கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.05.14

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Page 3
Letter FromA ‘CAe EfÒitor
ON THE COVER, this week, we have a picture of a ver posing for our cameraman as one in yogic meditation on wastes of the Jaffna peninsula. We have not published thi a sermon either about the virtues of godmen like Satya the iconoclastic virtousity of their inveterate enemies like We believe that a hundred flowers, nay a thousand allowed to bloom, and that in such an environment it is contrary opinions about theory and practice, about righ even truth and untruth should prevail. The world needs Sai Baba to uphold belief in the divine as much as it needs lists like Kovoor to denounce divinity and to insist on th of a theistic (rationalist) materialism. It is all part of life w forms of life (with or without detectable consciousnes. If we did not publish this picture to portray the cosmic readers will ask why we have chosen to print it on the covei answer is simple. Anyone who gives serious thought 1 contradictions and the humbug and hypocrisy of official p bogus bluster and gimmickry of oppositional big talk to pects on the economic front and the ever dizzying food pric other than to retire to an ashram to spend the rest of his C about God or even about Anti-God. May Day 1977, and have flowed therefrom, must bring depair and distress genuinely interested in Ceylon and its future. What is mos total inability of the Government, or even the Private Sect managers of the means of production, to induce people to on and increase it-because, without increased productivit the future is bleak. Corruption, judged by happenings ir -developed as well as developing-is comparitively minin man in Sri Lanka accepts corruption as part of life and exist with it on the lower and middle levels of the adr as we have said, it is not corruption that is the crux of th has overtaken this country-and if we do not got a move and productivity quickly we cannot hope to see even a in the foreseeable future. May 1977 showed that all parti to win political power through the ballot box, were no in politicking for seats. The Government (SLFP Only) cc of untruth and bluff that productive totals were higher without talking about productivity ratics in terms of manp tion, while the different Opposition Parties (from the UN and the little older TULF) concentrate their fire on the a and omission of the Government without putting forwal concrete terms about how people can be induced to wo purposefully and more profitably. After the recent exp and even in Sri Lanka, nobody dares to talk of Emergency and Compel ail those who are not the hangers-on of politi at the point of a gun or the gazette diktats of (temp (erzatz) dictators after the 9 months spell of fascist-like in India under indira Gandhi and the not-so-atrocious sp Rule in Ceylon from 1966 until the prorogation of the 1977. Even in China, the leaders (and the masses) seem t that production and productivity cannot be sustained anc on the point of the gun or under the spell of Maoist calls fo service. Liu Shao-chi and a whole generation of men w Chinese Revolution were eliminated and politically liquid refused to subscribe to Mao's dogma that material incen revolutionary fervour into revisionism and the con of the Revolution. Lipservice is still paid to the charism: but the Hua Kuo-feng government is now rightly seek incentives to step up Production in industry and agricultu to become a dominant economic force in fifty tears. On Sri Lanka, all political parties began their election campaig them gave any indication of any awareness of the enorm, of production and productivity or how they will get p if they came power. Every Party assumes that if its power, the masses would "automatically' respond and maintain self-discipline. Such myopic self-assuredness revi ivory-tower existence of our political parties.

erable personage one of the sandy picture to write Sai Baba Crabout Abraham Kovoor. lowers, should be only natural that - and wrong and ot-gospellers like dogmatic evangee Supreme truth ith all the myriad ) con this planet. eternity of man, his week. The c the conflicting opaganda, to the the dismal proses has no escape lays in meditation he politics which to anyone who is È disturbing is the or, as owners and sustain productiy and production, other countries hal. The ordinary has earnt to coministration. But, le stagnation that on in production few silver linings es, which wanted w engrossed only Dntinues its game now than before ower and populao to the new ULF cts of commission rd any scheme in rk harder, more Periences in India Rule to regiment ical VIPs to work orary) Emergency Emergency Rule ells of Emergency NSA in February o have discovered i improved either r selfless patriotic ho had made the ated because they tives would turn sequent betrayal atic image of Maging to *Fస్ట్రపై re to enable & hina May Day 97, in gns, but not one of cy of this problem roduction moving vas Preturned to võrk hard and eals the continued
Founded in 1954 A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs Editor S. P. Amarasingam
Every Saturday
May 14, 1977
Wo. 2 No. 47
TR | B Ο ΝΕ
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C C. P. E N is
EDITORS NOTEBOOK
COCONUT CRISS-6
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION -Developing Countries р, 13
ARYAN O'R DRAVIDIAN ?
–SLFP, FRDB p. 2.
CHRONICLE -April 8 - April 7 p. 4
INDA
-Emergency Ps 8||
ROMANA
-Anniversary p. 10
—No Nuits ? p. 12
-Point of View р, 16
PAPAYA
-Cultivation p. 17
LETTERS
-Water, Press p. 8
REVIEW -Mother's Milk p. 9.
CONFOENTIALLY -Antiques p. 20.

Page 4
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK
SLFF, NMaithri & FRDB
Colombo, May I,
May Day this year was organised in the same carnival-like manner as in the recent past but with one difference-instead of two big rallies (UF AND THE UN P) and a two or three smaller rallies (Bala Tampoe's CMU, Shan's CTUF, etc.) there were three major rallies (SLFP UNP ULF) and a large number of smaller rallies and meetings (CMU, Shan's Maoists, JVP, etc. etc). The TULF rally in Jaffna (this is the first time that the TULF showed any enthusiasm for May Day) and the CWC rally in Nuwara Eliya were cancelled because of the death of S. J. V. Chelvanayakam.
The SLFP had the Galle Face Green, over 3000 CTB buses, governmental machinery, the SLBC and the Lake House to stage its tamasha. But the crowd it was able to mobilise was not proportionate to the vast resources expended on the spectacle-to open the 1977 election campaign. And the mini-gimmick of bringing a crowd of (alleged) fisherfolk from Panadura in mechanised boats I by sea ended in tragedy when one of its over-loaded boats with many of them filled with the wrong kind of liquid fuel inside of them capsised. Many lives were lost. (The first week of May saw one of largest number of road, rail, river
and Sea accidents for a long while).
One noteworthy feature of the SLFP Rally was that Maithripala Senanayake staged a comeback into the active and enthusiastic elecstion politics of the SLFP. For some time, Maithripala Senanayake had adopted a self-effacing posture and maintained a low profile. He had discharged his functions as Acting EPrime Minister, every time the PM had gone out of the country with unquestionable rectitude, but he had behaved as if he was not one of the top key men in the SLFP (which he is as the major political force in the NCP and some other parts of the country). A brief illness and a holiday in Malaysia had
TRIBUNE, May 4, 1977
Set tongues wag dropping out o was whispered in circles (SLFP) t finished with p that it was due ti others had asse "fed up' with in the Palace.
It is known th: in favour of liqı TED FRONT by LSSP first and it it is no secret th naike had tread the time of the ticn) on more t and that Felix R. had shown Maith was the real p throne. Whilst at Maithir i were ween, FRIDB car battle to dowr grate Maithri. were surprised taken a great and after a tim it for granted ti (like Sanjay Gant The reshuffle aft CP had made m believe that FR the surpreme po pro-Felix Cabine cept for a few Maithripala, Kalu Mahmud).
With the CP ernment (and it the Opposition), the NSA was de hibit and frust tion-what was of genius by FRID a short time. Dissolution and a inevitable. The of Emergency, in revelled (with th LSSP and CP) se the insurgents an what veře reg mic offences a automatically cea erogation-which eossibilities of aionument to e the NSA: (the T will. Ing to entet deals about pos tions with a gene the corner.)
But the Sud Emergently cig and i manne, major force

ging that he was f politics, and it
Certain interested hat Noaithr was olitics-some said o his health whilst rted that he was the ruling caucus
at Maithri was not uidating the UNpushing out the hen the CP, and at Anura Bandaraon his toes (from Kalawewa by-elechan one occasion: Dias Bandaranaike ri that he (FRDB) ower behind the Anura's potshots few and far bettried on a running igrade and deniPolitical observer's that Maithri had deal lying down, e everybody took hat the FRDB era dhi's) had arrived. er the exit of the any observers to DB had achieved sition of having a t behind him (exodd men out like galle and maybe
out of the Govs de facto joining i prorogation of !cided upon to inrate the Opposithought a stroke 8 backfired within Prorogation made General Elections permanent State which FROB had e approval of the eking to liquidate d also dealing with arded as 'econond crimes'', had sed with the proalso ended a a constitutional xtend the life of ULF was no longer into any horse tponing the electral election round Èx
評 end of the imped the style of FROB as the in the SFFR? Es -
Colombo West
tablish ment and in the Palace. But more than this, the fact that dissolution and a general election could not be postponed revealed the Achies Heel in FRDB's political armour: his 28,000 majority (in the 1970 elections) electoral base in Dompe had withered
away and his chances, according to reliable SLFP sources, had been reduced
to almost zero
It was at this juncture that FRDB attempted to stage an electoral switch to Colombo West. On his return from the Non-aligned Bureau Meeting in New Delhi, a group of his loyalists led by Mayor Fowzie met him at the airport with garlands and the customary busloads of shouting 'followers' with cries that he should contest the UNP leader in Colombo West. FRDB himself thought this a good idea and stated that if he contested J R Jayewardene he would tie down the UNP leader and thus help his Party in all other electorates. It was not made clear whether FRDB had wanted this fuss about contesting Colombo West in order to make leading electors in Dompe realise what they would lose by his switching to another electorate, and thereby prompt them to beg of him to stick to Dompe. As far as is known, the leading lights in Dompe did not react to the Colombo West 'threat' in the manner FRDB had hoped. His chances in Colombo West were probably slimmer than they were in Dompe
Political gossip in responsible quarters has it that at a meeting of the SLFP Nomination Board just before May Day, where Maithripala Senanayake had spoken up with old time vigour after a very very long time, questions were raised how FRDB could arrogate unto himself the power to execute a switchover to Colombo West without being chosen by the Party.
However, it would appear that
the cosensus was that being a
senior minister he could contest Colombo West if the so wanted, but he was told that it was open to him to contest Dompe. By this time, it must have become clear to FRDB that he was not likely to get a walkover in Colombo West and he, according to observers, started to prepare a line for a strategic retreat. He had wanted
2.

Page 5
Felix Departs
the Board to nominate as SLFP Many say that
candidates for Colombo East and Colombo Central Gamini Wickramanayake (his controversial brother-in-law who has figured as a cause celebre in many ma Eters in the NSA and in public protests) and Mayor Fowzie (an equally well-known FREDB henchman) respectively. His argument in Support of his desire to have these persons nominated was that he wanted his flanks in Colombo West protested by “strong candidates” who would keep the candidates of the other parties tied down. But, it is said, that the SLFP Nomination Board had refused to accept this plea and the applications of Gamini Wickremanayake and Fowzie were turned down.
This rejection was possible, SLFP sources indicate, only because the Prime Minister had tilted in favour of those who were for the rejection of FR DFB’s nominees. It is also saic tha: the FPM had sided with Maithripala in such a decision for the first time in a long while, it was also, it is said, the first time that she had decisively rejected
any proposal by FRDB in a matter like this in recent times.
A number of interesting con sequences have flowed from this decision. The Daily Mirror, which reflects FRDB's logic in many matters, had a news item that FRDB would will (after all the dust and storm about an entry into Colombo West) contest Dompe. This announcement appeared when FRDB had flown to the UK to have an eye operation which was expected to take four to six weeks. This four to six weeks would cover the period when the Nominations would be finalised and the Dissolution announced: and it would also be very close to Nomination Day. An intriguing report from London had stated, a few days after FRDB had reached London, that his stay might be extended because the eye surgeon who was to operate on his eye had fallen ill. While no further news has come from London about FRDB, there has been c6nsiderable speculation about this sudden departure of FRDB so shortly after the SLFP Nomination Board had turned down his request to nominate Gamini Wickramanayake and Fowzie.
3
made him leav suddenly and un tions have also how he and his the exchange for without going t dure of Medical that such treatm able in Sri Lank obtained, under circumstances, Su time ago to co gency of this ki FRDB's departur cal treatment h demagogues an shout how VIP treatment (after good doctors a Sri L2 nkans have dignities inflicted hospitals. It is whether FRDB w test Dompe or w treatment would sary for him to altogether.
Whether it is episode (where back FRDB's see political vacillati whether there 2 still not known, Maithripala Sena out of a Rip Van sumber as from“ He made a veh the May Day R always in the SLFP campaign a malicious lie to either so ill or si he had wanted to arena. From that pala has became of the SLFP with from the PM. Ev. Day he has beer about his deter the SLFP electic the Party to victo
Maithripala an old and campaigner (just as much SLFPers) tha: entered the independent to 4000 votes lect in many sé rongholds w defeat of the -and this wo a provinces and the East observers has suspicion, im

