W = weights of the

Le component contribution was elative importance on the dedicab-components on the contribution
an individual could be assessed. xtension targets (7.1) was given nents were: contribution in rural ining programmes (6.4); developproblems (6.1).
ied as the ninth-the last constition. The context in which this ', was that, those personnel who Staff as well as institutions, were e sub-components were further Ons of an extension personal. They nerings (6.5) ; knowledge of proitutions (6.4); personal interest ntacts with C. D. Block level peron literature (6.1) ; contact with ith communication agencies from With State level extension officers xtension officers (5.0).
'ere assumed to be spaced at equal m 1 to 5. These five points may be sed. To illustrate, the respondent is a check under very little, little,
redure
he professional dedication of an pe made on the basis of weighted ndividual as well as a group may
icular component is the ratio of of the sub-components and scale nts. The same may be expressed
cage
ub-component.
47

Page 64
For an example, in the component sub-components of different weights level worker are shown in Table 2.
Table 2.-Computation of weighted average for
(an illustration)
Sиb-сотротетts Weghts
8
O
Total
6
By substituting the values in the formula
- ΣWS 161.1 WA = 3; w We get; W. 65.8 In a similar way WA for othe interpreted. The overall professio. polling the WA for all the nine con
Interpretation
The weighted average score m pre-determined classification as me
Very much dedication Much dedication
Somewhat dedication
Little dedication Very little dedication
The weighted average for 'subjec may be calculated through a knowl between 75 per cent. to 100 per cen 40 to 49 per cent. ; and less than 40 be awarded 5.0 WA, 3.5 WA, 2.5 W. interpreted on the professional ded of other components.
Su Identifying and quantifying the dedication is one of the burning pro in almost all the organisations tha cause of their profession are being
48

-Public responsibility there were nine . The responses recorded for a village
a WLW on the component-Public responsibility
W) Scale score (S) W. S.
16.0 23. 15. 15. 22. 22. 2. 13. 13.
61.
1.
= 2.44
c components may be calculated and nal dedication may be calculated by nponents and taking average of it.
lay be interpreted according to the ntioned below:-
4.5 to 5.0 W A
3.5 to 4.49 WA
2.5 to 3.49 WA
1.5 to 2.49 WA
1.0 to 1.49 WA
t matter knowledge and understanding 2dge test. If an individual obtains scores t. 60 to 74 per cent. ; 50 to 59 per cent. ; per cent. On the knowledge test, he may A, 1.5 WA and 1.0 WA respectively and cation Scale in the same way as in case
mmary constituent components of professional blems of today. It is the common feeling t the persons who are dedicated to the treated at par with the non-dedicated

Page 65
personnel and even sometimes non benefit over dedicated personnel. Un tial that a scale be developed thro' of the personnel be identified and m without indulging into the sights of
In the present study an attempt h the constituent components of profe nel. A large number of items related relevant literature, discussions wit Finally, a list of nine major com (excluding the first component subj ing) was prepared which was then se as well as for quantifying the com responses, the judgment of 50 judg eficient of concordance Was calcula opinion which was found significant weights for each sub-component a calculated for quantifying the profe
Thus, the scale contained nine components. For assessing the subjec a special knowledge test be devel individuals as explained earlier.
Looking into the delicacy of the that more researches of this kind b and the problem be hit from various the professional dedication. Such ar go a long way in improving and trai

dedicated personnel are given undue der the circumstances, it is very essengh which the professional dedication ay be interpreted in quantitative form impartiality.
as been made to identify and quantify isional dedication of extension personto the problem were collected through the experts and own observations. onents and fifty-six sub-components :ct-matter-knowledge and understandnt to eighty judges for their comments onents. After deleting the ambiguous es was considered for the study. Coted to know the consistency in their at 01 level probability. The average ind the major component was later ssional dedication of the personnel.
major components and fifty-six subt matter knowledge and understanding oped and grades be awarded to the
problem, it is justified here to suggest e undertaken by the Social Scientists angles so that we can better measure understanding of the personnel will ning them.
491

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REFERE
CHAVAN, Y. B.-'Training & Reorientati Ind. J. of Pub. Adm. Jan-March, 196
CHOPIDE & RAHUDKAR,-Charasteristics attir
J. of Soc. Work, XXI, No. 1, June,
ColMIMITTEE ON PLAN PROJECT, 1958.—Repo. and N. E. S., New Delhi, Government
DUBE, S. C.-Human factors in Comm. Villages ; Routledge and Kegan Pal
DAVID, KEITH-Morale and its appraisal,
tional Student Edition, McGraw Hill P 76- 100, 1962.
GARIs, E. W.—Teaching Vocational Agric
York, P. 22. 1954.
GooDDE, WILLIAMI, J., and HATT, PAUL
problem, Methods in Social Research 1952.
LEAGANS, J. P.-Extension Education foi Education in Community Developme: Food & Agriculture, Government of
MAYER, A. C.-Development Projects in
(1) 1956.
PELZ, DONALD C.,–Co-Ordination, Commu Development. Indian Journal of Puk
REPORT ON THE AGRICULTURAL ADMINISTRATI and Agriculture, Government of Indi:
SEN GUPTA T.-Job Chart for Agricultur the Indian Agricultural District Pro
SIEGAL, SIDNEY-Non-Parametric Statistics Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, P. 2.
SINGH. A. and A. S. CHEEMA-Developmel
Agriculture, Pepsu, Nabha. 1956.
SINGH, B. N., et al.-Job preference of W.
P. 119-20, 1967.

NCES
on of Civil Service Attitudes '. The 9, Vol. XV ; No. 1, P2.
ibuting to the success of VLWS ; Ind. 1969.
rt of the Study on Community Projects
of India.
unity Development. India's Changing all Ltd., London 1958.
Human relations at work ; InternaBook Co., Inc. London, Second Edition,
'ulture, Mc Graw Hill Book Co., New
K.-Scaling Techniques : The basic n, International Student Edition, P. 239.
Community Development; Extension nt, Directorate of Extension, Ministry of
India, New Delhi, P. 1, 1861.
an Indian Village : Pacific Affairs, 29
nication and Incentive in Agricultural blic Administration, P. 11-12. 1966.
oN CoMIMITTEE, 1958.-Ministry of Food ia, P. 6.
ist, Jobs of Village Level Workers in gramme, Indian J. of Pub. Adm. 1966.
s for behavioural Sciences; Mc Graw 29-237. 1956.
ht of Rural Leadership, Department of
LWs, Indian J. of Extn. Edu, Vol. III,
R

