கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.02.19

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Page 3
Letter From "Cfe faitor
THE PICTURE on the cover this week depicts the winnov a sea beach. In a sense this is at linusual sight because very paddy fields are by the sea, but there are some. And th this case, is being done in the strong breeze (or wind) the sea. In the old days, before the tractor and artificia peasants in the paddy-growing areas in the dry zone in eastern half of the island, kept the harvested paddy sheaves to stand up to the heaviest rain) until May or June whe southwesterly winds sweep across the fields to help them mechanical means are used for threshing and winnowing, b is still done manually-there are very few paddy harvester The Government is now expecting a record Maha paddy ci little doubt that the harvest will be much higher than in But one must take official Statistics with a due sense of c ticism, because the statistics of paddy production furnis hec ties during the last three or four years have nearly always and misleading. The Ceylon Daily News of February 5, 97 headline: DRIVE TO KEEP RICE PRICE DOWN: RECOR TO BE MOVED FC NON-PRODUCING AREAS. The re. concerted drive to keep price of the rice down in the open mark by different government authorities. Part of this scheme is to pated record Maha crop from producing areas to non-prodicing are country's Maha crop from 1.2 million acres of paddy is expected t of rice. Some of the NCP areas have had an abundant supply of wat veli diversion and this has been a great contributory factor to good harvest. The PMR hopes to collect 8-20 million bushes, yesterday. He added that in Some rice producing areas like P. was not up to expectation. A method of delivery of the ric centres will be decided at a conference presided over by the Ministry of Food and Co-operatives, Mr. K. B. Dissanayake. first place, if the crop is plentiful the price will come dov all over the island. And, in the second place the paddy, in t will move to the deficit areas (where the price will be
the intervention of the authorities. Furthermore, it is to be is not another case of counting the chickens before the eggs a in a few areas has the harvesting of the Maha crop starte the Maha crop will be harvested in March and the Meda c April. There is one problem that the authorities do not se of as yet: that is a very great shortage of labour for harvesti producing areas, and that hundreds of acres of ripened pad been harvested because of the lack of labour. A good par drops to the ground. Delayed harvesting brings disaste seasonal labour from the unemployed and under-employed areas and from Some parts of the Eastern Province had mox paddy, but this year this labour has not been forthcoming.
of plantation labour under the Shastri-Sirimavo Pact is one shortage: another is that with a full crop in the Eastern Pr labour has been kept fully engaged. Yet another reason kind of education that has been imparted in our schools twenty five years and more, no new agricultural labour fr the country has become available in the labour market: andf unemployed and under-employed labour in the villages welfare relief work on widening roads, building tank bun In addition, work (to a few thousand favoured ones) has Corporations, Co-operatives, and other governmenta unmindful of the excess staff in these organisations). A larg so-called "educated' youth have been given jobs as teache is that there is very great shortage of labour in the en ing areas of the country. The situation has been made w that present-day 'youth' only want white and blue collar urban areas. There are hundreds of thousands of young the villages for such jobs which they think a MP's chic wou them. They are unwilling to do any agricultural work beca get enough from relief work, known popularly as shra which they are paid partly in kind-from gifted stocks of f. margarine and the like-to keep them going. The simple is shortage of labour in the paddy producing areas: even pe allotments of two to five acres need outside labour-many of permit-hçilders whose lands are cultivated by others, Suci is it possible to project any estimates of paddy production

ing of paddy ora w of Sri Lanka’s 2 winnowing, in blowing in from fan-winnowing, e norther and in Stacks (made strong rainless winnow. Now, È the harvesting machines in use.
op, and there is -
the recent past. aution and scep
by the authoribeen inaccurate 7, had a clirious
YAHA CRO port stated: "A et is being made
move of anticitas. This year the
o be 375,000 tons.
er from the Mahaanticipations of a spokesman said adawiya the yield e to distribution ! Secretary to the a a s '' in the yn automatically he open market, higher) without hoped that this re hatched. Only d. The bulk of rop will go into em to be aware ng in all the rice dy have not yet it of such paddy r. In the past, in the plantation fed in to cut the The repatriation reason for this ovince, the local is that with the during the last om the youth of inally all available have been given lds and the like. been found in undertakings e number of the
S. tire rice producforse by the fact work in healthy men waiting in
ld ultimately get
use their families madana, and for our, canned fish, act is that there arsons who have f them are absent 息 being the case, 1.
The result
TRIBUNE
A Journal of Ceylon and
World Affairs Editers. , Amarasingan
Every Saturday
February 19, 1977
T R | 3 {J N E
43 AWSCN, STREET,
C O () - 3 O - 2.
elephone: 3 3 2 7 3
C C N T E N T 5
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK
-Political Perspectives p. 2 SRİ LAN KA CHRONICLE -Feb. 2 - 4 p. 4 iNTERNATIONAL DIARY - -jan. 13 - 7 p. 5 DR. ABRAHAM KCVOOR -Debunked 2 p. 6. SAFAR
-April 9 - 26 p. 8 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION -Equality p. 0 vi LLAGE HOUSE-405 --Simon Baas (3) p. CANCER
-is it Hereditary 2 p. 12 MUSICALA-- - introductory p 4 LANGUAGE AND UNITY -n Vietnam p. 15 VETNAM -Foreign Policy p. ART SHOW -Leilani Cook "p. 9 CONFIDENTIALLY -Prorogation p. 29

Page 4
莓6鼠* 周á了醛酮66K
Current Political
VVTH THE PROROGATION of the National State Assembly on February 0, a new stage has been reached in the çontemporary political history of the island. It rmarks the end of the United Front of the SLFP-LSSP-CP, which had come into "being in 1966, and which had won a landslide electoral victory in May 1970, and had thereupon become a powerful Government with a more than two-thirds majority. The United front Government, led by Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, had carried everything before it and had transformed Ceylon into a Republic called Sri Lanka. Besides inscribing in the Statute Book a new Republican Constitution, which claimed to pave the way towards socialism, the United front government succeeded in effecting sweeping and drastic changes in all aspects of life and work in the country: in the land tenure system, in the judicial system, in the economic structure, in the educational system-and in practically everything worth thinking about.
in spite of these far-reaching social, economic and political changes, the Government was not abie to solve many basic problemsunemployment, inflation, the spi ralling cost of living, the Tamil minority problem and incentives to ensure greater Production and productivity. And, it is the failure to resolve these problems that led to the breakup of the United Front: first the LSSP broke away or were thrown out-depending con the way one locked at the split which occured in September 1974; and now the CP is as good as out of the UF-the timing of the de jure exit will depend on many imponderables. The United Front first split into two and has now into three. And the breakup has arisen because of the way in which cerEain, circles within the SLFP-called rightwing by some-wanted to rescive these problems by activating, energising, sustaining and bolstering up the private sector mainly by importing investment capital from abroad-hopes were placed on the new oil rich sheikdoms and also the traditionally affluent
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977
Countries from delays in getting resentment it leftwing of th which wanted red-blooded re. lism (about y several disagr of rancour and among the ran made the split And now, the Everything is ov ing. The CP ma ernment untii Or it may time formation of a may be called t Front (SUF) er acceptable to a segment of the liance will be ti from the SLF Ellawela, Tenir Ariyatilleke, Ji and others. Ti SLFFers there as to their num to form a new be called the N: tic Party or by able name. This gether with the revolution-inspire claim, will make Alliance a power Some feel that enough to con aliance with a led by Mrs. S naike or one of t if she decides o tip as President.
En the meanti Fñours that e righ imay drift into to ally with the be only kite-fly by the UNP to gration of the no doubt that th beneficiary of th United Front. If and four cornere 40 of the 30 ode hala areas, the UN to a comfortable v Such contests in si the UNP will be to a two-thirds in will enable the U Constitution in features of the C the UNP has
finist be remen Socialist Alliance able to forge ar. ment with the

the West. The such capital and the calised among the he United Frontfore and more of
volutionary sociwhich there Were 'eements)--a spirit
rebellion surfaced k and file and thus
inevitable.
a split is complete. 'er-bar the shouty stay in the Govit is thrown out, its exit to suit the Socialist Alliancethe Socialist United by some other name 1 parties. A crucia 2 new Socialist Alhe breakway group P, led by Naņda lyson Edirisuriya, nadasa, i Jayasuriya hese left-inclined are various guesses ibers-are expected Centre Party to ationalist Democrasome other suitCentre Party to: LSSP and the CP ad visionaries the new Socialist to contend with. it maybe strong pel an electoral E weakened SLFP irimavo Bandarahe other Ministersr agrees to move
me, there are rut-inclined SLFFers a splinter group JNP, but this may ing at this stage prod the disinteSLFP. There is e UNP is the main e breakup of the
there are three di contests in even i seats in the SinIP will romp home ictory. If there are Xty seats or more,
well on the way ajority-and this NP to amend the regard to certain onstitution vyhich always criticised. bered that if the
or the SUF is electoral agreetruncated SELFP,
A New Stage
then there will be a chance of de" feating the UNP by a small margin
in any case, the UNP will be & S tro+13.
force to contend with. And if, the balance between the SLFP (and its allies) and the Uri P (and its allies) is narrow, then the Tamil MPs will play a decisive role in the making of the Government.
This is probably the reason why Prime Minister, Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, has finally decided to initiate public and official talks with the Tamis. These taks are scheduled to begin on February 21. This is the first time that Mrs. Bandaranaike has agreed to have a dialogue "officially' and directly with the elected representatives of the Tamils and this is a clear indication that the SLFP is no longer at the apex of its political power.
In 1970, the United Front, mainly under the pressures of the LSSP and CP which did not want the Government to have any truck with the "reactionary and communal' EP and TC leaders, had refused to meet the Tamil leaders. The United Front had tried every Propaganda gimmick and every trick in the bag of patronage politics to displace tha TUF leaders,
and in spite of the fact that they
had been able to win over some TC MPs like Arulampalam and Thiyagarajah and independents like Rajan Selvanayakam, it vas foun that the Tamil problem had beCome more and more difficult. The dispensers of UF and SLFP patronage to the Tamils, like Kumarasuriar, Durayappah and others have either been liquidated er have Come to the conclusion that the kind of briber, (called patronage) they had indulged in is of little avail. What the proposed talks between the Prime Miis, and the Tamils will bring is diffice say, but it looks very much like a little pre-election skirmishing for post-election manoeuvering. There is no doubt that the UE will win the goverwhelming majority of the seats in the Tamil areas, and it is likely that a large number of Muslim seats will as edge towards the TULF.
The UNP is sitting pretty and
electçral victory may veí i
into its lap without any difficulty unless it blunders in the weeks before the polling. At the homent it has nothing to do except to watch the United. Front disintegratebut unless the UNP is vacil
2
ܓܒܝܬ̈ܐ ܠܐ