it was pique that
: the country so 2xpectedly. Quesbeen asked as to wife were granted medical treatment hrough the proceBoards to certify
ent was not avail
a. (Or had FRDB more leisurely ch approval somepe with a confiind?) in any case, e to UK for a medias given platform opportunity i Lo go abroad for chasing all our way) when lesser to suffer the inon them in our stil 1η Οι known fil return to Conhether his medical make it necesskip the election
due to the FRDB the PM did not mingly inexplicable ons) or not, or tre other reasons it is a fact that nayake has come | Winkle political May Day 1977. ement speech at ally that he was forefront of the ind that it was a say that he was o disgruntled that Y quit the political day on, Maithria new Strong man n the full backing ery day after May making speeches mination to fight in battle and lead ry.
Senanayake is astute political and he knows other as senior at if the ULF hustings as a unit, ** - Tigზნ they would cof. ! SLFF eed:'ora! would mean the SLFP candidate build be true in 2xcept the North . Many political ye entertained a is ediately after
when the
FRDB's departure to the UK, that a new and fresh attempt might be made to have an SLFP-ULF electoral agreement: that the stage was being set for this by the PM making strident speeches that the SLFP was in a position to go-it-alone and win hands down.
Surprise reported
therefore no Daily News
It was
on its front page (top left lead)
on Wednesday, May
II, with the
heading NO BAR TO RE-FORM
ING OF N4 AITHRIPALA.
COMMON FRONTThe report was
datelined Anuradhapura and it read:
/Mr. Maithripala Senanayake Minister of irrigation, Power aid Highways, ceremonially opening the SLFP office for the entire district Said here that there was nothing in the way of the SLFP, LSSP and the CP reuniting to form a common front to carry forward the policies of the late Mr. S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Which Was the primary objective of the 1970 coalition of progressive forces. The Minister recalled that the formation of a common front in 1970 resulted in the victorious Sweeping of the polls by the Front. “At that time we were aware of the policies of the constituent parties of the front. We did not tell the LSSP or the CP to accept our poliCies nor did they ask us to accept their policie 5. That wa 5 Why all of us agreed on a 25 point Common program. For Some reason or other We fell out and the coalition is no more', the Minister Said. Mr. Senanayake made a strong appeal to the rank and file of the LSSP and the CP that they should resolve to fight the common enemy-the reactionary and capitalist UNP. "In exercising your vote, you should forget whatever differences there may be and resolve to defeat our common
enemy, the capitalist and reac
tionary UNP', the Minister declared. Mr. K. B. Ratnayake, Miniter of Transport, Sports and Parliamentary Affairs, Mr. S. K. K.
Sooriyarachchi and several others addressed the meeting.
Knowledgeable observers feel
that it is much too late in the day for such a common front against the UNP to be forged. The ULF parties seem to have had enough of 'coal laboration' with the SLFP and the tailing behind the SLFP's
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 6
religio-language emotionalism. Thirteen years (unlucky thirteen) (1964-1977) of coalitionist collaboration with the SLFP in the game of Parliamentary politics (in government and in the Opposition) has made many in the LSSP and CP feel that, if they persisted with such 'common fronts' with the SLFP, the Youth which had already become disilusioned with the established Left Parties would completely reject them. There is a growing trend within the ULF that it would be better to be a separate force-even if it was denied governmental positions during the next NSA-rather than play second fiddle to the SLFP. The ULF too is torn with many contradictions and there is a current dilemma as to whether the MVP, JVP and other si “new forces” should be accomo
dated within the ULF.
- There are also elements within the ULF which have always had
their Strength. Bu doubt that with t illusionment with th commission and o Government an in of the “masses”’ tha voted for the SL ULF. But it is to say whether this
in any significantly
The ULF has, yet agreed on its gramme. It is not the policy of the to such vital qui liberties, the indep judiciary, the rule fashioning of the 19 the question of tion (at least in national minorities question and the demand in urban for a more impo English. The commc.
over-exaggerated notions about ted in all these q
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
Apr. 8 - Apr. 17
A DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD COMPLED FROM DALYNEWSPAPERS
PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDM-Ceylon Daily Mirror;
CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DM-Dinamina; LD-Lankadipa; VK-Virakesari; ATH-Aththa; SM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; DW-Dawasa; CM-Chintha
mani; VVK-Weekend; RR-Rivirasa;
FRIDAY, APRIL 8: India's PM, Mr. Morarji Desai, called upon the non-aligned countries to impart a sense of urgency and determination to the action program adopted at the fifth non-aligned summit held in Colombo, when he inaugurated the five day meeting of the Nonaligned Co-ordinating Bureau in New Delhi yesterday according to a radio report; he also said that nonalignment had become the mainstream of international life in spite of discouragement from certain quarters and he re-affirmed india's commitment to non-alignment. By a two to one decision the Constitutional Court yesterday ruled that the Banking Corporation of Sri Lanka Bill which seeks to nationalise the branches of privately owned foreign banks is valid constitutionally. The All Ceylon Commercial and Indigial Workers Union founded by Mr. Vasudeva Našafa . . . has withdrawn from the LSSP-led Ceylor, Federation of Labour-CDN. The Association of Government Medical Practitioners and the Society of Registered and Assistant Medical Practitioners have jointly issued an ultimatum to the Minister of Health that if their demands are not met by April 15, they will be compelled to take direct trade union action. The students of Sri Lanka's lagest campus, Peradeniya, have elected a JVPer as President of the Students' Council and routed the CP which had do
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

It there is no he growing dishe many acts of mission of the creasing Section it had previously FP would vote o premature to
would happen substantial way.
moreover, not Common Proyet known what ULF would be estions as civil endence of the of law, the re72 Constitution, self-determinaprinciple) to i, the language near-universal and rural area rtant place for
Sri lanka Chronicle
What many in the SLFP and the ULF do not seemed to have realised is that there is islandwide resentment against all parties in the UF Government (SLFP LSSP, and CP) for the ills that now afflict the people at all levels. The earlier UF supporters have not yet changed over to the UNP, but they are bitter about the Government they had brought into being -and in this mood of desperation that might cast only a vote of protest; and, in the present circumstances, such a vote can go only to the U NP. It may be a negative vote but it can bring a near-landslide victory to the UNP.
To make matters worse, the Government is rishing from one blunder to coller: on the food front, on the textile front; on the estate sector-on every imaginable front. We shall deal with this
bn man is interesLestions.
minated the student bodies in recent years. A dispute
slide-down in the popularity of the Government in the next issue.
over payment of a festival advance to employees led
to several sections of employees at the State Distilleries Corporation coming out on strike yesterday. The workto-rule which began at the State Fertilizer Corporation on Wednesday has affected the discharge of fertilizer cargo in Colombo harbour; consequently, demurrage amounting to 2,000 US dollars and 3,000 dollars a day respectively is payable to two ships from April 5; if it continues, demurrage totalling over 4,000 dolars a day will be payable to two more ships from tomorrow. -CDM. With less than a week to go for the Sinhala and Hindu New Year, several co-operative societies have not yet received their Stocks of consumer items; acting on a series of complaints in this ragard, the Acting Minister of Food and Co-operatives yesterday directed that supplies be rushed to co-operatives. Narcotics Bureau detectives were called in yesterday to probe what is believed to be an organised racket in forged prescriptions used to obtain speed pills, stimulants, sedatives and other hallucinatorý drugs—SU. Before taking action on the 20 point program submitted by the TULF, the Sinhala Tharuna Peramuna has requested the PM to lisen to their point of view as well. The Muslims in this country need a seperate political path, it is only then that they can voice their problems, according to one of the leaders of the Muslim United Front, Janab M. H. M. Ashrof-VK. According to the Acting Minister of Health, as the Rajarata received a lot of water and havests have been good, the government is trying as soon as possible to give 4 lbs. (2 measures) of rice to each ration book holder-DM. A group of people are working hard to try and patch up the break in the alliance between the CP, LSSP and SLFP-LD.
SATURDAY, APRIL 9: The Speaker of the NSA has iffered from the points raised by the leadership of the SSP that reference of bills to the Constitutional Court Lor advice while the legislature stands prorogued is tunconstituional. Madame Teng Ying Chao, widow of
4
ܢܬܠ

Page 7
ܓ¬ -
Sri Lanka Chroniele
former Chinese Premier Chou Enlai, arrives in Sri Lanka on April 7 on a goodwill mission. Doctors are now in the process of vacating the paying wards in the General Hospital, Colombo which they had been occupying for over two months, demanding that they be Provided with quarters. The draft communique considered in closed Session today by political and economic committees of the 25-member co-ordinating Bureau of Non-aligned Nations meeting here strongly condemns the White minority governments in S. Africa and Rhodesia-CDN. According to informed shipping sources the congestion in the Colombo Port is due to the large number of ships bringing in food cargo for the festive Season; lack of planning, shortage of lorry transport, lack of co-ordination between the Port (Cargo) Corporation and the dockers and above all the work to rule by the State Fertilizer Corporation. As a sequel to the detection of a fraud, the Auditor General has passed severe strictures on the management of the Ceylon Hotels Corporation for having "failed to institute even an elementary system of “internal checko tio safeguard shareholders funds and for having allowed' the Secretary a free hand to deal with shareholders dividends. Israel's FM, Mr. Yitzak Rabin announced in Jerusalem today that he would resign his post in view of investigations by the Finance Ministry which revealed that Mrs. Rabin held a Bank accomunt in a US bank with out disclosing the fact to Israeli authorities-CDM. A. para medical prsonnel in Colombo hsoptials will report for duty but will not do any work from today; this course of action was decided upon to protest against the government's failure to provide medical laboratory technologists with basic necessities—SU. Though the government has come forward to distribute through
co-ops many subsidiary food items, the co-ops are not
di tributing them in the proper manner informed sources say. There is satisfactory progress in the condition of Mr. S. J. V. Chelvanayakam and there is a likelihood of his memory returning within a few days according to Jaffna Hospital Sources-VK.
SJN DAY, APRIL 6: Of late, there has been a distinct improvement in the food situation throughout the country; it will be better still when the record Maha crop anticipated after the New Year reaches the consumer, the food Commissioner said yesterday. The government has increased foreign exchange allocations offered to industrialists manufacturing consumer items here by 250% to Rs. 28 million this year. The insurance Corporation of Sri Lanka has paid Rs. 58. million to the state Coffers last year-Rs. 44.1 million as a block payment to the Consolidated fund; this was over Rs. 4 million above the payments made in 1975-SO. The formation of the new front of socialist and progressive parties will be announced this week; the
announcement will be embodied in a joint declaration
signed by leaders of the LSSP, CP of Sri Lanka and People's Democratic Party; the manifesto of the front which is now being finalised, will be announced on May Day at a joint rally to be held by all those parties who agree to join the new political alliance-ST. All heads of Police divisions have been summoned for a top level conference on April 16 by the GP to discuss several matters; most significant among them, it is learnt will be immediate measures that should be adopted to deal with reports of alleged subversive activities-VK. Smugglers
*
will have a tough time very Soon, as the government.
is shortly to receive electronic detectors to detect any type of thing hidden anywhere-CM.
5
}

