கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.06.04

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Page 3
Letter. From Che EFÒitor
A BEAR, a good, true and genuine CEYLON BEAR, adorns week. In the era of the (much-to-be-lamented) Republica remaining United Front "enthusiasts' and fast diminishing S (political bankruptcy has driven them to buffoonery-to r statues of colonial governors with those of feudal-cum-trib to asssert their anti-imperialist fervour), will call it thu betrayal not to call the animal on our Cover a SRI LAN characterise it as free, independent, sovereign and sociali others, this animal is and always will be the CEYLON BE be anything else. Hangovers from the McCarthyian-Dulles cold war era will wishfully suggest that it is really a RUSSIA garb of its Ceylon counterpart: that this RUSSIAN BEA Smuggled into the emerald isle to push red revolution do throats. This kind of wishful-delusion cannot explain th have already overtaken this country from the first quarter c -and not merely from 1956 or 1972, as some pundits bel the bogey of a RUSSIAN BEAR be used prevent the catalystic revolutionary changes that will soon transform this island. our CEYLON BEAR, today? He is a long-forgotten and much-n He is killed (and has been), without protest, for his skin, f his fat (good, they say, for rheumatism) and also because and a danger (attacks humans without provocation, say the censervaticinist and the protectionist have not raised the and cry on behalf of the humble CEYLON BEAR. That is turned the spotlight on him (or her) this week. Our cam him (let's stick to him) strolling across a sandy patch. Wh: picture has captured a certain look on the face of the BEAR (i. tion is not clear enough to discern it, readers will have to tak it) that makes him a typical CEYLON BEAR. He has a doleful look, of the half-starved, of the unhappy, the dissatisfied, the disgruntled and the discontented. But, who in Cey today is otherwise? Look at the faces of the thousands who our co-ops and our shops every day, nearly empty-handed, be difficult to detect in them the same angry touch of rese in the front right foot he (our friend, the BEAR) is putti has reason to be angry because he has just discovered that th he had kept as his secret (cache) for dinner on a "rainy pinched by marauding humans. (In our co-operatives there a predatory rats who gobble up what should go to others). BEAR is concerned he has not much to worry; there are bees honey for him and plenty of berries to nibble. Outside the have become really bad. There is less and less food for m people. But, what is not yet sufficiently known is that there : people to work on the land to produce food. There is a grc of manpower in agriculture. But, there is uncontrollable running into millions clamouring for white collar and soft gc. This is the tragedy of the educational and socio-economic pol ments have followed since 1947. There is little that anyon this immediately, but part of this white collar Surfeit is bein for some time) siphoned to Eurodollar and Petrodollar rit wage slaves. It is true that they may not have had any othe wage-slavery in Ceylon, but all those who have sought refuge abroad know what it means "to belong', what it means to b one's birth. But let us not be carried away by emotio of 'belonging'. Let us stick to the realities and approach in the currently fashionable attitude-pragmatically. It is is a demand for 'cheap' manpower from Ceylon in cert
and Petro dollar countries, but the point of Saturation and
come soon. The main question really is whether problems can be solved by getting ourselves draw SLAVE SYSTEM that has been imposed upon the world by to get richer. The old colonial SLAVE SYSTEM consisted forward purchase of Negro slaves or the camouflaged indentu and pauperised Indians and Asians. The new SLAVE SYS 'freedom’ of contract and "human rights', and made att tronic baubles, thrives because of poverty in countries like the new SLAVE SYSTEM solve the problems of the world, o new kind of REVOLUTION to dethrone contemporary injustice? Will these Wage-slaves do unto to the oligarchical E what the serf-slaves did unto the holy Roman Empir something to think about.
 

Dur Cover this Constitution, FP “stalwarts”” place historical lightweights
þahi revisionist
A BEAR, and st. But, to all AR. It cannot
an-Kotelawelan N BEAR in the was secretly wn everybody's 2 changes that f this centuryeve. Nor can and cataclysmic But, what of aglected animal. or the oil from e is a nuisance humans). Even customary hue why we have eraman caught it is more, the the reproduce our word for and mournful the frustrated, |lon (Sri Lanka) walk away from and it will not intment vibrant ng forward-he he honey comb ' day had been re many human So far as the to manufacture jungle matters hore and more are not enough Wing shortage unemployment bvernment jobs. icies all governe can do about g (and has been ch countries as r future except 2 in richer lands e in the land of inal sentiments the problem crue that there ain Eurodollar no-return will our economic into the new rich countries in the straightre of conquered TEM, based on ractive by eleca Ceylon. Will r will it bring a inequality and mpires of today 'e of old? It is
TRIBUNE
Founded in 1954 A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs Editor S. P. Amarasingam
Every Saturday
June 4, 1977
Wol. 2 No. 50
T R IB U NE 43, DAWSON STREET,
C O L O M B O - 2.
Telephone: 33 72
C O N T E N T is
EDITORS NOTEBOOK
-Before Nomination p. 2
CHRONICLE -May 20 - May 25 p. 4
FOR THE RECORD -Plantations Explode pe 6
TO ALL JOURNALISTS -An Open letter p. 0
BUDDHA AND PLANTATIONS
-A Prayer p. 11
PLANTATIONS TODAY -Militant Resistance p. 12
CONSUMERS’ TRAVALS -High Prices, Queues, p. 14
“VILLAGE IN THE CITY
-Reportage p. 6
INDA
-Indira Gandhi-2 p. 8
INDIA
Janata, Congress p. 20
INDA
-Assembly Elections р. 21 |
CONFIDENTIALLY
-Land Reform-2 p. 20

Page 4
EDIT OR' S e OT E 3 O OK
Before Nomination
Day
Colombo, May 31,
An uneasy calm, with a nearfuneral touch, has descended on the city of Colombo. There is no excitement about the forthcoming general election. Not many seem to be bothered as to who is nominated to which seat. The UNP has published its complete listit has fielded candidates in 56 seats (some of them multi-member), and apart from a handful of seats in the Jaffna area, the UNP is contesting in Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim areas. It is making a sustaired effort to demonstrate that it is a national party.
The SLFP has made it known that it wants to contest even more seats than the UNP, in Sinhala Tamil and Muslim areas. And although, the SLFP has announced its candiates for the majority of the seats it hopes to contest, there are still glaring gaps and omissions. ilin all these cases, the SELFP Nomination Board seems to be at sixes and sevenses to fix on candidates. What is inexplicable is that in some instances there have been so many quick changes in respect of the same seat that the situation is getting Curioser and Curiouser, as Alice said in Wonderland.
There have been, for instances,
three “choicşs” for Colombo Cen
tral, and the latest rumour is that the SLFP nomination will go to a fourth. A similar game of chess has been going on about seats like Gampaha, Badulla, Minuwangoda, Kandy and a number of others -with the result that the SLFP Nomination Board has lost the credibility that should at fach to this hierarchic body of the ruling Party. In some cases there are whispers that the SLFP would not nominate anybody but support Independents-really Du d 1 ey Peramuna boys in the guise of Independents. Even at this late point of time, it is not clear how many seats the SLFP will contest and how many lindependents it will back. The Prime Minister had insisted (and very wisely) that nominations should not be considered for any members of her family
TRIBUNE, ju ne 4, 1977
except Anura: tered the field was the leade Leagues he w nation. This
tions of Ku probably Cha in the new NSA
The Sociali once again it ted Left Fron its complete bers belongin parties have to enable ther Papers on Juni to field as ima and it is no È CPSL and the has not been tect any spo enthusiasm fc Front turned
and now fina
Front-memori United Left to mind whe two other part MEP) without Bandaranalike , coalition of J. new ULF is a culous rejuvci four or five w that it will n on the electic
THE SLWBthi Balavegaya Guinesekera h put forward a test the 97 Mr. Guineseke the sitting M has decided only other SLV (who had be SLFP ticket fc kept out of is believed th UNP candidat in Matale). Bu and revealing issued by Mr.
AMr. Prini, G. for Habaradu retary of the Bala Vegaya,
Conteit diedt election5. Th not be fieldir the general
Sekera arminou j55ued yester explaining the political situa and the reaso, not to Conte5

that as he had en| some time ago and of the SLFP Youth as entitled to nomiguillotined the ambimar, Sunethra, and drika to seek seats A. -
St United Fronthas become the Unit-has not announced ist, but sitting memg to the different paid in the deposits in to file Nomination e 6. The LSSP wants iny as 70 candidates, clear how many the PDP will enter. It
possible yet to dentaneous cr popular }r the Left United Socialist United Front lly the United Left es of the abortive Frcrit of 963 come in the LSSP left the tners (the CP and the
notice to join Mrs.
in the shortlived une 1964. Unless the ble to stage a miranation, in the next 'eeks, it is not likely nake a major impact 211S
the Sri Lenka Vimukk-led by Mr. Prins as decided not to ny candidates to con7 General Electicins. ra himself, who is 1P for Habara duwa, o contest, and the B MP, Col. Udugama, 2n returned on the »r Matale), has also the election (and it at he will back the e on a local basis t what is intercisting
is the Statement
Prins Guinese kera:
inesekera, former MP iwa and General SecSri Lanka Wimukhi ha 5 decided not to
in the coming general e Balavegaya would ng any candidates for election, Air. Gundnced in a Statement day. The statement, 2 SLWB's view of the rtion in the country ns why it has decided
it any Seats, İŞ as
Prins Guinesekera
follows-From the start the SLWB Strived to create an honest leftist alliance, dedicated to full Socialism. With this in view, conferences were held with diverse leftist political parties and organisation3. Unforturately for the country's leftist movement, the Balavegaya has been unable to form a leftist alliance for the elections this year. What exist today are a large number of leftist organisations Scattered throughout the country. It is our belief that if we are to confront the common enemy of Capitalist and reactionary elements, all organisation 5 given to the ideal of full Socialism 'should be brought together. The seven-year rule of the 50-called socialist United Front, a period of injustice, Sin and Suppresion, ha 3 brought the pe0ple to the cross roads. The people deplored the leftist partners of the ini-rule. It is in this context that a rew front led by an undefeated and honest leftist leadership was felt essential and for the creation of which we worked hard. The Orthodox leftist leaders obstructed it and Some of their own members who believed on those lines were expelled. Theia old leaders, who were the part
ner of the 7-year misrule, are
trying desperately to form a party front that supports their line of thinking and excludes the honet leaders. They are only trying to cover up their past sing. They will not succeed in forming a force which attracts the public support. The SLVB, decided unanimously not to nominate any candidate; for this chaotic, general election of 1977, due to its failure to form a genuine united leftist front. The correctness of the decision of the Balavegaya Will be Seen if the anti-democratic and unfair aspects of the general election is viewed clearly. The recognised leadership of a Section of the pecþle-the Janatha Vumukthi Peraintina which represents the youth —ha 5 been confined tO pri 50n although the emergency had been
lifted. This party was suppressed
under emergency power, which were in force for 71 months. All leaders of all recognised political parties of the country have the right to contest the elections. But the leaders of the JVP have been denjed it. The election:5 to be held with the youth leaders behind bars would be a great hoax on democracy. The Pakistan election held
2.
܂ ܬܐ ܓܼ