Page 5
A New Stage
of the attempts to form a new United front on an agreement between the SLFP and the SUF (or socialist alliance) it is likely to find itself in trouble again. These are some of the perspectives that have emerged with the Current developments on the political scene. The day to day devetopments and manoeuvring between the different parties and groups will provide much food for thought and study by students of political affairs. The Government or what is left of it, will no doubt do everything in its power to strengthen the SLFP under the hierarchical control of the Bandaranaikes and Ratwattes supported by the Maithripala ရွှိုး)နှီ Kobbekaduwas and other lesser dynastic leaders. There seem to be plans to flood the country with imports of foodstuffs, textiles and other consumer articles during the next six months in order to win over presently disgruntled and frustrated elements. How far the SLFP will succeed in this well-tried (in many previous elections) gimmickry is not easy to say, but judging from past experience the Sri Lankan electorate is not likely to fall for it.
The prorogation itself had brought sharp rejoinders from the CP and the joint Opposition.
The Sunday Times, 312/77, report of the CP statement read as follows: The Communist Party states that the decision to prorogue the NSA was taken without its knowledge. In a statement issued by Mr. K. P. Silva, chief organiser of the Party, it add:S that the decision i5 COntrary to solemn assurances given to the NSA. The following is the text of the Statement issued to the Press yesterday:- “The Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, which met On February 1977, considered the decision, which was taken without the knowledge of the Communist Party to prorogue the National State Assembly until May 19 1977. Apart from the fact that Such a decision is contrary to Solemn assurances given to the National State Assembly the prorogation of the NSA until three days before the date on which the Assembly will be constitutionally dissolved is inimical to the democratic process as it creates the possibility of a period, which can extend up to seven months in which both an administration without the supervisory checks of an elected Parliament and a state
3
of emergency can Central Committee munist Party of . earlier been Sumn on February 16, 19. Bureau resolved to meeting of the Cen its recommendation future policy and a Communist Party of This statement in that the CP was cle to quit the United Government. The st doobt intended to am Cng sections opp current action of th nated government.
The Ceylon Daily M ary 16 carried a fro about the meeting leaders and the st issued:
By proroguing the Assembly till May Minister had freed democratic control sentative of the days during a critic is stated in a press ders of Opposition met in a Committee National State A55e The Opposition urg to prepare actively defend their democr their sovereignty. H. text of the statemer "The leaders of parties met today t Situation ariging fro prorogation of the A3 sembly. By this de Minister ha 5 no the debate on the motion which had February 17, at til the Government its the Prime Minister fidence in her capac her own members conduct in relation However, the Opp ders it far more by proroguing til State Assembly the Prime Minis herself from the d trol of the represe people for a perio during a critical p She Will of the further lenghty out the National beginning with the ending with the Ge The Prime Minister freed herself for mocratic manoeuyr organisation of

exist. As the of the Comri Lanka had oned to meet 7, the Political report to this ra Committee g; to the tivities of the Sri Lanka.’” ade it clear ring its decks front and the tement is no win support bsed to the e SFP domi
rror of Februintpage report of Opposition atement they
National State 19, the Prime herself from of the reprepeople for 98 as period. This release by leaparties who 2 room of the mbly yesterday. es the people to protect and atic rights and ere is the full سس-:t[ the Opposition o consider the m the Sudden National State vice, the Prime doubt evaded no confidence been fixed for he instance of elf. Apparently had no conity to convince regarding her to the Strike. 05ition. Cofn3= serious that e National til May 19. ter ha5 freed emocratic Conntatives of the
d of 98 days eriod.
course haye
f period withState Assembly dissolution and neral Elections. has also thus further undees and for the inconstitutional
and illegal adventures aimed at a dictatorship which are freely talked about in the country. We therefore not only Condemn the prorogation of the National State Assembly but also call upon the people to prepare actively to protect and defend their democratic rights and their sovereignty. Those present at the meeting were Mr. J. R. Jayewardene and Mr. R. Premadasa of the UNP, Dr. Colvin R. de Silva and Dr. N. M. Pereira of the LSSP, Mr. Prins Gunasekera (JVP) Mr. W. Dahanayake (ind) and Mr. V. Navaratnam of the FP. The leaders later called on the Speaker of the Assembly.' .
Very interesting developments in the political arena are expected in the near future. One of the most significant development stemming from the prorogation is that the Emergency which had been declared in March 97 lapsed on March 16 at midnight. With the ending of the Emergency a whole series of regulations which had been brought into force under the Emergency have lapsed. All detenues have been released. The ban on the Dawasa group of nawspapers has also ended. All the proscribed parties, like the JVP, are now free to function. Even the five day week had to go but the Minister by means of a Regulation under the Holidays Act has decreed that the five-day week should continue. There are reasons to believe that the Prime Minister had not bargained for the ending of the Emergency with the prorogation of Parlament. A major part of the administrative and legislative edifice of Mrs. Bandaranaike’s government rested on the Emergency. The Communist Party, it is now said, will pull out of the Government sooner than expected and seek to play the special role of a non-government party extending responsive co-operative to the SLFP -supporting what the CP regarded as "progressive measures'. The CP does not want to join the official Opposition because of the taint of the UNP. The LSSP does not seem to have such scruples because of its near-psychopathic hatred of the Prime Minister-it is said that the LSSP will not join any coalition or even an electoral ailiance with the SLFP having Mrs. Bandaranake as its leader-the LSSP will not mind if she was promoted upstairs as the President, a honour she is not likely to accept to please the LSSP.
February 6, 1977
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 6
Sri Lanka Chronicle
SRİ LANKA CHRONICLE
Feb. 2 Feb. 4
A DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WC
COMPLED FROM DALY NEWSPAPERS Pi JBLISHED IN COLOAMBO.
DN-Ceylon Daily News: CDM-Ceylon Daily Mi CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times: DMnina LD-Lankadipa: WK-Virakesari: ATH-At SAM-Silumina: SLD-S-Sri Lankadipa; JD-jana dina.
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 2: The Ministe Plantation lindustries, yesterday decided to rei mend to the government a subsidy scheme for planting of coconuts and the extension of the coc rehabilitation scheme to cover the entire coconut in the country: this decision was announced by Minister at a conference at his office with senior in bars of the coconut cultivation Board, the Coc Research Board, the Coconut Development Auth and the Distilleries Corporation. The Marketing De ment vans have begun selling coconuts in Colo at 82 and 85 cents a nuit: an average of 20,000 nuts w be sold to the public daily in this way: it will be pro sively increased according to consumer needs. PM yesterday tabled at the NSA the Wimalar Commission Report on the incidents at the Perade Campus. Sri Lanka will sign a trade agreement Bangladesh this month. The Government Parlimer Group yesterday discussed the government's grammes to bring down the cost of living and pro more employment-CDN. The MP's belonging to the did not attend yesterday's meeting of the Govern Parliamentary Group: the four "rebel MP's of the S who supported the recent railway strike also did attend this meeting. The Ceylon Petroleum Corp tion has created a new record in it's earnings of for exchange in 1976: the amount earned last year is app mately 502 million: the previous highest earning in year was Rs. 388 million in 1975. The PM, replying question asked by Dr. N. M. Perera at adjournment said she was not aware of any official of the Soviet bassy in Sri Lanka being asked to leave the country. asked if this was in the background of the PM's Staten about foreign interference in the recent strikes-C The Wimal ratne Commission report on the Perade Campus shooting his held that Inspector D. N. G singhe and the Police sergeants 697 Ariyadasa had ceeded the right of private defence and used in force than was warranted-CO. The PM at the Gov ment Parliament Group Meeting yesterday told MP's that they should be prepared for the Ger Elections-VK. THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 3: The Communist P of Sri Lanka does not subscribe to the view that recent Strikes were politically motivated with a to overthrowing the government although cer opposition parties may have made political ca of the strikes: This is stated in a communique iss by the Party's Central Committee after it's delib tions on January 29 and 30: it states that the str arose out of the real and substantial economic diff ties of the workers: the Party at no stage had acce the policy of "no negotiations with workers on st and had urged the government to settle the st through negotiations: it also states that the Cer
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

fof. Diphath;
Com
the onli ands
the The fifthonան rityכ Dartmbo ould gresThe atme niya with tary produce CP ment LFP, 1○電 Ofte eign *ంxi+ One to a time EmHe Aleft D/M. niya La
EXK
hore err
the eral
arty
the iew "tain pital ued era. ikes iculpted rike” rike ክtra1
Committee will launch a campaign around a programme
of demands aimed at easing the burdens of the people: it also calls for a round-table conference in the NSA to settle the problems of the National minorities to give them legal and constitutional guarantees of their rights. The Opposition's motion of 'no confidence' in the government will be debated in the NSA on February 7. When the NSA met yesterday the Private Member's motion by Mr. Prins Gunasekera calling for the repeal of regulations banning the ಙ್ಗ''ನ್ತೆ: of the independent Newspapers of еу (Dawạsa Group) was taken up for debate. The CRA premium price which remained stagnant for the past six months began rising again: this is because several CRA holders have pl ced orders for the imports of both consumer and luxury items: informed sources said that the price which stood at Rs. 15 for 100 earlier had risen to Rs. 40 for 100. Sri Lanka can now export handlocm silk and cotton duty free materials to EEC countries: this is a sequel to an agreement between the EEC and the governmen of Sri Lanka-CDM. Owing to the shortage of textiles in the country mainly as a result of a drop in production at the National Textile Corporation's Milli, the government has allocated Rs. 100 million for import of textiles this year; last year the government was hopeful of attaining self sufficiency in textiles and saving foreign exchange for other essential inputs. India has granted a loan of Rs. 70 million to Sri Lanka to purchase capital goods. MP's who have served over five years will be entitled to a monthly minimum pension of Rs. 333.33 and a maximum pension of Rs. 666.63 if they have served 15 year or over-CDN.
FREDAY. FEBRUARY 4: Pensioners who receive a commuted pension at the time of their retirement will get their full pension after 10 years instead of waiting for 23 years under the present rules according to a government decision taken this week: this decision will benefit nearly 90% of pensioners namely those drawing less than RS 3600 per year: the decision will not be retrospective and no arrears will be paid Regular workers engaged in projects managed by the Development Co-operative Societies will be accepted as members of these Co-operatives under the proposed Divisional Development Councils Bill, shortly to be presented in the NSA. The value of industrial exports of Sri Lanka during 1976 registered a significant increase of 1975: it exceed the target set by the Ministry of Industries and Scientific Affairs by Rs. 0.6 million, according to statistics released by the Export Promotion and Development Division. The University of Sri Lanka which closed over 2 months ago, following a shooting incident will re-open on February 21. It is impossible for Sri Lanka to reach self-sufficiency in sugar even if the existing two factories at Kanthalai and Hingurakgoda worked at optimum capacity (38,000 tons) because consumption require" ments are now 75,000 tons a year according to the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Land. Principals of the branches of the foreign banks to be nationalised shortly have indicated to the government that they would retain their assets in Sri Lanka for investment purposes: senior representatives of the three banks met the Finance Minister. The General Councils of the Sri Lanka independent Trade Union Federation and the Government independent Trade Union Federationthe SLFP's strongest union federations in the labour sector-meet at noon today to discuss their future programme-CDN, University teachers, students and
事

Page 7
ܢܝ .
international Diary
employees in a joint memorandum have called for the immediate re-opening of all the campuses: the memorandum is signed by the President, the conference of the Teachers' Associations, the President of the joint front of the Employees Unions. The Public Service Technical Officers Trade Union Federation with 42 unions affiliated to it representing over 9,000 middle grade technical and scientific officers is poised for a strike: the federation has given notice to the Minister of Public Administration, Home Affairs and Trade that it will resort to direct trade union action on March unless it's grievances are remedied. The SLFP Youth League (Jaffna district) wants the standardisation of marks and the area quota basis for the admission to the University abandoned. The Customs have taken in for questioning two persons believed to be the kingpins in the illegal importation of luxury goods from the Maldives-CDM, When re-distributing estate lands which were taken over by the state don't use racial discrimination, because that will lead to a migrant opulation, this is an appeal made by the Ceylon orkers Congress to the Minister of Lands-VK. Only about 23% of the students who sat the NCGE examination have qualified for the tenth grade: this is about the same figure as last yeyar when it was held for the first time, according to the commissioner of Examinations-CO.
O O O
INTERNATIONAL DIARY
Jan. 13 - Jan. 17
THURSDAY, JANUARY 13: Chen Mu-hua was referred to in Peking as China's Minister of Economic Relations with Foreign Countries. The Philippine government agreed to held talks with Moro Reform Liberation Movement which claims to be more representative of Southern Muslims than the Moro National liberation front. The continuig poster campaign to restore Teng Hsiao-ping to power in China was accompanied by a call for greater freedom of the people. During a visit to Indonesia, Papua New Guiniea PM Michael Somare called for military co-operation between the two countries. Laotian President Prince Souphanouvong held talks in Delhi with PM, Indira Gandhi. Over ten million Hindu pilgrims and others are expected to attend the world's biggest religious fair-the Kumba Mela-held once every 12 years at the confluence of the Ganges and Jamuna and the mythical invisible Saraswathy rivers in North India. The Geneva Conference on Rhodesia which was to be resumed on January 7 will be postponed indefinitely. Battered by a storm of criticism both at home and abroad, the French government today defended the release of Palestinian Commando leader Abou Daoud.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 4: Malaysian troops entered Thailand in a joint operation against 3,000 Malayan Communist Party guerillas. Air Siam suspended operations. Indonesia’s President Suharto and Papua New Guinea PM Michael Somare agreed on the necessity of measures to prevent subversive elements from crossing their common border. Taiwan recorded a 490 million US dollar trade surplus last year compared with a 642 million dollar deficit in 1975. President-elect Jimmy Carter conferred with congressional leaders today on
5