MCN DAY, ASR. Quality tea at Rs. 3.50 a b. will be made available to the consumer through the country’s co-operative ou Életis; this is the latest. in a series of moves by the government to bring down the cost of living; the present average price of tea in the market is Rs. 7 a b. Prices of all photographic and X'ray Films, chemicals and photographic equipment and the prices of all its imported goods have been reduced by 0% with immediate effect the Sri Lanka State Trading Corporation announced yesteray-CDN. The future of the Dudley Peramuna is at stake; this is because it's leader, Mr. Rukman Senanayake has told his close associates that he will contest a parliamentary seat only on the UNP ticket. Many irate consumers are asking whether the benefits of the welfare state 2e meant primarily for corporation employees and whether government institutions handling consumer items expected to cater to their employees or the public. The GCSU is now threatened with a major split following the sharp differences of opinion that have arisen within the LSSP over the expulsion of Mr. Vasudeva Nanayakkara. Although tea prices have shot up significantly Since the middle of last year, there has been no change in the wage structure of the tea workers according to the Lanka Estate Workers Union CDM. A lightning Strike by employees of the Colombo South Co-operafive Union yesterday morning was called of a few hours later following the intervention of the Acting Minister of Food and Co-operatives. The Ceylon Petroleum Corporation has begun negotiations with American oil companies for off-shore drilling operations. New regulations to govern the exploitation of resources within the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone of Sri Lanka will be introduced by the government shortly. The All Ceylon Nurse's Trade Union Federation has threatened to take strike action from May if six of it's outstanding demands are not met-SU. Mr. M. Karunanidhi has resigned from the leadership of the DMK in Tamil Nadu yesterday-VK. The headine of the CC states that it will be a bright, arder-filled New Year! The government has decided to make a foreign exchange allocation of Rs. 5 million for the immediate import of 20,000 cases of Condensed milk-CO. Preliminary talks are going on about the plans to diver E the Kelani Ganga to the Pattalarn area; the planning Ministry is trying to obtain foreign aid for the projectDM. The Sri Lanka Nidhas Farmer's Union has put forward the suggestion that farmers whose names have been registered for over 20 years should obtain a pension of 757-DW.
T. ESADAY, APR - 2: The Wellawatte Spinning and Weaving Mills which became a government-owned business undertaking in March last year has made an after-tax profit of Rs. 8 million in nine months of operations. The Acting Minister of Food and Co-operatives explaining the shortage of Certain essential food items in time for the New Year said that if authorities responsible for tertain of these food items acted with a sense of esponsibility there would have been to shortage; he also said that his ministry was working round the clock to see that all food ships in the ports are unloaded before the 8 of this month. The CWE has called in the Police to investigate what they believe to be deliberate acts of sabotage of the distribution of tinned fish Currently being issued to consumers through co-operatives. The Education Ministry expects 《2 appoint about 2,000 teachers from May 2; these
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 8
have been picked from applicants who have passed the
GCE 'A' level and the 'O' level with distinctions and credit passes. The People's Bank will release Rs.25 million to farmers to purchase seed paddy, fertilizer and agricultural implements for Yala cultivation-CDN. The promised dhal, dried fish and canned fish were given a miss by many consumers for the New Year. Emergency measures have been adopted by the State Distilleries Corporation and Excise Department to prevent a breakdown in arrack supplies for the Sinhala and Hindu New Year following a strike in the Corporation. The Nursing Services Trade Union Federation has been given an assurance by the Health Department that nurses will be remunerated for working on public holidays; therefore the nurses have called off their campaign to avail themselves of the new year holidaysCDM. Mr. Felix Dias Bandaranaike, Minister of Finance Food and Co-operatives is likely to be SLFP's candidate for the newly-carved out Colombo West seat in the coming General Elections. The joint Front of para medical personnel yesterday submitted to the Minister of Health and the Director of Health Services, a list of the facilities they would require if they are to resume work-SU. There are speculations in many circles as to the motives behind the friendship of Mr. V. Ponnambalam, leader of the Jaffna branch of the CP of Sri Lanka (Moscow) with the TULF; there are whispers of an election agreement between the two groups-DP.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 3: The PM, acting in the national interest, has appraised the Leader of the Opposition of the government knowledge of certain insurgent activities taking place in several parts of the island, brought to her notice by the Country's Security forces. Referring to nudism by tourists particularly in beach resort areas, the Director General of the Tourist Board said that they frowned upon the "hippie” type and that the board will not prmit any tourist activity which would hurt the feelings of the public and affect adversely the moral standards of the Country. The Vasu Group now styles itself as the LSSP (Left); it has called upon all left parties to celebrate May Day on a united forum and has written to the major left parties. Mr. Mr. Karunanidhi, who resigned yesterday as President of the DMK in Tamil Nadu, withdrew the resignation today-CDN. Trade Union leaders of the SLFP are up in arms against the bureaucracy; they are peeved in the manner the administative machinery functioned during the past few days in catering to the needs of the consumers. The SLBC Technical Officer's Union has decided on strong trade union action within 4 days if it's seven demands on salaries, allowances etc. are not granted. An all-island conference of trade unions has been convened for April 28 in Colombo to discuss demands to be moved on May Day, according to Mr. Bala Tampole, General Secretary of the CMU. Mr. Upatissa Gamanayake, acting secretary of the JVP at a meeting at the New Town Hall on Monday accessed the national newspapers of publishing police stories suggetting that every robbery and theft were linked to same political movement; he pointed out that the same thing had happened in 1970; in a sharp attack on the Left Movement in Ceylon he said that the JVP was born out of the grave economic situation and betrayal of the left leaders and their utter failure to lead the mass movement; and he also said that the 1971 experience had taught them a lot and they now knew who their friends and enemies were-CDM. The government will ner
TRIBUNE, May 4, 1977

Sri Lanka Chronicle
Week Conduct a full probe to ascertain the causes for the breakdown in the distribution of food for the New Year. A leading private nursing home in the city is to be taken over by the government next week to be converted immediately into a co-operative hospitail. Five State Corporations significantly increased production in December last year, according to the latest monthly bulletin of the Central Bank. Non-aligned nations meeting in Delhi at Foreign Minister level have decided to send a special mission to express their solidarity with frontline states and liberation movements in Southern Africa-SU. The Maldives Branch of the Insurance Corporation is doing well, so it is proposed to open a branch in Singapore-ATH. According to a press release issued by the Department of irrigation and High ways due to Mahaweli waters, they expeect a harvest of lack of tons of paddy-D.M.
THURSDAY, APRIL 4: The Janawasama, Usawasama and the State Plantation Corporation managing a large number of estates taken over under the land reforms have taken a policy decision to plough back as much as the profits accruing to these estates as a result of the current tea boom to estates themselves; high on the list of priorities is improving the working conditions of the estate workers. The PM, in her New Year message to the nation called on the people to make a firm determination to achieve the aims of self-sufficiency and prosperity. Soya milk is a good substitute for coconut milk; this recommendation is made by the Research Officer of Food Technology of the Central Agricultural Research lnstitute Peradeniya. Congress Party President Dev Kant Barooah resigned today and the other 18 members of the Party's high command, including the former PM, Indira Gandhi are expected to follow suit tomorrow-CO.
FRIDAY, APRIL i5: The government is paying a huge sum of scarce foreign exchange in demurrage as a result mainly of ships carrying fertilizer not being cleared in time owing to a going slow by the Staff of the Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation; the sum of money incurred in demurrage charges up to April 3 totalled 28,000 US dollars. The Ceylon Tyre Corporation Trade Union Joint Front yesterday said the strike by corporation employees was over 4 demands submitted to the management. CTB workers at the Maharagama depot staged a lightening strike on New Year's Day protesting against the alleged assault on a bus driver by a police officer; the strike yesterday spread to the Homagama depot Crippling the services on the High level road. The Medical Practitioners Association, Registered Medical Practitioners of the association will not take part in the strike scheduled for this week. The statues of foreigners erected in major towns and junctions will be replaced by those of national heroes and leaders of the land; the statues so removed will be placed at the museum; this decision was taken by the Minister of Cultural Affairs-CDN. The Food Department has bared a racket which gave a clue as to how poor quality locally produced rice which is not fit for human consumption came to be issued on the ration in certain parts of the country; the detection was made by the Food
Commissioner. Five hundred and fifty workers who
i had been employed by the State Fertilizer Corporation Sat it's factory at Hunupitiya and who were dismissed
s last when they struck work seeking permanancy of employment, will have to be re-instated according to a
6
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2.

Page 9
Sri Lanka Chronicle
Labour Tribunal decision-CDM. The Leader of the Opposition yesterday denied that the PM had no arranged and formal discussion with him in regard to the activities of insurgents. A red carpet welcome awaits Madame Tying Ching Chao, wife of the late Premier Chou En-lai, who arrives here on Sunday leading a six member official delegation. The present conges. tion in the Port of Colombo is the result of the "rush of food vessels coupled with inadequate road transport provided by consignees to clear the cargo says the Chairman of the Port Cargo Corporation. The People's Bank is to provide long-term loans for people in rural areas to obtain electricity for their homes, places of business or industries. The Sri Lanka Independent Education Services Union has requested the Ministry of Education to immediately make the appointments and promotions that are pending-SU. The undersea
caves submerged below the blue waters off Sri Lanka's
Northern, Eastern and Southern Shores have fascinated members of the Czechoslovak Speleological Association to such an extent that they have sent out a twelve member expedition here to explore these wonders of the deep. Mr. C. Suntharalingam, a former UNP Ministers and ex-MP for Vavuniya and leader of a new political party called the Elam Thamilar Thondar Sabai has announced that he too, would contest Mr J. R. Jayewardene at Colombo West-CO.
SATURDAY, APR - 6: The reasons for the breakdown in the supply of essential commodities on the ration to co-operatives during the festive season this week were that stocks were not adequate, orders placed abroad had not arrived and stocks that did arrive came in too late to be distributed; these causes were identified at a conference held this week at the Ministry of Trade to examine this question. Low quality rice was found stored in a food Department at Katugastota when the Food Commissioner made a surprise check; this rice was much below the specification laid down by the Food Department and was found to be almost unfit for human consumption. Employees of the Maharagama bus depot, who went on Strike on the eve of the Sinhala New Year day when a bus employee was assaulted by an Inspector of the Maharagama Police Station called off the strike and resumed work yesterday-CDN. University teacher's associations, student's Councils and the non-academic staff in the University of Sri Lanka have urged complete autonomy for the university in representations they have made to the sub-committee which will draft an entirely new university bill. The IGP will address senior police officials from all provinces today on the revival of insurgent activities; police allege that the current wave of violent crimes and holdups are to collect funds for the general elections by a group of youths. Ready-made garments,
sea foods, petroleum products and coconut-based
industrial products increased industrial exports from
Rs. 539.6 million in 1975 to Rs. 835.1 million in 1976.
Despite assurances given by officials of the State Distilleries Corporation that barrels of arrack will roll ott, no arrack is moving out as the strike situation at the Seeduwa Distillery and the Warehouses remain the same according to Excise Department sources-CDM. Heads of police divisions throughout Sri Lanka have been alerted to keep close tabs on five politically oriented movements which are subversive in character and are now engaged in open political activity. The
7
'TV

Ministry of Food and Co-operatives has instructed our suppliers abroad to hold back shipments of rice cont tracted for the period from May to October this year. The People's Bank has formulated a scheme to grant loans to farmers to buy their food. The Lanka Salu Sala is likely to be brought under the newly-set up Ministry of Textiles. The government has prepared new projects to exploit the fishing potential in the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone of Sri Lanka-SU. From next week consumers will receive four ounces each of maldive fish and dried fish on each rice ration book. --VK. The insurgent leader, Rohana Wijeweera, who is now serving a prison sentence is likely to contest the next general election in the Tangalle constituency according to members of his party-DP. According to the Plantations Ministry, if things go the way they are, coconuts will have to be imported in 23 years-DW.
SUNDAY, APRIL 7: Repatriation of stateless persons coming within the purview of the Indo-Sri Lanka agreement of 1964 has now topped the figure of 200,000. The PM is 6 today. Four political groups !ed by persons named in connection with the 1971 inserruction have been placed under constant police surveillance; two of these groups have announced intention of contesting seats at the next general elections-SO. Dr. N. M. Perera, an internationally known expert on British Parliamentary procedure, has challenged the propriety of Mr. Speaker's decision to refer two bills to the Constitutional Court for adjucication while the NSA stands prorogued. The government has to pay nearly 16,000 US dollars as demurrage for ...he delay in unloading fertilizer owing to a wrok-to-rule by the workers of the Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation. There has been no declared change of policy with the change at the top in the Ministry of Housing but several andlords whose houses were wested with the Commissioner of National Housing are making attempts o have the properties divested-ST. A top level probe s now under way into what is believed to be an orgahised racket in the sale of pre-paid tickets belonging to an airline in a socialist country. The outcome of the recent Indian elections would not have any bearing on Sri Lanka; the progress made by India is about twenty fears behind that of Sri Lanka; these observations were made by Mr. Felix Dias Bandaranaike in an interview he gave terri Indian newspaper-WK. This morning a further operation was performed on the leader of th TULF who has been under treatment at the Jaffna Hospital for the past 25 days, following a fall-CM.
TRIBUNE, May 4, 1977

Page 10
INDIA The Story Of Emergency
-People Must Knowby C. Raghavan
The author, C. Raghavan, was one of the senior editors of PT when the Emergency was imposed. He was one of those "removed' for refusing to toe the line with the Sanjay-Yulius caucus. ""his article is reprinted from the Mainstream of April 2, 1977.
New Delhi, April 2,
NEVER TOUCH the feet of a politician-inOnagerian Acharya Kripalani, who had campaigned for the Janata Party, warned sombrely within hours of the Smooth change over of power in Delhi and the swearing-in of Morarji Desai as the Prime Minister. He gave the Warning at the Ram Lila ground victory rally of the Janata Party on March 24, 1977, carried live on Radio and TV for the rest of India.
Watching him on television, one could see the old man getting so excited as to forget his Hindi and lapse into English. He could and
should have added another note
of warning to the public about journalists and the press too, inct as a politician, but as a writer and journalist himself, though not a working journalist.
That Kripalani's warning was very important, and one that the janata that voted the Janata Party to power should remember, was underlined from the very inception- the very manner of naming Morarji Desai as the leader of the party, and thus the Prime Minister, made the public understand that despite all the talk of the second independence movement, politics was still the same.
And as if that was not enough, we had Raj Narain proclaiming at least thrice after his election, and from the Ram Lila Maidan platform and over Radio and TV, that he would not accept office. And within forty-eight hours he had to accept office "obeying the directive of his leader' (Sri Charan Singh).
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
And, then, we and Bahuguna of to support the stay out of off right reasons t unfortunately pu ing rise to mu tion in the press: and having to c on receipt of was it an adesh from his sick b No doubt th cepted office, no but for very el sons, just as JP and Jagjivan R. acceded to it, f reasons of pul the way leader and 'messages followers obeye of the beginning march down the
It all began members subor ing to the “det der and obeyed
The Janata F ment could and be excused for t sidering the nové they found th towards a de of the rumours country of the plated but not that might have transfer of pow a bloodbath.
This is wher the public abo Acharya Kripala this is where t public about th in. For, it is all and mental feet o'vertaken Del Republic during Ο ί η Οθ.
Touch-feeting UP and Bihar getic plain, not
of India's trad
Ο Ι in c. people did an trotéolifiemselve touch the feet their families ot respect. It is
done in a true in the North part of politica daily life as V morning' or '- in India.