Page 67
Journal of Developmental Admir
EVALUATION OF ADMINIS EXPERI
SRI Lanka, as in the case of most
region, showed interest in administ. around this period that the demands its increasing developmental role we countries in the institutionalization
with the advocacy by the United Na institutions and the machinery for making levels in Sri Lanka to real administrative and managerial levels to improve the competancy and the c and thus enable it to effectively disch
The Academy of Administrative : recommended by the Administrativ fulfill the above hypothesised role. T of administrative training by the At Public Service is now confronted w in implementing this programme of been mentioned as extremely wide utilities, commercial enterprises, planning for economic development tasks of public administration). If it these responsibilities successfully and it must be trained and equipped to its first report.
The task of a training institution : general function to specific program and collectively attempt to achive th
During the initial phase when a established in the Asian region as in effort was directed at assessing to fulfilled its hypothesised role and s limited objectives, within the overal much interest has been shown in thi
Report of the Committee on Administrative
*This is based on a paper on "Training Evalu trative Studies” read by the author at a Sem Region, conducted jointly by ECAFE INTDA in B

tration. Vol. IV, No. 1, May, 1974
TRATIVE TRAINING - SOME ENCES k
Ranjith M. Withana
of the developing countries of this tive training in the 1960's, as it was On the administrative system to meet e evident. The experiences of other of administrative training coupled tions of the importance of setting up raining, prompted the highest policy ze that systematic training of the could make a significant contribution apacity of the administrative system ; large its increasing development role.
Studies was established in 1966 as fe Reforms Committee of 1966 to his role and therefore the objectives 2ademy have been stated as, “the 7ith new and heavy responsibilities development (the programme has and varied ranging from public industrial projects, administrative in addition to the more traditional (i.e., public service) is to discharge within the phasing of the programme, deal with these complex tasks”, in
s the Academy, is to translate this mes of training which individually above mentioned overall objective. ministrative training was getting Sri Lanka, it appears that no serious hat extent the training in general ecific programmes achieved their framework. However, of recent direction, possibly since it is now
sforms-Sessional Paper-TX of 1968.
ion-Experience of the Academy of Adminisair of Administrative trainers of the ECAFE gkok, Thailand May-June 1973.
5.

Page 68
felt on the experiences of the initial that successful planning and develop among other things On the evaluation and through this an assessment of t
This paper attempts to indicate the in the network of activities comprisi limitations and difficulties in assess administration ; the approaches in ev and the experiences of the Academ,
The position of evaluation in the t from the schematic model in page 3 that comprise the overall training desirable links and the interrelations mechanism) with the other activiti significance in the totality of opera this model One could see that evall aspects, one is how far training co training objectives; and the other i are achieving the broader objectives to training.
As discussed earlier the hypothes. administration to effectively discha in other words it implies that the improve the performance of the a model it is seen that the overall O and the usage of knowledge and ski ment of the desired attitude for the training objectives; and the other . are achieving the broader objectives to training.
The limitations and difficulties O training will be discussed below anc will therefore be mainly of the fil how far the training programmes :
Identification of training needs
An important pre-requisite for til an identification of the training neec the specific objectives and the nati grammes and courses. It is seen th evaluation, because evaluation is a the training needs identified hav experience of the Academy of Ad earlier referred to general hypoth specific terms of training needs. It
52

phase of training in these countries, nent of the training activity depends of training programmes individually; e overall impact of training.
Osition and significance of evaluation
ng the overall training function ; the
ng the impact of training on the
luating specific training programmes
in this direction.
aining function could be clearly seen
which depict the different activities unction. This model indicates the hip of evaluation (and the feed-back es, and thus bring out its role and tions of the training function. From lation of training involves two main urses provided are achieving their s how far the training objectives set set for the public service in relation
ised role of training is to enable the rge its increasing development role, end results of training would be to diministration. From the schematic bjectives of training should lead to; ls required for job and the developjob. (Two other factors external to is how far the training objectives set set for the public service in relation
evaluating this overall objective of the experiences to be presented here st aspect of evaluation, i.e. assessing re achieving their specific objectives.
e training function to be effective is S, as this is to influence and determine re and content of the respective prot this is also inextricably tied up with nechanism of assessing to what extent ! been satisfactorily fulfilled. The ministrative Studies so far is that the sised needs have to be spelt out in is apparent that the indentification of

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Page 70
  

Page 71


Page 72
these needs in terms of the objectiv namely the knowledge and improve done in general terms for the entire necessary is the identification of this ministrators and managers or such organisations. This would of course i skills and (may be attitudes) require administrators in relation to their jo they presently posses. This would ri is also referred to as the training g.
Though serious attention has rece to identityfy these and spell out th groups, no systematic study or surve such information is y a serious limita impact of training. However, at the taken to identify the needs in some lopment of programmes of training Engineerings and Scientific administ ment Agents, Divisional Revenue Off departments and Boards like the Pe River Valley's Development Board efforts no rigorous listing of skills a requirement or for the achievement ( ed. What was done was an analysis representatives of “trainee groups si knowledge and skills required woul exercise for the Divisional Assistant and qualities required for their jobs of their role in promoting developin arrived at, not only by discussions field observations and consultations v relationship with the work of this ment of this approach is needed a and develop this further, and in fac committeeSS for each course consisti group and a project team of trainers
Evaluation of Administrative Trainin
The discussion in the rest of this approaches Of evaluating training p. be viewed in the background of the present in any attempt to assess the e individual programmes or of the ove
(i) The lack of accurate informa Out earlier makes it diffic
{74/05) 0681% A --س-7

es indicated in the schematic model, d skills required, cannot however be administration. What is possible and ; for specific groups or grades of ad
personnel working within specific nvolve identifying, (i) the knowledge, d for the specific groups or grades of bS, and (ii) the knowledge and skill aveal the requirements 'gap' which
ар ”.
ntly been focussed on the necessity e needs in these terms for different by has been carried out yet. Lack of ation for any attempt to assess the Acadamy some initial efforts were from, during the planning and devefor specific client groups, like the rators, Divisional Assistant Governicers and in programmes for specific ople's Bank, National Savings Bank, and Survey Department. In these nd knowledge necessary for the job of performance targets been attemptof the jobs through discussions with O that some aspects of the additional d emerge from this analysis. In the Government Agents the basic skills in view of the increasing importance nental projects at village level was with the client groups, but also by with other official who have a direct group. However, much more refine(nd efforts are at hand to elaborate t the forming of working groups or ng of representatives of the trainer
Was One Such effort.
g-Its Limitations
paper on the experience and the rogrammes by the Academy should following limitations and difficulties affectiveness of training, either of the erall training function.
tion of the training needs as pointed sult to identify and spell out the
55.