the prospects for new arms agreements with the Soviet Union, peace settlements in the Middle East and a wide variety of other international issues. Egypt and Chad have asked for the resumption of the Geneva Middle East Conference before the end of next March with the participation of the PLO, as the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, said the Joint communique issued in Cairo yesterday on the visit paid by the President of Chad to Egypt.
SATURDAY, JANUARY IS: President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and King Hussein of Jordan began talks here today on future relations between Jordan and the PLO, informed sources said. Kuwait paper El Siyassa reported today that Iraq has asked for the convocation of an OPEC emergency meeting by the end of January on experts level to discuss the oil situation in the international markets to be followed by another high level meeting. A ceiling on private land ownership was imposed in Peru. About 40 non-aligned countries meeting in Cairo, representing the non-aligned newspool, adopted a code of conduct.
SUNDAY, JANUARY 16: A Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman said ousted vice-premier Teng Hsiao-ping could resume government activities if he corrected his erros. Singapore PM , Lee Kuan Yew began a five day visit to the Philippines. About 4,000 Malaysian and Thai forces continued an operation against communist guerillas in Thailand. The Security Council of the UN today strongly condemned Rhodesia's military activity on the borders of Botswana. Four Czechoslovac dissidents were arrested in Prague, a day after they issued a manifesto calling for the restoration of civil rights in the country. Three of them were later freed. Soviet Communist Party leader, Leonid Brezhnev caled for an end to the Arms race, saying it had frittered away money which could be used to combat the world's social problems.
MONDAY, JANUARY 17: The Opposition in Pakistan announced that it would boycott voting in Baluchistan in the forthcoming general election because of the abnormal situation in the province. Sir Murray MacLehose's term as Governor of Hong Kong was extended until November 1978. Vietnam's National Assembly approved a 3,315 million US dollar Budget for this year. A joint team of Government officials and Muslim rebels flew to the Southern Philippines to begin supervision of the ceasefire agreement. Thailand has banned official contacts between Thai experts and scientists and their colleagues in the socialist countries. British negotiator, Ivor Richard is under pressure form Rhodesia's African Nationalists to put his proposals for the :erritorie's future in writing before his Southern African shuttle mission can make progress, nationalist sources said today. Police today stopped Basque Mayors from gathering near Pamplona to discuss regional grievances and broke up a demonstration in Madrid calling for amnesty for all political prisoners. New contracts for credits granted by the special fund of the OPEC for making it easier for the developing countries to balance heir balances of payments were signed here during ast week. - -
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 8
PONT OF WEW
On Dr. Abraham Kov
A Sri Lankan temporarily resident in Bomba) from the Bombay weekly The Current of January 8, was enti ed RA NE ESTA EBLASTS KOVO OR, edgements to The Current we publish the same in Dr. Kovoor is now a legend in Sri Lanka challergir legers, black magicians, occultists and others of th challenges are often backed by a lakh of rupees, as on his recurn from India some local papers had et about the manner he had laid Sai Baba and c ther article in The Current presents a point of view which
will find interesting
Dr Abraham T. Kovoor, 80year-old rationalist and atheist from Sri Lanka, who has kicked up a great deal of controversy by challenging Satya Sai Baba, was interviewed by Current in the December 18 igue. His repies have provoked Rajneech into sending us a rejoinder, making Dr. Kovoor abbéar Seni fe and Evenile,
N THE INTERVIEW, (Current, Dec. 18) your reporter asks, "Dr. Kovoor, you are against god men and religion. Your life must be in danger. 'Have you ever been threatened' And he replies, "No, I have never been threatened, but I always take precautions.” For what? If he dies nothing dies because in the first place there was no soul. He was just a coincidence, and accident. If Dr. Kovoor dies, nothing dies. With God disappears a values, all beauty, all ecs tasy, all love, all significance.
When asked “why are you, tak
ing precautions, for . what?" He replies, 'I don't believe in any existence after death." Has he
known death? Has he experienced death? Without experiencing death, how can he say that there is no existence after death? This is not very rational. This is very childish. This is very mediocre, not even intelligent. Unless you have passed through death, how can you assert that there is no life after death? You can only say “I don't know.' You cannot say, “I know there is no life.'
And if there is no life after death how can life be before death if there is no life after death, then
TRIBUNE, February 9, 1977
there was no
There is no life is no life afte denly between exists 2-out of the blue? This For something
to be a continu
There is no out of non-ex teface Cannot && You can ask t have not yet b a single atom. anything-and anything either destroy a grain
And he says is going to death.' And who is taki sense? Mat And who i tions life in in protecting have an int to protect
protects itse that exists
is a protec itself so th into a tree. self to grov growth the Why not ge the sea. An sea is very is he prote taking preca
Even in an there is a tre live. For what? there must be And the meanin is not the end. sage. It is just the goal.
A rationalist

foor—ii
sent us a cutting 1977. The article and with acknowtwo instal ments. ng god-men, astroe same breed. His penalty. Recently gologistic reports god men low. This readers of Tribune
-Editor life before birth. before birth, there ir death; just Suidbirth and death life nothing, out of is not very rational. to exist, there has ity.
existence coming cistence, and exisinto non-existence. the physicists. They een able to destroy You cannot destroy you cannot create '. You cannot even
of sand.
'll believe there be no life after who is this man ing all this nonter Cannot taik. s taking precaumust be interested g itself. Life must irinsic mechanism itself. The seed slf; the hard crust around the seed tion. It protects at it can grow You protect yourv. If there is no 2n why protect? o and jump into ld in Ceylon the cose. For What cting himself and utions?
atheist like Kovoor, mendous desire to If the desire exists, a meaning to it. g is that life in itself Life is just a pasthe journey, not
, if he is really a to commit suicide.
Åtheism
He has nothing else to do here. But Kovoor is not a rationalist. He is an atheist and atheism is the lowest form of religion. Because it is the least productive, least creative.
Down the centuries, the theistic religion has been so productive, so creative-Khajuraho, Ajanta, Ellora, Michelangelo, Mozart, Leonardo da Vinci, the great churches and cathedrals, the great temples of the East, the great statues of Buddha. All paintings, sculpture, music, drama, poetry have come out of the theistic religion.
Atheists have not created any thing. That's why I call it the lowest form of philosophy. They have not created anything; they have been the most impotent people. They have not created any book compared to the “Gita,” the 'Bibie', or the 'Koran'. Is it enough, just to go on declaring there is no God? They have, not challenged the intelligence of man.
From Charwalk to Dr. Kovoor, their whole history is the history of impotence. All that is beautiful has come out of the religious people, the theistic people.
There are three hundred religions in the world, so much variety, so many possibilities. Atheism is just monotonous. It does not even have variety. You cannot choose, you don't have anything to choose from. Atheism is just atheism.
And Dr. Kovoor has not said a single thing that is original. Eighty years of sheer wastage. Whatsoever Charvak said three thousand years ago, the atheists have been just repeating it. They are parrots. In religion there is tremendous variety. Mahavir, Buddha, Jesus, Mohammed, Moses and Zarathustra, all have something different to say.
Atheism is not creative. It has to be so because there can be no creation out of a negative attitude. The negative attitude is more like death than like life. 'No' is death; "yes' is life. When you say yes, doors open; when you say no, all doors close. Religion has been very, very productive; and still goes on producing, still is creative, is not exhausted and spent. And atheism?--has never been alive, a dead philosophy, repetitive.

Page 9
Rationalism
And the beauty or the irony of it is that if atheists disappear, theism can survive because it does not depend on atheists, if there is no atheist, there is no problem for one who believes in God, but if there is no believer in God, atheism will disappear. It is dependent. If all the world drops religious attitudes and everybody says,
"Yes we don't believe in God', what will happen to atheism? It will disappear simply without leaving a t『露Ce。
CURRENT asked where will he be after death. Kovoor said. "I will not be anywhere... I do not believe that I have a soul."
Who is he to declare "I am not?' Even to declare "I am not,' you have to be there. To believe ΟΥ not to believe is not the point. To declare belief or non-belief, you have to be there.
Ask the rock. "Is there a soul, or not?' and the rock is not going to say, "I don't believe in any soul." The rock will not say anything; there is nobody to deny or affirm. in fact, you cannot deny yourself. It is not possible. You cannot say "I am not'. It is self-contradictory.
He says, "I will not be anywhere' It is impossible not tọ be anywhere. You will be somewhere. You are somewhere, Dr. Kovoor. Your body may dissolve into matter, your mind may dissolve into atmosphere-but everything that is in you will be there. Nothing will be lost.
He has never tried meditation, it seems. A simple technique would be of tremendous help to him. Although he is eighty, but it is never too late. A little technique of just sitting silently and watching will make him aware that the body is there as the outer shell, then thoughts are there as the inner shell, and there is
at the very hub just a witmessing, just 2W3, YeeSS. That awareness is soul. That awareness will be somewhere, because it is some
where right now. It cannot disappear; nothing ever disappears. Forms change; the reality remains. But he says, 'I do not believe. . . . . . . . y
That's what I mean when I say he is not a rationalist. A rationalist
7.
will never talk in or non-belief. He w of experience. He "I have not expe how can say with whether there is And I am not de; can I say?'"
Socrates was dy body asked, "Are Socrates?' He said be afraid, becaus what is going to perhaps, atheists are simply disappear. Th body left, so why f not be any anguish I will not be there. ists are right and If I continue, then be there. So I will se but I have not d let me die. Only th whether survive o
This is pure rat. tionalist cannot ass that "I don't believ
Then the Curre "Does Bhagwan a soul'2 t an much. How you body else about he could not courage to say know about B Rajneeshi? He mr not have.’’ VWha is sheer nonsen 'I do not know Rajneesh.' As much he will
have a soul if you live with dred years an much about r not know me. ‘‘about”” will ni cause there is na in me, you ca my behaviour. See me; you into my inner to find out abo
Matter has on it has no inside. matter and you wi matter inside that the outside.
But a man has "I love you'. You try to find out wh you will not find it Kovoor talks, says makes statements, him, we will not f inside, no thought thought that "I c. soul'. When you