had Jagjivan Ram the CFD deciding Government but ce (and for very hat they did not blicy explain, givch mis-representaas a power struggle) hange their minds P's "message' (or or order) conveyed ed in Bombay. at Raj Narain act for love of office, minent public reasent his messageam and Bahuguna or very important blic interest. But S gave 'directives' ", the way their d, is reminiscent gs of the Congress road to perdition.
when individual dinated their thinkisions’’ of the leait。 Party and Governshould of course heir faux paus, conel situation in which emselves, working adline, and aware s in the city and many steps contemeffectuated, Steps prevented a Smooth er and precipitated
e the warning to ut politicians, that ni gave, comes in; he warning to the e. Press too Cornes part of the physical
touching that has ni and the lindian the last decade
is a practice of and the Indo-Gansanctioned by any itions or cultures ther parts of India, d even now prosis in temples, or of the elders in the teachers they a religious custom spirit of humility. here, it became a custom, a part of fishing one "good a maste’ abroad or
Feet-Touching
It came in a big way to Delhi When Pandit Pant migrated from Lucknow to New Delhi, 3nd came as a cultural shock to some of us coming from other parts of India. had great respect for Pandit Pant, and he treated me very kindly as a journalist, but I never touched his feet, and was not the worse for it. The only time perhaps he was embarrassed was when in my presence a judge of the Supreme Court came in to see him and touched his feet,
And the habit grew with every politician who came in. Pandit Kamalapati Tripathi being the last major politician of UP to have brought that custom to the Central Hall of Parliament. Not that I have anything against Kamalapati Tripathi whom have met only a couple of times, He at least stood up in the Cabinet in May 1976 against
Shukla Neeti, when it was sought
to be given statutory backing, and prevented its enactment. Such a man certainly deserves some respect even now.
But even more abhorrent than the physical touch-feeting was the mental touch-feeting that overtook the Congress party when its rank and file totally sub-ordinated their thinking to a leader or leaders, or to the inspiration of hidden outside lobbies and lobbyiists. That day the downfall of the Congress began and it never stop
ed.
And if the Janata Party, or any of its successors to be, want to avoid a similar downward march, they should put a halt to this touchfeeting, physical and mental. This cannot be done by appeals to the
public; the leaders must refuse teo a ovv. it.
Physical touch-feeting can be
prevented if the leaders decide it and when they realise that in a democracy and a republic, anyone who touches the feet of a leader in fact demeans the leader and tie republic and our talk of equality. But, ending mental touchfeeting is more difficult, and it is a
task needing co-operation of all, -
including the press and pressmen.
Many brave words have been written, many 'exposes' have been trade (in the press in the last couple of weeks) about the sins of the Government that has been ousted. The columns of material that have poured forth from several pens, have come only
8
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Page 11
Kow-Towing
once the wielders that not only Smit indira Gandhi had been defeated at Rae Bareli, but even Vidya Charan Shukla at
became sure
Raipur, and that a new Government has indeed been sworn in. Even now there are some who are
looking at horoscopes or consulting tantrics to be Sure there will
be no return.
If all this was merely due to
the rigours the fears created
of Emergency,
and in our hearts
and minds, it would not matter. For only time can remove these fears and traumas. But if one reads carefully the views of newspapers,
columnists
and editorial writers
over a period of time, one would easily find that we have all been truly exponents of Surya Namașkar (worship of the rising Sun in the
morning).
The Minister who is out of office,
and seems to stand no chance of
return, is often ignored by his
own relatives and friends,
aside the
leave
public and newsmen. Even Morarji Desai who is now the
Prime Minister, and was a Deputy Prime Minister till 1969, faced this
soon after 1972,
For example, many words are
now being written by the Western
press and uttered by the spokesman of Western chanceries about
the robustness
of Indian Democ
racy and the Indian people's courage
in asserting themselves.
Lest we
forget, it has to be noted that since
about August
976, the Western
governments had been trying to persuade, and with some measure of success, except in an odd case or two, to look at the "gains' of the Emergency in India-the Indian Government's willingness to open the doors to transnationals and do business with them (provided the necessary commissions were paid to appropriate quarters).
All this only means that we
in India should decide things for
ourselves and refuse to be bowled over by the criticism or adulatory praises from abroad. In no other country of our size are the leaders so easily accesible to foreign newsmen and media. A white skin is
stil the entree.
The
Indian press as a whole,
and the middle classes and urban elite of India, should also be humble enough to admit that they had not been heroes and that, in fact,
many of them became
9
Neroes.
If we confess ou exorcise ourselve proceed to tell
Emergency, we
done the greate people, not only tion but succee
Our reading a have shown that fools, and do not memories. They Who sang halleluja are also a very fo ded there is a and appeal for fo Such "forgive an as were made di Campaign.
The story of to be told, and honest - to-goodn work by a tea reporters and d
And it perhaps to 1972. But th Written at least to know, as sur of our independ ations ago, and heads and subc in the strident w and five point in a professiona so that history
itself.
When Emergei like a thief at r very few heroes at least in Delh into account for hundreds of our ticians who wer night, most of real warrant too, willing and un\
still do not leaders would h; few days or even before that fatef in June 1975, a if inkling of the going to get fr Gandhi. One of th under solitary con of the time, told out and after lear of the people C problems of the been greater tha
The press as proprietors and journalists-were the news of th arrests and decla ternal Emergency agency tickers fr

ir weaknesses and is of it, and then the real story of would all have est service to the y of this generading generations.
ld listening public they are not such t have such short
remember those Ls. But our people brgiving lot, provigenuine confession rgiveness, but not d forget' appeals uring the election
Emergency is yet it would require ess, painstaking m of investigative edicated writers.
goes back even e Story must be
for our children rely as the story lence two generdinned into their onsciousness, not say of the twenty programmes, but l Subliminal way, would not repeat
acy came on us, light, there were or brave men, i. do not take the moment the leaders and poli'e picked up at them without a These were unWitting heroes.
know what these ave done in the a couple of weeks ul early morning they had had an reply they were om Smt indira hem who had been finement for much me after coming ning of the travails outsides 'st the ose outside had in those inside. a whole-editors, publishers, and all stunned when e early morning ration of the lin' C3 me on reWS of in early morning,
until about 10 am when the Principal information Officer, who became Chief Censor, ordered us all to stop transmission forthwith, even without serving any written orders and without allowing us to give any explanations
And explanations of the imposition of censorship, as an advisory to editors and subscribers but not for publication, could be given only a few hours later when it was explained to the powers that be that when news agency tickers stopped transmitting news like this, the normal conclusion would be that there was a coup d'etat in progress but one whose outcome was in doubt.
A few futile and naive attempt were made in the beginning to Protest against censorship, but they collapsed quickly with the arrest of one or two. And, in any event, it all seemed so unbelievable that for a few days a charitable interpretation was given to the Government's actions. It was only as days went by, and the full force and planning behind Emergency became clear that intellectuals and others began to realise that the roof had collapsed over them.
Many soon thought it was all irreversible and began co-operation. One or two, who had been close to JP, even went and made their peace with Sanjay. Others were resigned, and went along in Sullen co-operation. A few, who had either no other option, or had been touched at some raw sensitive nerve, stood up and paid the price, but very very reluctantly.
There were no voluntary heroes as in the Gandhian era.
There were a few brave souls, within the administration and in the press who from the very first moment did realise that it was the beginning of Fascism. They also realised that the passivity of the Indian people should not be mistaken for co-operation, and that the sheer Cupidity and inefficiency of the power structure would prove to be its undoing.
But those journals or individual journalists who did perceive this, if not on June 25-26, 1975, at least in the next couple of months, began the long fight, a fight against the censor, trying to convey more by what was not written than by what was written, trying to hood
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 12
wink the censor by a catch opening that would mislead him.
One certainly must praise these men, and Mainstream was surely in the forefront with its first editorial quoting Tagore and until, its closure on December 25, 1976, with a Biblical quotation.
But there were also some brave and good souls right inside the Government and near the power structure, who stuck to their positions as long as they could, in the hope of averting at some future moment greater catastrophes or alleviating the sufferings of the innocent. As the months progressed, their tasks became even more difficult. These too deserve respect.
Nothing Perhaps moved many than the anguishing words of George Fernandes's mother who spoke of her "loneliness' whenever she came to Delhi to see here son in jail, but was severely left alone by most of their friends. This became the fate not only of
families of detenus, and not merely
such "dangerous' ones like George Fernandes, but much smaller fry, persons who were mere “nonpersons'. Prisoners in jails saw at least some convicts or even a jailor, but these persons, and their families who once used to meet every day dozens of people, suddenly found themselves severely alone.
And there were some good men in the Government and outside who knew of such cases and did make an effort to contact such persons and talk to them or write to them even on non-consequential subjects, or try to help them when little problems of life over took those families.
It is these men, too, who are the heroes, heroes who do not want any recognition, but feel at least that the real story of Emergency must be told and that the people should learn the correct and real lessons so that we can truly say this was the first and the last ever Internal Emergency. For, it is the consciousness and alertnesss of the people, and the elites-whether in politics, government, administration, judiciary or the press-who in similar or dissimilar circumstances stand up and refuse to bow that can prevent such catastrophes in future. And the only lessons of Mohandas
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
Karamchand Gandhi the more people to stand up and less people will to pay the penalt)
But we in the p tively atone for the rich big papers it and who benefit
BACKGROUND ST
— Centenn
On 9 May, since Romania's nonent in the national freedom Country.
Awareness of costintos ife si they were born battes the Roinn of national indep meated the tho Romanian people indissou bly beer
As early as its Romanian people great many invasic peoples against V to stubbornly defe a bode and ethnic Romanian people higher stage in te and spiritual devi had preserved c. and military virtue its Dacian and R. and it managed 1 the migratories a miliate them thus nified way the pl in the great fami peoples. Characteri Romanian Middle overall effort fre from amongst w role was played b and the armies of end of preserving and of gaining fu later c again. Th kept everlasting t Bessarabs and th Mircea the Old, lan Vlad the Impaler, Great, Radu of Rares, Ioan Vod Brave, Dimitrie ( tantin Brancoveanu other brilliant hea chieftains.

really was that
come forward be counted, the be called upon W.
ress can collecour faults, and who can afford ted from Emer
100th Anniversary
gency even more, by really commissioning and bringing out such a story of Emergency, a story that cannot really emerge out of even a commission of inquiry, and a story that ought to be free and not one on which money should be made, a story written not in anger or self-righteousness, but in sorrow.
ATEMENT.
R O M A N A
ial of national independence -
977, the Romanian people celebrate Go years stata independence was proclaimed, a crucial history of the Romanian people, of the fight for , for the right to be the master of its own
its unity as a people and of historical fate, of rice time immemoria on the territory therein and developed was a vital support during all the anian people fought against invaders. The ideals endence, sovereignty and unity have always perught and action of the advanced forces of the during each and every historical stage; they have
tied to the ideas of social
genesis, the had to face a ons by migratory whom they had ind their ancient al identity. The : then lived a brms of material elopment, which rtain traditions is inherited from man forefathers o either drive Way or to assigaining in a digace it deserved ty of the world stic of the whole Ages was an »m the masses, hich the main y the peasantry, Romania to the independence ll independence pse battles have he name of the e Musatins, of u of Hunedoara, Stephen the Afumati, Petru l, Michael the antemir, Consas well as of ds of state and
progress.
Forced often to fight enemies which had a higher military potential, the Romanian people tailored its fight upon a pattern specific to it, that is the people's war, whose characteristic feature was the joining of the military effort by everybody who was able to fight, by the whole population able to put up resistance to the invaders. In this context the first political union of the Romanian principalities in the frame of a feudal centralized state was accomplished under Michael the Brave in 1600, expression of the Romanian people's unshakable will of liberty and unity.
New accomplishments Were added to the Romanian people's aspirations for independence and unity in the modern epoch. They were tellingly expressed at the time of Tudor Vladimirescu's revolution, of the great social and national uprising of 1848 when the Romanians, Moldavians, Wallachians and Transylvanians expresSed their determination to break feudal relations, to achieve their statal union and to eliminate any form of foreign domination. A highly significant moment historically was the accomplishment of the modern national state by Walachia’s and Moldavia’s Union
O