Page 73
objectives of training prog. programmes stating the ol this makes evaluation a d
(ii) Though many approaches ai systematic evaluation of writers, there is no genera With common evaluating C effectiveness.
(iii) Why administrative training objectives, among other re; a lack of clarity about th and Secondly, a failure to training and other activit ment.
(iv) Though * in-plant” or specific
Work Organisation can be terms of its contribution or returns on investment, administrative training (as attempt to cover a wide ra working in different Organ are not clear and performal
(v) In the public service situatio. organisation or enterprise, to recruitment, promotion development are not clear
These issues and limitations in th obviously present difficulties and pro the impact of training on the admir less significant and present fewer training courses.
Evaluation of Specific Training Cou
The assessment of the effectiveness basic issues, namely (i) who shoul evaluation, and (ii) in terms of wha
These have to be resolved not only effectiveness but also by looking int of the approaches or methods to be
The Academy generally makes us groups" at the conclusion of the cour firslty that the participants being the course would be able to provide usef secondly that this information will
56

ammes. This has resulted in training jectives in broad general terms and ifficult task.
di methods have been suggested for
administrative training by many agreement of an acceptable method riteria by which one could assess its
proceeds with very poorly defined asons is the fact that ; firstly there is a role for which officers are trained draw a clear distinction between es related to performance improve
: job related training within a single evaluated in a more exact way in to increased efficiency, performance
such criteria fail in situations of
carried out by the Academy) which ange of administrators and managers isations in many of which objectives nce parameters not easily identifiable.
in unlike in the case of a single work the role of training and its linkages , Specialisation, posting and career ly developed and evident.
he administrative training situation blems in any approach for assessing Listration as a whole, but they seem idifficulties in evaluating individual
rses-The Models
of training programmes presents two d provide the information for the t.
by considerations of objectivity and o the practicability and cost aspects used.
e of the participants or the client se as the evaluators, on the premise, most involved and interested in the ul information about the course, and
be provided fairly soon i.e. at the

Page 74
conclusion of a course. Attempts are participants superiors in the work independent observers and training but due to difficulties of engaging su Academy has not pursued approach
On the question of in terms of W out; the criteria used have been base tion method, known as the Kirkpati and Development Handbook of the Development. However, as would be have not been Systematically followe A presentation of this scheme here conceptual framework within which developed. According to this scheme logical steps or stages, namely, Real like the programme. Learning-what learnt? Behaviour-what changes in gramme 2 Results-what aspects of
relevant and applicable (either in the were the tangible results of this in disposal of work, lesser grievance fror etc. The assessment of these Steps hav and wherever possible by in depth i. the participants or client group and
work organization; at different time
Indicated below is an analysis of eac of the above steps or stages.
Stage 1-Reaction: This in short trainees like the training programme does not include any measurement c is only an attempt to assess how peo
Stage 2-Learning : This is to asses which were understood and absorbed on-the-job use of these principle to be assessed under behaviour in s measure learning than to measure re of work is required in planning the ev data objectively and in interpreting that should be used used for measuri before-and-after o approach so that le gramme ; (ii) as far as possible lea basis ; (iii) where possible a control be used to compare with the experim ning ; and (iv) the learning of eac measured in quantitative terms.

at hand to ascertain the views of the organisation. In addition the use of consultants are certainly beneficial, :h groups and the costs involved, the
hat should the valuation be carried | On a Scheme of a systematic evaluack model, Suggested in the Training American Society for Training and discussed later, all the steps in this d in the evaluations at the Academy. would be useful as it provides the any evaluation exercise could be the evaluation breaks up into four |tion-how well did the participants principles, facts and techniques were job behaviour relate from the prothe job/duties were Steps 2 and 3 short run or the long run), and What terms of increased out-put, quicker n members of the work organisations, re to be carried out by questionnaries Interviews, directed separately at (a) (b) the participants superior in his : intervals.
the main aspects to be examined at
attempts to assess how well the its arrangement, use of aids, etc. It f any learning that takes place and ble feel about the programme.
s the principals, facts and techniques
by the trainees. It does not include 3, facts and techniques which are tep 3. It is much more difficult to action to a programme. A great deal aluation of this step, in analysing the the results. Some of the guidelines ng the amount of learning are, (i) a arning could be related to the proCning be measured on an objective
group (not receiving the training) 2ntal group which receive the trainparticipant as far as possible be
57

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Stage 3-Behaviour: Evaluation ( behaviour is more difficult than th described earlier. A more scientific a have to be considered. A satisfactor systematic appraisal of the perform: involves an identification of achievab training. Wherever possible a contro should be used for comparison.
Stage 4-Results: This could be attempt should be made to identify performance improvements in the w of the trainee. Organizations and jobs tion and analysis of quantifiable t quality and quantity of production way. It may even be possible to asses of improved efficiency and other i grievances or improved morale and superior group. In respect of organi themselves to this stage of assessmer the evaluation method, and in Suc. reaction, learning and behaviour is o.
Evaluation of Courses by the Acaden
The course evaluations by the Aca vided by the participations to an eva tially the ' Reaction', ' Learning outlined above. As discussed previou of the impact of a course the stage O job after training, should also be co from in-depth interviews of the par peers and subordinates in his worl difficulties for the Academy to atte interest is shown and therefore some
these aspects too.
Discussed below are two of the C Academy where the author, as the coresource personnel. The first is the M the second is the Seminar on M: Scientific and Technical Administra
1. Management Development Course.
The Management Development CC Academy since its inception and it x
in Management, with a duration
58

pf training in terms of on-the-job e reaction and learning evaluations pproach is needed and many factors y method to assess this could be a ance before and after training. This le tasks of his job prior to, and after | group (not receiving the training)
the most important stage where an the training programme with specific Vork organization or the job aspects which lend themselves to identificaargets as reduced costs, increasing can be assessed satisfactory in this SS the results in terms of some target dentifiable criteria, as reduction in satisfaction of the subordinate or zations and jobs which do not lend ht it would have to be dropped from h situations evaluation in terms of nly possible.
hy demy based on the information proluation questionnaire, covered essenand sometimes ' Behaviour stages usly, for a comprehensive assessment f Results and ' Behaviour -at the vered on the basis of data obtained ticipant's superiors, and possibly his k Organisation. Inspite of practical mpt coverage of these stages much initial steps have been taken to cover
". ourse evaluations carried out at the Ordinator of the courses was the main Ianagement Development Course and anagement Development for Senior tOrS.
-8th May 1972 to June 1972
urse was a major programme of the was run as a basic foundation course or around 5 to 6 weeks. In fact the

Page 76
M.D.C. of 8th May to 9th June 1972 was character of the course as evident f * management, (i.e. the areas dealing resources to achieve planned objectiv attributes ‘ administration ' to be ass areas of enforcement of legislation, e. directed towards maintenance of law premise that today there is greater de and tasks facing an administrator in t
The participants for the course are years experience in executive grades of tions and they are selected so as to different job backgrounds and acaden
The objectives of the course are at A content with a break-up of the num Appendix II, and it is seen that the coul reflects the overall character and the O that the course was concerned Wih 4 subject areas or disciplines which are management; B-Functional areas o frame work; D-Analysis of managen management games.
The questionnaire used for the eval III. The evaluation was done in grou into five groups, each group consiste different work areas and backgrounds. groups (i.e. each group completed on reflect the consensus of opinion among method has the advantage that the and accurate than individual repli inaccurate views of same Will be clar stage in filling the form ; and (ii) it a of persons, through discussion and an opinion on the questions.
The evaluation questions are reprod evaluation (referred to earlier) the indicated. The questions 3, 4 and 5 and a strict assessment or measurement
*In a subsequent review of the activities and th decided to change the relatively longer programm various reasons though longer courses may occasio
-- By a 'x' marking.
(A068812 (74f05ص=8

the 12th in the Series.* The Overal rom its title, has an emphasis on with allocation and management of es) than “ administration ”. (If one ociated more With its traditional lsuring justice and such activities und Order). This rationale is on the velopment content in the demands le public sector.
hose who have a minimum of five the public service or State Corpora}nsure a proper representation of ic disciplines.
Appedix II. The details of the course der Of Sessions in each area is at "se content (as seen at Appendix II) bjectives to the acheived, it is seen broad areas, namely A-Certain
essential for an understanding of f management; C-Environmental lent situations by case studies and
Llation is at Column 1 of Appendix p i.e. the participants were divided d as far as possible persons from The questionnaire was filled by the e form) so that the replies would g the group. This group evaluation a replies will be more objective es because ; (i) the doubts and ified in the group at the discussion ffords and opportunity for a group alysis to arrive at an agreed group
uced below and the aspects of the are supposed to cover are also the replies to them do not enable a of the extent of learning or
e training programmes of the Academy it was es as the M. D. C. to shorter to ones i for
ally be held. - - - -
59