terms of belief ili talk in termis
can only say. "ienced yet, so but experiencing a soul or not ld yet, so how
ing, and someyou not afraid "Why should 2 don't know happen? Maybe right and will enthere is noear? There canfor me, because
Or maybe...themay continue. why fear? I will e what happens, ied yet. Wait, en will know r not.'
ionalism. A raert such things, te in a scul.” nt asked him, Rajneesh have used me very can ask somemy soul? And even gather 'How can hagwan Shree hay have, may the answered se. He said y much about if by knowing know whether or not. Even me for a hunld you know
me you will Knowing much not help. Be
D way to enter in watch only You cannot cannot enter most recesses ut my soul.
ly an outside; You can break ll find the same
you found on
an inside. I say can cut me and ere love is, and
t. Of course Dr.
things, asserts, but if we cut ind any thinking s, not even this ion't believe in cut a man, the
inside disappears. When the ma was there in his organic unity the inside was there. The inside is what we mean by soul."
How can you know my inside? Only can know it. He does not even know his own inside: he has never been there. He is an extrovert; he has never entered his own temple. He has never come to his own innermost shrine. He has not encountered himself.
And he says, "I do not know much about Rajneesh.' That's why he cannot say whether Rajneesh has a soul or not. Knowing "about' won't help. Unless you know yourself, it is not going to help. I can Say that Dr. Kovoor has a soul because I have come to know my own soul. In that very recognition, I have recognised the soul of everybody. I don't know much about him either, I have only seen his photographs, but I can say he has a soul, because his eyes show fire, sincerity. He is a sincere manmore sincere than your Satya Sai Babas
But I can say that not because know much about him. Because know myself, that's why I say it. He cannot say anything ábout me because he does not even know himself.
And I say to you the whole of existence is full of Soul. That's what we mean when we say "God is.' Existence has an inside: it is not just the surface. It has depth, it has meaning.
And then he goes on answering a question-which was not asked. "But the cult spread through him shows the mental derangement of his devotees. It is as bad as the Hare Krishna'' Now the question was about me, not about my devotees. A rationalist will stick to the question. He does not know much about me, and think he does not know anything about my devotees. He may have heard some rumour, but that is not the way of a rationalist. He should Il come here; he should see my devotees. And seeing from outside won't help much. He should dance with them. It will be a beautifu scene-eighty-year-old Dr Kovoor dancing, doing Kunda
ini Meditation.
And he says that "the cult spread through him shows the mental derangement of his devotees.' It shows many things. First, he be
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 10
lieves that the mind can be in a de rangement. That means he believes there is a certain arrangement of the mind. Arrangement brings soul back; it brings God back. If you say the mind is deranged, you accept some criterion, you say that there is a certain way in which the mind is arranged rightly; otherwise you cannot say it is deranged. If you have some concept how the mind should be, you have brought a value in from the back door. This cannot be allowed to a rationalist.
He is not a rationalist at all, poor fellow. He does not know anything about rationalism. He has not done his homework. He may have collected a little bit from here and there, but he does not know the intensity of a rationalist's intelligence.
A rationalist is more like Sartre; he will say everything is meaningless. A rationalist will be more like Samuel Beckett-absurd. Samuel Beckett's plays go on, move in absurdity, because the whole of life is absurd. There is no possibility of any coherence and meaning. Somebody asks you about A and you talk about B; that too is okay because there is no way of knowing w at is okay. There is no way of judging what is what. It is chaos.
Now he says my disciples are mentally deranged. Then he must have some criterion. Ils Dr. Kovoor the criterion? If people are like him, then they are rightly arranged? Then he seems to be the ultimate value, Mahavir was deranged because he walked naked; Kovoor has never walked naked. Buddha was deranged becuase he left his kingdom, beautiful wife and child and all the pleasures. Jesus was deranged because he kept saying he was the son of Gcd: What nonsense. God does not exist. so how can the son exist? He must have had hallucinations.
My disciples are the sanest people on earth because they are not accumulating insanity. That is the whole secret of catharsis. He must have heard that my disciples scre am and shriek and shout and dance and go mad, but he should come Madness is when it is beyond your control. Have you watched my disciples meditating, shrieking shouting, going crazy-then suddenly Chaitanya orders them, "Stop!' And they stop.
TRIBUNE, February 9, 1977
Go to a mad loudly, "Stop! stop. That's madness. This madness; they They are doir happening to going into it.
leas ng the pe
People go ma don't release. T goes on accumul comes too much. plodes. Then Cha saying Stop! Stop not stop, becau: stop; now it is Kovoor goes mad ten to “Stop!”.
And it seem heard anything trends in psy
does not know Arthur anow's rapy. He does
thing about Enc Groups, Human does not know Psychodrama. } anything. He i ancient dead r contemporary a he has not reac than Charwaka Karl Marx. He
Dr. Kovoor You don't know what is happeni you are not a
| believe in rel because I believe way to remain sane in an insant cult thing becaus are consumed jealousy, possessi They have been from their very are sitting on a
Animals are more sane; and to be natural. A is to be in tune natural, to be s be religious.
And he says, "I Hare Krishna.' he is not right. Hare Krishna. T people are ver, simpletons. They thing about life attracted the lov people of the w ple. No, sir, this i These people 魏『亂 intelligent.

house and say '' Nobody will how you judge is is a willed are in control. ng it; it is not them. They are They are reint-up energy.
d because they hen the energy ating and it beOne day it exitanya will go on !' and you will Se you Cannot
beyond you. If |, he will not lis
is he has not about modern chotherapy. He anything about Prina. Thenot know anyounters, Growth ristic trends. He anything about He has not heard is a very very man. He is not at al. It seems anything other nd Epicurus and is out of date.
you are dead. anything about ng in the world; contemporary.
tease, in catharsis, a that is the only sane. To remain a world is a diffie people all round with anger, sex, veness and hatred. taught to control childhood. They vocano.
Sainter", treeS a fe am teaching you \nd to be natural with God. To be pontaneous, is to
It is as bad as the
No, even there
It is worse than the Hare Krishna y simple, almost
don't know any. Prabhupad has vest, the stupidest orld, foolish peois worse than that. ound me are very
Born Again
And Hare Krishna - is not going to bring any revolution in the world, it is tradia tional. What I am doing is worse Dr. Kovoor. It is going to bring a tremendous revoution in the world. It is going to shatter your old world completely, I am creating atomic explosions; sooner or later they will explode all over the world. They will shatter your whole society, your whole so-called civilisation. They will shatter the whole past. These are totally new beings.
I am helping a new world to be reborn, a fresh consciousness, a new consciousness.
Hare Krishna people are nothing. Maybe a sort of entertainment, amusing, eccentric, but they have no future. They have a past. My people have no past; they have a future. And the future is always dangerous because if the future is allowed, the past has to be dropped. .
would like Dr. Kovoor to come here, taste some of the energy of my people. Although it is very late but better late than never. If before you die you can have a taste of something beyond it will be good. Sooner or later. Dr. Kovoor you will be dying. It is better to have some preparation. It is better to be ready for an after-death life. It is possible.
And when I say it is possible, I am not talking theoretically. I am a very practical man, down to earth. I am a Jew! I meam business. If you come here and allow me to dismantle you a little to destroy you a little can create you again. This is a promise.
薔
SA FAR
April 19-24 By Aikardi Mugana
April 19,
There is a cupboard here that makes a terrific racket when it is being closed, a noise loud enough to awaken the dead, a noise that would not dare make if i was not No. around here, and a noise which made no less than about
8

Page 11
Near Veddah-land
four times tonight in the space of about half-an-hour, between 10.30 p.m. and 1.30 p.m. with two people sleeping just outside my window which is beside the cupboard and three other people sleeping quite near by within the house precincts, and still two others, watchers, not so far off. My sole excuse is that I have been packing for an early departure, pre-dawn, and that my absent-mindedness about putting things away cannot
gainsay the fact that they must be
put away, according to the routine I live by. Meanwhile, other people, the sleepers, my fellowsleepers by the time get to bed, must think me awfully selfish. Those do not sleep too heavily to awaken, and they are probably not far wrong, and what is more likely, quite right. Even if it was a question of disturbing one person, I do not think the noise should have been made, and I would not have dared awaken the baby, if there had been a baby around, even the servant's baby. The baby would have told me all about it, but enough of this.
April 20,
To bed at 2 a.m., and up soon after 4.30 a.m. I had not been on the road long when a bus came by and took me to Kurunegalle. There was a bus there waiting to take me to Kandy, where I found a special bus had been laid for the public all ready to take me to Amparai. I was at Hunnasgiriya, on the water-shed between Kandy and Mahiyangana, before I had my first bite or sup, or I should rather say, sip, drink, for the day. It would not be much of an exaggeration to say that slept fairly solidly, or stolidly, all the way from where set off right up to Amparai, which I reached at 4.30 p.m. I had still another bit to go. I had been fast asleep when we passed through Maha Oya, so I missed any chance had of seeing Veddahs, whether they were old friends or not. The bus fares from start to finish had cost me Rs. 5/- for a fairly solid eleven hours of travelling involving no delay at the two changes. The Kandy-Amparai bus was crammed full of people all the way, and that route involved those
tortuous hair-pin bends that any
one who has done that trip will not forget. At one of my waking moments saw Walimbe, the famous Friar's Hood, that fearsome-looking mountain, and I realized that
9
although have pre 器 Walimbe, P. means bear in the W I have not yet claim mission which I oug to put right, now t posed to be on holiday,
April 21,
Christians, among there is one god to forget that god i, munity, a commun persons, albeit a munity of three. We this community, we three persons when sign of the cross a the words that alwa this gesture or act. morate this fact whe people, the ceremo.
ment by which we r
into the church. chief interest in Hind as brought out so c Bhagavad Gita, one
of the Mahabharata, t. god who made all th and the fact that thi three, three in one, B. and Siva. All this has for us. We, too, are
and this is just like s fact. In a way, we with the community, community is a lot o communities, and we that we are a comf to that community was, is and always wi god. Among the ti that comprise that there is complete their difference is
relationship, the Fa gotten the spoken,
Word, and the lov proceeding from the binds them. The fact the Word, revealed ways does his Fatih he asks uus to do th only a matter of c. that we do so, beca parent that that is
that we can lead to pe
April 22,
An adventure was and an adventure is making Rather tha hours for a bus to Namal Oya to lingini cided to do it acros foot, and there was was able to tell me til me where to turn

ᎿᎿᎩ well hich think eddah tongue, ed it, an omit to be able iat I am supwo months“
others, know but we tend ; also a come ty of three perfect come acknowledge emember the we make the nd pronounce ys accompany
We commen we baptize ny or Sacraeceive people A Christian's uism is again, learly in the of the books he fact of one e other gods, is one god is rahma, Vishnu a significance a community, stating an old have to start and the large f intertwining
owe the fact munity at all
that always ll be, the one tree Persons | community equality, and only one of ther or Be
or begotten e coming or m both that is that Christ,
that he aler's vill, and at, too. It is onmon sense use it is apthe only way rfect freedom.
my lot today, of one's own in wait two :ake me from yagala, deis country on a man who he way, to tell
road. His directions were, just keep going straight, and his description of the route tallied with what i saw. At a certain junction was non plussed, and there my trouble started. I could see a house a little along what I knew must be the unlikely route, and the woman there was emphatic that must turn back tha way I had come because of elephants, leor pards, and it was either wild buffaloes or bears. I asked about lone elephants, and I was told there was one, lame because of some" one having had a shot at it in the past, and on further inquiry was told that lame or not, I would have to be canny about the ellephant. So it was with a certain amount of trepidation that I did not turn back, Armed myself with a stout manioc pole found lying right there. I was consoled by the fact that I could see no spoor around, but at one place came across it, and it rather heightened my consciousness of my surroundings. I saw no game, but the challenge li had accepted left me with a feeling of exhilaration.
April 23,
An intended hour's break in my journey back made me nine hours late getting here, from missing buses, and no buses, and a nice tramp. I thought it a pity to return without having a shot at meeting my Veddah friends. It was not market day, and there were none in the hospital. One Veddah had come in the morning on a bycycle, but I have not been in the habit of thinking of him as a Veddah, as he is the grandson of a rather famous outlaw of the Bintenne jungles. missed him anyway, but learnt that his brother, too, had married; I gathered it was another case of two brothers marrying two sisters. Their father was well, and also one of Dr. Spittel's trackers or guides; so much gleaned. A man from Welligama had come the third year running to find seasonal work. This time he had been unlucky, and he was thinking of selling the good shirt he was wearing to find the money to get back to his home, but not before he had a crack at Dambana. We started to walk fron Padiyatalawa town, as we say in Ceylon, for the word town, adopted into the Sinhalese language, means village, although suppose it could equally well mean town,
of the main a s we understand it in English. A
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 12
bus with an obscure destination on its name board passed us and did not stop. It turned out to be a bis passing through Kandy, on his route and mine. There are no shade trees on this road, and we were glad to stop at a road-side cafe where my companion found a job, cultivation with these people, but back the way we had come.
April 24,
There must be an art about the way one handles ones equals. Mongomery was supposed to be not good at it. Reading Angelo Paredi's life of the fourth century Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, and his conternpories, shows that life did not run smoothly for these people. Take the elements. There was some shower of rain this evening which left some people running about in it seeing to their chores which they did well, as a look round by me showed afterwards. It was certainly some rain which left the verandahs wet, the table in them, and which showed up some leaks we had not expected existed. Luckily we had begun tying the cattle up half-an-hour earlier. must lie down for a few minutes. I woke up to find myself almost in darkness after not even ten minutes, and I find that the lamp has nearly run out of oil. A switch in lamps revealed that the other lamp was out of oil, too, and all this at 10.10 p.m. A third lamp had a wick which was too short to reach down to the oil, but it had oil, and this filched. So I am able to finish this Safari, and what finer way to illustrate both the difficulties of life and their God given solution. Life is like an epic, the Iliad or the Aeneid, full of trials and tragedy some seem ingly final, but they are not final, because there is always a chapter two for those of good will, and this is wrapped up in being God's friend. Here, we get into deep water, for there are friends and friends. It is not the name that matters, but the fact, and it is largely a question of believing, even to the point of being gullible.
《ལ་ཡོལ་སོང་། ས་ཁུལ་
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977
UNIVERSITY E
Equality in Education
P. Chandrase Departinent of faculty of Educ. of Sri Lanka
Equality in excellence an be the keyno tion. Excellenc Relevance muis more meaning back the “unde prived', into i of the commer lin rimany co; is said to be condary schoc the phenomen the end of year is very pronol California and United States. relevant age gr out of the less completed ele They mingle o bare 30% who or at best ar. live above the The major educated for through the co cation and th ment in the s) of production a education coul tion of equalit products are services in th; extent it helps ing hierarchic: social structure
Traditionally tred in the di on dismantling particularly wit ment of stude of higher learn din traditiona. of race, easte embedded in titudes and si tracted attentic
Equalisation the 'rural-urbal principle is pe in practice it social effort and ficant political the political a