Page 5
ܬ ̄
Rail Stoppage
recently was a similar hoax. Whatever government that comes to power through a general election held contrary to the democratic ideals, cannot be called a duly elected government. Therefore the SLVB rejects the false exercise. We must face a big struggle in Order to achieve the Socialist idea; and objectives of the people. It is futile to expect that any Government which comes to power by this elections, Would do anything for the Common good people. We believe that people will come forward for the higtoric occasion, in a few years, of forming the next Government, When conditions in the Country will aggravate. We are dedicated to the formation of a full socialist alliance, to take the lead fearlessly and victoriously on that occasion. The SLWB, under þreș5 ing Conditions, has taken the first Steps in this direction. The SLWB has pledged to come forward and make sacrifices in organising the people and to give them a political training to finish the great duty St. Ccessfully."
There is no doubt that the youth and the uncommitted will see a great deal of acceptable logic in Prins Guinesekera's rhetoric The JVP youth have no use for the leaders of the old established Left, the LSSP and CPSL, who are regarded as partners in SLFP-UF misrule which has brought the country to the present pass. The JVP is likely to field a few candidates to make its presence felt. Its new journal-in Sinhala with a name that translated reads Vanguard -sets out to carve a new course in leftism and socialism. Chou Enlai was condemned in its first issue for underwriting the United Front's (and Mrs. Bandaranaike's) suppression of the 1971 insurgency with an interest-free loan of Rs. 50 million as a 'counter-revolutionary'. (It will be recalled that Chou. had pulled the Maoist chestnuts out of the fire of Ceylon insurgency with this loan and also with an
unsolicited and unnecessary con
demnation of the insurgentis as 'counter-revolutionaries'. The JVP has now repaid the compliment in the same coin). The JVP is critical of Russia as it is of China, but it is not clear what the JVP wants or what it thinks is the correct way. This is understandable because the JVP is still in search of the Golden Fleece (or is it the
3
of the
Holy Grail?) The Parties have bec the belief that ch there is to be
they have all the problem confront and the country.
The TULF, wit CWC and the M about - 27 Seats-t a few more to ke flag flying in pla (getting a manda But after Chelvana has sprung a few already begun to ties, lin every p sitting MP has be. new candidates no new seats, there ble”. In some of th is trouble. Alread difficulties for the Comalee, Vadduko and a number of in the overali p phoria around the from emotional by racial discrimir it through to victo election. But it w to see whether til the TULF will be its armour durir campaign.
The UNP is the to issue its manifes issued one Carlier) its election camp. at Kandy. There \ of mumbo jumbo going in for relig different places C dhist, Hindu, Musli The SLFP will h rally on June 3rd and it has promis manifesto on that has issued i ES elle 2-point st which the less s The TULF will r manifesto, but li main thrust of the will be confined te tablish a separat it was a federal st discrimination pra Tamils, The TULF out how a separat run, (or whether all as a viable unit), should be organi citizens should be Like the FP, the an economic prc work plan. Most thusiasts still live

old established ome ossified in ey kinoW all that known and that answers for every ing the people
h its allies the UF, will contest hey may contest ep the separatist Ces like Putta lam Ée it is called). yakam the TULF leaks which have create difficullace where the in changed, or a minated for the has been 'troue old seats, there y, one can detect TULF in Trinddai, Udupididy other places. But attern the euTULF that stems upsurges caused nation will carry bry in the general Vill be interesting he cpponents of able to weaken g the election
first major party sto (che VP had E also started aign on May 25 was a great deal about candidates ious services in if worship-Budi
m 2nd Christian.
Cld its election
also in Kandy,
2d Éo release is date. The ULF tion manifestoatement (about aid the better). aturally issue a ke the FP the TULF manifes to ) the need toes - e state (earlier Late) to end the ctised against the has not worked 2 state should be it can be run at how its economy led and how its taught and fed. ULF has neither gramme nor a pf the TULF en
in the vague be
lief that once a separate state (or a federal state or even an autonomous region) is established where the Tamil laungage will rule Supreme, everything will be hunkydory and that a Dravidian millenium would envelop the new state. One does not know when the TULF will get over this fairy-tale existence and come down to the brass tacks of an ordinary government based on economic policies of grassroots validity.
in the meantime, the GO-SLOW in the Railways, starting at the Ratmalana Railway Workshop, had begun to spread to other sections of the Railways. Thereupon, the CGR management had retorted with a parial lockout-to save the locomotives that were not being serviced or maintained. The result wrs that from the evening of Friday May 27, total Paralysis had gripped the Railways and there was a virtual standstil igra couple of days. As from May 30, a few trains have been run to 'save the face' of the Government. It is known that the Go-Slow could not have caused the stoppage so soon. It was expected that the Go-Slow would lead to a stoppage in about two weeks time, but the CGR's decision to effect a partial lockout was probably intended to bring matters to a head.
The rail stoppage has come at a time when large crowds were expected to trek to Anuradhapura and Mihintale. This Poson tamasha, it was thought by some SLFP stalwarts, Would Provide a good op portunity for politicking just before the elections, but the Rail strike has spoilt the fun. The Poson Full Moon holiday coming in midweek (June I) would have normally thrown all governmental activity out of gear for some time-the Poson celebrations go on from May 31 to June 5-but, the rail stoppage and the consequent in ability to move petrol to Anuradhapura and Mihintale has thrown a damper on holiday-makers who find religious pilgrimages an excellent cover for taking French leave from work
Many strange things are taking place in Colombo-not the lease. being the attempt to post two "sitting' ex-MPs as Ambassadors. It is strange that a Caretaker Gov. ernment-it is Caretaker with a big "C" -should attempt to send two of its senior MP's (one a Minis
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 6
ter and the other the Deputy Spea- this way out of ker) as Ambassadors. This was not reflect well probably the only way that the seats ment. It is not they held could have been made the countries c. available to other aspirants, but willing to agreee
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
May 20 - May 25
A DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD COMPLED FROM DAILY NEWSPAPERS
PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDM-Ceylon Daily Mirror; 66 Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DM-Dinamina; LD-Lankadipa; WK-Virakesari; ATH-Aththa; SAM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; DW-Dawasa; CM-Chinthamani; VVK-Weekend; RR-Rivirasa;
FRIDAY, MAY 20: CTB buses that were damaged on May Day, number around 549; this one of the main reasons for the deterioration of bus services. The government has decided to grant an amnesty to prisoners to mark Republic Day. The nomination board of the SLFP yesterday decided to nominate Mr. Felix Dias Bandaranaike to contest Dompe at the forthcoming general elections-CDN. With the general elections fixed for July 21, the SLFP and the UNP have already picked their respective candidates for most of the seats. Sri Lanka's rubber production shot up by a million pounds last year. The technical officers of the SLBC will stage a 24 hour strike from midnight today-CDM. Employees of the Petroleum Corporation belonging to eight major trade unions will work-to-rule from today, in protest against the government's failure to grant 15 demands put forward by them. There will be about 100,000 postal voters at the General Elections. The Presidential proclamation dissolving the NSA has named 30 centres where nominations will be received for the general elections in July-SU. Processions and demonstrations have been banned from Nomination Day up to the general elections. A new wing of the CP has been born under the leadership of some of the oldest members of the the CP of Sri Lanka; it is called the Navalanka CP (Marxist-Leninist) and is under the leadership of old veterans like K. A. Wimalapala, Aryawansa Gunesekera, R. V. de S. Wijeyanayake and D. U. Jayasekera-LD. In the Weeks preceding the dissolution of the NSA, in many departments, Corporations and Boards, the files and other documents of many workers and officers have been lost; this has happened in the case of those who have been recruited without the proper qualifications or those who have been found guilty of certain offences-ATH. Canada and the International Development Association, an Affiliate of the World Bank are jointly providing 14 million dollars on concessional terms to help finance a water supply project in Sri Lanka-CO.
SATURDAY, MAY 2: The government has intervened on behalf of the policy holders of the Ceylon Insurance Company Ltd. who complained that they have not received payment on policies which had matured. A trial test for around 30,000 HNCE students, pioneers of the new educational reforms will be held
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Sri Lanka Chronicle
he difficulty does tation before the election results on the Govern- are known, but the announcements certain whether of these appointments were leaked
incerned will be out even before replies had been
to their accredi- received.
in July; the date will be announced shortly. Police have recovered the five powerful trans receivers which were reported lost by the Fisheries Corporation four weeks ago. Islandwide religious ceremonies will be held tomorrow to usher in Republic Day. The government has ordered an immediate rehabilitation program for 50-odd persons-including children-badly affected as a result of the recent disturbances at Delta Estates in Gampola-CDN. The Sri Lanka Consumers and User's Federation has written to the Chairman, National Prices Commission about the unrealistic pricing of consumer items. The Sri Lanka Air Force on Wednesday gave a new lease of life to an obsolete and abandoned Air Ceylon Dakota DC-3 aircraft believed to be over 33 years old saving the company about Rs. 30,000 in valuable foreign exchange. The Commissioner of Elections will recruit about 55,000 public servants for election duties. The Telecommunications personnel have temporarily suspended their 'work to rule'. The Central Organisation of the SLFP in Kandy has decided to disband itself in protest against nominations. This month too, consumers will receive increased rations of certain foodstuffs imported by the CWE-SU. The CP of the North is going to field candidates at the general elections against the TULF; this is because of a difference of opinion, it is understood-CDM. There are efforts being made by one faction of the SLFP to try and bring together the ULF-VK. The much-disputed appointment of teachers, will be stopped by the PM it is reliably understood; this is because there has been much opposition to the hasty recruitment of teachers not only by members of the opposition, but also by members of the government-DW. The Sri Lanka Bauddha Peramuna has asked the government to change the translation of the name in Tamil to Sri Lanka from Ilankai, because when the whole world, according to them refers to the country as Sri Lanka, only a minority in the country itself refers to it by a different name-DW
SUNDAY, MAY 22: The fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Republic of Sri Lanka, which falls today will be marked by religious observances, the pagentry that is normally associated with the armed services parade and a cultural show at the Colombo Town Hall at night-SO. A Republic Day Amnesty was granted to 50 in the death row; their death sentences were commutted to life imprisonment. The District Political authority system lapses as a consequence of dissolution and MP's going out of office. The Criminal Justice Commission Act will be revoked in the event of a UNP government being installed according to party leader, Mr. J. R. Jayewardene-ST. All political Parties fielding candidates for the general elections and independent candidates will be required to conform to a series of stringent measures to be introduced by the police to prevent violence from the time of nomintations till the polls are over. Over seven hundred planters belonging to estates vested in the State will be in Colombo on Wednesday to meet the IGP and appraise him of the personal dangers facing them in their work places. The PM has called to a halt all appointments
4.
الخير

Page 7
-
Sri Lanka Chronicle
in state corporations and other institutions till the general elections are over. Several candidates who are scheduled to contest at the forthcoming elections have bought ponies as they cannot afford the high price of petrol-VK.
MONDAY, MAY 23: The PM in her address to the nation on the fifth anniversary of the Republic said that the Republican status had enriched the country, that sovereignity resided in the people and that their lost rights have been restored. 7,000 new acres allotted to farmers under the Mahaweli scheme will be brought under cultivation this Yala in the newly developed areas lying between Kalawewa and Rajangana settlement schemes. The PM has decided that except for Mr. Anura Bandaranaike, no member of her family shall contest any seat at the forthcoming general elections. The neglect of orthopaedic patients at the General Hospital, Colombo, still continues; these patients remain in most surgical wards without any attention. Crowds braved the rain to witness the March-past of the services at the Republic Day celebrations at Galle Face Green yesterday to mark the fifth anniversary of the Republic of Sri Lanka-CDM. Panic buying has depleted stocks of petrol and kerosene in the city and many provincial towns, according to the Chairman of the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation. A bowel disease bacillary dysentry-is raging in Badulla and sorrounding areas. Mr. Kumar Ponnambalam, son of the leader of the TC, Mr. G. G. Ponnambalam, announced yesterday that he would be contesting Jaffna as the TC candidate at the next general elections. UNP branches at Galle are opposing the application by Dr. W. Dahanayake, former MP, for UNP nomination to contest the Galle seat at the general elections. SLFP candidates who have lost at the polls on three consecutive occasions will not be re-nominated to contest the general elections-SU.
TUESDAY, MAY 24: The Bank of Ceylon will soon establish a separate department to assist gem exporters; they will be provided with a free-of charge documentation service and credit facilities to the value of gems certified by the Gem Corporation. Petrol and kerosene supplies will return to normal today, said the Chairman of the Petroleum Corporation. The Education Ministry yesterday categorically said that no decision had been made by the government to cancel the teaching appointments. University teachers may get another salary increase if a recommendation made to this effect by the Minister of Education is approved by the government this week; this will be in addition to the pay hike approved by the government early this month for University teachers-CDN. The PM and some of her other Ministers have withdrawn the lists submitted by them for the recent appointment of teachers as several members of the SLFP have vehemently protested to the PM against the manner in which the selections were made for the teaching appointments. A severe shortage of kerosene and petrol sent housewives and motorists on a panicky hunt during the weekend in many parts of the country. Sri Lanka has sought assistance from the Asian Development Bank for the modernisation, expansion and rehabilitation of the railway. The Joint Front of Trade Unions in the Ceylon Electricity Board have threatened to launch 'direct trade unican action if their demands are not met within a fortnight from today. The CWE has issued pharmacists and other registered dealers stocks of milk foods-CDM. An alliance of trade
5