Page 77
"behaviour'; but they are classifie
element of learning (i.e. knowledg
changes induced, as felt or perceive
Ομe8ίίοη
1. Do you consider the broad areas covered by the course a satisfactory framework for the course. If not what areas should have
(a) been added (ხ) omnitted
2. Were the objectives of the course
achieved
(a) completely (b) partialy (c) not at all
3. Of the subject areas taught what particular areas would you want further enlarged and dealt in this course ? What areas would you want reduced and/or omitted. Give comments (if possible indicating the proposed no. of sessions).
4. Was there any overlap or repetition in the sessions within each of the subject areas or among the different areas. If so was this desirable.
5. Do you consider this course useful and
ben oficial for your job or career
(a) in the immediate future (b) in the forseeable future
* If answers to both (a) and (b) are in the
negative please note reasons,
6. Other comments.
A close study of the group replie that
(i) with certain reservations th
achieved; (ii) the broad framework of the in certain areas were SU mentioned; (iii) specific mention that the
relate the concepts to loca (iv) the course is of distinct ben career in the immediate f
From the point of view of the A that; firstly it confirmed the import mixed group of middle managers and that the overall academic and functi tory framework for a basic manag thirdly the need to adjust certain are of behavioural sciences, were broug
o

under them as they deal with some e and skills acquired), and behaviour d by the participants.
Η βασίίοην Learning Behαυδοιμη
х
X
Χ ×
X
Χ Χ Χ
*s (at Appendix III) clearly indicates
at the objectives were satisfactorily
course is satisfactory though changes tggested and inclusion of new areas
Behavioural areas should attempt to all situations; efit to the paricipants in their jobs or ature and in the forSeeable future.
2ademy this evaluation was useful in ance and usefulness of the course to a administrators; secondly it indicated onal areas dealt with were a satisfac2ment development programme; and eas in the future courses as in the case it out,

Page 78
However, serious aceptance of the Behavioural steps, brought out in without a further follow-up; say by pants Superior in the Work Organizatio. later date. This could possibly be on th questions which have a bearing on th skills learnt for the performance of t behaviouiral changes effected.
The usefulness of the evaluation in t limitations, is that it provides a very us of the course, and also it indicate to th in Some way the Overall impact of a p. acceptance and feelings about the pro, the client group. ". 2. Seminar on Management Develop Technical Managers-5th March to
This unlike the Management Dev programme planned and conducted fo arose firstly as the Academy had run Courses geared to the requirements o in the Engineering and Technical Serv neers and Scientists as they realised the of their jobs and in keeping with the to hold managerial positions in Mini subjects which have a greater techni participants in these courses expressed : officers also be exposed to a short progra so that their superiors would apprecial Academy; secondly to acquaint the Managers of the developments in the fi the type of training the Academy offer
The objectives of the seminar (see A rations.
The programme being for very Sen. basis, where as far as possible the reso duced the subject so as to enable the clarify certain issues and conceptualis cussion. This seminar covered some a functional areas of management, cons. to the work of a senior manager in the
1st Day : Administrative framework ; objectives; Socio-political e 2nd Day: Behavioural Sciences; Org tion of these to orgar Management and Industria

iews on the Learning and the his evaluation are not possible, Otaining the Views of the part ci
or of the participant himself at a a same questions or on some other
usefulness of the knowledge and eir job, and of any attitudinal or
is particular form inspite of many ful guide for further improvement
trainers and the training institute ogramme, and more important the ramme by an important segment,
ment for Senior Scientific and
9th March 1973
elopment Course was a specific r the first time. The need for it a few Management Development the middle and junior managers ices (On the request of the Engiimportant management component growing demand of such officers stries and Departments handling cal and scientific basis), and the desire that their senior and higher mme on Management Development e what they have followed at the top Engineering and Technical eld of modern management and of ed.
Ippendix IV) reflect these conside
or Officers was run on a seminar urce personnel or the traner intro
participating Senior managers to a their experience through a disspects of the following important dered to be important in relation public service.
National economic framework-its nvironment ;
nisation Theory and the contribusation improvement; Personnel
Relations.
6.

Page 79
3rd Day: Financial Analysis an 4th Day: Quantitative Methods 5th Day: Office Management;
Unlike in the earlier course eval questionnaire were from individu as the participants were senior assessment would be done by the pants (which total 16) was too sm thirdly the most important was th of quantitative analysis of the re) replies was distinctly useful and th ting some form of numerical analy in the evaluation form compared t to suit this group, and it also a individual areas or subjects that whether these were good, satisfa
A similar classification of the q before we consider answers to son ing or behaviour but not to make it of learning etc., to be made) woul
Question,
4. Do you consider the objectives indicated in the note circulated too ambitious 2 What do you think should be the main objectives of a siminar or short programme of this nature ?
2. What did you expect to achieve from this seminar before it commenced ?
3. Do you consider the broad areas covered in the seminar a satisfactory framework within the time constralint ?
Please indicate which of the following areas should have been given greater attention, kept at the same level or reduced or completely eliminated (Comments to be made for each area the subject areas were listed.)
4. Do you consider the overall character and the nature of the siminar to be in keeping with the expectations of a seminar on Management development for top management of the Scientific and Technical Services
6. Do you consider the general pattern of the seminar namely the presentation followed by a discussion satisfactory or do you consider it should have been in a different form as in the case of a workshop or in the form of a panel discussion ?
62

| Management Information Systems. for Management; valuation of Course.
ation, here the replies to the evaluation l participants, because it was felt that managers a fair amount of objective n; and secondly the number of particiall to form into evaluation groups; and at individual replies enabled some form lies. Such an approach to quantity the is was the first of such efforts in attempsis of a course evaluation. The questions the previous one was slightly modified ttempted to get specific views on the were covered in the Seminar namely story or unsatisfactory.
estions under the different aspects (as he of the questions to impinge. On learnpossible for an assessment of the extent
be as follows :
Reaction Learning Behaviour
X
Χ
X Χ