DUCAT CGN-2
Higher
gerann
Humanities Education ation University
education besides d relevance, should te in higher educa'e must be relevant. t be defined, socially fully so as to bring }rprivileged' and 'def not at the centre world of humanity.
untries where there near universal sebling, there still is ton of illiteracy at "s; this for example Lunced in states like New York in the Indias’ 4% of the oup at College come than 50% who have lmentary schooling. r fail to, among the can read and or write nong the 50% who a poverty line.'
significance of the equality could be intent of their edurough their deployystem of knowledge, ld of services. Higher d help in the direcy to the extent its sehicles of ideas and at direction, to the to break the existal non egalitarian
focus has been censcussion of equality layers of inequality h regard to recruitnts, to institutions ing.
status inequalities and sex, as they are ong established attructures have atɔn in particular. of sex or caste and in differentiation in }ssible even though equires determined perhaps also signiPressure. And once nd social will to
Equality ?
major redistributions of income and, wealth can be assumed to exist, the effort to do away with educational inequalities is relatively easily reviewed with some hope.
More intrachable are the problems of poverty and related cultural disadvantages (which cannot exist in a civilised, decent society) and the so-called genetic differences. Soviet psychologists have unqualifiedly contested the principle of genetic differences.
The reduction of inequality, both the inequality of opportunity for or access to education and of the unequal tendency of education to people's life chances is contingent on a very rare combination of human skill and will essentially or largely political in character. It is only an altered balance of social forces which impels that expansion in educational opportunity and those changes in rules of admission, bursaries or financial aid, methods and curricula of education which may reduce inequality of access to, as well as success in higher education. But it requirs even greater ingenuity and skill itself not possible without strong social will or a new balance of social forces, to promote that culture of the climate of the institutions of the secondary school level which makes it possible for youth from deprived sections to learn those kinds of skill and knowledge which are most important in society or to include in the cur
riculum those values, skills and at
titudes which they will learn as well and to produce the educational conditions which would give positive advantage to the under previleged.
But some of these could pose problems. The ideas of a good education are not socially neutral. It is difficult to provide culture supportive of the disadvantaged or to promote the knowledge and the skills at which all can be more adept particularly in a situation where they do not command the heights of the economic or political or cultural system. Equally problematic is the relation of such skills and knowledge to the economy or to the knowledge system as it obtains in society both contemporary and prospective nationally and globally.
in any case we have to-day equality of access to education in general terms and equality of concern as John Dewey the American philo.
O

Page 13
sopher-educational st puts it and equality of treatment of different kinds of groups and individuals by education.
But the question may be posed whether it is the primary function of higher education and learning to promote equality. Is it a criticism if it fails to do so in the long run hopefully people will all be equal. in that mill nnial society, there is little doubt of the higher learning being functional to equality.
The creation of new knowledge, its dissemination and its application to social purposes some tending in the direction of reducing nor widening, further gross inequality in levels of living-such are some of the desirable functions of higher education and learning. The call to equality is proceded by the call to relevance, as also cyeellence. It is only a relevant excellence which will orient the not higher learning to social tasks, For this the challenge lies in both equalising access to the maximum extent and fashioning a content of education which meets current needs of helping the socially and culturally under previlledged.
The real obstracles to the concept and to the practice of equality are not technical; they are more social and political. The education ally and socially previleged will resist actualisation of the philosophy of egalitarianism. Besides devising procedures to ensure equality by curricula provisions and the like, an essentially helpful social climate should be created. It is also necessary for sustained and strong effort from teachers, administrators and policy makers, and political decision makers to attain this very noble, psychological, social, and cultural ideas,
響
BUIC NG A WILLAGE HOUSE-05
The loves lives Of Simon Baas (iii) By Herbert Keu neman
"I was 8 years old' (said Simon Baas) “when my father died. I don't know what his disease was: he swelled up, and died. My mother said the swelled so much he was bigger than she was-the only
time she allowed Yet she found th tion to the family been negligible; sh on her own taking (a "basket woman' often of vegetable and on these alo sible to keep us and vegetables a rack. So she sold and huit to the ! hamy' (Muhandira lete Government o status, Ralahamy: term of respect.)
the place, but she
"One day when was walking with outside our hou attention to a fir in the garden. father had plante he married, and 1 mother done? sh that I could nevi the tree my fat because it belong diram Ralahamy the produce fror
"And suddenly a pride in the ti to eat a breadfr great sadness til claimed our tree as Soon as my gr climbe d the tre breadfruit as big
"Just as I was one of the se Muhandiramʼs came storming threatening to in got down, and him, and ran off a were behind me me the next da screamed loud mother to hear tavern, she did she was som ev Muhandiram's lac ever, and she ca servant off me; it was my tree planted it, and to pick breadfr ever I wished. wished. Althou diram's lady wa ever after used cents the first saw me, it was I knew it was o she had said it owned it, it was as liked, even t but this way

him that much hat his contribufinances had not le discovered that is as a vatti-amma , a vendor, most s, door to door) ne, it was imposin fish and rice nd herself in army father's plot Muhandiram Ralam: a now obofficer, of middling a Still Current "We lived on in
now paid rent.
my father's uncle me in the lane se he drew my ne breadfruit tree He said that my d it there when now what had my e had made it sic er eat fruit from her had planted, fed to the Muhan
and he claimed .it וז
was filled with ree and a longing uit from it and a hat another now
and its fruit. And and-uncle had left be and picked two g as bolsters.
s climbing down, rvants from the Valayva opposite but of the house pale me! I barely flung a stone at s though ten devils . But he caught ay. And though l
enough for my all the way to the n't hear; perhaps where else. The hy heard me, howme and took the and she told him because my father should be allowed uit from it whenOnly, no longer gh the Muhanis very kind and to give me a fivetime each day she 't the same thing nly out of charity was my tree. If
; mine to do with
to cutting it down; was only being of
Boyhood
fered a gift of what was my own, only out of the lady's bounty. So, when she had gone in brought the two breadfruit ! had picked the previous evening and left thern on the step, and went home crying. "My grand-uncle said to me: "Poor boy! You have nething to do now but go and seek a living in some other place and find a plot of your own.'
'I can't think what he thought he was getting at. I mean, telling an 8-year-old to go away and seek his fortune. But it worked on me,
And I kept thinking that my mother,
through her greed for cash, could not give me to eat from my own breadfruit tree; and that worked on me, too. I thought I hated my mother. And at last I hated her so much ran away from home. And that very first day I got all the way to Panadura, 7 miles.
"By nightfall I was beginning to be frightened, and unhappy, and very very hungry. I was more than a little weepy, in fact. I made my way to the beach, where a number of temporarily deserted or (outrigger cances) lay and curiled up on the sand under the end of one of them.
"The fisher folk of fifty years ago led a hard life; but evidently it did not necessarily breed hard men. I shall always remember the man who found me that night and took me into his own household and treated me no different from his own Sons as amongst the kindest men i have ever known. (And I have met many who were good to me, may the gods that have favoured me find merit)
"That was a happy time on the beach at Panadura, a carefree time, in the blue-and-white calm of the early year, for soon became the companion of all the other fisher children, living out lives half in and half out of the water, with little more to do than play at lending a hand in hauling in the net every morning. The maha dala, the great purse-Seine more than a quarter of a mille long between one end of its ropes and the other. was laid in a vast semi-circle-its ends were brought ashore more than a furllong apart-by filat-bottomed barges called dal-Oru; and when both ends were secure it was hauled in by all the women and children and spare men of the village, sometimes three times a day. But it was far from common for the catch to justify the labour.
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 14
ly only real task was to await sailing-ord at dawn as they came riding in from the sea, the men
blue-lipped and shivering from ex-,
haustion, cold and exposure, and stiff from the constriction of their narrow craft in which a man must even stand sideways, with a steaming earthen bowl of spiced gruelbehet kanda-for my benefactor and his crew.
This behet kanda was powerful stuff; better than kasippu It was a conjee of rice starch fortified with ginger and garlic, fenugreek, pepper and cardamoms. The men used to fall on it and down great draughts of it before they did anything else, before even the canoes were properly beached; and we children used to have to ru , h into the warm surf and hold the boats Stern-on to the spent breakers, lest they slew round broadside and suffer damage, while they did so. The kanda seemed to kindle new life in the men, and after they had drunk it they would become toilers of the sea again and set about energetically beaching their craft and stowing their gear and getting the catch ready for the morning's auction.
"I had been some considerable time with my kindly fisher friends when my relatives discovered me. A grand-aunt did. She was the wife of the grand-uncle who had first sown in me the seeds of the notion of running away! How she got wind of my whereabouts I do not know to this day; mor do I even know why. But find me she did and carried me back home again. Blood, suppose, is thicker than sea-water! So I did not protest unduly; in fact, home looked like a somehow not unwelcome change.
"Actually, there was more change than expected. My mother had teamed up with a Kalutara man, a maker of tea-chests who had acquired a lease of jungle land in Pussellawa, up-country, and was felling timber and turning it into teachests on the spot, and she had gone off with him taking my brother Brumpy Appuhamy with her but giving me up-rather easily, thought and still think-for lost.
"I therefore found myself staying, for the time, with my grandaunt. But not for long. The son of the Muhandiram Ralahamy that had bought our Dias Place property got a job in the Postal Department in Singapore, and my grand-aunt agreed to go with him and his wife
TRIBUNE,February 9, 1977
as their servant. she gave me into penter-baas she tuWa man, who w at Mr. Dias of Di
"The baas was kindly man; and and gentle, kind were childless and me. Yet spent misery in their had expectations a Stinkingly wea he standards su used to-and she She was old and expectations were dared do nothing and for some rea peculiar delight in mean physically her feel a person see the look of on the sweet fac
wife, knowing th protest would in t escape her S2 ehemat napur hapinni, haplinn What a vicious W. a very she-cobral
Baas, still Scowling year-old memory! "( ou rite devices-a by which she meas tures-was to pinch ear between two until blood oozed
"The baas live mill all week, di Moratuwa in his every Saturday afte when he was the no better: he wa money more than the Prevention of C. ren. Indeed, when his aunt's ingenuit and her eagerness dilated! There was do but run away
often did I wou of jaggery from th visions and wande enough while the but somehow fo take me over, as i Saturdays the baa and drive about i seeking me, and tually find me un Somewhere and it in the end, the got to know mes that the baas cou) me in an hour or t would more glee undertake my puni

Before she left
: he care of a carknew, a Mora
as head-carpenter as Place's mili.
again, a most his wife, grave ier still: They I happy to have a time of sheer nouse. The baas from his auntlthy woman by ch as we were lived with them feeble and their lively and they Io displease her, Son she took a formenting me Perhaps it made age of power to helpless distress :e of the baas” at no word of he circumstances imbudhu-amme, gahaniyak! i-mayil' (God, oman! A cobra, ) recalls Simon at the seventyOne of her fav
sort of norm ured other torthe lobe of an sharp pebbles from the bruise!
di away at the
riving home to -
race-tirikkale :rnoon. But even re things were inted his aunt's he cared about Cruelty to Childhe was there y in persecution to practise it nothing else to again. And this ld steal a baya e house as proir about, happy jaggery lasted; und no one to it were, and on s would return n his tirikkale, he would evender a hedge or ake siste back. vill gers around o well by sight
di generally find .
Wo and his aunt
ully than ever
Sh rrent;
Growing Up
"At last, however, I got away. Every week strings of bullock carts would rumble through Moratuwa bearing produce from the coast to fairs in the inland vill ges. it was to one of these usually at
tached myself in my escapes, plodd
ing along with my elbows on the tailboard of the trailing wagon as though were back again in the pin-pokat trade; and on this successful occasion I found myself at the weekly salpilla in Piliyandala, il followed the carts into the crowd already assembling in the fair-ground and was soon deep in conversation with a vatti-amma, a basket-woman, a lesser replica of my mother. I don't know what it was about her- wasn't as fond of my redoubtable mother as all that-but, where on on other occasions had kept as thought discreetly mum concerning my antecedents, I now found myself telling her my whole story and-big boy though now was -weeping bitterly as I did so. She was the soul of understanding and sympathy, though I låter found she was as tough as any vatti-amma in the business (and that's tough!) and she promised should find a home with her own people and no one should take me away
(To be Continued)
毒 毒
CANCER
ls it Hereditary?
by Patrick Young
Researchers have long suspected that heredity plays a role in at least some cancers. Recently U.S. scientists have succeeded in identifying specific genes that greatly increase the risk of developing certain cancers. These genetic advances suggest that in the future people (ဂိုရှိ်ji | a high risk of developing cer
tain cancers can be spotted
before the malignancy strikes and the disease either prevented or diagnosed early enough to ensure a cure.
(C) 1976 by The National Obser. ver Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
A 40-year-old woman went to her family doctor after her twin sister developed endometrial can
2