inions in the plantation sector yesterday appealed o the government to rise above petty politics and ct in the best interests of the national economy in he alienation of lands. The CP has ruled out the possibility of a no-contest pact or an alliance with the SLFP or the general elections. The unloading of fertiliser rom ships in the Port of Colombo-stalled since March ue to a go-slow in the Ceylon Fertiliser Corporationas begun again. The work-to-rule by employees of he Ceylon Petroleum Corporation has been suspended ill Thursday May 26-SU. The price of fish has been paring in recent weeks, and the 'Observer feels it is ue to the monsoon rains. Petrol and kerosene Supplies vill return to normal today, according to the Chairman f the Petroleum Corporation-CO. Because there is in acute shortage of matches - it is proposed to start
factories under the DDC projects; two, one in alagedara and the other in Kolonnawa are already nder way-DM.
NED NESDAY, MAY 25: Voters exercising their otes through the post will have to do so within ten ays of nomination day, the Elections Commissioner aid yesterday. The Government Printer last week riefed his senior staff about the work connected with he forthcoming general election. The UNP will launch .'s election campaign at Bogambara, Kandy today; he public rally will be preceded by religious obserances and the working committee meeting. The TU LF lection campaign will be launched on May 28-CDN. A nephew of the late Mr. Dudley Senanayake is to be he SLFP nominee for the Dedigama seat at the forthoming general election; he is Mr. Ranjith Senayake, brother of Mr. Rukman Senanayake, former MP for Dedigama. Employees of the Land Reform Co-operatives if the Yatiyantota electorate are on strike because hey allege victimisation and the harassment of non SSP staff and workers and the compulsory deductions if their pay packets for LSSP political work. The Janata simukthi Peramuna will contest four seats at the forthoming general elections. University teachers have hreatened to give up their deanships and professorships inless the Ministers at their meeting today approve he salary scale recommended by the Advisory Board if Governors-CDM. The IGP yesterday gave an ssurance that Police operations in estate areas would e intensified. One more minister of the SLFP will e out of the general elecoion; this will be Mr. M. P. e Z. Siriwardene. The SLBC has now placed a ban on he coverage of all political events. The AMS and the MOA have expressed concern over the delay in impleenting agreements they have reached with the Ministy of Health-SU. Since there is an acute shortage of pap, the government has decided to import palm oil nd also to increase the import of tallow-LD. The Istoms and the CID after confiscating posters of he former MP for Yatiyantota and the leader of the ့်ရှို႔, which came from UK, have released them DW.
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 8
Explosion in The
Plantations by Tribune Chronicler
As mentiond in the Tribune last week, it is only recently that the troubles in the plantation areas received a little attention. It is not necessary to recount in detail all that has taken place, but in the course of our commentary for the record we will refer to a number of incidents which must shock the conscience of all right thinking people.
it will be recalled that a the
major plantation trade unions had,
launched a strike in the Nuwara Eliya-Maskeliya electorate as from 29th April and the unions had threatened that the strikes would be escalated on an island-Wide basis con the 12th of May. This strike was led mainly by the Ceylon Workers Congress and the Ceylon Estate Staffs Union, it was after the strike started on April 29 that the Commissioner of Labour was prompted to intervene in orderto effect some kind of settlement. On síay ll, a settelement was reached. An official note about the agreement reads as follows: "At a conference held on lith May, 1977 at the Department of Labour presided over by the Commissioner of Labour, at which the Chairman, Land Reform Commission, Chairman, State Plantation Corporation and the Additional Secretary, Ministry of Plantation Industry were present to gether with representatives of the C.W.C., C.E.S.U., National Union of Workers, Ceylon Plantation Workers Union, New Red Flag
Plantation Workers Union, Lanka Estate Workers Union, United Plantation Workers Union, D.W.
C., Progressive Estates Staffs Union, Sri Lanka Plantation and Estate Industrial Worker Congress, flanka, Thozhilalar Kazhakam and Lanka Jathika Estate Workers Union, the following agreement was reached:
"l. The principle that there should be no adverse change in the terms and conditions of employment of workers and staff on all plantations affected by the vesting of such plantations in the L.R.C. or any other State Man
agement Agency is agreed upon.
Where such adverse changes have
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
taken effect st to give redres will be worke ittee compose tives of the La the L.R.C., Plantations Cc sama and oth that may bec **2. The Schiếm: Supplement foi ready propose of Labour will with retrospec st of the mc proposal was r will apply to a and above in be calculated o medium and lic taken separatel '3. In the all land the follox, be observed. no de-housing dent on the es be no redicti of work offere (c) There wil nation betwee residents and working on es tion for the land. ~ "This principl ded to the s workers om Bala.
estates where a ated. Sri Lanka on these estates
ments elsewhere
no allo Ermenis a
estates.
“(d) Two Sta consisting of the Departime L.R.C., Janawa tation Corpor and any other may be neces (i) all outstar taining to es: all outstandin ing to manua tively. "These commit
tioning before
month. On the ment, the efore
have decided to sent strike on t effect from the
To the credi
it must be said the agreement
strike, inspite cative incident t

eps will be taken S. Details of this d out by a cornd of representabour Department, anawaSama State orporation, Uswaer State agencies one necessary. a for a price wage r tea workers ald by the Ministry be made effective tive effect from the nth on which the made. The scheme I estates 50 acres extent. This wil 1 in the basis of high, 3W grown averages Y. ienation of estate Ning principles will (a) there will be of workers resitate; (b) there will on in the amount 3d to the workers; be no discrimiin Sinhalese village
Sri Lanka citizens
itates in the selecallocation of such
e will be extenSri Lanka resident pckuna ạnd Choisy ind has been alien
resident workers will be found allotin the district if re possible on the
inding Committees representatives of int of Labour, the sama, State Planation, Usawasama State agency that sary will go into: lding matters pertate staff, and (ii) g matters pertaintil workers respec
tees will start functhe end of this basis of this agreementioned Unions
call of their prehe plantations with
13th May, 1977.'
È of the Unions, that they honoured and called off the of a most provo:hat took place on
Devon Shooting.
Devon Estate, Talawakelle on the morning of lith May. The Congress News the fortnightly newspaper pub lished by the Ceylon Workers' Congress, reported this and other incidents in the following terms:
"Trigger happy policemen are on the rampage again, their latest victim being a eighteen year old youth, SIVANOO LECTHUMANAN who was fatally injured of when a party policemen fired at the workers on Devon estate, Talawakelle on May 1. Meanwhile, thugs have taken over the Gampola area. On the lith of this month three lorry loads of hooligans, led allegedly by a Project Manager of a government owned estate Went into Sanguhar estate, Gampola and created pandemonium, attacking innocent workers and robbing them of their all too meagre possession.
"What is worse, the cuplirits have been allowed to go scot-free by the guardians of law and order, While their colleagues have downed an innocent youth, on the threshold of life with their bullets. Over fifty thousand workersmen, women and children who filed past the body of the matry red ycluth, Letchumanan at the Patana cffice of the Ceylon Workers Congress and an equal number who participated in the funeral procession and his last rights, bore ample testimony to the resentment caused among the public by the police action.’’
"In this connection the President of the C.W.C., Mr. S. Thondaman ha; sent the following letter to the Prime Minister, Mrs. Sίriηγανο Bandarana jike:
“in a series of communications addressed to you during the course of the last three years, I have brous ght to your notice the climate of frustration that was developing in the plantation areas on account of certain Ministers and the burea aucrats carrying out their directions. It is indeed most unfortus nate that despite my very best efforts to meet you personally and place the case of the plantation workers before you, it did not materialise despite promises held out in this direction.
"As late as March 7th this year, brought to your attention the development of an explosive situation with communal overtones in the Nuwara Eliya-Maskeliya, Kot male and Gampola electo
6
לנש

Page 9
Delta
rates arising out of discrininatory governmental measures put in operation by parties who appear bent on creating two warring sections between the peasants and the estate w Corkers. Matters reached such an unfortunate pitch that the plantation workers had no alternative other than to undertake yet another strike in the Nuwara Fiya-Maskeliya electorate and extend it to the rest of the country. "I am aware of the role played by your goodself in defusing the strike situation that further endangered the econclmic, situation of the country and it was your realistic approach that led to the settlement that was arrived at on i Ith May 1977 before the Commissioner of Labour Mr. Lakshman de Mel. Though the agreement of lith May 1977 did not match our expectations ve accepted it in tane With the consistent position we have taken that the C.W.C. would always act with a sense of responsibility and in the larger interests of community. "In this context it is extremely distressing that conditions should have been created for a worker to lose his life at the hands of the Police at Devon Estate and the workers of Sanquhar Estate be subjected to organised looting and bodily harm at the instance of the project Manager of Orwell Estate, Gampola—both these incidents taking place on 11th may 1977-the very day on which the Government authorities Were negotiating a formula to bring the situation to normalcy on the plantations. "I visited Sanquhar Estate on 5th May 1977 and was able to see for myself the devastation left behind and speak to the victims of the dastardly attack. From statements made by witne sses following persons (and others whose names and identity will be available to you in the statements recorded by the police from injured persons and victims of damage to their line rooms and other personal property) were members of an unlawful assembly who, with others armed with deadly weapons committed acts of rioting, mischief, criminal trespass, assault and looting as
common object;
I. Nandana Bandara Manager, Orwell Estate,
7
Project
pola; 2. Ratnayak retary to M. P. Ga Grama Sevaka o Piyasena Liyanam Sampson; 6. Piyas lapitiya; 7. Sugatha pitiya; 8, Mahatun c 9. Dissanayake K.F Estate who is hims for an allotment "Whilst persons to the scene in a had come in lor which have been being, Kaługalia Es La bage Peter’s lor operative Society gether six torris the members of assembly to the si "in spille of inf nished to the po arrived on the si the following morr explicable that not: son whic constitute ful assembly had be custody. I understa merely administer ing to the leaders ful assembly, namel manager of Orwel 'State officers of other have been r lis: Éting Íoose a rei making use of vehi to the State in loot, damage living Sonal property an less residents. Gov accept full respons criminal conduct c who are employees tutions. 'I trust that the will dissociate its minal activities of by: " . Interdicting f persons responsil incidents cro S.
3éಲ್ಲಿ "2. Appointing a of ing Liry to prc dents on Sanqi and the Police a young Worke Estate. '3. Giving adec tion to resident their families a property at Sac for them to normag work.
"Your early respo presentations will b: preciated.'

-Private Secmpola; 3. The Atabage; 4. ahatmaya; 5. ena of Veteldasa of Verella. f Verellapitiya; of Sanquhar elf an aspirant if land. o 5 had come sep the others ties, three of identified as ate lorry, Aly, and a Colorry, Altohad brought the unlawful 3Ot. brmation furice they had :ene only on ing. lt iş ina single perd thijs un lawben taken into nd the police ed a warnof the un lawy the project 1 Estate.
some Sort or - Esponsible for ign of terror, cles belonging stitutions, to quarters, Perd maim. heipernment must ibility for the f the persons of state insti
Government elf from criF this nature
orth With the be for the a nquhar Es
Commission be the inciLa har Estate shooting of ^ eoon Devon
Ulate protecworkers and radi personal u har Estate trsue their
Inse to my ree greatly ap
There was no report of any action being taken by the authorities, until the Senior management plan cers decided to take action (vide Tribune, May 28).
Apart from minor references, neither the Lake House nor the Times papers published any reports about these happenings. The Sun too, in the earlier stages, had only fragmentary reports.
It is argued by apologists that it is better to "play down' these incident, let it lead to communal ten aicin. They do not eem to realize that such an Cistrich-like attitude of hiding in tre and is futility at its worligt. The Vira kesari published rea5.cnably good reports but they reach only the Tamil public whereas it is necessary to alert the whole naticn to the very dangerous Situation that was developing in the plantations.
Whilst the UNP papers were generally quiet and silent the LSSP's weekly journal Socialist Nation sought to make the maxirinum use of these, incidents to expound its Marxist outlook. In its
issue of May 13, it published a front
page Story with the heading DIAE O CAL POT SLFP BANKRUPTS FAN COMMUNAL FIRES |N MAS KELIYA. For the record we quote this comment in full.
“Now that Mr. Felix Dias" grand strategy for boosting the morale and electoral prospects of the SLFP has ended in the dampest squib his side of 1956 and he himself has gone, together with wife and brother-in-law, the SLFP has thought up something far more disastrous than anything Felix Dias could have devised. The decision to parcel out seven thousand acres of the choicest tea lands in the Nuwara Eliya electorate to villagers was undoubtedly motivated by a material desire to ensure victory for Crown Prince Anura Bandaranaike, whose only connection with
the electorate is that he spends the
April season at his mother's house at Nuwara Eliya. But, putting these
petty devices of petty people with
petty ambitions aside, the decision and the strike of plantation workers which it has provoked give rise to considerations which are of the highest social and political importance. It is both imperative and urgent to arrive at a correct evaluation of their import.
"There is no issue which throws up so sharply the petitbourgeois
and opportunistic character of the
TRIBUNE, June 4 1977