Page 80
ζυεSίίοη
6. Indicate in which areas the presentations, content covered, concepts and techniques presented, cases and examples used were excellent, satisfactory or unsatisfactory ?
(The subject areas listed and provision made to mark separately for presentation, concepts and techniques discussed and case illustrations used).
7. Annexed are the names of Technical and Scientific Officers who participated in specially designed management development programmes of 6 weeks duration and the content and areas covered in that programme. (Your views on this would be called in another questionnaire later).
8. Other comments.
An analysis of the replies and a su ation showed the following picture
Question 2 :-Irrespective of the
the participants in 16 per cent. indicate tations. None indic expectations.
Question 3 : —75 to 90 per cent. of expanded or maint: to 10 per cent. indi omitted. This appea of content and exte
Question 4 :-82 per cent. consider
to be satisfactory. 18 per cent.-did Inc
Question 5 :-91 per cent. conside presentation and di
Question 6:-All the subject area of the replies as exc 20 to 10 per cent. ex
The significant points that emerg the seminar had the desired impact future programmes of this sort wou top management. The advantage o becomes the most effective means to tions and needs on which the progn

βασίίοη. Learning Βείία υιομη
mmation of the markings in the evalu
different expectations-72 per cent. of licated that they partially achieved; !d that they fully achieved, the expecated that they did not achieve their
the replies indicated that all areas be ained at same extent, so that only 25 cated that they should be reduced or rs to be a positive reaction in favour nt of coverage of the areas.
ed the overall character of the seminar
it comment.
ced the seminar procedure adopted i.e. scussion as satisfactory.
s were evaluated by 80 to 95 per cent. ellent, good or satisfactory. Thus only aluated them as unsatisfactory.
from this evaluation are firstly, that on the participants; and secondly that d be a useful approach to draw in the this limited evaluation too, is that it
test the validity of the main assumpamme was based.
63

Page 81
Conclusion
It is presumed that this brief refer evaluation, its link with an asse approach to conduct an effective eva the inability to assess effectively the would I hope provide a useful framew research studies on this important as illustration of the limited types of i carried out by the Academy will a method in practice in Sri Lanka.
I would like to conclude by quoting of administrative training : “Adminis rally accepted. The problem is now ideology and its practice, and to shov the capacity to subject their work to and to develop professionally valid training in the light of such evaluatic
The Internal Evaluation of Administrat Lays-Journal of African Training and Resea. (CAFRAD)-Dec. 1970.

ence to the role and importance of Sment of the training needs, the luations for individual courses, and impact of training on administration 7ork for a discussion and for further pect in administrative training. The mmediate post-course evaluation as lso focus attention on a particular
g from a recent paper on evaluation trative Training as an idea is geneto close rapidly the gap between its v that the training institutions have objective and critical examination,
new approaches to administrative
1.
)Υ1.
ve Training : Some practical aspects '-Colin ch Centre in Administration for Development

Page 82
MANAGEMENT DEV)
85.72 to
Objecίουε 8 of :
1. To introduce the subject areas or basic and an analysis of the management process. pants interest for further study of specific areas.
2. By this to equip the participants with co which will enhance and upgrade his efficiency a
3. To bring about an awareness among the the nature of the overall environmental framew manager functions in Ceylon.
4. To provide the participants with differel collectively certain problem situation so that it v and 'specialist barriers which are sometimes pr the operational efficiecny of the managerial gra
MANAGEMENT DEW 8.5.72 。
Course
The Course is concerned with the following br A-Subject areas or 'disciplines' which are e.
management process. B-Main Functional areas of Management C-Environmental Framework. D-Analysis of Management situations by case
The coverage of the above areas by sessions are A-Subject Areas or Basa
Al-Behavioural Sciences
A2-Economics
A3-Mathematics A4-Statistics
A5-Quantitative Methods Techniques A51-Finance and Accounting . A52-Operations Research A53-Work Study
B--Μαίη Ημιγιαίίογια
Bl-Administration
Bll-Administrative Law B12— Disciplinary Procedings B2-Personnel Management B3-Office Management B4-Marketing Management
B5-Supplies Management
C-Environmental F.
D—Analysis of Management Situations by cas
It is hoped that participants in these groups) would draw upon the know in the Area, A, B & C. In addition manager these case studies are int taken by the participants in the analysi

Appendix I OPMENT COURSE 6.73
2 Corvirse
Lisciplines that contribute to an understanding is hoped that this would stimulate the partici
cepts, analytical methods, tools and techniques d competency as a practicing manager,
participants of the specific constraints, specially rk and the work evnironment within which the
t job disciplines, a common forum to examine ould promote breaking down of certain 'service' valent in the public service, to the detriment of les.
Appendix III ELOPMENT COURSE
96.72
Content
Oad areas :—
sential to a study and an understanding of the
studies and Management games.
as follows :-(Total Sessions 135) - c disiplines 86 Sessions
2.
9
O
O
22 10 7 5
Areas 22 Sessions.
2
mework. 9 Sessions.
studies and Management Games 18 Sessions.
sessions, (individually or collectively in small edge, concepts and other techniques learnt to making use of his own experience as a ded to enable an integrated approach be of the case material.
65

Page 83


Page 84
{{ } } } MEN
(), Eestions
areas covered
«Ο Υι
the course.
a reas should have— to been added or
gnited
the
2. Were the objectives of the course as indicated in letter
(TR 6172 2 a Giίεονεκα :- (a) completely (b) . (c) Ya Ot, at :3 i !
« If
2.5.72)
3. Of the subject areas taught what particular ones would you want further enlarged and
dealt in this course.
What
areas Would you ment, reduced and for tymitted. Give comCAERDnts (if possible indicating the proposed no. of sessions).
(Group
... Do you consider the broad The broad areas we)
by Course (as indicated in note "Course Content) a satisfactory framework for Ef ot what
(ii) a, Yhdi (2) areas we vered and (3) was ( tially. The third covered with pract to Sri Lanka.
(i) The Behavioural conde Used with the iniFng t;he Sa, 1me— (ii) Lecturing on Theory to be reduced tures on Developme be included pertainin and industrial Deve tary Theory, Inter (iii) In addition to v in statistics–three t descriptive statistics index numbers, colle lation of data. (iv) Basic double en must be dealt with tātion of accounts. Work Study using, c armples-say issue Fertilizer to farmers, (v) Administrative i sed by or least two le (vi) Office managem in creased, marketi