Page 15
*
كلاسي
- 5%ר
Cancer
cer. A pelvic examination revealed she, too, suffered from the disease. A decade later a brother came
down with colon
cancer, later
one of the two sisters was also diagnosed with that malignancy.
The incident is one
of hundreds
that cancer specialists have documented to suggest that some people inherit a strong predisposition
to Cancer. families suffer more
Evidence that certain
cancer than
others is as old as the Seventeenth
Century and as recent Journal of the Ame Association.
So researchers
as last week’s rican Medical have
long assumed that heredity plays
some role in at least
Some Can CefS.
But only in recent years, using
extraordinarily
complicated labo
ratory techniques, have scientists
succeeded in
identifying
specific
defective genes that greatly in a crease the risk of developing certain
Carth Celf Si. port to a theory adv Alfred G. Knudson,
And this has lent sup
anced by Dr. Jr., of the
University of Texas Health Science
Centre,
in Houston.
Sometimes
called the "two hit' theory, it
contends that a mutation is needed
tary pre-disposition t disease. The recent
second genetic
for a heredio lead to the genetic ad
vances hold major implications for understanding why some cances--
perhaps most--occur.
They sug
gest that in the future some people at high risk of developing spe
cific cancers can be s
potted before
the malignancy strikes, and the
nosed early enough cure. They even hint ment techniques.
disease either prevented or diag
to enSul re a at new treat
But there is also a brutal message explicit in Knudson's theory. "We can reduce cancer, but we
can never get lit to
go away,' he
says. “We’ll never eliminate cancer because to do so you would have
to eliminate
spontaneous muta
tions. In a sense, cancer is the price we have to pay to evolve.' None
heless, a better understanding of
the genetic factors in
cancer would
offer better hope of prevention and treat ment. “There have been major new ways of lcoking at the
genetics of cancer in years,' according to
the last few Dr. Park S.
Gerald of Harvard Medical School in Boston. "Cancer is a thousand
problems for which w
mon name," says Gerald.
disease will have its ment and genetic as own treatment.
What
e have a com'Each own environpects and its it means
is, don't expect a cure for cancer
3
because there is no it's our emotions th together, not their will be a thousand cu sand cancers. We're at the genetics, b just nibbling at th That nibbling is fa ticated than it once chers have gone | cataloging the incre in certain families. tial for evaluating e risk of developing a cancers promises die vention. “If you cal his chance of getti is 30 times greater else's, he might li Kundson says.
in recent decad gits have found thi tory of breat, ston uterine, or lung a person's chances that cancer from tw More alarming, a sends the risk of cancer before the onset soari, g 9-t pending on the t Other studies have family history of one increases a person's ing other kinds. Lynch and nine co Creighton Univers Medicine in Omah ported in the Journ can Medical Associ patients screened f found that 8.9 perc ple who reported o among their paren children had can 27.4 percent of thos three close family cancer had the di Certain inherite also send a perso up. Dr. John Mulvi nal Cancer institu Maryland, writing High Risk of Ca 16 such ailments. is no longer wheth inherit a predispos What researchers is how do suscepti fail to act to produ
A major clue Philadelphia chrot for the city whe and D. A. Hunge it in the cancerous myelocytic leukem phenomenon cons of genetic material

single cancer, at lump thern biology. There Eres for a tholi
pecking awa
uit we're still le edges.” r more sophisa was. Researbeyond simply base of cancer And the potenach individual's It least certain vidends in pren tell someone ng lung cancer than someone Isten to you,”
es epidemioloat a family hisnach, intestinal, cancer increases of developing o to four times. family history developing a normal age of o 47-folds, deype of cancer. shown that a a form of cancer risk of developDr. Henry T. leagues at the ity School of a recently reall of the Ameriatic in on 4,55 or cancer. They ent of the peohe case of cancer ts, siblings, or er themselves; e who reported members with Fease.
d, rare defectus n's cancer risk hill of the Natioe in Bethesda, in 'Persons at Incer” identifies So the question er a person Can ition to cancer. want to know ble genes act or ce a malignancy? ame with the hosome, named "e P.C. Nowell ford discovered cells of chronic a patients. The its of a piece moved, or trans
located, from one chromosome to another. Subsequent studies have found the Philadelphia chromosome in 70 to 90 percent of chronic myer locytic leukemia pateints. And evidence suggests that its presence is somehow involved in changing a normal cell to a cancerous cell. More important, says Knudson, the discovery "encouraged people to think there are specific genes for specific cancers.'
As often happers in medicine, a basic understanding of a common problem began with one of its uncommon and exotic forms. in 1968 James Cleaver of the University of California, San Francisco, identified a specific genetic defect that explined why patients suffering a rare, inherited ailment called xeroderma pigmentosum have high cancer rates. Cleaver showed that the malfunction of a single gene prevented the cells of these people from repairing the damage done by ultraviolet light to a cell's DNA, the chemical compound that makes up genes. The ultraviolet part of sunlight tans the skin and is known to cause some skin cancers.
"This is an experiment of nature that shows that a change in DNA can cause cancer," says Knudson. Scientists have uncovered three other "experiments of nature' in the last two years that explain how inherited genes increase a specific cancer risk. English and Canadian researchers reported in April that patients with ataxia telangiectasia-an inherited disorder that involves poor muscle co-ordination and carries a high risk of lamph-system cancers-cannot repair DNA damage that reSults from X rays.
Two other inherited ailments that carry a high-cancer riskBloom's disease and Fanconi': anemia-are now known to involve malfunctions in ancther DNA-repair system. "We've got at least three DNA-repair systems and four ways in which deficiencies show up,' says Harvard's Gerald. "The discoveries won't stop there." Some recent work suggests the specific nature of the genetic predisposition to lung cancer. Lung cancer patients seem to inherit far more activity in any enzyme called aryl hudrocarbon hydroxylase than people without cancer or people with other malignancies. The enzyme can form cancer-causing compounds frem a variety of
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 16
hydrocarbons, including some sound in tobacco smoke. The implication-far from proved at this time-is that people born with high-activity in the enzyme stand a higher risk of developing lung cancer. If true, measuring the enzyme may one day tell people how great their risk is.
Not everyone inherits the same predisposition or the same degree of risk. Knudson and two colleagues-Dr. Louise Strong and David E. Anderson-have concluded that "virtually all cancers in man' come in both inherited and non-inherited forms. People who inherit a predisposition, however, run a far greater individual risk of developing cancer, of developing it at an age earlier than normal, and of developing more primary tumors. There appear to be at least five hereditary types of breast cancer, and by one estimate they account for 30 percent of all breast cancers. "A person with a dominant gene for breast cancer will get breast cancer 20 years earlier than most Women,” says Knudson. (A dorminant disorder requires that a fetus inherits a defective gene from only one parent; a recessive disorder requires inheriting the same defective gene from both parents). Retinoblastoma is a rare eye cancer found in young children. Knudson estimates that 40 percent of these malignancies are associated with an inherited dominant predisposition. He calculates that inheriting the predisposition increases a child's chances of deve
loping retinoblastoma 100,000 times.
No one knows precisely how important genetic pre
dispositions are in cancer. Knudson estimates that one or two percent of all cancers are strongly predisposed-that this small percentage of people are born essen
tially doomed to develop cancer.
He believes another 20 or 25 percent of malignancies result entirely from spontaneous mutations, with neither predisposition nor the environment playing a role. "These are the rock bottom that tell us we'll never get to a time when people won't get cancer,' Knudson says.
But there remain roughly threequarters of all cancers that either result entirely from environmental factors, or a combination of the environment and predisposition. And these are the ones in which
f RBUNE, February 19, 1977.
prevention could toll. Knudson's is a synthesis a several old ide it accepts the not tumors begin as goes wrong. Bu than a single eve malignant. "It is number of eve three in some t says. "One even it were, every p. ted a (cancer) gen cell in that tissu The events Kn genetic mutations cific genes that in to cancer. A pe a mutation; it taneously or it an environmenta sunlight, man-mac ation, or chemica air, or drugs.
in Knudson's who inherits a n disposes him to with one hit aga born without a needs two hits velops. And this hit after birth, plains why fami herited predispos cancer, and why predisposing ger cancer at a yolun, hit theory says 1 very important cancer spreads t It is aimed only : happens at the gi an individual cell Knudson's no considerable crec. cer specialists. E only hypothesis cell turns cancer is increasing evi son’s theory-whi noSt Cancers-Ca all cancers. Mos terious mechanist what it will be-s liver, blood-is ternate theory s when this mec g이es a\Way.
"My inclination ing man, would b. are correct,” sa T. Prehn, direct Laboratory, an known genetics-r Bar Harbor, Mai son that both c good mechanisms

reduce the cancer two-hit theory ind refinement of as about cancer. ion that all cancer a single cell that t it takes more int to turn a cell probably a small ints-two, maybe umors,”” Knudson t isn't enough. If erson who inherie would have every e become cancer.’’ ldson talks of are s, changes in spenay somehow lead rson may inherit may occur sponmay result from factor such as fe or natural radils in food, water,
view, a person nutation that precancer is born inst him, a person predisposing gene before cancer deneed for only one Knudson says, exlies with an insition suffer more people with the he generally get ger age. The twonothing about the question of how hrough the body. at explaining what enetic level within
tion is gaining lence among Canbut it is not the to explain why a ous. lindeed, there dence that Knudile it may explain nnot accCount for
t likely the mys
m that tells a cell kin, muscle, heart, involved. An alsays cancers arise thanism somehow
, if I were a bette to bet that both ys Dr. Richmond br of the Jackson internationally 'esearch center at ne. "I see no reacan't be perfectly
y
Sound And Man
MUSICALA
Introductory by Mort Harbride
MUSIC is God's wonderful gift to Creation and is truly worthy of simple acceptance by us all as one of the most beautiful and natural means of universal and inter national communication. Be it. bird song, insect sound, the sighing of the wind in the trees or the sounds of the elements, we can instantly identify Nature's diversity in its sounds of thanksgiving and praise to our Creator. All nature must do likewise.
We acknowledge this remarkable channel of communication as mortal beings-some of us unquestionably, some with reser
vations, but most of us with simple
spontaneity
There are those who have the gift of creating music for the delight of our fellow beings. We either perform the works of the great masters and other composers in varied arrangements and Instrumentation, or we play. ex tempore and express our feelings to our listeners. There are some of us who are endowed with the ability of interpretation of what was, we would like to think, nearest to the composer's intentions. There are others in the majority who are the listeners. We are grateful for this privilege and free dem to be able to accept or reject our likes or dislikes-whatever form of music we choose.
The creative insistence of man to provide musical instruments right down the ages to the present time bears ample testimony to his desire to pro vide adequate means of communication through music. The subject of musical reproduction is so vast and varied that we are compelled to touch on it now only transitorily.
Man's inventive capacity must also be mentioned in the musical sphere, Modern inventors and inventions have really stirred the otherwise prosaic acceptance of normal standards. This aspect of our thinking can well become the subject matter of a future article.
The listener-reaction is the life
line of this communication medium
博