Page 13
100th Anniversary
in 1859. Although the question of national union was solved but partially, that grand event provided favourable pre-requisites for both a new organization economically and socially and the winning of full independence by Romania.
Century long sacrifice and uninterrupted efforts for the liberty and progress of the homeland have thus objectively led to the historic act of 9 May, 1877. Voicing the will and aspirations of the whole Romanian people, the Parliament proclaimed by unanimous vote Romania's absolute independence on that day. It meant liquidation of the last vestiges of Ottoman domination and equally, of the tutelage and immixture by
the socalled guarantor powers in the wake of the Paris Peace (1856) and Conference (1858). Large-scale people's manifesta
tions all over Romania welcomed proclamation of full independence.
The Romanian people's grand victory on 9 May, 1877 Was Welcomed with satisfaction by the international progressive forces and the peoples, they in turn engaged in the fight for national liber ation. This act aroused a remarka ble echo in the South-East European area and in the Balkans where
the Serbs, the Montenegrins, the
Croatians, the Bulgarians and other peoples were then fighting heavy battles for shaking foreign domination off. Romania's independence represented an outstanding component element in the objective process of getting liberated, of seeing the subject nations unified within their own independent states, a process which developed in the latter half 19th century Europe at an impressive pace. The Serbian and Montenegrin armies fought alongside of the Bulgarian volunteer detachments side by side with the Russian and Romanian armies in the war of 877-1878, proof of the Balkan people's struggle for national independence and emancipation, laying thus the basis of the future co-operation among the states lying in this part of
Europe.
Recognition internationally of the 9 May act came in greatly complex foreign circumstances and at the cost of heavy sacrifice. Those international circumstances made the consecration of the 9 May, 1877 act through a complete mate rial and military effort directed
against the suz unequestionable Romanian Cabine mobilization and tary convention down strict ob principles of inc reignty and integ nian state, stip conditions where troops were all rough Romania's of war between Ottoman Empire be avoided.
Since its very of 1877-1878 ent conscience as a ation. To wage til required, as it d in the past, a the energies of a classes and strat the modern Rom
Throughout m did the Roman its remarkable nr virtues; heroísm, city to adjust to to a time-takin stubborness and the cause of hic dence. The vict and Ronova, Sn their outstandin, Plevna’s conques pages written d etter chronicle very. The blood impressive econ! by Romania con tially to the defe: Empire.
Winning by Ric independence ha pact on its ecor tical and cultura permitted the e
assertion of the
as a self-relying 1 ing class and i which was form by side with all tical forces whic in the progress
and in the buil national Romani:
During the
Romania took p its territories f pation and to independence je imperialist pow was completed of the national
December, 9

erain power an Thereafter, the goal pursued by necessity. The Romania's policy was defence of t decreed general territorial integrity and national concluded a mili- sovereignty against the expanwith Russia laying Sionism of fascist imperialism and servance of the revisionism, collective security and lependence, sove- safeguarding peace. The vanguard rity of the Roma- in the struggle in defence of natioulating also the nal interests and the independence upon the Russian of the country, for peace and a owed passage th- better life, for the revolutionary territory. State transformation of the Romanian Romania and the society was the working class at could no longer head with the Romanian Com
munist Party.
onset, the war it is the historic merit of the ered the national RCP to have pinpointed from the just war of liber- very beginning the greatly serious he war successfully danger which fascism spelt at the |id do many times independence of the homeland and concentration of the national identity itself of the ll the progressive Romanian people. By using skila which made up fully and with revolutionary boldanian society. ness the favourable conditions at home and aborad, the RCP orgailitary operations inized the national anti-fascist and an army Peve anti-imperialist armed insurrection ilitary and ethical of August 1944, leading it to vic. discipline, caPa- tory, an insurrection which meant conditions specific a turning point in Romania's hisE Ségo mobility, tory. The significance of the sucself-dedication for cesśful insurrection is that besides meland's indepen- liberation from the fascist yoke, ;ories of Grivitsa it opened the path for Romania's nirdan and Vidin, liberation from any kind of imper g contribution to rialist domination. st were as many own in the gold- On the centennial of its indeof Romanian bra- pendence, Romania is a socialist sacrifice and the free and independent republic, a omic effort made blossoming country which proves tributed substan full assertion of the creative capa" at of the Ottoman bilities of its people. By fully harmonizing home and foreign policy, its patriotic and internationalist
mania of its statal duties, socialist Romania has placed ad a mighty im- the principle of observance of homic, social, poli- national independence among the 1 advancement and basic principles of its foreign activer more vigorous vity both in the sense of guaranRomanian pecple teeing its own independence and nation. The work- of observing the independence of ts political party, all world states. ned in 1893, side the social and poliwere interested of their homeland, ding of the single an status
The Romanian Communist Party has established an organic link between the principle of national independence and sovereignty and the liquidation of underdevelopment and of the great gaps. The first world War, independence of all states-Small, art in it to liberate medium-sized and large-the rom foreign occu- observance of the states' sovereithe safeguard its gnty, regardless of size or econoopardized by the mic and military power are sineers. This process qua-non attributes of a world of by the formation peace, creative elan and prosperity Romanian state on of every people and of mankind 8, as a whole, being also the condi
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 14
tion of its progress. In the presentday world, independence is the fundamental principle of the relations among all the countries on the road to a higher civilization.
鬱
COCONUT CRISS-6
Summing Up
causes of the crisis by R. Kahawita
ALL THAT has been achieved under the Land Reforms is to reduce production and destroy a class that was contributing a sizeable slice to our export earnings. While the aspirations of the various Boards set up by the Coconut Authority is to increase production and maintain a high level of exports, the policies of the Minister for Agriculture are working like two buffaloes pulling in opposite directions. So our economy has got stuck in the Mud. And now our Minister for Agriculture can shout-'I have achieved Land Reforms without a whine'. At the same time he has been successful to push the price of a nut to the consumer to Rs. 2.- a piece and import Poonac from Philippines to save the livestock industry.
The economic mess that the country has got into in implementing the Land Reforms law calls for a high priority Royal Commission of Enquiry into Land Reforms and its impact on our social and economic ife. This should be item one on the agenda of the United National Party when it is voted to form a Government by the people: and where the reforms have departed from the law, the Commission should advise the Government to restore the rights of the owners under the
R.C. law.
There are other minor causes also that have contributed to the present coconut crisis. There is large scale cutting of coconut trees for urban development. This is necessary but a scheme should have been evolved to develop other areas to compensate for land taken up for urban development. The several rural electrification schemes also have taken their toli in the coconut growing areas.
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
This may not seem totalled up comes able figure. The industry has also the palms to be duction. The acr tapping is very la at present, when are high. In certai trees are being u vert the land ini may not be large are taken out of th Under coconut.
THE NETT RESUL policies of the C been (a) un preceden nut prices to the shortage of nuts to nut based industri Sequent large Scal in the coconut gre a fall in our Fo earnings which the to import basic ite clothing. At the n not take advantag prices for coconut cause we have no
(d) for lack of animo tock industry is E and for the first tin of Sri Lanka the co ing coconut proc the local market
This is 'the sum word today) achie Minister for Agric cular and the U. in general. Accor pronouncements m ticians and officia state of the coco due to other cau: Government justif otherwise? Still our that the people are mud-heads a anything they are bluffing goes on.
Let us see what about the shortages of coconut.
In the Ceylon Dail ary, the Acting Ge the Coconut Board age is due to late ghts and the negle by the small hold were no drought before. 1934/35 w bad. Then there w nor did the price the consumer go u a piece, it was st There were othe the worst years

much, but when to a very size
toddy tapping
aken a share of but out of proeage given for rge, particularly the tree rents a féã5 COCOft rooted to conto paddy fields, but these a reas e 1, 00,000 acres
of the present Government has ted rise it coco
consumer, (b) raintain cocoes and the conà unemployment swing areas, (c) reign Exchange
country needs sms of food and noment we canof world high E products, benuts to export, a feed the livesbeing run down ne in the history untry is importducts to meet needs.
mit' (a popular vement of the ulture in partiF. Government ding to various ade by our polils the present nut industry is ses. How Can a y its policies
politicians think of this country di will believe told, and so the
they have said and high prices
y News of Februneral Manager of says the shortmonsoons, drouact of the palms
ers, as if there is in Sri Lanka. as partiularly
rere no shortage of coconut to p to two rupees eady at 10 cts. drought years,
were 1947/48,
Why No Nuts?
56/57, 58/59. Even then there was no coconut crisis. The consumer was never called upon to pay such prices. The acting Chairman has to choose between the truth and his job. He ha 5 choisen his job. We cannot blame him for that.
Another reason given is the plucking of tender nuts for drink and eating. There is some truth in this but the reason is not because other drinks are expensive. The tender nuts are brought to urban areas from the villages, beCause in the villages, there is unemployment, no money to buy food itmes, nor cash crops to convert into money, nor can the village folk Wait till the nuts mature, so they pluck the tender nuts to meet their immediate needs.
This is true of fruits like bananas etc. as well. They cannot wait till the fruits mature and is ready for the market. The bulk of the tender nuts come from the lands taken over under the Land Reforms. One did not see so many tender nuts prior to 1972 except in big towns. Now it is seen all over the country side-unemployment food shortages, and lack of cash to buy the bare necessities. These are the causes for such large numbers of tender nuts being plucked. For a villager to protect his palm and wait till the nut is mature to pluck, he must have a unit of holding that Will give him a reasonable return to live-not fifteen to forty coconut trees. This is the Stupidity of redistribution of land under the Reform Policies.
The most novel reason given recently by no less a person thar. our Prime Minister is cutting of Gokkola to decorate the roads to welcome the leader of the Opposition and sometimes at receptions to welcome her. So a ban has gone out about the use of Gokkola for road decorations and pandals. With
this kind of immature thinking what chances has the coconut industry got? Even the S.L.B.C.
has taken up this matter of cutting gokkola seriously that it has put various conversational pieces over the air, based around the Kurumba drinking habit and Gokkola pandals to welcome V.I.P.S.
THE PLANTATION INDUSTRIES MINISTER has understood the problem in a different way. He
says the drop in the yield of coco
nuts is due to not extending the rehabilitation scheme in the estate
2
శ్రీ

Page 15
Why No Nuts?
sector. The Minister does not seem to realise that there is no estate sector, as such, today. All are small holdings, even the 50 Acres of statutory holding in several cases have been segmented as stated above. Al such holdings are uneconomic to operate so they are
neglected. There may be a few
who carry out fertilizing their Small holdings etc. These are exceptions. The idea of a 20 Ac. and below to be treated as a small holding is a colonial concept. "A progressive Minister' should not entertain such a concept. But he is in the process of reducing all the estates to Village holdings. When the Land Reforms were accepted, the Minister of Agriculture in his hurry to bring the guillotine down on the estate owners, forgot to revise the colonial definition of small holdings, and the Plantation Minister has not woken yet to the fact that there are no estates in the Private Sector today. How informative our policy makers are?
The Acting General Manager of the Coconut Cultivation Board further says that out of , 100,000 acres under coconut 870,000 acs. are in small holdings in 20 acs. and below and 'the ordinary villagers who are owners OF THESE POTS Di D NOT CARE MUCH ABOUT FERTILi ZATION owing to the difficulty in obtaining the fertilizer at Willage level.' The General Manager has not understood the problem and the plight of the "Ordinary Villager’’. He does not use fertilizer for very good and cogent reasons; his income from his holdings is insufficient to maintain himself and his land and if artifical fertilizer is applied it must be done regularly, so he prefers to apply what he can afford to get at the village level-crude form of compost. His income is so insecure that he avoids artificals. He knows that unless he adheres to a regular programme of fertilizer application, he will not get results.
Whether he has the fertilizer at the Village Level or not, he must have the spare cash to buy it. In short his income must be adequate to meet his needs as well as the needs of the palm. By redistributing the well managed coconut estates in 20 to 30 perches lots, according to the land reform policy of a Minister of Agriculture,
3
the General pect his ordin lize his palms
By now it the power results are by Land R dominantly try, land security of precedent gencies. N Reforms La this fundan in land ref but the guite diffe law requir after he g used it for party polic орponents. å CBCOFtit one, who creating th responsibili the drough receptions leaders an young COCG the bluffing There must problem so can get his nu sonable price, nut industry on an econo the Country exchange whic to the bad po ment. We sh: our next artic
毫
UNIVERSITY
Social And in Develo
by P. Chandr
Dept. of Human Education, Univ. Colombo Campu
UNIVERSITIES
national identi the promotion nal culture an in social action as part of this of literature the adaptation tic and moral
exigencies, in retain their