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT COURSE 8th MAY 1.
Evaluation of Course by Groups of Participants at con
'e satisfactory.
re adequately co*overed only parone must be ical applications
Sciences can be coverage rena
pure Economic i by five and lecnt Economics to g to agricultural lopment, MOnenational Trade. that was covered o five lectures on such as sampling ection and tabu -
ry book-keeping prior to interpre
ifice of local exof paddy and
aw to be increa*ctures.
2nt lectures to be Ilg Inānāge Iraellt,
COMMENTS OF GROUPS
Group 2
Yes-However, we would suggest the following :- i. A to be reduced from
2 to 15. (Course contents to be unaltered).
2. Conference Techniques to be added to the Course. 3. Add brief introductory approach to Project Evaluation and for
hulation. 4. Acc} Programme Budgeting and Auditing as an aid to Management. . A 52A 53 to be incre
ased from 2 to 5. 4. C -- En vir o n m en tal Framework sessions to be re-arranged with a fair portion devoted to panel discussions.
5.
1) Completely (2 & 3) partially. Re (2)-Reasons as at 1-6 in para. 1 above. Re (3)-There was a lack of appreciation of the real problems of the Managers with respect the Trade Union environment and Political environA tent.
Group
We feel that the by the course tory framework ment developme: ject to the privi areas like psyc unionism and specially pertain hoe included.
The Course ha,s b to the participan that we would ha equiped if the al ed in itens been covered. We must howe that the lectures ( upon the local C stated in objecti letter mentionet more research ol be done in this the next batch benefit of such
Please see para 1.
Statistics-on sampling techniques.
Mathematics - Excercises to be added in mathe
matics Economics-Micro Economics to be reduced and Micro Economics to be dealt in greater detail.
(1) We feel that lectures on Econ. ing Such a reas as t of Ceylon. I trade, banking, been included.
(2) A few more financial manag accounting shoul ei olle. This area by one person u present course W done by 3 persons
(3) The content management lect be improved. supplies maillage) hot have been c. this course. (4) The present lecturers on Behi eraces may be reta
"! ۔ ۔ 1۔۔۔ حدہ ۔۔۔f"t٦ ۔ ۔ ۔ 1۔ سہی۔ 4۔ جیسے حسی۔

Page 85
NAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT COURSE 8th MAY 1972 - 9th June 7
aluation of Course by Groups of Participants at conclusion of Cours
COMMENTS OF GROUPS
Group 2
Yes-However, we would suggest the following :- i. All to be reduced from
21 to 15. (Course contents to be unaltered).
2. Conference Techniques to be added to the
Course.
3. Add brief introductory approach to Project Evaluation and for
Ehuation.
4. A cid Programme Budgeting and Auditing as an aid to Management.
5. A 52A 53 to be increased from 2 to 5.
f. C — En vir o n. In en ta. I Framework sessions to be re-arranged with a fair portion devoted to pa, nel discussions.
l) Completely (2 & 3) partially. Re (2)-Reasons as at 1-6 in para. 1 above. Re (3)-There was a lack of appreciation of the real problems of the Managers with respect the Trade Union environment and Political environ* {}ent.
Group 3
We feel that the area, covered by the course is a satisfac
tory framework for a management development course, sub ject to the privision that new areas like psychology trade unionsm and labour laws specially pertaining to Ceylon be included,
The Course has been beneficial to the participants but we feel that we would have been better equiped if the areas mentioned in items and 3 also been covered. We must however mention that the lectures did not touch upon the local conditions as stated in objective No. 3 of letter mentioned. We feel more research on this aspect be done in this area, so that the next batch will get the benefit of such research.
Please see para, 1.
Statistics-on sampling techniques.
Mfathematics — Excercises to be added in mathe
matics Economics-Micro Economics to be reduced and Micro Economics to be dealt in greater detail.
(i) We feel that a few more lectures on Economics covering such a reas as the Economy of Ceylon, International trade, banking, should have been included.
(2) A few more lectures on financial rail ageinent and accounting should have been šioje. This area, should come by one person unlike in the present course where it was done by 3 persons.
(3) The content of marketing management lectures should be improved. Lectures on supplies maillagement should not have been deleted from this course.
(4) The present number of lecturers on Behavioural Sciences may be retained but subiects like Trade Unionism allad

(Group 4.
(a) in view of the time constraint of he course broad areas are satisfacttory. We would have appreciated a ew sessions on the history of political and Local Government institutions and present trends. (within total no. lf sessions). b) In view of the composition of the participants marketing managerrent which is a specialised field could have Deen omitted.
We are of the opinion that the objectves as far as (l) and (2) are concernad have been completely achieved. A regard (3) we are of the opinion hat it was partially achieved in View of our comments in para, I. and also because of insufficient emphasis in the work environment with in. which the Manager function in Ceylon oday.
1) In the Behavioural Sciences secions a few sessions on styles of mina, Elaennent other tha, F. U.S. and J. K. (e.g. Yougoslavia, France, 'hina, Japan & U.S.S.R.
2) One session at least om office management as practical in the Prirate Sector since Corporations have o function as commercially viable units.
3) Work Study sessio KKs.
Appendix EEE
Group 5
(a) Under Behavioural Scien Ce greater emphasis should have been give . to basie psychology.
(Completely-with the
firmited til Kle.
The Sessions on Snc. io cultural enviror. In Berat Should have been expalded to include other pere) - blems such a casts, race, religion customs.
A few more sessiobhs {Net Work) say 3 sessioTDs.

Page 86
4. Was there any overlap or repetition in the sessions within each of the subject areas or annong the different Bubject areas. If so was this Cesi yra bye or not ?
(5) Do you consider this course
useful and beneficial for your
job or career
(a) in the immediate future (b) in the foreseable future. if the answers to both (a) & (b) are in the negative please MnOte l'ea 801). S.
6. Colinent on the arrangeAre Yant of the tının e table —
(i) time and duration of
sessions. (ii) HJ. Of sessior. As per day. (iii) sequence of subjects.
Any Other conments.
U ILI I 1 li ĉi UUI IL IULI in statistics-tha descriptive statis index numbers, lation of data.
(iv) Basic doubl. must be dealt wi tation of accoun Work Study usin amples—say iss Fertilizer to farn (v) Administrati sed by or least ty (vi) Office mana; increased, mar casa, be reduced ject. Ipinanagemen. I (13,nagement Cí Meast tvivo lecture
There was ove: Sciences and Mal sira, ble to stres However some tures can avoid necessary extent
All agree that both in the impxa,
(i) Six weeks-S justment of time {ii) AlŠ ፃዔOu›—if pC afternoon Inor to
Security in Park Vedi.
. Other consents.
K. Senior AssesSOT-RMad. Rev. 2. A.C.A.S. 3. A.E.O. 4. Manager People's Bank. 5.
9-A (J65812 (74/05)
Resident Engineer-Dept. W. S. & D.

HHS S i S LL LLLLL L SLS S L L S L SL S S S S 2e to five lectures on Dics such as sampling zollection and tabu
entry book-keeping th prior to interpre
S. g. office of local exue of paddy and 1ᎾᏢᎦ . ve iaw to be increaPo lectures. |ement lectures to be keting management y one lecture—Proadded-marketing in be reduced-at
S.
'lap in Behavioural hematics which is deJis important a reas. discussion by the lecoverlaping to an un
the course is useful ediate future and in
oe.
a.m.-4 p.m. in adstable-Sunday free, }ssible first period in
be Economics.
ing Area to be inCapro
D.R.O.
Medical Supdt.-General Hospital Senior Engineer-D.W.S., & D.
Internal-Auditor-Corporation. Rraquiry OfficeTr— C. "AT.RB.
еїoine. This a by one perso present cours done by 3 per (3) The conte Amarnagement be improved supplies na. 1. hot have bee this course.
(4) The presa lecturers on E ences may be jects like Trac labour laws
within detail v reducing the st various areas C
(5) Socio Cult eat environ should have b in more detail
Yes-in respect of Behavioural Sciences Haw - thorn experiment.
a Yes (b) Yes
More than 5 weeks course is desirable. 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on five days a week. (Six sessions with one h". per session) Subject areas as far as practicable to be held in the mornings and avoiding two consecufive session on the same subject.
Library hours to come in between sessions.
There were sol laping but we 3. Ana, voicia, boie
(i) Satisfactor (ii) Satisfacto Note below (iii) We feel i nics lecture taken immed lunch interval sions and C. taker may be session. Mori should be afte and the aftern after the ist S.
PAKRYTA CLIPAIN'ETS
E. A.C.A.S. 2. Supdt. Engineer3. Asst. Conn. Elec 4. General Mifa, nager
Corporation.