Page 10
SLFP than that of the plantations. While it mouths brave words about socialism when the word is likely to win votes, its conception of socialism is of the crudest and most debased kind. Had it been otherwise the SLFP would not fail to recognize the distinction between and reform and nationalisation of the plantations. While land reform is essentially a process which seeks to provide the landless peasant cultivator with an adequate landholding taken from absentee land lords and feudal chieftains, nationalisation is a process whereby the state extends its ownership and control of the means of production. In this instance, the latter happens to be a sector of the economy which is most highly capitalised and at a far higher level of economic organisation than peasant agriculture, whether individual or collective, could possibly Connote. -
"It is typical of SLFP political impoverishment that it confuses these two economic categories. The SLFP's political maturity has not advanced very much higher than is the mud of the paddy field. Since the capitalist UNP and the socialist Left understand issues of this nature all too clearly, the muddle-headed party of the "middle-path' can only perceive some collusion between the two.
“The SLFP bemoans the Kandyan peasant, robbed of his 'birthright' by British imperialists and foreign labour. No observant person, we venture to think, Would fail to recognize the plight of the Kandyan peasantry, hemmed in by the giant tea plantations towering above their tiny plots both geographically and economically. But the purely emotional approach, whether genuine, chauvinistic, or opportunistic, provides no answer to the problem. This problem, posed in these terms, was stated quite some years ago by the late Albert God am unne and he happened to be one of Sri Lanka's most reactionary politicians. Only those who live in a world of fantasy and emotional frustration would imagine that historical wrongs could be remedied by reversing historical processes. Dr. Vimalananda Tennekoon would contest this view, but then he wants a restoration of the Kandyan Kingdom He is at least consistent.
"The SLFP, despite the homage it feels bound to pay to the Sirima
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
Shashtri Pact, the plantation or treat him as at the human 1 this party’s men working class : is galling to the tion worker is place and orgal rights as a The decision 7,000 acres den SLFP is quite national wealth toral seat.
“Fortunately, are stubborn than a coterie rupts approach problems with fashioned in th will destroy
desperate adven
“However, le Selves to the us. Losers may often do, befor political guillot doubt that th in the hill co seeds of bloo signs are disti one Minister ha reference to t President to in the event What, in fact, decision would mented, is to workers and til hill country at The plantation give up their t and face starva and death stru doubtedly, if tremity, seize themselves rath up. The SLFP is, in any ever ernment with rule, is playing mite at the tai carecr.
"The proble and hard-pres peasantry Cann these lines anc himself a social intent will til our largest na section of our class in a futile This problem c eventually will little doubt, \ and workers

would like to wish worker into limbo if he did not exist evel. Fundamentally, tal make-up is antiand xenophobic. It em that the plantarooted in his work hised to defend his broductive worker. to fragment these monstrated that the brepared to destroy to win one elec
economic facts and more powerful of political bankning 20th century mental equipment he early 19th. They themselves in this ture.
t us not blind ourdangers that beset create havoc, and e they bow to the ine. There is little e present situation untry contains the dy holocaust. The inctive and at least as made an ominous the powers of the postpone elections of civil commotion. the Government's achieve, if impleput the plantation he rural folk of the each other's throats. workers will not raditional livelihood tion without a life iggle. They will unpushed to an exthe plantations her than give them Government, which nt, an usurper Govno moral right to with fire and dyna| end of its corrupt
m of the landless sed hill country ot be solved along no one who calls ist with any serious nink of destroying ational asset and a
productive working 2 exercise to do so. :an be solved and it
be solved, we have when the peasantry of the hill country
Diabolical Plot?
and indeed of the whole Country join together to usher in their Government and socialism.'
In its issue of May 20, the Socialist Nation in the last page column entitled Notes and Comments stated: "Gangs of thugs, moving about in lorries, have gone into action against estate workers in the hill country. This week organised gangsters in lorry lcads entered Sanquhar Estate in Pussellawa and looted and assaulted that plantation. On Delta Estate, in the same area a number of line rooms were set on fire and inestimable damage caused to the property of poor workers. Law and order seem to have broken down in the plantation districts. These incidents bear cut our comments last week to the very hilt. Indeed there are definite indications that these were so isolated incidents. The election campaign of Anura Bandaranaike in Maskeliya is increasingly tending towards racial incitement. He is fighting to get votes away from Gamini Ariyatilleke, former M.P., for Maskeliya and a trade union leader, but the only political weapon with which he could carry on the fight in a civilised manner is the fact that he is the son of two Prime Ministers of this country. . . . . . . . 9-y
The only other English newspaper which has been consistently reporting and commenting on the explosive situation in the plantations is the weekly THE INDEPENDENT. In its issue of May 20, in a front page box with the title THUGS ON THE RAMPAGE ON ESTATE, it stated: "Thugs have gone beserk in the upcountry areas and are setting fire to the living quarters of labourers, looting their belongings, assaulting them and harassing them. But according to Mr. S. Thondaman, President of the C.W.C., the Police are taking no action against them. He has sent an official letter of protest to the Prime Minister, listing these complaints and urging her to take immediate action lest the situation worsens. Mr. Thondaman told The Independent that ever since a labourer was shot by the Police on Devon Estate, Talawakelle on the th instant, gangs of thugs using Government transport like CWE lorries are scouring the estate areas and assaulting the people at will. Most of these thugs he said, were headed by L.R.C.
8
workers on
ད།《
پريخ

Page 11
Planters Demonstrate
officials and Government employees who were provoking them to go on the rampage. 'What distresses me', said Mr. Thondaman, "is that the Police are watching this situation un concerned and doing nothing to prevent what may eventually develop to be a holocaust. I have also informed the Indian High Commission to take immediate action.’’
As we have already mentioned, the Sun, is the only daily paper of a big publishing group that has recently started to give even a little coverage to the dangerous situation that has enveloped the plantations. It is the only daily paper which gave publicity to the
demonstration staged by the mem
bers of the Ceylon Planters Society in Colombo on May 24 (vide Tribune May 28). It is the only paper which thereafter referred to the fact that the Government has decided to suspend land alienation contemplated in the Nuwara EliyaMaskeliya electorate for the time being. It is also the only paper that published reports that the Police had begun to take some action against a few of the culprits who had organised the looting on Sanquhar and Delta Estates.
The Weekend, the Sunday paper of the Sun had a big spread on page 4 of its issue of May 29 about the planters demonstration. Veteran commentator, Gamini Navaratne, wrote a scintillating piece entitled POLITICANS PLAY PANTHU ON THE PLANTATIONS. A few extracts from this article will indicate that Navaratne has done a good job of work in explaining the significance and meaning of the planters” demonstration. He said, "The Periya Dorais and Sinna Dorais Were in toWin on Tuesday. The men who in the company-owned days enjoyed pay and perks that were the envy of others were not on a spree. They were here to fight for their rightsand their lives. More, they were here to fight for YOU and ME, For a situation has developed on the tea plantations after the nationalisation that can, if mishandled, spell economic ruin for Sri Lanka. Like the blight that dethroned King Coffee in the late 19th century. The name of the new disease is POLITICS. And it is being spread rapidly by some politicians who are playing pandu on the plantations. For it is now quite clear that behind the several recent
9
acts of violence, ar on the estates ther tics-communal pol intent of Tuesday's by the superintenc tant superintende managers and assi was to alert the grave danger.'
Gamini Navaratin that the planters, had rendered 'a na He went on to say, tration itself was management grades occasion since the introduced to Sri Century agO, to s march. The name C trators organisatio Planters' Society, it sounded unfamiliar 1 because previously little publicity abou although it has bee since the 1930s. lems they had in t sorted out quietly pany owners beca who are expected discipline on the es afford to display a ponsibility. This is what they did on 1 ted to irresponsib personally think t have performed a m say this after visi Green and talking hundred of the to get their side of their story, shorn tion, makes shockin
The article merit ing by all who hac attention to curre in the plantaticns. also made the de the planters and its its front page lead May 24 and Wednes
And, on Saturday, was the only pape ALENATION OF PENDED: “PROCE LEMS’’ SAY OFFIC The report, (byline stated:
Government is to troversial plan to the Nuwara Eliya. tOfGTäte. Authorit Said yesterday that not be implemente general elections, they called "prroce These problems w

Sopa and lootilag a has been poliitics. The real
demonstration lents and assishts-now called Stant managers people to this
e pointed out by their action, tional service'. 'The demonsunique. These had never had tea bush was Lanka over a Eage a profile:St. f the demonsn, the Ceylon self must have o most people,
: here had been .
it its activities, an in existence Whatever probhose days were with the comuse the men to maintain tates could not ly lack of resnot to say that Tuesday amounle conduct. ! ney could not ere nobler role. ting Galle Face to nearly a demonstratorsthe story. And of all exaggerag reading...'
s careful readi not paid any it developments The Sun had monstration of initial success is on Tuesday, sday, May 25.
May 28, the Sun :f î0 annollin Ce LAND SUSDURA PROBAL SOURCES. P. Balasuriya)
Suspend its conalienate and in -Maskeliya elecative 80ሀዘ‛C6፰ the plan would !d till after the in view of what 2dural problems”. ere spotlighted
at conferences held recently at the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, and the Ministry of Defence and Foreign Affairs to discuŞ S matters relating to alienation. One of the main problems pointed out was the displacement of workers. Originally, 6,000 acres were earmarked for alienation from estates in the Nuwara Eliya-Maskeliya areas. Later it was proposed that only 3,000 acres be diernated. The moye to alienate land in this electorate was strongly resisted by the trade unions in plantation sector and there have been violent repercussions in many e5tates. The Ceylon Planters' Society recently told the inspector General of Police that "uncertainty and fear' prevailed among the plantation workers. A deputation from the Society also met the Minister of Plantation Industry and Warned that an explosive situation was developing in the estate areas. Whatever the official excuse to "save face", there is no doubt that the Government was compelled to stage a retreat.
The indignation, frustration and disappointment that stemmed from this retreat from land alienation in Nuwara Eliya-Maskeliya was betrayed in a speech at Yatinuwara, on May 27, by Minister Hector Kobbekaduwa. The Sun, May 28, reported it under the headline: THON DAMAN WILL BE DE. PORTED SAYS HECTOR.
"Thondaman has been dancing a
little too much of late. He was
very silent when this Government
crushed his estate kingdom. But
now he was openly backing the
UNP in order to get his lands back,
hoping that the UNP will come
to power if he does not stop his activities I am afraid Stern action
will have to be taken by this Gov
ernment to acquire the limited 52 acres left for him and to deport him from this country,' said Mr. Hector Kobbekaduwa, Minister of Agriculture and lands, at a party meeting of the SLFP Central Organisation and party branches of the Yatinuwara Kandupalatha area held at Ketakumbura, in the Yatinuwara electorate, where he is seeking re-election at the forthcoming general election.
Mr. Kobbekaduwa alio Said that UNP would never come to power as long as the common ma5 Se: of this country backed the Goyern
is rent.
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 12
The common masses were eagerly waiting to reject the UNP and re-elect the SLFP to reign this country for another term. People knew what the UNP was and who its leader was. AMr. Kobbekaduwa added that SLFP would win about 100 seats easily and there was no doubt about this Government coming to power again. This speech cannot be dismissed as the stupid and insane outpourings of a conceited egomaniac. It is the speech of a senior SLFP Minister, and also one the ULF parties look up to as a 'hero', nay a possible Prime Minister they could Support.
Up to the time of writing, this Speech has not been repudiated or denied. It has not been disowned by the Government. (Certain official sources only say that the Sun should not have published it, i.e. it should have been blacked out).
This speech is only further proof in support of Tribune's longtime contention that the implementation of Land Reform teemed with illegalities, that intimidation, threats, blackmail, misuse of power and official bullying had become part of the style of government.
Even if the SLFP wins a 100 seats, as Minister Kobbekaduwa seems to think it will, it will be suicidal for the SLFP to have him as a responsible Minister if the Republican Constitution and Parliamentary Democracy are to continue.
Even the 'bad' kings of Kandy could not have "deported' Thondaman-for one thing no country can be compelled to take 'deportees'. (His head of course, could have been given the works in a mortar!) And if Kobbekaduwa can "deport' Thondaman, can he not deport the Chelvanayakams, Mahmuds, Kumarasuriyars, Jayawardena's, Pereras, Nanayakkarasor even the Ratwattes, Gopallawas or Ellawalas?
POSTSCRIPT
The Daily Mirror, on Monday May 30, spread a S-column banner headline on its front page: HECTOR REASSURES LANDLESS: LAND DISTRIBUTION IN N’ ELIYA --MASKELIYA TO CONTINUE.
The report read: "Land alienation in the N'Eliya and Maskeliya areas will continue.' This was said by the Minister of Agriculture and Lands, Mr. Hec
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
tor Kobb in the Y Kobbekad absolutel in the papers the N* EN had been categoric been Sta extended island. I that and to them The Mini stage of by him darana jike grounds
1760 me ship fro tions to ultimate people. each, wi ised at aside Will hay blocks n armenities Communi rooms. T Custivated tives W0u articles managem
** It is fe the NE be more thod Wiji clones a fertilisers thirds of further a less sc to this much hi. Lanka.
'Up to r 18,000 ο N'Eliya-A land is Land Ka Cope wi applicant derable of land political
determin this seco g5 he di
The Sun small fro HECTOR