Manager cannot exary villager to ferti
must be clear to to be, that, if to be obtained eforms in a preagricultural, counconsolidation and tenure must get over political exilot that the Land w has overlooked ental requirement orms. It is there mplementation is ent to what the es The Minister, bt the law passed the advantage of ies to destroy its
The result is crisis which everynas had a hand in e crisis, deny their ty and blame t, gokkola cutting, to the rival party d the plucking of faut for food. So goes On. be a solution to this that the consumer its for food at a realand the whole Cocoshould be put back mic footing so that can earn the foreign sh has been lost due licies of the Governall deal with this in
e.
拳
EDUCATION
Cultural Role ping Countries
a Segarann
ities, Faculty of ersity of Sri Lanka, 呜
should develop ty. This would mean of a common natiod a unity of purpose ... This would involve, process, a flowering and other arts and
of traditional aesthe
values to economic such a way that they essential spirit and
yet interact constructively, with the needs and impact of technological and social change. As a consequence, the Universities, would be called upon to disseminate cultural values apart from the specialised interest of their various disciplines, though the disciplines themselves would be part of cultural values.
There is, throughout particularly in the educationally advanced countries, a growing concern for the 'liberal education', of the University student; this has implied that time available for specialised training is reduced. The recent example of U.S.S.R. in this regard is a case in point. The problem really is not to reduce the number of hours devoted to special disciplines, but to enable the student, to integrate his knowledge, to understand his speciality in a wider cultural context, and to play an active part in the total cultural process. Fach discipline, has its own social, cultural and aesthetic context, and the teaching and study of it should be conducted as to make the student conscious of the discipline's inter-connection with other streams of knowledge and its philosophical, historical and cultural implications.
This demands a size and quality of teaching resources, which many countries can hardly secure in the forSeeable future; more so, in emerging, developing, Asian, African and Latin American nations; but this should be an educational priority.
OPINION is divided, on how far the Universities in developing nations engage in promoting creative pursuits in the fine arts, music and literature, the exercises of the human spirit, which normally transcend material concepts. Ils the contention that, the Universities producing Graduates in Arts, "more in proportion to graduates in science', express an attitude, that pursuing the promotion of Creative arts, is not in immediate consonance of the aspirations of developing nations?
Language is the original situation of manking; the national languages are more original; the mother tongue is the basic original. The mother tongue is the language of wider communication. It is a peoples' identity; it is an expression of the genius in an individual. The Universities, are special institutions, and every nation in the
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 16
world gives its Universities, a sometimes unusually high place. It is incumbent on the part of the Universities to make the language of the countries optimally developed and optimally usable, for and in every aspect of education. Culture begins with language; and more so with the mother tongue.
How far are the Universities in developing nations formulating their education policy, with respect to the national languages? Of these countries,
the University of Sri Lanka inspite of its intellectual idiosyncracies, are trying to relate
the national language to the public policy of the country. The African nations are trying to do the impossible, by separating cultural nationalism from political nationalism. The Universities are becoming "minority culture' institutions, fostering remote class culture .
The classic example of Israel, where all the Universities are geared to national language development programmes, are worthy of commendation and emulation. The national language, Hebrew, has become a language of wider communication and University advanced science level of education. In the transitional social and economic stage, at which the developing countries find themselves it is not surprising, that various national policy statements, put special stress on the social responsibilities of Universities. The claims of social development, stretch far beyond the economic minimum and are also matters of political decision in which finance will play a major role.
The developing countries are obliged to assimilate decades of technological innovations without adequate preparation. Consequently, they must diagnose what is happening, and study how to reconcile economically necessitated social change with the transmutation of cultural values. Bridging the gulf between moderni processes and traditional attitudes would help speedier social and economic progress. To this end, Universities must become dynamically involved, preparing critical analyses and submitting constructive ideas for the resolution of social and cultural problems.
Interdisciplinary research would enable Universities to perform such a function.
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
RESOURCES is spe undirected; it is is isolated problems. T method. But, it need mented by a syster that in various area. the selection of correlates the result on these, both to pri hensive data for b: and to discover mit for further researc socio-cultural view general terms mean departments, Huma nes, Agriculture an need to combine conduct team resea stand what is happer Situation
They will be able tendencies, and able nosis of the futu desirable direction f suggest the Scale an tion, and help wor|| measures to prom development goals.
These would of c. Sen on the basis of and therefore inv factors.
in the broad soc success of policy rel matter as agricultura social mobility, con lopment, distributior man power, nationa languages, in each that various releva carry out studies ir fields, custom and tudes and motivatio economics, mass C administrative orga education.
The needs of such great; difficulties a establishing interdi proach is not just and administrative quate trained staff collaboration within specialised discipline: The Universities s hic centrate on the creat nal research machine to Planning -bodies the Governments of tries.
The attitude of ilin approach, influence: tation of University a whole. This would versity teachers wi and ability to investi relationship of theit

cialised; it is in relation to his is a basic s to be supplenatic approach, s, co-ordinates problems and Es of research ovide comprealianced action al implications h. From the point, this in s that all the pities, Medicid Engineering resources and rich to undering in current
2 to diagnose to give a progre, determine or change and di kid of ack out feasible hote Selected
ourse be chonational policy olve political
tial field, the ating to, such Ll productivity, munity deveof high level li identity and case requires
int disciplines :
a variety of radition, attiin, technology, Kommunication, nization and
research are re great too: Sciplinary aporganisational action. Adeis necessary; and between S is necessary. buld also, contion of a natioery in relation instituted by various coin
ter-disciplinary
the orieneducation as produce Unith the desire gate, the interIr reali interests,
S. s
In Developing Countries
with other areas of inquiry. To the student it gives a Serse of linitedness of knowledge and its efficacy to him and to the society.
The potential field for service to the community by the University is very wide; but in the immediate and direct sense, it is not felt; often the resources are limited; very often even the available resources are not used. Universities vary in undertaking commu." inity responsibilities and programme, tCO.  ܼܓ
The Universities, should at least in some areas, determine their proper roles, for the mutual benefit of their own society and their own work.
Research into the inter disciplinary as well as the educational and methodological aspects of adult education and literary campaigns and provision of special post-secondary courses in professional and cultural fields directly related to adult needs and demands, would foster this commitment.
These two are immediate necessities for developing countries. The first produces
an educated citizen ry; the second produces middle grade skilled people who are an asset to developing nations.
LITERACY campaign offers a challenge; it is a challenge for the resources, and the capabilities of the University teachers and stu
dents. Literacy campaign, would involve in teaching media and techniques, the preparation of
material and equipment, the Continual evaluation of results, and the development of follow up materia.
This calls for the deployment of the ful resources of a University.
The contribution of the University of Sri Lanka, in this regard
is a shameful betrayal of intellectual treachery.
Second, Universities must themselves provide, and assist
other institutions to offer, appropriate post-Secondary opportuinities to adults to improve their professional competence and enlarge their cultural background which, for one reason or another, they have been unable to do by taking up, or completing University level studies. A large number of Students, completing secondary
辑4

Page 17
qualify even by the
In Developing Countries
education, are unable to enter Universities; very often chose who University's standards, are not offered places; some drop out even before they complete their courses; this is well marked in Indonesia and the Philippines of the Asian countries.
The moral is, that was posteintials of skill are wasted and the educational investment already made in them is left relatively unproductive.
Two general basic questic is need to be resolved in determining budgetary policies for these programmes. University level adult education should be given merited consideration. There are good economic and social reasons for this. The government must make adequate financial provision for this; and the government Radio should be at the disposal of the Universities, for this is one of the WeTy best institutions of communication. The developing nations are very Radio-minded to-day.
Adult education, should also, through part-time and corresPondence study, be a pathway
toward full University degrees and diplomas, by the establishment of which, pressure on the expansion of full time school facilities can be reduced.
UNIVERSITIES could and should contribute to community development, in direct as well as in indirect ways; but action to put this principle into practice, has been very limited, in developing countries. Some agricultural extension work and community development work, have been undertaken, in Indonesia and Philippines, and by some Universities in India, like Calcutta and Delhi, Israel, stands pre-eminent and it may be remembered that the whole governmental machinery and the Educational institution are geared to
community development work in Israel.
The Universities have three
opportunities in relation to community development. Training of community development planners and leaders is one of the tasks. Such leaders must combine professional competence, with a vide cultural background, a basic understanding of the Principles underlying the thinking and the operations of a wide variety of dis cipline, and the interlation of their operations and an intensive know
胰5
ledge of huma the University, Studen £ info ar appreciation o lopment, so
who ultimately positions of reg ship, may helf as an import: economic and Mitch can be di orientation tha work become the various dis Something adde curriculum; the would not be from those go Sion of field an
* the curricultim
as agriculture, medicine; all s jects in fact, Th cine, could fo of their public requested to S non i rbari, rur part of their ments in rural nics. This wo Sense of belong and to the pri of Sociali science be required to out, socio eco studies in rural tries are getti in. Cuir countir social science explore the po: into this field. S become applied this instance.
Community dies also could j of folk culture
A wider rang vement in ecc development, sh as part of WiÉies. it Woui.] by the students tradition, if the because, the A tions are rural.
AN INITIATION ment and also thinking would danger of the styled, self imp
All Universi Some appropria studies should a specified peric Work in the fi development ar.

in nature. Secondly should initiate the understanding and community devethat all graduates s come to occupy ognition, and leaderin promoting it, ant instrument of Social progress. one through a new at make extension an integral part of ciplines, rather than d on to the regular : Principles involved basically different verning the provid practical work in of such subjects engineering and social welfare subhe Students of mediYr the completion health course, be pend some time in all areas and devote training to assignhospitals, and cliuld given them a ging to the people ofession. Students is department, may form teams to carry nomic surveys and areas. Rural indusng a rightful place y; the University departments could ssibility of entering Social Science would social science in
development stuinvolve in the study and art.
e of student invopromic and social ould be encouraged co-Curricular actild not be resented of African, Asian are well oriented, frican, Asian tradi
into this environinto this type of also eliminate the Creation, of a self osed new class.
ey Students at te stage of their pe made to devote d to training and eld of community ld social welfare.
This would above all inculcate a right sense of living values among Our Students. [t Could almost approximate to compulsory military service. Community development could be national Conscription.
The Universities” contribution to the development of cultural aspects of the newly emergent
countries' national identities, the significance of inter-disciplinary research in strengthening the over-all contribution of higher education to the planning as well as to the operational aspects of development, and the desirability, through extra-mural and similar activities of broadening the University's field of influence, including adult education and community development, are three aspcts of which Universities in developing countries, contemplate upon.
The responsibility resting upon institutions of University rank, to be consciously and deliberately recognizing national needs, in the planning of their activities is clear. Human e.Source development is a natural and traditional function of Universities. In the context of developing nations, this function has to be construed and interpreted in the light of national goals at the present day. These goals are related to the achievement of economic growth; social objectives and cultural purposes and political Structure are not inseparable from them.
Teaching and Research in Universities have a common part to play in the realization of these national aims.
Education is the source of all Power; the developing nations are in a hurry.
馨 醬
NEXT WEEK
2) INDA
-Janata's False Step
3) SRI LANKA
-Perspectives
MILK BOARD
-Livestock
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977