Page 87
cione. This area should done ti ァ by one person unlike in the u present course where it was ( dolne by 3 persons. : (3) The content of marketing - Anaragement lectures should be improved. Lectures on - supplies maillagement should of have been deleted from this course.
- (4) The present number of lecturers on Behavioural Sciences may be retained but subt jects like Trade Unionism and - labour laws could be dealt within detail without actually E. reducing the subject matter of various areas covered by them. (5). Socio Cultural and Politiea, environment lectures should have been dealt within. Yno i'e detail.
! Yes-lin respect of Be- There were sòme areas of over- TI 2- haviource:al Sciences HarvX7- aping but we feel that it was in 3. thorn experinent. navoidable
- 莒 R - d
W
(a) Yes (b) Yes
More than 5 weeks course (i) Satisfactory. is desirable. S a.m. to (ii) Satisfactory. ΘX 4 p.m. on five days a week. Note below Se (Six sessions with One h]'. (iii) We feel that the Econo - & per session) Subject areas nics lecture should not be (2 as far as practicable to taken immediately after the pe be held in the mornings lunch intervals where discus- th an di a voiding two consecu- sions and Case studies are (3 tive session on the same ta kera may be included in this subject. session. Morning Tea Interval Library hours to come in should be after the 2nd sessiox). between sessions. and the afternoon. Tea, interval
after the 1st session.
- - WW of sed f4}
BEPARTICIPANTS
-General Hospital E. A.C.A.S. hi. Aeting -D.W.S. & D. 2. Supdt. Engineer-C.G.R. 2. Asst. 3. Asst. Comm. (Election) 3. Asst. pr-Corporation. 4. General Mifa, Yonager of a 4. Div. S. C.T.B. corporation. 5.
. A.C.A.

D function as commercially viable nits. 3) Work Study sessions.
–- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
here was a certain an out of overlapg in this Behavioural Science Secon where several lectures dicussed he Hawthorn experiment, but no one
iscussed it fully. We felt that this
as not desirable.
) We suggest that the course be
tended by at least another week. }ssions should commence at 8.00a.m. finish by 4.30 p.m. the latest. ) Should be restricted to 5 sessions I day. There should not be more an 2 sessions in the afternoon. ) Satisfactory.
fe would have liked the exhibition 'films on some of the subjects studi| both to relieve the monotony and
crystalise ideas.
Senior Assess. Ind. Rev. Director-Bureau. Standards Secretary-C.T.B. eeyi Accountaint-Health Dept.
There was avoidable repetitive in Behaviotra Science session-partietlarly relating to Hawthorn Studies. Panel Discussion on the Five Year Plan was a repetition of earlier lecturers. an outside Pannel wou Ed. have been preferable.
Saturdays should be maade
use of for lectures. Heavy subjects like Economics could have been arranged for the morning sessions — particularly im view of the worm afternoons.
We would wish to Yee,
ance again in three months time for a short Seminar to exchange
views and discuss Our experience in using the knowledge gathered at the current, sessions.
Audit Officer-A.G.'s Dept. Additional G.A. Asst. Supdt., C.G. R.
D.R.O. Asst. Director-Tourist
BePardž.
雷下

Page 88


Page 89
SHORT PROGRAMME/CouRSE FOR SENIOR
HEADS OF DEPARTMENT
Period : 5th March 1973
Time ; 8.15 a.m. to 12.
Objecέουες :
To provide Senior Scientific and Technical Pe making positions as Heads of Government De introduction to :
(1) Administrative, Economic and Socio Political
organisations work.
(2) Familiarize these Senior Managers with them
ques current in management training toda, efficient performance of the different funct Management, Financial Management, Offi
(3) Enable the Senior Managers to get the grea have attended management training cours
(4) Promote exchange of knowledge and ideas
some of the matters pertaining to their m
(A 063812 (f4/05 سس-10

Appendix IV
SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL PERSONNELSTATUTORY BODIES
to 9th March 1973
30 p.m. each day
rsonnel at highest policy advising and decision partments and Statutory Bodies a short
framework within which their administrative,
dern management concepts, ideas and techni7 and thier contribution to more effective and ional areas of a Senior Managers as Personnel ye Management.
test benefit from members of their staff who GS.
among the participating senior managers on anagerial function 3.

Page 90
Journal of Development Administration. Vol. IV, IN
Models of Mode
IN order to conceptualize Lerner's model ful in the Middle Eastern countries. My objective of this model to understanding and examini world countries.
To relate this model to Middle Easte of Middle Eastern individuals and countries o has put forward three hypotheses from which he which more people have gone further in tri 'more dynamic’ which is applied to country faster rate than in country Y, and lastly, where class cleavages are less Salient and thus without violent demonstrations of personnel a Lerner diagrams the position of h modernization scale as indicated by the data
TRADITIONAL TITI
/A
TAURKEY
LEBENon
| EGYPT
SYRIAN
FORED EN
RRAN
Povy
These concepts and the modelare best fu These case studies show the distinctive featur discusses that aspect of modernization for each
*This article is a continuation of the “Models C 1973, of this Jonrnal.
70

2. 1, May 1974
Ernization — II*
ABAYA JAYASUNDERA
ly I propose to deal with his own research 2 in this approach is to examine the relevance ng the modernization process in the third
rn Society and determine relative positions in a common scale of modernization, Lerner 3 derives the categories of “more modern,” in ansforming their traditional Way of life,
X. When modernization is occurring at a
more stable' which defines the country
Where modernization is likely to proceed nd policy. is six Middle Eastern countries on the collected in 1950-51.
RANSA"; ONAL MODERN
7 HIGH
-->
ther examined in the light of the case studies. es of each Middle Eastern country. Lerner country which illustrates the salient problems
f Modernization—1” in Vol. III Nos. 1 & 2, May