Journalistic Ethics
kaduwa, at a mass rally AHEAD WITH ALIENATION. 尊
tinuwara electorate. Mr. The report stated:
JWO characterised as "The Minister of Agriculture and false' a news item Lands, Mr. Hector Kobbekaduwa аwasa Group of news- is determined to go ahead with hat land, alienation in the proposed alienation of land ya and Maskeliya areas in the Nuwara Eliya-Maskeliya elec
suspended. "I wish to torate. He said so at a P'ტექ

Page 13
איר
Foreign Correspondents' Association
What, makes this act of piracy even more intriguing is the lengthy introductory note published at the top of the article. The note does not indicate its authorship; whether it is by the Editor or an Assistant Editor, or a Sub-Editor or a hack. The purpose and motive for this note is certainly not to explains to the readers the background of Mr. C. Raghavan (though it seems to be the excuse) but to enable some person or persons un-named to stick a MacCarthyian cold war knife into a foreign journalist working in Colombo. The fact that innuendoes in the paragraph quoted below are directed at a particular foreign correspondent (and who has no local forum for self-defence) makes this attack all the more despicable.
The paragraph referred to in this introductory note in the Sunday Times reads as follows: “Like PT1, Samachar correspondents abroad. Mr. Unnikrishnan, served in Coombo for many years. Most of them are top-class correspondents competing keenly with the big agencies. In some places however, the PT or Samdichar must be a third-rater whose main job is to gather information for the Indian Embassy on local politics and personalities. The Nayar Commission, it is reported, is studying these aspects to see whether the professional functioning of Samachar is hampered by the way some correspondents are used by the embassy as a secret arm to meddle in local affairs, especially journalistic affairs, and to influence local newspapers and newspapermen in a manner that brings discredit both to the agency and to India. Mr. Raghavan was 'removed' from his post for standing up to his dictatorial bosses and their scant regard for professionalism. Some time ago, Mr. Raghavan sent a prompt letter of apology to the editor of a Colombo daily when the Colombo PT correspondent had introduced personal criticism of the editor into a news despatch-one of the chief voices of the Western monopolies attacked by the non-aligned press.'
Although no names have been mentioned, and although a painfully laboured attempt has been made to prepare, in advance, for why-put-the-cap-on-yourself defence, it is clear at whom the libellous januendoes are directed. It is much
ha S many Some like
more than mere libel. chievous attempt to between two friendly ing countries. The that the PTI/Samachar dent in Colombois par CIA operating in Co kind of cold-war char: nation, characteristic of thyism of the 1950s an died a natural death and it is surprising th be revived in 1977 in
This un called for and attack on the Samacha dent in Colombo using tar brush calls for ac first instance, by the bodies of journalism even left of them toda appropriate of such bc case is the Sri Lanka respondents Association Association does not t matter as a gross at violation of journalisti Association has no just its existence. If the does take up the matter it will, I will be willi whatever information throw light on Some sordid aspects of this instance, il am perso that Mr. Raghavan did logise' to the editor of daily when he sent in a many many years ago. terous that an ancient (1973) should be resuri excuse to use a Polso brush People in glass he know how to behave.
This indecent instan racter assassination is als which, in my view, taken before the Pr If the parties who ca matter before the Pr. viz: the Sri Lanka Fe respondents Association of the correspondent Foreign Correspondent the Sunday Times not willing to testify befor Council.
For the moment, holding my name from but should my assista quired, either by the Foreign Corresponden tion or the Press Cot authorised the Editor to divulge my name. I h ly told him that my to be divulged to the O of the Sri Lanka. For

It is a missow discord neighbourallegation is correspont of an Indian lombo. This acter assassithe McCar960s, had Year"S ago, at it should Colombo.
unprovoked correspona cold war tion, in the professional (or what is ). The most bdies in this Foreign Corand if this zake up this ld indecent c ethics the ification for Association ", and I hope ng to place have to of the most attack. For nally aware not “apoa Colombo "complaint' It is preposit grievance rected as aga in Pen tar puses should
Lce of chato a matter, must be ress Council. in take the Sess Council, preign , Cor(on behalf ), or the attacked in e, will be
'e the Press
I am with
publication Ince be reSri Lanka tS Associaİncil, I have
of Tribune lave eXpressname is not ffice bearers siga Cerres
pondents Association unless Some worthwhile, purposeful and meaningful action is taken by the ASsociation to provide redress to the foreign correspondent so grivously libelled and also to ensure that such violations of accepted journalistic norms are not violated with impunity.
If a new era is to dawn in journalism in Ceylon, there must be an end to this kind of tar-brush smear campaigns to assassinate the character of defenceless persons, especially journalists. There has recently been an unfortunate epidemic of such tar-brush libellous character assassinations in the organ of a leading political party but this is no reason for the Sunday Times to follow suit. The papers which indulge in such smear campaigns will find them counterproductive. Those in charge of newspapers and also those who write such dirty pieces should be careful about boomerangs and counter-attacks. They Will come from the most unexpected quarters at the most unlikely times.
In any case, I hope the Sri Lanka Foreign Correspondents Association will not sleep ever this matter,
A JOURNALIST Colombo. 295.77
事 奉
A PRAYER
lord Buddha And Plantation Workers
by Pio Campa S.J.
In the middle of May, a week after Vesak, and a short time bes fore Poson, up-country Plantation Workers have been inhumanly assaulted. If those who have planned and executed such inhumanity and cruelty against such peaceful men and women, responsible for Rs. 200 million MONTHLY PROFIT (in contrast with the Rs. 20 million MONTHLY DEFICIT of the C.T.B.) are Buddhist Sinhalese, one cannot but bow one's head in shame and confusion to ask Lord Buddha's and his follower's forgiveness.
"Maitri, kindness, selfless joy
and fortitude' are the four foundation stones for the building of a
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 14
new society and a new family of man where everyone will be respected, loved and served. Such assault against the Plantation Workers took place ten days before the Republic Day so betraying the ideal and aspiration of the Sri Lanka
people to have the wheel of
the Dhamma supreme in this
Country.
Planters and Trade Union lea
ders have appealed to the Police for protection against such acts of hatred and inner war. Police have promised it. That will never be sufficient UNLESSS a united effort be made to spread the implementation of the sublime teachings of Lord Buddha: Love and compassion towards everyone. especially the least ones, and those most jin need.
If those responsible for such blind acts of Violence and destruction are Buddhist Sinhalese, this is the time to make everyone realize the historical truth that there is much blood-relationship and connection between Lord Buddid and the Plantation Workers: They are sons of the same Mother India; both have come from India here on a mission of welfare for and development of the country and its people.
Lord Buddha (as Lord Jesus few centuries after Him) said: "What you do to or against the least of my brethren you will do to or against Ave.'
Therefore everything done against the Sri Lanka Plantation Workers is a betrayal of Lord Buddha's precepts and of his way
Sinhalese Buddhists should come forward and protest against such anti-Sinhalese and antiBuddhist action. It is THEY who have to build a bridge of mutual understanding between the majority and minority community. "MAY ALL BEINGS BE WELL.'
Estate People's Service Oxfam - Sarvodaya Kahawatte. May 20, 1977.
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
T O D A Y
The Plan Bu
by R. R.
The plantati country are afi ing people in are enraged. has never be in the planta been created. sive tensions smooth functi fu numan area. The sit purely as a quences arisi Reform.
The two mos that have taken try concerning kers are the 19 ments between of India and Sr tion of the had remained i 1964. The plan were accepted Lanka by the L. prior to 1947, in 1949 and v ered stateless Laws of 1948 a tice continued t when the Siri signed.
Even that pa sive in respect of Indian orig of 975 betwe lndira Gandhi Prime Minister regarding the the plantation persons are to India and 375, become citizens mentation of t also to two repatriation an The latter pric to Consequen cies to be ad ment of Sri from the crea Constituency /Maskeliya E the plantatio. a represental to the Nati no other Conc ha 5 been ani integration

ations Are "ning
Sivalingam
ons in the hill arme. The work=
thk plantations A situation, that fore been faced tion areas, has These are explo
threatening the »ning and pea.cerelations in the uation has a risen result of conses ng out of land
t significant events place in this counthe plantation wor64 and 1975 agreethe Governments i Lanka. The posiplantation workers indeterminate up to tation people who as citizens of Sri aws of our country lost that position yere en maSSe renby the Citizenship nd 1949. This injuso rankle up to 1964, ma-Shastri Pact was
ct was mot concluof 50,000 peasants in. The agreement sen. Prime Minister of India and Our reached conclusion status and rights cf people. 600,000 } be repatriated to 000 persons are to of Sri Lanka. Implethis agreement gives processes, namely: d Citizenisation.
cess necessarily leads tial action and poliopted by the GovernLanka, So far, apart tion of a Multimember in the Nuwara Eliyalectorate, to enable workers to return tive of their choice ona State Assembly, trete policy or schene nounced regarding the of these per 5 cm3, wh
Background
have lived and worked in the Country for nearly 150 years. The current disturbances in the plantation areas arise directly as a Consequence of a lack of policy and failure to envisage a scheme of integration of the new citizens the Government of Sri Lanka hai accepted, through International Agreement.
The second most important event is the passing of the Land Reform Laws of 1973 and 1975. From the fact that these laws have been enacted, beyond the General Election Manifesto of 1970 of the United Front, is in itself a clear indication that this was done without a dequate planning and preparation but was ushered into being through popular pressure. As far as I could see there is no clear land policy after the vesting of lands with the Land Reform Commission. -- One million acres of land has been vested in State Agencies and sporadic land alienation to landless peasants has taken place. One fails to see a clear policy of either a well-thought out scheme of land use pattern on land alienation. There is the vague promise of correcting the inujstice done to the Kandyan peasantry and distribution of land to the
landless peasants. It does not ap
pear to be adequately appreciated that all plantation lands are not suitable for peasant alienation,
if the policy of land alienation is one of giving land to the landless then the claim of the plantation worker cannot easily be over looked. They are the most landless community in this country. There does not appear to be any willingness to give land to the plantation people or even an awareness to settle them in an organised manner, distinct from the present color nial provision of barracks-like line room accommodation. On the other hand there seems to be an officia atti= tude of complete indifference as to what happens to plantation workers who are displaced as a result of the breaking up of plantation lands through the process of land alienation.
Thousands of workers have been driven out of their homes and denied employment opportunities and even the basic right of drawing their rations as a result of this attitude of indifference and forced eviction of playatation workers has
2.
خش