Page 18
Dravidians
By J. R. Sinnathamby
There appears to be an impression that Sri Lanka (Ceylon) is essentially Aryan and Sinhalese, mainly due to the vulgar and crude view held that those who speak Sinhalese are from North india and those who speak Tamil are from South India, (Senake Bandaranaike, Sunday Observer, 23||||73), and also identifying the ethnology of a people only by the language they speak).
Even according to the Mahawamsa the colonisation of Ceylon at the beginning of its recorded history is Tamilian Wijeya came from Vanga a Dravidian Mongoloid country. Even if it is assumed that he was Indo-Aryan, the colonisation was mainly Tamilian as his Queen and the wives for the 700 followers of Wijeya and their retinue and the 18 guilds would have far outnumbered the 700 who arrived with Wijeya, as the Queen came from the Pandyan kingdom in South India. This Pandyan kingdom is referred to by Megasthenes (4th century B.C.) and also by Asoka in his inscriptions. This kingdom is shown in Ptolemy's map (C 100 A.D.) and Tamil Nad (Damirice) of India is shown in Pentinger's Tabel prepared under the direction of general Agrippa (c. 20 B.C.). In this context reference may also be made 9 walkers (Hindu World, P80), Geiger (culture of Ceylon, in Mediaeval times), B.C. law, (Historical geography of Ancient India PP 8018), Mendis (Early History of Ceylon P9, P20, FN 2), Paul E. Pieris (Sinhala and Patriots, P7), Ananda Comaraswamy (Mediaeval Sinhalese Arts P2).
Since the advent of Wijeya there has been intimate and close Cul
tural, religious, linguistic., social and ethnic contracts with South India from the remotest times according to Malalasekera (Pali
Literature of Ceylon) Paranavitane (Art and Culture of the Sinhalese), Mendis (Early History of Ceylon), Geiger (Culture of Ceylon in Mediaeval Times) P. E. Pieris (Ceylon Daily News 22/2/99). Nell (“Ethnology of Ceylon', RASCB, Vol.
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
2, No. 42, 1892), natissa (Times Weeke
It is very relevan this context that the the Pandyan Princes at Mannar was alrea port according to t itself which refers great landing place out by B. J. Perera torical Journal, Vol. it was 'no doubt a long before the Ary in Ceylon'. It has ferred to by Brohie emporium well-estal Wijey's arrival as at Mahawamsa. Even t tota, (Ur-Kavul-Tur mentioned as a port reign of Pandu-vasuc century B.C. in t (Nicholas, 3 RA SCB, Special number, P: may also be made Mediaeval Ceylon' PP 2,3.
Professor Rabin C University of Israe out that the Tami in South lindia anc western Asia in ab a paper read at th Conference Seminar dies, 1968, at Madra. ted out “This bri think, proved that Tamil words came certainly in the 6t probably even in it think, clearly poir sence of Tamil Spe Nad at this early
From the authe sented above namel (6th century if no B.C.), Mahawa msa, pedition to Ceylon the Pandyan Prince established port (Mahatitta), 5th Megas thenes's refe Pandyan Kingdom B.C.), Peutinger T to Tamil Nad 20 waliya's reference Kaval-Thurai) Kayts deva 5th century establishes the occ on by Tamils bef of Wijeya. If the a of Ceylon is Pres mence only from th nampiyatissa the c position that Tami ion long anterior of any Indo-Aryan

nduiruwe Pana inder, 18/3/69).
it to note in port at which is disembarked dy a flourishing he Mahawamsa to it as the and as pointed (Ceylon His, No. 2, P0), port of Tamils fan settlement also been rer as a trading blished before estified by the he port Uraai), Kayts, is as early as the leva in the 5th he Rajavaliya, 1959, Vol. 6, 34). Reference io 'Society in by Ariyapala,
if the Hebrew 1 has pointed 1 people lived traded with out 600 B.C. in le international of Tamil Stus, he has poinef survey has, t at least some into Hebrew, h century B.C., : he 0th. This, hts to the preakers in Tamil period.'
ntic data prey Hebrew Bible it 10th century Wijeyan exand arrival of ss at the wellof the armis,
century B.C., trence to this (4th century
abe's reference B.C., and Rajato Uratotta (Ur, and Panduvasu
B.C., definitely upation of Ceyore the arrival uthentic history turned to Comse time of Levaase for the prols were in Cey
to the arrival speaking people,
Aryan Or Dravidian?
if at all, in Ceylon, is made even stronger. On this subject what Mudaliyar Gunawardepe (RASCB, | 92, Vol. 28, Nic. 74, P57), says is of interest "Be that as it may, we have but one assumption possible with regard to their race, that they were Dravidians of the branch of Kols or Kohls.
But it is claimed that Wijeya and his band were Bengalese. Even if the claim is allowed for what it is worth, Wijeyan contingent would still be mainly Dravidian, with a slight admixture of Mongoloid and Aryan elements," while Ellawala, (Social History of Early Ceylon, PP 55, 58), has pointed out “it is also believed that in the pre-Aryan period only country be
yond the sea known to the people,
of the Tamil land was Ceylon. It is, therefore justifiable to suppose that South India has a strong influence on Ceylon both culturally and socially’; he has also pointed out that Brahmism was the earliest civilized religion in Ceylon, And in reference to North Western part of Ceylon, Brohier has pointed out (Ancient irrigation Pt. 3, pp 8-9), the extraordinary ancient irrigation system in the littoral district of Mantai, Musali, and Nanaddan comprising the whole of the Mannar plain, offers indisputable evidence of the boldness of conception which characterised the more ancient practice of tank building in ancient times and of the fact that there must have been an immense population congregated for commercial and agricultural purposes"... He goes on ... to say "Sir Emmerson Tennent's very elaborate work establishes, beyond all doubt by reference to Specific authorities, that Ceylon was a great mart in very ancient time for the interchange of traffic between the Eastern and Western World. Eminent authorities demonstrate that the entre pot of this early trade was confined to the North Western shores of the island. This part of Ceylon cannot but have been known to enterprising inhabitants of South India
iong before the Prince and his
men from the Ganges accomplished a voyage to the island.'
The three authorities quo fed above by me confirm beyond all doubt and are in turn confirmed by the data presented by me at the commencement of this article which establish beyond doubt that
6

Page 19
Papa ya
Dravidians, came to or were in Sri Lanka, anterior to the arrival of an Indo-Aryan element, if such a colonisation did in fact take place. Reference may also be made to “Sinhalese Social organisation,” A.P. 4, 5, by Ralph Pieris.
Even the propagation of Bed
dhism and Pali and Sanskrit litera
tures can be traced largely to Tamil Nad of India.
The well-known Buddhist monks and missionaries of Ceylon, Sanghamitta, Buddhadatta, Dharmapala, Vajirabodhi, Were Tamilians (Pandyans or Choliyans) and not Sinhalese.
The above is confirmed by what H. Dharmaratna Thero has pointed out in his book on Buddhism in South India that the Tamil nation has made an outstanding contribution to Pali and Sanskrit literatures.
It is also of interest to note that the author of Pali Grammar “Rupasiddhi”, Buddhapiya Thera, is a Cholian and that Dharmakirti Thera who wrote the first part of the Culla-Vamsa and the famous Buddhagosa were also Cholians and that Bodhidarma who went to North China and founded the Dhyana School of Buddhism is also a South
Indian.
The above facts are based on works by Dutt, "Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India’, B.C. Law, 'South India as a centre of Pai Buddhism', Thero, "Buddhism in South india’, Geiger, "Culture of Ceylon.”
It is also not generally known thại. Keppi tipola, Sri Lanka’s No. i National Hero is of Tami descent. His ancestors, as pointed out by Ralph Pieris of the University of Sri Lanka, were full-blooded Tamils.
What G. C. Mendis has pointed out that many Dravidians who came from India adopted the Sinhalese Language as some of them still do in some of the coastal districts, "(Early History of Ceylon' P8) is significant as it is in agreement with the data Presented in this article and proves that language alone does not indicate the ethnology of a people. Reference may also be made in this context to the article on "Ethnology of Ceylon' by Nell referred to al ready.
米 来 ※
PAPAW CULTU
Suitable Pla large And Cultivation
by M. Nadaraja
The Papaya or papaw is indi America. It is a and is at prese tically all th tropical countri As a health givi has few equals. wider recognitio side the tropics.
Description
plant: The papa
bacious plant w fibrous frunk. T ally seven lobed, across. The gene the tree is so it has two var (Male and Fema on Seperate pla per Centage of mo and Female flow same plant) inti may be oval, fee Varieties: (1) C
ian Solo,
Climatic con for Papaw cu
papaw plant, is a in South Africa in a subtropical mospheric heat fruit developmen
Strong winds grit may injure immature fruits, white juice (PA through injuries. ders the fruit u. pairs the keepin the site for cor is selected due Eo be given for es and artificial pro BREAKS)
Seed Selectio papaw is cross-p geny is usually ver fore it is of it for the grower to from a reliable. Selections had b. for a number of ) is not available, Select his seeds or trees and due

RE
Int for Small Scale
(CARICA-PAPAYA) gencius to tropical an important crop at grown in prace subtropical and es in the world. ng fruit the Papaw
lî should receive in in countries out
of the Papaw W is a large herith a hollow and he leaves are isutwo or more feet bral appearance of mewhat pamilike. ieties. Diocious le flowers borne nfs) a few small nocious type (Male ers borne on the ermiscad the fruit shaped or round. P. 23 (2) Haw
ditions Required tivation, The heat loving plant. if thrives best clima Ee. This atis conducive to t and quality.
carrying Sand and
ohe skin of the causing the milky APAN) to ooze Such damage reninsightly and img quality. When mmercial planting consideration has stablishing natura otection (WIND
Gine the Collinder the proy variable. Theremost importance
obtain his seeds
source, whose een In progress fears. If such seed ohe grower must nly from the best regard must be
given for the following points: (l) vigour of trees; (2) size and shape of the fruit; (3) colour of ripe fruit; (4) thickness of the fruit (5) yield and optimum spacing of the fruit so that the shape of the fruit is not affected by overcrowdIng.
Seed Beds. The best time to Sow-the seed is from September to December. The beds are first thoroughly watered and then shallow furrows are drawn 9' apart and the seeds are dropped 2-3 inches apart in the row and covered with well powdered soil and watered. Then the seeds are covered with Straw or coconut leaf. Whan the seeds begin to germinate remove the cover. When the seedlings are about 6-9 inches the plants are ready for transplanting. Irrigate the beds thoroughly before the plants are lifted for transplanting. Then the seedlings are carefully wrapped in old gunnies and taken to the planting sites in a basket.
Transplanting. Dig hole 8-0 feet apart depending on the fertility of the soil. The holes should be 2 ft square and 2 ft deep. Fill the pit with equal parts of fine soil and compost with wood ash also added. The pit is filled about 2 inches high from the ground level and allowed to settle for 2 weeks prior to planting. The planting should be done in cool weather preferable in the evening and watered and shaded until the plant take root. When there are no regular showers water the plants once a week.
Bearing: The papaw plant starts bearing in 9-10 months and gives fruit all round the year. The plants will continue to produce fruits profitably for over 5 years.
The Uses of Papaw Fruit: The un ripe fruit of Papaw is rich in Papain, a digestive enzyme. The green fruit can be cooked and eaten as curry. It is also used for softening meat while cooking. The Seeds of the fruit can be eaten. The Seeds are commonly eaten in Australia. The papaw leaf is relished as green food by poultry. The ripe fruit is eaten after lunch and dinner as it helps digestion and easy bowel movement.
Commercial Aspects: The demand by Japan for the papain of Sri Lanka is quite considerable for beer manufacture in that country. The Japanese who have
TRIBUNE, May 4, 1977

Page 20
forsaken their traditional, sake for light beer have doubled this demand for Sri Lankian Papain, according to Mr. Rajpal Jayatilleke an assistant Director of the I.D. B.
Jayatilleke says that a government authority in Japan has forecast an increasing consumption of beer and therefore prospects of papain are bright. Papain is used for Beer chill proofing.
Papain holds a good industrial potential for its uses in food, pharmaceutical and industrial product tion are many. In the 1950's Sri Lanka was the world's leading exporter of Papain but following a mossaic disease there was a cripping setback in papaw culture and papain exports.
Beer is Medicine: Beer stimulates the secretion of digestive juice and is a natural cure for constipation. It clears toxins from the liver boosting appetite in the process. It stimulates the circulation of blood and steps up the supply of oxygen to the brain.
These are the conclusions of two well known scientists in West Germany (i.e. Prof. Runkel of Berlin and Prof. Kioninger of Munich). The professors also claims BEER even assists in cancer treatment alleviating the after effects of Radiation. On the average cancer patients had 8C. grammes a week in the wake of Radiation treatment. But this loss of weight can be literally decimated or reduced by one-tenth by drinking beer. But they also add a note of caution, 'BEER has to be consumed in moderation'.
来 ※ 率
L E T T E R
1977-U.N.O. Year Theme:-WATER
Sir,
The U.N.O. Theme for 977 is WATER.
The target: Piped Water for all the world's people by 1990. Such a target dramatises the importance of water for maintaining good health and for fighting poverty and its consequences. Once again the world contrast and 'obscentiy
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
are painful: the in abundance. Ther the many rooms of and palaces. Ther water for their and pleasures. The includes most of t population, in ou fishermen, the vill tation workers) g from wherever the it is a woman's that occupies man When the water cient, then Watel strike at health.
WATER FOR THE \ will be the sloga 3 years till 1990. of man and of the
nation) be 'change ted towards the nee overcoming selfish World religions hav Impie ment Such ‘me1 and spiritual develo slogans and she be able to obtain
is the challenge C and of every religi midst “Sarvo daya”
to stress more th such a spiritual tr
The water of ol abundant. Yet, by ple are still with Aahaweli Ganga a have been or going in a national effor to everyone.
WATER IS MATE G|WING OF IT IS
The U.N.O. th WATER will have influence. It will very demand: "G\ and His final jud who was thristy refused WATER T
Jesus' Face is the the mask of every human lips burnt the modern lips who will not for: of it. CVEN TO
The symbol chos for such a then drop enclosing t persons and peopl FOR WATER. On versary of St. Fran one cannot afford poetical, affective WATER:
 