Page 17
*
in music, be the performance live' or recorded. With the advance in modern methods in radio and tele vision, listeners and viewers are fast becoming more reliant on these mass media as they relax in their homes for their musical entertainment unlike in the Past When theatres and concert halls drew capacity crowds. Sophisticated methods of entertaining are fast coming into vogue. Selectivity of musical programmes has been reduced to finger-tip control at 'Canned music is so popular today that cassette tapes can be played with simple operation and heard with surprising clarity of reproduction and is within the capacity of the average listener's purSe.
THE CONTEMPORARY LSTENER to music is just as selective in his listening as his for bears. A concert programme for the entertainment of all ages and varied musical tastes takes a good deal of fore thought, planning and experience on the part of the organisers to ensure success. A noticeable alternation of Western and Oriental contributions by artistes caters to a broaders Pectum of the public entertaintent. Pop bands and combos are featured in most stage shows along with slingers of popularity in the contemporary scene. Every effort is being made by promoters to fill the ment needs of the local music lover and those in Search of entertain ment at reasonable rates. Tourist hotels also gear their entertainment to meet, the musical prę fence of a wide variety of their patrons. Discotheques are quiቺ e popular in the larger hotels and are well patronised.
Modern music has peall the world oyer
extensive apand Sri Lanka
is no exception. Gimmickry in technique-innovations contribute to record disc, profits as all available
copies of their idol's latest releases
are snapped up by their eager fans. Cascette cales also show large profits.
Dance music has over the Pas: two decades undergone marked changes. Strict dance, tempo ball
room dance music of Victor Syl
vester and Joe Loss hasgiven Way to the frug and the "haze". The
couple on the floor no longer use their feet to dance in tempo but
more of body and arm, movement is noticed. The 'sounds one hears
5
today as compared the 1940s and '50 at ing to the ear as out in full volum amplifiers to a nea IN CONTRAST, th tenable music of Kostelanetz which easy on the ear, of renditions is n in close harmony ranged and select listener appeal. C the contributions Wanger Choir is enjoyable in contr polluted situation.
The grandeur o a full Symphony form hing the imm the great compos fresing to a discrin String quarters ar. of Satisfaction to til this music. A pit note the presenc Concerts of some who are clueless being played whic their heads' but \ obviously for snobwe suppose they plan Those who
overs must doub elements.
here is a We talent amoÎ18 Oulf them are encourt their studies and their place among performers: But, majority of these dents who aspire LTCL diploma st to the pressures parents and ev their talents on the nurseryl Pity
N THE ORIENT recordings of song music for Sinhala on at the State
Studios, Dalugama Vijaya Studios and Studio (docume The Studios are
booked by produ a back-log of film after censorship.
play for these
been long exper on call sheets (g from 10 p.m. to bly ill-ventilated for the GFU S airconditioned),

with those of e seldom pleashey are blasted e by powerful ur-deaf public here is the lisMantovani and is relaxing and as their choice melodious music tastefully ared for popular hroal music like by the Roger also restful and ast to a noise
f the sounds of Orchestra per ortal works of ets is also re minating listener. e also a Source nose who prefer iy, however, to e at Symphony 'social climbers' about the music h is 'way above Nho are present appeal. Ah, well, do help the box are real music tless e cho these
alth of musical youth. Some of aged to pursue eventually take our leading Solo regrettably, the Nell-meaning stuto ATCL and andards, succumb of their doting 2ntually Sacrifice the hearth or in
AL SCENE sound is and background films are carried Film Corporation , Ceylon Studios, Govt. Film Unit ntaries mostly). invariably heavily cers to complete hs to be released Musicians who recordings have ienced and work enerally 8 hours) 6 a.m. in invariastudios (e.cxept studio which is and are suscep
tible to chills constantly when moving in and out of the studio, as their duties require.
A noted observation at these recording sessions is the fact that (i) considerable call-sheet time can well be saved by punctuality and systematic functioning of the entire staff of musicians and technicians involved to cut delays (2) the Studios be given a thorough cleaning and overhauling at an early date and maintained in an efficient manner (3) out-dated equipment like microphones, recording machines etc. be meodernised with the profits earned.
Among our film directors we have some excellent talent and this fact has been evidenced by their successes abroad. It is not too late te give them the recognition and encouragement to do greater productions in the future Which they have so rightly de erved. Our Sinhala cinema will indeed be the richer for it.
● O
NATIONAL UNITY
And The Vietnamese language
THOSE FOREIGNERS who are more or dess interested in Vietnamese history often wonder how the Vietnamese language could have continued to develop after ten centuries of domination by the Han. And many among them have compared it with the language of the Gauls in ancient France and that of the Celtiberes of ancient Spain.
It is indeed an uncommon pheno menon especially considering the historical background: according to Chinese records, Viet Nam in the beginning of our era had only nine hundred thousand inhabitants, a small population in comparison with that of the Han. It had an isolating and analytical language like Han: moreover Vietnamese was less developed than the latter which already had a fairly elaborate ideographical writing system. And to this the long foreign domination and its inevitable cultural impact as well as the successive waves of immigration and the matter becomes more puzzling.
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 18
To say that the continuous deveopment of the Vietnamese ianguage is due to our love of the nother tongue, an oppressed people's will to resist attempts at assimilation by the invaders is not a Complete explanation, these quialities being no exclusive characteristice of the Vietnamese.
Other reasons must be looked for. In the first place, it is a fact that when Viet ဇွိုရှိ was invaded by the Han, the country already had a developed and original culture, a coherent social organization and a language usually developed for those times having been elaborated in different aspectsparticularly regarding its structure.
ANOTHER REASON is that for centuries, while invaders recognized only their own language and script as the official ones, the Vietnamese people had been waging an obstinate struggle-which was prolonged until long after foreign domination had ended-to minimize their effect in certain social aspects such as administration, education and culture. The Vietnamese however, did assimil te, in a creative manner, some positive elements such as scientific language to enrich the national language, create a national script, and modify these to suit the country's literary, administrative and educational preferences. That long period was illuminated with famous names and personalities such as Nguyen Trai, Le Thanh Tong, Nguyen Binh Khiem, Doan Thi Diem, Nguyen Du, Ho Xuan Huong Cao Ba Quat, Nguy Khuyen, thế most eminent among these being Nguyen Trai (15th century) ană Nguyen Du (19th century).
issuing from a common language of which vestiges can be traced in many languages still spoken in Yarious parts of Viet Nam, LaIO3, Combodia, Burma, Thailand, South China, West India, Indian Ocean islands..., Vietnamese has become, after four thousand years, the language common to all inhabitants of Viet Nam, one of the moot densely populated countries of Southeast Asia. Vietnamese was used by all the inhabitants of the country, even in the 7th and 18th centuries when secession wars were opposing different feudal clans. Missionary Alexandre de Rhodes wrote:
'Vietnamese is the language com
mon not only to the two main regions-Tonkin and Cochinchina
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977
it is also spok region where no other langu ghbouring re un annon nun (Ad lector
indeed, in guage as spok mountalnos of the Dong northernmost or at the sout Mau, there is in phonetics, v. mar which per of each region easily understo
This is not are no Vietna only that the them are insig way comparab. existi, for insta and French as or between P the languages tung, Shanghai,
THE DFFER various Vietna pear chiefly it aspect. Vietnar the North has in the Centre a only five. On has only 8 in the North and : Centre and the rences being c« retroflexes. The which consists vowel and a more numerous in the other tw. regions of the Ce no difference
As from Ja taken passenge Hanoi-Ho Chi the northernm 1,895 kilometr 626 kilometres Tinh province) bridges and cu anew, 1,442 me rebuilt 1,700 ki trans-Vietnam 20,000 tons of 5 cubic metres o part in the pre work and logis reconstruction Cam Station (

an in the Cao Bang the population use age, and in the neiion. .. "" (Dictionaticum-luSitanium lati En) Rome 1651).
he Vietnamese lanan in the remotest egions or the plains Van plateau in the art of the country, hernmost tip of Ca a remarkable unity scabulary and grammit the inhabitants to make themselves od in others.
to say that there mese dialects, but differences between nificant, and in no e to those which ince between Breton ipoken by Parisians, eking Chinese and spoken in KuangFukiem. .
ENCES between mese dialects apthe phonological mese as spoken in six tones, while ind the South, it has the other hand, it litial consonants in as many as 2 in the South, these diffonstituted by these 1 phonemes-each of of a vowel or a inal consonant-are in the North than o regions (in certain entre and the South,
* Vietnam
uoi and ui, iem and in or between the final an and ng, t and c).
Minor differences also appear in the lexicological aspect. Some archaic words still remain in central Vietnamese such as troc-dau (head) doi-bat (bow). Other words have been introduced by relatively new ethnic elements, for example in southern Vietnamese: fo-duong (route); thoi-tra lai (give back the change). Others, finally, have been adopted more recently, in various traceable circumstances: xe dap-xe may (bicycle); xa phong -xa bong (soap); my chinh-bot ngot (mons odium - glutamate). . Except for these triple differences, the vocabulary on the whole is the same in all parts of the country.
Regarding grammar, there are no special rules peculiar to any region.
It should be stressed that be sides these difference which appear chiefly in spoken languagethe arthography is the same in different parts of the country (except for the still common misspelling of a few words in some newly liberated regions). With the development of general education, a higher cultural level of the population, more frequent contacts bet: ween inhabitants and cadres and combatants from different parts of the country, the development of literature and the arts, press and radio, etc. the literary language-which has always been, Vietnamese as spoken in the North, particularly in the Hanoi regionis taking root more and more deeply among the people and fur
is made between ther facilitating communications
TRANS VIETNAM RALWAY
tnuary 15, 1977, the trans-Vietnam railway have officially rs from both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh Cisy. The whole Minh City line is 1,730 kilometres long. From Lang Son, ost town to Ho Chi Minh City, the raila ay measures es. Workers, soldiers and other people have rebuilt of railway destroyed during | he war from Vinh (Nghe to Phu NÎy (Nghĩa Binh province) which includes 475 lverts, hundreds of bridges have been repaired or built :tres of tunnel have been restored, 50 railway stations (lometres of power lines set up. The restoration of the railway required the manufacture or rehabilitation of teel, 70,000 cubic metres of timber sleepers and 400,000 if stone. More than 70,000 people were directly taking bject, not including thousands of others who did supply tics. The whole project took 4 months, from the day began to the day when the last track was laid at Minh Nghe Tinh province) on December 4, 1976.

Page 19
Wietnam
between those living in different parts of the country.
At present, Vietnamese is playing an incontestable role in administration and literary creation. Still, some foreigners are wondering to what extent it is used in education-particularly higher education-and in scientific research. How can the language of a country which has just rega. ined independence and whose economy is still under-daveloped be expected to serve as a vehicle for the propagation of modern scientific knowledge 2
It is not overnight that Vietna mese has become a developed cul" tutral language. Before the Revolution of August 1945, a number of scientists and other patriotic intellectuals had been struggling to restore Vietnamese to an honourable place, particularly in education and the popularization of science. They had elaborated and used in their works, publicly and privately, a system of scientific terms. But the policy of the colonial administration was to be every thing possible to check the development of the Vietnamese lan
guage.
After August 1945, when power had passed into the
hands of the people, a burning question cropped up: what language to use in education Can Vietnamese replace French in this domain?
For the leaders of the RDVN, the answer was affirmative. They decided to use Vietnamese as the vehicle language in education, a bold decision which was enthusiastically welcomed by patriotic intellectuals who promptly set about completing the technical vocabulary, some working individually, others, collectively. Some professors created new words in their practice. And for these reasons, our educational activities from the primary classes to higher education, were not interrupted for a single day. Later, during the years of the wars of resistance against the French colonialists and the American imperialists and of socialist construction in the North, we unceasingly enriched our scientific and technical terminology while carrying on education work and scientific research.
At present, in all branches of social and natural sciences, of technique, the arts and literature, we have all the necessary terms. While
7
in 1945-1946 w 40,000 of these about 900,000, lable figures. by foreign scie faithfully trans mese. Vietnam for lectures an ches of scient in Seminars anc
This scientifi fectly fits in w ructure of the up of purely Vi a still larger n Sino-Vietnamese rowed from t Lastly, in the terms cannot ex enough precisic criptions of in are uesd. Bene perience in this succeeded in g terminology no sary pre ision,
plicity, but also
racter and Word shades of mean At the Par Viet Nam and v conferences, for the history of namese has bee rank as the 'i Lages.
Ten years ag bold and clear the RDVN Gc President Ho C Vietnamese lang and research w ter Pham Van victory for our ness.'
While dey mese to rai of a langu culture, we treat the di
BR DEPUTY M SOCIALIST
P
Born in Prior to Japanese Vie ; From 94.
French colonia Youth League Ever since of the Socialis Conference,