Page 15
Resistance
gone on for some time. So We find in our country today government-created beggars and modern gypsies who are the erstwhile plantation workers. Officially, of course, neither this problem nor these persons are recognized.
The Government appears to think the only solution to this problem is the acceleration of the rate of repatriation. Though there is an administrative machinery to ensure this process there is neither policy nor machinery to take the conclusive action of land settlement and rehabilitation of plan
tation workers who have been
citizenised.
Youth Settlements such as Jana"
Wasas and Agricultural Co-operatives
are not meant for plantation wor
kers or youths. Co-operative
Development bodies would not make plantation workers members of those Co-op. bodies. On the other hand Youth Settlements and Agricultural Co-ops, have been created in the heart of plantations causing racial differences between plantation people and the new SetElers.
In the nationalized estates great diacrimination ha 5 been Shown in the recruitment and employment of personnel and even workers. Speeches made by important persons have the unfortunate effect of humiliating and insulting the plantation workers. The discrimination against the plantation workers either because they are Tamil or because they are largely votele555 ha 5 reached Such glaring proportion 3 that nöt even a ca3ual visitor to these area 5 can fail to obserye this.
The benefits accruing from Land Reform have flowed to one section of the people and the disadvantages and the difficulties have fallen squarely on another section of the people, namely: the plantation workers. In estate areas land alie natic n has been so done as to create a belt of new settlers encircling a large plantation. The plantation workers are thus deprived of access to main roads except through these settlements and this policy of encirclement also heightens communal tenSions. The plantation people are voiceless except through their trade unions. Therefore, any problem concerning them re education, repatriation, social amenities on land alienation is sought to be treated as a trade union problem.
3
Government's a changed from an a trade union app strange that th look upon this national probler national approac
The failures cited above the plantation security and d only means of 1 ulative effect of to some and d have had an elec plantation Wor ing ordinary p: a group of mili
There has
organised r. alienation guaranteeing ment or at settlement. taneous rea tation work pired by an union or a tation work ing governir survey plant nation. T met by Pic communa a ikers. The si worker on
legedly for vey, and a
WORLD E A public 5 p.m. at the dence Square The Meeting Priestly, Resi Lanka. Mr. Society will p The Mee servation and tatives of the History Socie (Ruk Rekagan have been in The Meet films on Con screened.
The Mee! organisers ho public especia ment” is now Sri Lanka. En |7, Alfred Pla Colpetty, Col Sri Lanka. Telephone: 3
 

broach is said to Indian' approach to oach and it seemi re is a failure to problem as a vital and to adopt a h。
and discrimination are threatening workers with ineprivation of their velihood. This cumdistributing favours ifficulties to others tric effect of uniting kers and assive workers into
ant workers.
come into being esistance to land without adequate
of employ ernative and for This is a sponction of the planers and not insy particular trade leader. The plans ers are not allowment officiais to ation and for alies his resistance is »lice assault and ssault on the wor=
hooting of a young
Devon Estate alresisting land surrson, looting and
convert
assault on Sanquhar Estate and the large scale arson on Delta Estate have the effect of fanning communal passions leading to a confrontationist situation.
In the plantation areas today the mood is the mood of violence. Workers are ready to die for their basic rights. They have lost their faith even in police protection because the question is openly asked 'is it possible for organised gangs armed with hand bombs
to travel in lorries in broad day
light to set fire to the living lines of nearly thousand workers without some form of connivance at high levels?'
Strangely enough the police are not in a position in Some instances to apprehend all the culprits. Among those who have been arrested are prominent personalities belonging to a certain political party. is there a social war brewing in the plantations? Are there certain foolish power-hungry persons ready to provoke a social war for their narrow ends?
In this process of thoughtless fragmentation of high yielding plantation lands, greed for making more money because green leaf is fetching a very high price today is the main motivating factor and not peaSant 5ettlement.
NVIRONMENT DAY - SUNDAY, JUNE 5TH, 1977
Meeting will be held on Sunday the 5th cf June, 1977 at Sri Lanka Foundation Institute Auditorium-100 lindepenColombo 7 on the occcasion of World Environment Day. will be under the distinguished patronage of Mr. M. J. dent Representative United Nations Organisation in Sri S. Ambalavanar, President of the Sri Lanka Environment reside. ting will be addressed by representatives of various concriented groups in Sinhala, Tamil, and English. Represen: Wild Life and Nature Protection Society, the Natural ty, the Soil Conservation Society, Tree Protection Society no) the United Nations Association and other organisations vited to address the gathering. - ing will be followed by a Film Show-Local and international servation, Environment and Wild Life Protection will be
ting and the film show will be open to the public. The pe that there will be a wide participation by the general lly the youth, particularly as "Appreciation of the Environ
taught in many schools in the Colombo District. nvironment Society
Ce,
ombo 3.
66/2.9985
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 16
The plantations, as a national asset, is being destroyed and a communal holocaust is being brewed. Those who indulge in this reckless spirit of avarice, communal hatred and a craze for political
poWer are causing un to the nation. They are
of the people. It is tin them, apprehend the the nation from this of power-hungry polit
WHAT THE COUNTRY NEEDS TODAY-A SOLUTIOf
Problems Of The Consumer
by R. Kahawita
When it comes to finding one's food and clothi consumer's, but today there is a priviledged class of coi an under-privileged class. I am interested in the latter number something around 2 million people or 2,500, units. What hardships these millions of families procure their rationed and Government imported goo seemed to have paid any attention so far. Patiently th seem to endure their hardships till they get an opp exercise their right under the Constitution. For this re more than any other reason, their right to choose a C must be protected by all political parties.
Today the consumer suffers the most in any disput Government and its many employees. They have mult night because the United Front's desire to provide e
to save its face.
As ex-Minister Subesinghe said-'thi
employment created by the U.F. Government is unp So we have scarcities, shortages and a well established b
In addition, whenever there is a strike by any of the Government sponsored Trade Unions the consumers” problems multiply overnight. The latest is the Railway strike which we experienced some time back, and shortly after that our Prime Minister had explained that as a result of this strike price of coconuts had shot up to two rupees a nut. The strike has been settled and forgotten but the price of nuts is still escalating and to escape from the mess our politicians created in the coconut growing industry they still keep on harking back to the Strike.
Practically everything the consumer needs is state-controlled and state distributed by an army of selected party supporters. Where the private sector is taken into the orbit of the Government to distribute the consumer items, such private sector distributors are also party supporters. Today the consumer faces a number of these state favoured distributors, large and small, all over the country. Any complaints against this class will not produce any relief
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
to the consumer. The distributors are the 'ca the patronage, of the
Those employees of ment and their frien tions, the selected and their friends di form the today's pri They experience no difficulties and hard: what they want. R was a news item of h textiles were di 5 trib this elite. The em Said to be entitled t yards per employee at the ordinary consum barely one yard per gՈՈԱՈ7
All the Ministers a of the present Gov aware of What iş ha their inaction to put may be, due to th letter' institution of Front. Just a few days ago of Food, Co-operative industries had made
“Textile-and Errant
newspapers dwelt on t

old damage the enemies e to detect n and save uicidal path cians.
N TO THE
ng all are as Armer and
class who 100 family undergo to ds nobody ese people rtunity to ason, much Government
ce with the iplied overmployment s kind of productive'. lackmarket.
ese favoured rtels' under ruling Party. the Governd5, and relarivate Sector ind relations vileged class. shortages, no ships to get ecently there OW Thulhiriya uted, within bloyers were o almost 65 a time while er could get perSOn per
nd Menberg ernment are appening and matters right e 'member's
the United
the Minister is and Small reference to Co-ops' and he consumer
High Prices
hardships in obtaining their textiles (Sunday Observer of 6th March), but in a way, the Ministry did not believe what the newspapers said was true. The Ministry believes that its system is so perfect that What the newspapers brought to light was fiction. When the whole trade is managed by a politicalised bureaucracy nothing is said to be Wrong and in that set up the conSumer is of no consequence. It is "the ideology' that matters. That is What the present Government says.
in the midst of this ideological warfare it is heartening to know that the Deputy Leader of Opposition, Mr. R. Premadasa, and his party have understood the problems of the consumer and have made a clear cut policy statement of the Party at a meeting at Grandpass last month as reported in the Sun of the 8th March. The Party's Policy is to place the country's economic prosperity upon a competitive system where the public sector and private sector will compete to serve the consumer and the consumer will be the judge and not the bureaucracy. This is the democratic socialism the Country needs today to save her from the abysmal depths to which the U.F. Government has led the country in the party's road to 'socialism'.
If the UNP, when it comes into power, can lighten the burden of the consumer within the shortest possible time, it would have saved the consumer from the utter destitution he is experiencing today. -
What are the problems of the consumer today?
All the basic needs of the consumer are rationed and controlled. They are issued to him weekly on tokens or cards through the so-called 'Co-operative Societies' at the village level and in urban areas. As the Government control grows, such controlling agencies are multiplied like the Multipurpose Co-operative Societies, Co-operative Wholesale Societies, Marketing Federations, Co-operative Unions etc. They are nothing short of Government shops where the consumer is treated as something the cat brought in. The consumer is subjected to insults, indignities and rudeness, as if the consumer is asking for alms. It is a wonder that the consumers do not get together and manhandle the mea behind the counters.
ܐܬܐ
4.
'*ز

Page 17
Poor Distribution
The employees of these Government controlled distribution points are the masters and rulers at the village level. The people in their dire need to get their basic needs endure the treatment with the patience of a Job. They know if they protest, the treatment they get would be worse. More often than not, the Whole family gets into the queue to get their rice, currystuffs, maldive fish, sugar, dried fish if available, garlic and flour, then to the textille queue occassionally. Apart from their domestic difficulties, transport etc. they lose also several days of working time Waiting in the queue; and whether they are self. employed or wage-earners, their earnings drop, production drops and poverty increases. This is one of the major problems of the CO5S, 1762 r. A few days back we went to see the Friday Fair in Wellawaya-it should be an important hamlet as it is a transport and distribution point to Hambantota, Moneragala, Tissamaharama and Kataragama and a halting point for Tourist traffic. What did we find here 2all the local produce brought for sale at the fair would not fill a one half ton lorry: the people who came to the fair from the surrounding villages, without exception, were dressed in rags, half starvedlooked so miserable that I, as a Sinhala, could not believe that there is such poverty in our Sinhala villages. ht is a shameful tragedy for which the full blame must be taken by the present Government. If the Government failed to alleviate the misery of these people in seven years, they cannot do it in a lifetime.
To bring sunshine and a smile to the faces of these millions of suffering people, the cost of their basic needs must be brought to the level of their earning capacity and to the national wage levels of the ordinary worker. They do not understand international trade, they do not understand FEECs, they do not understand inflation, they do not understand Balance of Payments etc. They understand only one thing and only that; that is, the present Government has cheated them . . . . . .
There is inflation, because production is almost at a standstill, money supply has
5
been inc to meet Goyerram are unite ment to The em the U.F. relation such en with no ther suc gainfully ther the pay the is the M This is th sent Go employm O ho the spir goes up sumer i to make to proc At the vi Croats i the cons
How has needs of th when the sole import erst While İç distribution the private ized to bre creation of pulation o malpractices though the sole impor all the ma at several are beyon earnero. lin. drop in q and weight ernment co. bution agen with the mal practice: With Goverr ment of In Government down the the consume
The need may be grou PS a CCK needs and of living of class A of expenditure have two items and Dealing wi go to daj What are condiments

reased progressively the demands of the ent enployees who di to force a Governgrant their demands. boyment created by Government has no to production and ployment is given consideration wheh employees can be employed, or whe national income can What matters P.'s or P.A.’s letter. e dilemma of the prefernment-to provide hent when there is ey to pay them. So at of the cost of living and up, and the cons finding it harder ends meet and also re his basic needs. | lage level the bureauave not understood
mer problems.
the prices of basic he people sky-rocketed, Government is the er and distributor? The aissez faire import and of the basic items by sector were nationalak up the blackmarket, artificial Scarcities, manif invoices etc. These have not stopped, even a Government is the ter. On the contrary, Llpractices are thriving levels today and prices d the average wage addition, adulteration, uality, short measures s are the rule in Govintrolled shops and districies, which were started excuse to prevent the s of the private trader. ment control and managenport and distribution a should be able to peg prices of basic needs of r at fed5St.
is of the average man classified into various prding to the consumer importance to the cost the people. For example these items of wages on food and clothing components-imported locally produced items. th imported items that tly wage expenditurethey? Cereals, flour, , sugar, processed fish,
pulses, and a few others. All these items are imported and distributed by Government. The cost of these items to the consumer can be controlled by ordering the distributer that these should be sold to the consumer at C.I.F. value plus 20% to cover all transport, handling, and distributuion charges up to the marketing bag of the consumer. The Government Agencies that handle the import, stocking, distribution of these items will have to cover their expenditure within the 20% including the profits. This is an exercise for the management of these agencies to do and Work out a price structure within this percentage and if they cannot do it, they just go out of business and hand them back to those who can do it within the controlled prices.
in the case of locally produced items, there are two aspects, one is to guarantee the price to the producer as an inducement for him to stay on the prodcution line, other is to protect the consumer. The Government will have to fix the price of selected items of produce to the producer, taking into consideration the cost of producing and the prices of these items to the consumer's marketing bag. The difference between the two prices will be a subsidy to the producers and consumers. For example, a pound of dry chillies cost the farmer Rs. 5/- at the farm, allow him a reasonable margin to cover his profits and bad seasons etc. say this be 3/-. So the farmer's price is 8|- add to this cost of transport, handling and distribution 25%, then the cost to the consumer will be 10/-. In order to keep the price within his wages expenditure, the Government sells to the consumer at Rs. 8/- per lb, then the subsidy will be two rupees per 1b. Many an item can be covered in this manner to protect the producer and consumer.
This exercise can be spread to cover all items of imports and local production that go to provide food, clothing and shelter of the so-called "common man'. The main object is to protect the consumer by pegging down the cost of living which today is the root cause of industrial disputes and demands-a wage in keeping with the realistic cost of living within the society We have created. These demands are basic and have nothing to do with output, res
TRIBUNE, June, 4 977