Page 91
at the time of the survey with an emphasis ol bitants of each country.
The most highly modernized and so yet Modern by Lerner's statistical definiti falls in the category of Transitional since, in cities of over 50,000 population. The Moslen state. A president governs in place o Traditional clothing has been replaced by orthography by the simple Western Script. reshaping the traditional Society, beginning being the modern West. He set out firstly t be built by the villagers and building Hall with radios to transmit the new republican
Turkey, unlike Egypt, has a favourabl were not forced off the land to flood into ( than having to attempt to control a vast m stimulate systematic urbanization. A cap Occupational shifts, together with a rise in per urban growth.
Still a large proportion of Turkey's po tionals’-especially in the East. The question as lacking empathy, together with a feeling O
The transitionals form about 30% of t ions for a future which will be better than the p set of new values to replace the old. Some dissatisfied with their present economic situ
The “ moderns” about 10% of the pop past and provides the model for the future. From this category come government personr
Lerner classes Turkey as a dynamic a but in a proportioned and balanced way. Of says Lerner, is the fact that the modernized el aspirations of the Transtionals. (1958, p. 1
The second case study is of Lebanon land due largely to its history of influence significance here. Christianity and Wester Christians introducing schools and the printi
Land pressure caused early migration balanced urbanization to take place. In rura of the young men who through their literacy respect formerly accorded to the Village elde

the environment which surrounds the inha
he first on the list, is Turkey. Turkey is not In but no longer a Traditional Society. It 950, over 10% of the population was living in institution has been separated from the Secular the Sultan, supported by a constitution.
skirts and trousers and the antique Arab When Attaturk came to power, he aimed at with elite and then with the mass, his model promote mass literacy; Ordering that schools -euleri (People's Houses) and equipping them nystique.
: land-man ratio which meant that individuals ities which could not support them. Rather ovement to the cities Attaturk's task was to tal Was set up by systematic demography. capita income distribution, corresponded with
pulation come under the category of “Tradinaire showed them to be non-participants and f dependence on authority.
he population; these are people with aspiratast but have not yet acquired a comprehensive experience a conflict of values and most are ation.
ulation, provided the “elite' which shaped the They are urban, educated and mostly well-off. eland most of the private entrepreneurs.
ind stable Society, in that change is occurring, special significance for the stability of Turkey te are will attuned to the rising and spreading 6).
defined by Lerner as the most modern Arab rom abroad; its being entrepot is of special ization grew together in Lebanon, with the ng preSS.
to the cities which developed sufficiently for | Lebanon Lerner describes the changing role and knowledge of the Modern world, earned

Page 92
The role of the media and especiall women reject their traditional role of secon
Lerner revisited Lebanon in 1958 tensions arising from Egypto-Syrian enc nationalism would likely be heard above th
Lerner's third case study is entitled refers to the vicious circle of poverty cau of modern techniques combined with the la the masses who have been forced from the l in the major urban areas. Unlike the stabl at the upper and lower levels of society. Al cracy and professions as in the whole mechanism.
Lerner speaks of the “Nasser Syndrc national symbols. The survey however ind and increasingly influential sector, did not greatest need facing Egypt but rather social thoughtWays of the consumer but dissatisfa and recources. Nasser has attempted, throu but this is difficult in a country where 90% Lerner asks how long can personal charism:
In Syria the fourth case study the ciri as in Egypt but is composed of an undel population. Industrial development is h; skilled labour and the slow rate of capita lives at subsistence leveland poor cultivatio: restrict the productiveness of agriculture cities where as in Egypt they remained una
Media development is hampered by
As in Egypt, young intellectuals find core of an articulate new class which chal scope to develop more satisfying and part backbone of Communist organization an
Political instability says Lerner, ma atributes much of it to the fact that a quic to historical sequences, thus further upse
The fifth case study is Jordan ; a co disruption resulting from the joining of tv Israel, a more numerous and more “mod
72

y American films is evident Modern Lebanese d-class citizens.
and found modernization being inhibited by rclement.’ He suggests that the call of Arab : claims of Lebanese nationality.
“ Egypt; The Vicious Circle'. This title sed by a birth-rate which rapidly engulfs gains |ck of urban development to adequately absorb and and who now form a “floating population' 2 picture of Turkey, Egypt shows great buildges most as many men are employed in the bureauindustrial sector-forming serious anti-growth
me' which is the attempted fusion of class and icated that workers, a small but slowly growing see the creation of nationalist sentiment as the reform. The urban worker quickly learns the ction arises at the discrepancy between desires gh the mass media to achieve national concensus of the population over 7 years of age isilliterate.
hold such a Society together.
cularity is neither as deep nor as comprehensive -developed economy and an under-participant ampered by a lack of natural resources and formation. The majority of the population 1 methods, together with the system oftennancy, and force migration to the under-developed bsorbed.
poverty and illiteracy.
hemselves frustrated and as such constitute the lenges the traditional institutions but lacks the icipatory ways. These intellectuals provide the d a counter-elite.
rked the decade previous to the Survey and he reform of Syria was attempted without regard ting stability.
untry in the dilemma of sudden nationhood and O vastly different peoples. After the defeat by 2rn Palestinian population superimposed upon

Page 93
traditional Jordanians. Before partition, were urbanized. Jordan gave the refugees c. mic basis for the re-establishing of the lives ployment both in the towns and on the landa The refugees, used to a more particitant lil discontent has pushed Jordan toward extre Easternism have increased the communist in four groups :
1. The Bedouin, totally traditin own environment.
2. The village farmers ; tran partial contact through til world, and their inability
3
The town entrepreneurs; she high in Lerner's empathy classes them as Moderns.
4. The conmopolitan elite who c
na.
In the final case study (Iran), Lernet sees as having developed among the young scope for their talents and feel frustrated anc Lerner notes that this extremist syndrome agitation.' The extremists of the night aim a unified national, movement, while the goals see class-struggle as the means to this end. acquires the trump card-the Iranian mass.
In summing up Lerner notes that th Eastern countries, where the traditional elit larger shares in the new distribution of pow identity-who shall govern and in the name has been not whether but how one should Claims of regional, religious and racial ident The psychological gap, left by the declinin appropriate new symbolism, widens through sees Egypt's attempted answer to this gap poorly to observable reality ; a reality wh finding their increasing expectancies fru participation and satisfaction.

30-40% of the 1.3, million Palestinians Arabs itizenship but was unable to provide an econoof the refugees. This resulted in high unendrop in wage levels and rapid growth of towns. e have increased political demands and their mism. Popular discontent and growing antihovement. Lerner puts the population into
all and uninterested in the world outside their
sitionals often discontented because of their he mass media (mainly radio) with the modern to participate in it.
opkeepers and government clerks. They rank rating and media consumption levels and he
xhibit the fully participant life style of modern
describes the “extremist syndrome' which he intellectuals who as in Egypt have little | alienated in a society which is 90% illiterate. is the “classic posture of the revolutionary at national sovereignty and see their means as of the extreme left is a classless society, and Lerner notes however, that the internplayers
is situation is typical of many of the Middle 2 is gone or going. Competition is fierce for er. Linked with this is the quest for a usable of what. The crux of the matter, says Lerner, move from traditional to modern life-styles. ty often clash with interests of the ruling elites. g adherence to Islam and failure to create an time and creates an explosive charge. Lerner (the Arab-Muslim syndromeas corresponding ich largely hinges on the transitionals who strated they turn to other channels for
To be Continued
73

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