rich have water e is water in all their big houses e is unlimited swimming pools
poor (and that he world's rural r country, the agers, the planget their water ey can. Usually ob (and sport?) ty hours a day. supply is insuffir-borne diseases
AWORLD'S PEOPLE n for the nextWill the heart rich (person and edo and orientaads of the others, ness and greed e to preach and to anoia' i.e. change pment. Political buting will never such changes. It if every religion ous man. In our movement seems an anybody else ansformation.
ur rivers is still a paradox, peoout water. The ind other rivers g to be diverted it to give water
RIAL, BUT THE SPIRITUAL.
eme for 1977:
a deep spiritual re-echoe Jesus' VE ME WATER'', gement: “lt was and you gave o "O ME.'
ere hidden under human face. All with thirst are of Jesus' Himself get even a drop HM.
en by the U.N.O. he represents a he very life of es. MAN PRAYS o this 759th annicis Assisi's death, to forget Francis's evaluation of
Water For All
"Be praised, my Lord, through our Sister WATER, for she is so greatly useful, humble, precious and chaste' (Canticles of Creatures). God created WATER for all his children.
God gives water-rain to all his children.
Let NO ONE DARE TO MONOPOLIZE IT for one's own selfish use and abuse depriving one's own brothers and sisters of it. WATER
FOR ALL THE PEOPLE but first
and foremost for THOSE WHO NEED T MOSTLY. Let a stop be put to the selfishness of a few and an egalitarian distribution be made of this God-given gift: WATER, our beloved, loving and
ovable SISTER WATER.
The U.N.O. theme and strategy of study and action deserves the united co-operation of all men of good will.
From the Plantation hill country, cannot conclude without an appeal: Bring once again WATER TO THE LINES. STOP the exploitation of removing even the existing old pipes for a little money. That's Blood MONEY.
Pia Ciampa S Kahawatte.
།། ༤་སྟེ། ཁོi->> །《ཚོ་
Freedom Of The
Press
Sir,
The Letter From The Editor appearing in your journal of 9.4.77. merits the congratulations of every freedom loving citizen. It exposes the myth, in lucid and perspicuous language, about the freedom of the press, which was enunciated in the Throne Speech on 4 June 1970. Two years ago, li happened to read an old copy of the Tribune -really because I had nothing else to read. There was something very nice about the way you say what you have to. From then, I have been one of your subscribers -not because I agree with all you say (I am 70) but because you say it, as said before, very nicelystraight off the bat and no pun
8

Page 21
-
*
Breast Feeding
ches below the belt. Now Sir, I would be happy if you repeat what you said on 9 April, viz. "Of the big daily paper groups, the Lake House has been reduced to a Government propaganda unit of dubious validity; and it does not publish news that may be distasteful or unpleasant to the Government. What is worse, it publishes slanted news to bolster Government propaganda”. Fihat truly is the position today in regard to the so called freedom of the Press. Mr. Alles of Dehiwela’s letters appear frequently in the Daily News. His pet subject is vilifying a particular political party. Some of his facts are factually contrary to what has been declared in Parliament. I wrote to Lake House refuting Mr. Alles’ assertions. challenged them to publish my letter in toto, at least to prove that there was, in fact, a freedom of the press. That was months ago and my letter has not been published. I was a regular subscriber to the Daily News from 1927 and stopped after 47 yearsreason, Slanted news (I do read the Daily New, when I don't have to pay for it.)
Richard Wiggregneratine Telijjawiła.
6th April 1977
R E V | E VV
The Creme De La Creme
By Jayantha
"One sure way to build up a nation devoid of neurotics and psychopaths is to demonstrate your love to the infant by breast feeding. By some primo dial instinct the baby feels and nourishes your warmth and your love,' said a recent issue of the Daily News. This statement is not only true, but it carries far reaching implications that we have never paused to consider.
The impressions and images conveyed in infancy leave an indelible imprint on both our conscious and unconscious mind. They go to determine our stability and balance as individuals and guide our interpersonal relations in later life.
9
The human
and has a pi It becomes th human's first o the signals pic formative peri To baby, feed time. While whispers to and showers Baby soon get consequently irresistible at man. This is \, perfectly norn to magazines young ladies w mary glands. mind the femal nation, it stanc and everything
The link bet emotions persis out his later skilful man can calories to ke shape, but what calories plus keep him in e
"While the n sical experience eating, the mc tional experien is his relationsh The girl who concepts of 'f has constructe hydrogen bom wipes out all psychiatrist Dan
inside every little boy who r full of the arc food made the only wom. couldn't notice food was a lit under-cooked. was that mothe in this modern can buy most can buy food lo for him.
Food in gen effective meth human behavio food or the fel proaches his e the more unco power it exerts ambitious young find the key to of men, here is t -milk.
From his first the most impo

breast is unique ofound significance. focal point of a Itside contact. And ced up during this bd are important. ng time is loving e nurses, Mother aby, caresses him, im with affection. the message, and breasts have an raction for every rhy in later a years, al men subscribe with centrefolds of th mammoth mamTo his un conscious e breast has a fascis for love, security that goes with it.
ween food and his it in man throughfe. A successful or feed himself enough ep him in physical he needs is enough good vibrations to motional shape.
nost important phy; for every man is st importano emoce for every man tip with his mother. can combine the ood” and mother d a psychological b that relentlessly resistance,' says fid Reuben.
grown man is that emembers a kitchen yma of home-made ust for him by an in his life. He at that age if the tle toc greasy or All that mattered ir made them. And
world where you
anything–no man vingly prepared just
eral is the most bd of controlling ur. This closer
eding situation aparliest experiences, nscious emotional 1. And now all you ladies, trying to unlock the hearts he ultimate weapon
moment on earth rtant substance in
a man's life is milk. Milk leaves behind an indelible impression engraved on his mind, making it synonymous with love. For every man the world of the subconscious is ruled by the symbol of milk. Mik shakes, ice cream, even alcoholic beverages like beer with that "milky foam", carry the theme of mother's milk throughout everyday. The 50-pound man sipping a cup of cocoa with milk is emotionally only moments away from a 5-pound baby happily drinking at mother's breast.
As they grow older, men shift their emotional attachment from the actual white liquid to common substitutes like coffee, tea or beer. But milk chocolate, puddings made with milk and cream custard have more unconscious influence than a glass of beer or a cup of coffee.
That young ladies is the priceless secret. The girl who can establish herself as the provider of milk makes herself part of the man's
un conscious mind. Nice legs, a good figure, bright conversation, feminine flattery, can turn the
head of most men, but mot the one whose woman Supplies milk and love in abandance.
While food, milik in particular plays a disproportionate part in influencing a man, the method of feeding is also vital. Hand feeding is an emotionally supercharged technique known to animal trainers, primitive tribes and mothers of finicky eaters.
The most ferocious lion, after a period of hand-feeding by his trainer becomes docile and submissive, but only towards the trainer. In the animal's un conscious mind, the trainer has taken the place of the one being even the king of the beasts respects-his mother.
The girl who takes every opportunity to hand-feed will soon find her man literally eating out of her hand. Hand feeding milk based food is the ultimate. So watch it next time chaps-when she serves that cup of cocoa,heavily laced with milk, you are in big trouble.
حصحصے
TRIBUNE, May 4, 1977

Page 22
Confidentially
Smuggling Of
Antiquities
IS IT NOT A FACT that the Government only woke up to the true realities of the outflow of antiquities very recently? That for some years there has been public agitation about the manner in which the most valuable antiquities were being spirited away from the country? That the Tribune has, from time to time, spotlighted the growing outcry in the country about the "export' and smuggling of antiquities out of the island? That it was only in the beginning of this year that the Government informed "the Diplomatic and Other Aviations accredited to Sri Lanka that the Government ha 5 decided that all antiquities and other cultural property which are in the possession of Diplomatic and other M 门至 accredited to Sri Lanka and personnel including foreign expert5 should be registered with the Commissioner of Archaeology and that the export of such items is prohibited except by permission of the Commissioner of Archaeology. Pending adoption of the appropriate amendments to the existing Antiquities Ordinance of Sri Lanka, the Government has taken the following decisions for immediate implementation through admi
nistrative means: (a) the export of antiquities and other cultural property is prohibited with imme
diate effect; (b) all foreign personnel Should register with the CommisSioner of Archaeology, (through the Ministry of Defence and Foreign Affairs), items of antiquities and other cultural property of Sri Lanka origin which are in their po55.e55ion. No export of any such items would be permitted unless they are cleared by the Commisioner of Archaeology. The Antiquitie Ordinance, after it is duly amended, will cover not only antiquities a S already categorised in the existing ordinance, but also Cultural property which, following UN & UNESCO practive, are defined as follows: 1. Rare collections and specimens of fauna, flora, minerals and anatomy; 2. Property relating to history, including the history of science and technology and military and Sociał history, to the life of natio
TRIBUNE, May 14, 1977
nal leaders, thinker5 artists and to eve importance; 3. Produ logical excavations logical discoveries; artiștic or hi5 torica archaeological sites dismembered; 5. A than 50 years old, tion5, coins and 6. Objects of ethnc 7. Pictures, painting produced entirely by works of statuary ar 9. Original engravit lithograph:5; 10. Ra old book5, document tions of special inter revenue and Simila Archive5; /3. Artic more than 50 years instrument. The W fence and Foreign the compliance of Other WMi:55jor).5 qCC Lanka and their pe ing foreign person below in this regard honour to include application forms for antiquities and othe perty. Additional a for registration may guest from the Pr of the Ministry. For the implementation mentioned decisions, ign Personnel' shall vileged or nonpri national employed i of a diplomatic agent of the Staff of any and will also inclu vier, and technica any foreign employe national, foreign C. foreign Non-Governm
ST NOT A FACT ban it is-has come this is a splendid ex the stable doors a have fied 2 That it that the best, esp and statutaries, hav a long time ago? them were also S recent years? Th: under he cover servation and arci vations, have penet temples and othe are off the beatent of them were carri euphoric smokescr limited love for th many of those whi tically removed th cultural and antic
 
 

scientists and ts of national its of archaeoor of archaeoF. Elements of
Onument; Or 'hich have been ntiquities more uch a5 in5cripngraved Seal3; logical interest; and drawings and ; 8. Original and sculpture; gs, prints and re manuscript, 5 and publicaឯt: l. Postage, r Stamþ3; 12. les of furniture old and musical inistry of DeAffairs requests Diplomatic and redited to Sri
rsonnel, includIel as defined and ha 5 the
three copies of registration of r cultural propplication forms be had on reotocol DiyiSion the purpose of of the above the terra 'Foremean any privileged foreign in the capacity or as a member foreign Mission de Experts, AdI personnel and es of an interovernmental or ental Agency'.
that this ban-if too late? That ample of bolting fter the horses is well known }cially of books e been sent out That many of muggled out in 顿 expeditions, bf Wild life conhaeological excarated hinterland
places which rack? That some d away behinda een about uIn} country? That have "systemaese objects of uarian interest
Something Must Be Done
were able to do it because of the halo of being 'Ceylon-lovers'? That a few words of praise in the newspapers about everything Ceylon gave them immunity which could not be challenged? That the Government was now seeking to bring in non-diplomatic personnel and experts attached to the Missions within the orbit of the "diplomatic and other missions' to ensure what bureaucrats think is a "fool-proofsystem’ based on protocol? That the question has been raised whether among "foreign experts' should not be included foreign employees of foreign based companies and multinationals some of whom are old stagers and veterans in this country? That it is not enough to cry 'wolf wolf' after all the damage has been done? That some method must be devised to bring back what has been taken away? That if the Government were serious about this business it should make a determined effort to find out how many items, which come within the classifications mentioned above. were taken out in the last five years? That it would not be difficult for the Government to obtain a list of purchases from 'leading auctioneers' in recent times? That the books of antique dealers should be examined? And the information so gathered should be compared with the resgistrations made in compliance with the protocol circular sent out by the Government in February this year? That a fairly comprehensive list of antiques and other objects has been made by Dr. P. H. D. H. de Silva in his book A CATALOGUE OF ANTIQUITES AND OTHER CULTURAL (COBJECTS FROM SRİ LANKA (CEYLON) ABROAD? That Dr. de Silva's "catalogue lists more than 15,000 objects of cultura interest from Sri Lanka (Ceylon) which are at present in the custody of foreign Museum and Libraries; it covers twenty three countries and the collections of one hundred and forty institutions including the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museums, the Rijksmuseum, the Tropenmuseum, and the Museum Fur Wolkerkunde, Basel: the collections are dealt with under five heading3-namely Prehistory, Numismatics, Art and Antiquities, Palm Leaf Manuscript; and Anthropology ....' That in addition to this there are large collections with private individuals?
-遍歌 -遍-
20
" "

Page 23
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