had only about we had in 1970, according to avaiHigh-level lectures tists can now be ited into Vietnase is being ised these in all brane and technique, scientific debates.
terminology perith the general stanguage. It is made tnamese terms and imber of terms of origin or borhe Han language. cases where Such press a notion with in, phonetic transdo-European words fiting by world exdomain, we have iving our scientific it only the necescoherence and sima systematic chas expressing various ing. is Conference on arious international : the first time in diplomacy, Vietin given the same international' lang
o, sP aking of the sighted decision of overnment and of hi Minh to use the guage in education vork, Prime MinisDong said: "It is a
national conscious
eloping Vietnase it to the eve age of national
continued to a lects of national
minorities on an equal footing. The Constitution of the RÖVN adopted by the National Assembly on December 3, 1959, stipulated:
"A nationalities have the right to preserve or to modify their ways and customs, to use their respective languages and scrpits and to develop their own cultures.'
In the SRV, no language has been officially declared the national language with special distinctions or directives that it must be used by a citizens, it has never beer stipulated that ethnic minorities should use only the majority language. On the contrary, the State has been helping some minorities to create their own scripts or to improve them and make them adequate for promoting cultural development of the minority peoples. This has contributed to con
solidation the bloc of nation nal unity for the defence of independence during the past three decades and for the construction of a reunified and socialist Viet Nam.
In practice, no ethnic minority can rapidly develop its culture and education without using Vietnamese. Every minority has recognized the necessity of using Vietnamese as a vehicle language in education, from the upper primary classes onward. Discarding racial prejudice, which was for merly exacerbated by the colonialists, all national minorities have of their own free will adopted Vietnamese as the common langu
age.
臺
EF BIC) - DATA OF ++. E. PHAN HIEN
NISTER FOR FOREIGN AFSARS OF THE REPUBLIC OF WETNAM SPECIAL ENVOY OF RIME MENSTER PHAM VAN DONG
98 in Hanoi.
1945, student, took part in Revolution, the anti-French
Minh Movement.
5 to 1954, took part in the Resistance of War against the alists, member of the Central Committee of the Vietnam :, cadre of the Vietnam People's Army.
: 1955 onwards, working in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
t Republic of Vietnam. Participated in the 1955 Bandung in the 1967-1973 Paris Conference.
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977

Page 20
VETNAM'S FOREIGN POLICY
Minister's Speech - At Party Congress
'Holding high the banner of independence and socialism, Striving to carry out the Party's external policy, stepping up the building of socialism and fulfilling internationalist duty.' These main factors of Vietnamese foreign policy were stressed in a speech by Foreign Minister Nguyen Duy Trinh, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Communist Party and Foreign Minister, delivered at the Party's Fourth Congress. After recalling the achievements of the Party's foreign policy in the recent past, Nguyen Duy Trinh dealt with the tasks and foreign policy laid down by the Party and the Vietnamese State in the new stage of the revolution. He said: "In the new stage, we must continue to carry out in a creative way the correct international line of our Party, strive to turn to account the favourable international conditions for an early healing of the wounds of war, the restoration and development of our economy, the development of cur culture, science and technology, the conso lidation of our national defence and the building of the material and technical basis of socialism. at the same time we must continue to stand shoulder to shoulder with the brotherly socialist countries and all other nations who are struggling for peace, national independence, democracy and Socialism, against imperialism headed by U.S. imperialism.'
Nguyen Duy Trinh Stressed: “The
fraternal Socialist countries are our :
reliable strategic allies in our national democratic revolution previously as well as in our present endeavour to build and defend socialism. We will continue to make every effort to consolidate and strengthen the militant solidarity and the co-operation in all fields between our country and all brotherly countries, first of all with the Soviet Union and China, on the basis of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internaționalism. Their political support, their economic, scientific and technical assistance and co-operation and their
TRIBUNE, February 19, 1977
own experience constitute a very to help us buil, and sovereign s Economic co-op come a very i of the relations t try and other We must broad lations, and stel cipate in the
division of labou ternal countries ing conditions f. reliant while r contribution to
of the socialist upon the Testam a ted President - will do our best tribution, jointly therly socialist international workers' moveme consolidate soli mutual support
the basis of Mar proletarian intet fair and reasonal
Nguyen Duy 'We attach the tance to the sic Vietnam, Laos an close solidarity t countries is of to the three nat source of inspirat East Asian peof. genuine peace, i. mocracy and in East Asia is a re. importance to 1 socialist construc try. We fully Struggle of the peoples for genu pendence, demo neutrality, for of imperialist m troops in their tries. We are and develop rel ship and co-ope fields with the region according already stated. \ develop bilateral this basis procee operation with guarding each C dence and soverei natural resource: tance in economi tific and technical ing ' imperialist : pressure and exp
"We pledge main for ever the

in these fields important factor an independent ocialist economy. eration has bemportant Content et Ween Our COLLInocialist countries. en economic re» by step partico-operation and ir among the frathereby creatir us to be selfnaking our own the reinforcement system. Acting ent of the venero Chi Minh, ve to make our conwith the brocountries and the communist and nt, to restore and darity, promote and assistance on xism-Leninism and nationalism, in a ble manner.’”
Trinh went on: ut most imporlidarity between d Kampuchea. The between the three vital significance ions and a strong ion for the Southple's struggle for independence, deeutrality. Southgion of particular the security and tion of our counsupport the just South-East Asi n ine national indecracy, peace and the non-presence ilitary bases and respective counready to establish ations of friendBration in many countries in this to the principles Ae are ready to relations, and on d to regional coa view to safetountry's indepengnty over its own s, mutual assisc, cultural, scienfields and opposand neo-colonist loitation.
purselves to rereliable comrade
| Vietnaṁ
in-arms of the national liberation movement as we have been. We firmly support the struggle of the Asian, African and Latin American peoples against imperialism, colonialism old and new, racism and zionism, for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress. We fully support the just cause of the working class and labouring people in the capitalist countries.'
The Vietnamese Foreign Minis ter de clared: 'We undertake to establish relations with the countries with differing social systems on the basis of mutual respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, nonaggression and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality, mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence. This is a principle in the foreign policy of our State. On this basis, we shall extend economic, cultural, scientific and technical and other relations with developed capitalist countries. With regard to the United States, we firmly oppose the policy of interference and neo-colonialist aggression of the U.S. imperialists, we firmly demand that the U.S. correctly settle the pending problems between the two countries and on the legal basis which both sides have accepted. If the U.S. renounces its hostile policy toward Vietnam we will be ready to normalize our relations with it as specified in the Paris Agreement on Vietnam.”
Nguyen Duy Trinh pointed out the following fundamental ideas governing the Vietnamese foreign line: First, to hold high the banner of national independence and socialism—the great goal of the Viet: namese people and also the goal of our times. Second, to thoroughly combine genuine patriotism with proletarian internationalism, oppose any tendency to opportu" nism and all manifestations of bourgeois and petty-bourgeois nationalism. Third, to firmly maintain the line of independence, sovereignty and international solidarity, to uphold the spirits of relying mainly on our forces while increasing international co-operation. Fourth, to seize good opportunities, to hold the initiative to push ahead international activities.
Nguyen. Duy Trịnh concluded by quoting President Ho Chi
8
ܓܣܛ.ܶ

Page 21
style Of Her Own
EMinh as saying: "The Vietnam
"Workers' Party will never stand apart from the brotherly parties. With all its practice, it has demonstrated that genuine patriotism
is inseparable from proletarian internationalism and that the bro therly alliance between all peoples struggling for a common cause,
for the liberation of mankind is Junshakable.”.
ART SHOW
Leilani Cook
-f3 style of her own-سسسسد
By R. C. Thavarajah Retd. Supdt. of Police
if The first and greatest Chinese philosopher, Kung Confucius, (C. 551-479 B.C.), son of the Magistrate at a city in the dukeďom of LU in the present Shantung, whose teachings have had a tremendous effect on the history of his country said:- "A picture is worth ten thousand words'. Quite obviously, he did not confine his dictum merely to the dictionary meaning of the Word in any language but most emphatically referred to the effect paintings generate in our minds whether it be in the East or in the West.
I had the pleasure and the privilege of being invited to the first Exhibition of drawings and paintings by Miss Leilani Cooke which was held on Friday, the 28th of January this year at the Lionel Wendt Art Gallery. The Chief Guest was His Excellency Mr. Pierre Anthonioz, Ambassador for France in Sri Lanka. After reading Reggie Perera's and Sita Jayawardene’s most deserved commendations of the work of the young artist, a compelling urge found me gazing at the grand and varied ensemble of young Leilani. Enjoying the exhibits was a mixture of the cultured elite, cavalier art critics, eager and enthusiastic students and the unlearned and uninitiated like myself. I had the irresistible feeling of being temporarily snatched away in spirit from the hum-drum, dull and dreary monotony of the every day occurrences of urban life.
It is highly commendable that the French Embassy should sponsor
9.
the efforts of the country. The timeproverb “An ar L. r man” - cannot i poss dicted buut vivacic Leilani had conv her mettle in the fik either lack of m complete developm sonality such as in Great Masters like Vinci, Michaelangel Pablo Picasso, Van C Heights in any fie tained by 'sudden a young artist me and makes a star duty ovved by Soci tuire and nourish : History records the most invigorat ment had been bei development of tal youth as well as the path to perfection. des Beaux Art5 was fo as in 648 by the Charles Le Brun. won the recognitio of King Louis XIV established the Ac Louvre in 1656. Th france a Rome w 666 with the assista as an institution painters would be opportunity of cof training.
Young Leilani's e. terise a somewhat tion from the classi thodox realistic con rant Originality, un of her own is richly vivid and bold im: Stills, however, sa of Paul. C’Ezanne’s the impeccable sens, juxtaposition of col (37) Temple Flowers sider the "piece (6) Still Life with fl. (6) Orchids a fe U.
SPECIAL NEVA
At 075 Sri La broadcasts a specia on the affairs of Asia Survey can be h 6, 1 MHz (43m bar
The airm of Sol. analysis of the reg cominentaries. On have handled deve including their coi Review is compiled States man of Calci
 
 

youth of our noured French uires a whole ly be contraand talented cingly proved I of art despite urity or the it of the perhe case of the Leonardo Da Rembrandt, gh and others. cannot be atflight'. When lifests courage the solemn ty is to nurich an entity. hat in France, ng encouragetowed for the nt among the adults in their The Academie unded as early great painter This venture In and Support who eventually ademy in the Academie de as founded in Ince of Colbert where French afforded every mpleting their
xhibits characmarked deviaal style or orvention. A vibque in a style expressed in a gination, Her Voir strongly penchant for of depth and oir. Exhibit vyhich I conde-resistance', Wer Vase and doubtedly in
dicative of punctilious attention to detail, disciplined, sensitive arrangement and verisimilitude. - Most striking animal representation in exhibits (40) Elephants, (39) Buffaloes and (18) Heads display a powerful character of her own where she has religiously observed her own sense of reality with extreme 'stylization'. The animal motifs reveal faultless clarity of represental to.
Her attempts, inadvertently of course, in Abstract painting such as in (23) Woman Deep in Thought, (10) Tea Pluckers and (44) Rubber Tapper are ಙ್ಗಳ್ಗ captivat EngShe asserts that she prefers giving her own impressions. in this Context, consider it relevant to quote Michael Seuphor from the delectable book ertitled “Abstract Painting'-fifty years of accomplishment from Kandinsky to the present--"Many artists of our day like to find justification for their work in science or in philosophy; the man of science and the philosopher increasingly scrutinise the phenomenon of art. wonder if this 'Osmosis' is a healthy development. It seems to me that any truly original work stands or falls of itself, irrespective of the influences tha. have helped to produce it. . . . . . y,9
Leilani has still to find an identity or attain the virtuosity of eminent artists who have filled the niches of immortality. She cer tainly has a style-something organic and a powerfully viable constituent of her personality. She, like others of her genre in Sri Lanka, is making her contribution in her own way. The hubris and non-chaiance of pompous pundits and pharisees in the specialised 'science' of Art criticism cannot stifle a tender fame which, with God's blessings and in the fullness of time, is certain to shine as a very bright star.
Bec ProGRAMME For south Asia
kan Local Time every Saturday BBC World Service by produced programme for South Asian Listeners dia, Sri Lanka and neighbouring countries. South ard by listeners in Sri Lanka on 7 MHz (42m band), 1) and 3.9 MHz (75m band). h Asid Survey is to provide in-depth reporting and sn's affairs by means of interviews, despatches and regular feature is a review of how British papers pments in the area during the previous week,
ment on major events in Sri Lanka.
The PeSS
by Evan Charlton, for many years the editor of the ta and New Delhi.
TRIBUNE, February 9, 1977

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