Page 18
ponsibilities, hours of work etc. The demands are related to the cost of living today and it is for the Government to peg it down. (If this problem is to be solved it is most important, to reduce the cost of living within the earning capacity of the common people and to enable them to procure those items without Waiting days on end in the queue).
This is, by no means, an easy task for a Government to do, more so today because the Government has got involved deeply in production, import-export, distribution and transport, wholesaling and retailing, price stabilising and supporting prices, employment and wages control so on and so forth. The Government has got deep into the complexities of management and management expertise at all levels with the result, all efforts necessary to meet the consumer demands have failed.
Consequently, blackmarketing, shortages, break-down in distribution, queues, together with
frustration, anoyance to the consumer and harassed employees behind the serving counters at the distribution points have surfaced in a degree never experienced before. It has also created a bureaucracy immune to public criticisms and their complaints. This breed of public employees has contributed to discredit the Government more than anything else. Every one wants his daily needs and in the process of procuring it every one is annoyed and begin to think what a bloody stupid Government they have created for themselves.
The people-the average consumer-wants a change of Government for no other reason than this. As we said earlier, he is not interested in high Politics, what compliments are paid to our Ministers in international affairs, medals and prizes. What they want is their simple frugal fare, their rice and Curry, basic clothing and a little shelter. This is what a Government has to secure for them even if a Government is going to continue with this kind of type control of consumer goods, because the Government has encroached into the traditional channels through which the simple Village folk got their daily necessities. Having encroached on the freedom of choice of the people to choose from where and from
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
whom, and at wh daily needs are to
the people have a r. for protection aga blishment. One wa this demand is to r trols and throw op of distribution to w fore a Governmer by the Co-operati is the most Prog Government can tak is not the ideology but happiness and well-be 5unner. A Government benefit and not vice progressive Step iş ; cause we simply do money to provide t of the people. The de economy by the unit United Front Governn
The other way of demands, in the p of Public Sector m distribution of the the people is to se Pcrtfolio on the "ra Minister to protect the interests of which we propose for Pricing and Cons This is an instituti to protect man Minister to protect from the Governn he is a member.
The main function try will be to kee price trends on c in relation to was and protect the co price escalation by ment controlled inst as the private sect ment, under Ministe Private trader is se a variety of consum of which are of t months. But this bi been raised against Public sector produ is the best argumer blishment of a se for Pricing and Co tion. This will pro mer with a respo to look after his i whom the consume petition, and appea to day problems. be done at the E ted, but it will effective tool a G have to peg down and "a psychologica of the consumer fr bureaucratic strani

at price their
be purchased, ight to demand inst the Estay of satisfying emove al conan the business that it was be
it was bitten te Bug. This ressive step a
e. What matter,5 t the content of ing of the conis run for his versa. Stich a not possible benot ha ye the he basic needs struction of our ed efforts of a pent is complete. satisfying their resent context anagement and basic needs of t up a separate nk of a cabinet ; and safeguard the consumer, to call Minister unner Protection. on, so to say, against men-a the consumer ment of which
is of this Minisp a tab on all onsumer goods ge expenditure onsumer against the GovernEitutions as well or. At the morial threats the Ealing down on her items-most he counter for g stick has not : many of the ction lines. This ht for the estaparate Ministry nsumer Protecvide the consulinsible Minister interests and to can represent, to in his day Very little can beginning, granbe the most overnment will cost of living lemancipation' om the present glehold on his
UNP's Chance
reedom of choice of what to eat and where to get it. We earnestly recommend this suggestion as a means to fulfill the assurance: "We shall bring down the cost of living by reducing the artificially increased prices of imported and local goods in day to day use and by increasing local production and shall en5ure that the Consumer Shal not be exploited.' as given in a declaration of New Policy and Programme of the United National Party enunciated in 1975. The UNP may well have an opportu" nity to fulfil this undertaking, Soon.
O O O
REPORTAGE
"Village" in The City
Rawatta, Madawatta or
What-Have-You
by Severus
Some people like to hide their heads in sand, ostrichwise. Others pass the buck and palm off their responsibility to others, as in the case of the repatriates, or as in the case of the removal of slumdwellers of Sri Lanka's capital city last August, buttressed by hopes, buttered by promises.
A visit to this abandoned 'village“, a day after a rainy evening is a sad experience; flesh of our flesh, bone of our bone, our own Sinhala, Tamil, Muslim people are there to suffer in sheer hopelessness. Tondo area in Manila, they say, was emptied of its 250,000 people in one night and the fabulous Zoto organisation put up a courageous fight for their rights. And behold, more than Tondo, here: it is our own country, a land bubbling with democracy and socialism and human rights around every Street corner.
The long, long trail to Mattakkuliya begins at the Hettiawatta turn with its Tobacco company (at the top of the trachea). At that very spot a grinning poster tells you: "Ape nagaraya prisiduwen tabaganimu'', let's keep our city clean, imagine well-nigh 10,000 people in this new village' in the city saying that they'd want their part of the city kept clean Who'll help them?
6
N

Page 19
End Of The Road?
Brought there at gun-point be fore August last year, they hail from Kompannavidiya, Prince of Wales Avenue upper and lowerl, Madampitiya road, Narahenpita, McCallum Road, -i.e. from areas of motor-shopping Centres, newspaper concerns, aerated water sectors, traffic department headquarters, timber depots, Cemetry and garbage dump areas-to this one-time coconut estate where heavy grazing has loosened the soil and made it into a first-rate marshy bog, where Water oozes in and ruins the 'floors', keeping the older men and young people awake at night. Three out of six homes had a new-born baby hanging away in a hammock, away from the oozing water. The average number of children in the families was 5 on this 13-acre block of land, the sloping terrain of which brought water to over half the homes in the lower area. Some women were knee-deep in water (the water had remained in, since Saturday right, and today was Wednesday) and only one out of a hundred homes had no mud and oozing water on the 'floor'.
Formerly called Rawatta, this land was named Sugathadasawatta and boasted the address of the last king of Kandy-'Sri Wickrema Mawatha', and most of the people felt they had been hounded out of their customary slum, or is it pounded (to keep to the image of Sri Wickrema history). Rawatta-or Madawatta as it is now,-boasts of a twelve-foot wide road in the middle of the camp, a road that is shy half-way and becomes a reluctant 8 feet and then peters out into nowhere. The 5 mercury lamps (mercury, no less!) are 60 feet apart, one from the other. By daylight or mercury-light, it is clear that these people have been abandoned there, the playthings of politicians, pawns in petty games of Party-men. Perhaps the people of Mattakkuliya, in o general of course, do not want them but God is on their side, for He is always on the side of the downand-out, of the lowly, of the OPpressed and harassed of society. What a crying shame that we who boast we have no apartheid, we who make glowing speeches against israel and for Palestine, cannot see that we are experts at producing “slums” overnight by making a composite slum like a "village', far away from nowhere. A young
7
man there told occasional robbe is some little pri sheer inability to From what I Say Colombo is sitting Crime, illnesse may be born of tions. Most cri resultant impri function of po poverty status i sion. Governm to end poverty mic inequality. homicide rate than Sweeden, a crime rate was they virtually
...” (Towards a N Lakey, p 155). If country see this they will be up Buddha made su man, the hungr sed by his ten and socialize; right-thinking oj live by the holy sad to see the children sufferin; ling of local go to foul ineptit woman with a 4 inches from with nowhere t her wet floor less 0x8 (I measur manikak eti m hadanda, na muth inne”–one singl put aright this they live as if gion. She turne off a tear. Wi take up the stol of an internatic Non-alignment grace and hom people? I wond
Colombo ha human city, W misery' and clean, neat, hea to collect wast baskets, but frt lons of city funt may overtake utter desperatic our brothers.
To say that 7 for ten-thousar that planners greed in their fying themselve had done well bucket systen

me that there are tries; that there ostitution through b earn and live. w, I could say that on a powder-keg. s, hatred, violence such unjust situaminal activity and Somment a fe a verty status: and s a political decients can decide and reduce econo“The USA has a 25 times higher und Swedens low achieved only after bliminated poverty lew Society, Gowanthe monks of this inhuman situation in arms, for Lord ch of the ordinary y and the oppres" dency to equalize the Muslims, the nes especially, who * Qur’an would be Muslim women and g due to the bungvernment and due ude. One NMuslim baby in a hammock the ground, and to lay her head in one-roomed house ed it) said: “Eka e mulu gama ma agamak neti Vage è gem Would have whole 'village' but they have no reli d away and brushed 1 the world press ty of the aftermath onal Conference on which brought dis
elessness to 10,000 Ε1 .
s become an inwith its 'belt of whited sepulchres, .d-empty. No need
te from wastepaper om the high er echectionaries. Nemesis
them through the on of these humans,
toilets would suffice ld people is to say had bad will and eyes, perhaps graties, saying that they ... The toilets, on a n, overflow into a
drain: Goya perfumes for Some areas of Colombo; stench for other areas. The excess is drawn off and dumped in an open lake making Colombo North, ill-health area Number One in the capital city. Tourists do well to keep away if they want to get back home in good health. About 60 people, old and young have died there since August 1976, a matter of nine months, with an average of seven deaths a month: one of old age, many of dysentery and of cholera, some of TB. Who seems interested? A young man F., said: "It is far better had we been left in our old places to die in peace rather than bring us to this tragic place to die”. Saying this he took me to a dingy, lightless place to See an 'old' woman (old at 40) waiting for death because she had contracted an asthmatic illness on the cold floor. Where are there any helpers to the small team of christians and others working for them? Organization is power and no man can shake people's power. Soweto in S. Africa, taught that lesson to people last June (1976). "No Self-respecting Muslim will abandon the Qur'an and its urgent demand to help the widow and the orphan. No Saivite Hindu can bear to forget the thrust to total liberation (moksha, vimukti) that his religion bears as key message. Or are we going to fail our religions?
A pall of gloom has descended on the nervous and taut people who have not slept for days on end owing to incessant monsoonal rains, bc.cn to farmers of the WP, perhaps, but bane of the existence of this abandoned sector of human society in affluent Colombo, where the demographic density of Dematagoda was 240 per acre and of Colombo 7, only " | 9 per acre according to figures of the late 'fifties and early 'sixties.
Gloom and discontent come from a denial of co-operative facilities for them: they have to get their rations-at least those who have their ration books and have not yet pawned them for coconuts etc, to a big mudalali who runs the price-ring and who practices dog eating dog in that area.'How canthese unemployed men trek to their original place for rations? They have no money for bus-fare: are not wellfed for a long walk and back, for they are many of them, sick with one illness or another due to the
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 20
inclement weather. They have no dispensary for they don't belong to the area-dispensary, they have been toid. They have no school to go to, but officials there are, who have told them to walk to the schools to which they first went: area-rule for them, but they are not officials (who have daughters and sons in any school they like to have them in). The force of man loving his fellowman, and of the Common Man's glory goes on a pace. Murder will out. This is genocide with a vengeance. The crisis of the poor and defenceless canno. È be Stifled.
Some of the people of Mattakkuliya do not want these people to stoil their fun. Those people in the "village' in the city are
called alternatively scalliwags, thugs, scoundrels, ruffians, ne'erdowells, criminals, idio is and no
one has made a serious study of the causes of migration into the city and of the increase of the belt of misery around the city and towns. I heard two priests (not the official one) saying: "After all, it is for such as these that liberation i5 to be a reality. It is to Save the down-and-out of all kinds that religions have their basic message." How true. "Social work is good, but not encugh. These people want justice. They are people.'
A learned doctor from Negombo once said: "injustice is the mother of ill-health'. We find this true when we see the appalling conditions under rain, cf. the "village' in the city, where humans have b3en dumped as garbage, and because of this situation we may soon see the "rich going away empty'. Power, privilege, Pomp may pay the penalty of a bad conscience and sleepless nights, because the ubiquitous water Cozes from the ground, defies mat and bedding of any sort. This keeps the angry youngsters vigilant, nervous and awake. They want justice.
If a man in the upper reaches of the Colombo income-brackets would ever want a thing, it is proffered to him on a platter. No irrelevance would face him. This can turn him cynically paternalistic, condescending. Recently, our city 'slum' in question received four basket-loads of buns. Asking for bread and getting stones. Wanting floor-space that’s decently dry but getting enough for a half-meal to continue life so that they may prolong the agony of keeping
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
awake: thought ones at the top wil keep awake at the “Digha jagarato ra digham Santasa Digho balanam Eam Gaddhammam ay
"Long is the night t long the league te Long is the chain of to the foolish who not the Truth' (C
if the social orc towards the good then Surely, we n practice that all in nobility, digni. with cut any distin sex, religion. Hasn' same fundamental ri undictated to by or privilege cr infl
| N D A
The Cowa
TTR 2 S U NdE oniy
cf 2 NEVA/ SiC) which carried an April 2 about th te last Lok Sai: weekly, published seeks to explain, internation: cever developed and po Lyndon La Rouche and his colleagues (he left after the His incisive artic GAND Hi, pregna in India will appe
The Extra-Const thcrity (ECA) funct fronts. On econom ECA had pushed the gram into the be began to promote program' of Sanjay approximately six m declaration of the
The main feature program was the f tion program which states of India-wh gress Party suffered ing defeat in the e the disgusting symb gency to the India. However, this was evident part of a program of austerit

of the foolish
o make people
bottom:
i,
ojanam
GrQ
anatarm’’
the wakeful, the weary, exigten Ce
know
hp. v.160) Sr is directed of the person, Iust accept in men are equal and nature, ction of race, everyone the ghts and duties bank balances
indira's Éxit
rights of human persons of Sugathadasawatta inviolable, inalienable, universal? Then something serious must be done. Religion cannot open half an eyelid and back the wrong horse. Do these men, wormen and little ones tot have a right to existince, to bodily integrity and well-being, to everything necessary to maintain a decent standard of living, such as food, clothing, shelter, means of subsistence, and any other Services indispensable to social security. More than all, isn't one's most basic right, the right to have all his rights safeguarded by law-the right to impartial protection, inspired by true norms of justice, and at the same time, effective?
What answer now, to this human group, flesh of our flesh, bone of
lence? Are the our bone?
rdice Of indira Gandhi-2
By Daniel Sneider
recently received a copy of the April 22 issue - DARITY, the organ of the US La bor Party article by Daniei Sneider, date ined New Der i hii, e defeat of the Congress and indira Gandhi in ha elections. The NEVV SCLE DARTY is triin New York by the U.S. labor Party, which interpret and comment upon national and its from a new Marxist approach adumbrated, pua, rised by the leader of the U.S. Labour Party, , a canditate in the last US Presidential election . Sneider was in India in March and early April Nicnalligned Co-ordinating Commi & tee rimeeting). e, entitled THE COWARDE OF INDRA nt with revealing insight on current development air in the TRIBUNE in two instal meats.
tutional Au
ker and peasant consumption, entoned on two
couragement of exports at the
c policy, the 20-point prockground and the '5-point Gandhi within onths after the mergen Cy.
of the 5-point rced sterilizain the northern Ere the Conis most Sweepaction-became I of the Emerrural masses. bnly the most more general against wor
expense of domestic development, and other steps which amounted to the defacto implementation cf the MF-World Bank policy for India. This capitulation to the IMF showed itself as well in India's increasing role within the ranks of the developing countries and the Non-Aligned Movement as a spokesman for "moderation' in the struggle against imperialism and for the new world economic order. All this, however, unfolded slowly and was not fully known to those outside the inner circle.
The second front of the ECA was the systematic destruction of constitutional rule and the structures
8

Page 21
Removed From Reality
of political life that could have counteracted the growing influence of this dirty clique. The Congress Party itself gradually ceased to function or to have access to Mrs. Gandhi. The machinery of govern
ment was brandished by the ECA as their personal tool for the promotion of their individual Wealth and power.
As the ECA gradually took over, Mrs. Gandhi became more and in ore a shadow of her former self and isolated herself in the Prime Minister's residence, where she received only carefully sifted information about what was happening in the country and internationally. Her insistence on defending the activities of her idiot son revealed her loss of any sense of reality. Her mental state was that of someone acting in a psychologically controHec environment-a crude but effective brainwashing operation. The advisors who wrote the 20point program, including cabinet ministers, ever saw her alone or were forced to go to Sanjay and the clique for policy decisions.
Behind this contro structeee stood the Birias and their Wai Street backers. While the details of this are just being dug out-the Indian left weekly Mainstream recently published an explosive expose entitled "From. Maruti to Mafia' dealing with thisit is already clear that the political setup of Mrs. Gandhi involved some form of backmail by the Birlas. The Birlas, who during the last three years rose from being No. three or four to become the top business house in India, derive their Weath from their origins as comprador capitalists for British imperialism. Now they hold large interests in textiles, ja te, sugar and control many of India's major bourgeois newspapers. It was the Birlas who came to fund Sanjay's entry into the world of big business when he attempted to start a company manufacturing a small car, the Maruti, for the Indian market. Despite an investment of more than
9
£300 million, pany has yet a tything. The Birla's hold family is an import not the controlling downfall. During period of the C offensive, a massi Birla family was threatened to de tical influence and the entire cc Scandal broke ab Company’s dubio: contract over th experienced comp enter the auto From that point and others became Maruti and it is involvement estat crucial link in a which led to the
in 1974 an of investigating Birla forced to shut dic early part of the E inwestigatory activi ly suppressed. Di gency, the Birlaʼs they placed their agents of the IMF Power around the and in key minis trol over the pre Birla papers be for the family's ad style "Brazilian in News about inter mestic realities lef During this period leaders took nu New York City Europe, no doubt Successess to th
The control ov access to reality be said, a product others' cowardice. mination in the elections. By the Sion had been ma had deteriorated the Communist P. been forced into with the Gandhi the crucial issue o gency and had the target of ECA The pro-socialist gress had also be with people like still a loyal sup Gandhi, forced ou tremendous press directed campaig

Sanjay's comto produce
over the Gandhi ant key, although factor, in Indira's the 1970-71 ongress political e attack on the launched which stroy their poliin the Congress untry. In 1973 a out the Maruti is winning of a head of incre anies desiring to production field. on, the Birlas è involved in the likely that this lished the first chain of control
ECA.
ficial commission corruption was wn and, by the mergency, all Such ty was completeuring the Emerpower grew and agents-and the -in positions of Prime Minister
Eries. Birla conss increased and came spokesmen
vocacy of an IMFmiracle' for India. national and dot the Birla press. the Birla family merous trips to and Western to report their ejr overcrds.
er Mrs. Gandhi’s -itself, it must of her own and -reached its culdecision to hold time that decide, the situation :o the point that arty of India had an open break government on f lifting the Emerthereby become -directed attacks. Core of the Conen under attack, Mrs. Sathpathy, porter of Mrs. It of office under tre from an ECAwhich included
the use of the government-controlled radio and other media to atack her. When Sathpathy confronted Gandhi on his campaign, the Prime Minister could only weakly reply that she had heard that Sathpathy was "losing control.' of her state.
Sources here say that the decision to hold elections was the result of a recommendation made to Mrs. Gandhi by the Police in telligence Bureau-no doubt infiltrated by U.S. intelligence agencies-which told her that a snap election call would not give the disparate opposition time to pull itself together into a credible force, and victory could be assured. These same sources report that the Carter. Administration also urged that elections be held, assuring the Gandhi government that with such a step improved relations between the two countries could rapidly increase.
It is revealing that such a crucial political decision as that to hold national elections (which), lega ily, could have been held later) was made completely without consultation with Congress leaders in New Delhi or in the States. The decision was presented to the cabinet and the party a5 an almost Casual fait accompli. Up until the end, due to their isolation from the mood of the country, the clique in the Prime Minister's house believed that victory would be theirs.
The key to the loss of the Congress was not, as some Western observers have been quick to say, due to the popularity of the ragtag collage of fascists, regional interests and old political hacks now known as the ruling Janata party (the "Peoples Party)'. Rather, the Janata successfully capitalized upon the powerful and conscious rejection by the Indian rural and working masses of the ECA clique (not the Emergency per se).
Even this maneuvering would have been insufficient to insure a Janata victory had it not been for the popularity of a group of Congress leaders who finally, after months of Suffering under the abuse of the ECA, split from the party to form the Congress for Democracy (CFD). These CFD leaders are the more legitimate inheritors of power, since they were the defen ders of the 20-point progam and of the Nehru ideal of progress. and modernization -they were the
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 22
one group who, after the CPI, made a belated show of political Courage. The truth of the election results, the Janata's opportunism, is revealed in the exceptions to their victory. Besides the Congress victories in the south of India (where the Congress bosses kept the ECA at a distance), the most important Congress win was in the state of Kerala where a united front of the Congress and the CPI, in power as a coalition state government under a Communist Chief Minister, swept both parliamentary and state-level elections. Kerala was perhaps the cine state-due to the CPI strength-where the 20-point program was actually taken seriously and implemented to some degree. Communist Chief Minister Achuta Menon was one of the few leaders to have the courage to tell the ECA to "keep out!' Kerala was the only state in India where Sanjay Gandhi never a set foot.
We have merely sketched the painful reality that developed in India. The cowardice of Indira Gandhi is not hers alone but is shared by all the Indian political leaders who identified with progress, but gutlessly refused to make the fight at a point when the decay could have been decisively halted. The fruits of cowardice are visible in the regime which now holds pos wer-a regime which can be expected to take forward the MF program for India with a vengeance and whose actions will bring India to the brink of economic disaster and instability within a short period of time. But, despite the dangers that the future holds-a danger that would have been no less if the rule of the ECA had continuedthere is also opportunity. The opportunity exists for those political leaders, whether in the CFD, the CPI, or in the demoralized ranks of the Congress Party, who are willing to face the lessons of this past period and conduct a new struggle to restore freedom and the march of progress. Such a battle cannot be conducted and cannot be won unless that leadership is prepared to act with courage upon an understanding of the strategic realities of the international situation, and is Willing to communicate that understanding to the
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
Indian masses in gram for economi the enfcrced bac|| the policy of Wa World Bank.
in the immedia as the present to consolidate its on power-and b, lize into a hardand a section who have some cor national interestsprecious space of that battle. The practitioners of tics have no place only those with understand and Will Survive.
Con C.
蔓
| N. D 1 A
o lamata O Assembly
New Delhi, May 7,
The emergence Party as a single with Chandra She dent, marks a til Indian politics. Ti by Jagjivan Ram'. Day announcement of the Congress into the Janata Pa lopment is regard tagonists of the so system as a vind thesis that in in the time has Come can or the Britis major parties shou political scene, t some sort of a c
Apart from the an Anglo-Saxon po need not be suita fic Indian conditi born out of the h tances prevailing stage of develop countries, we ha\ account the fact t of the two-party cularly in the Am what with a th the CIA-FBI, the Lockheeds, the Ku the Birch Society

the form of a proC Progress against Kwardness that is Il Street and the
te period ahead, regime struggles still-tenuous hold egins to factionaCore fascist wing, containing those nnection to India's -there will be a
time to prepare cowards and the Self-interest poli
in that struggle;
the courage to act upon reality
ided
D Congress Elections
of the Janata political entity khar as its PresIrning point in his is reinforced s dramatic May I of the merger for Democracy irty. This deveed by the pro-called two-party lication of their dian cC.nditions, when the Amerih model of two ld dominate the hereby ensuring heck-and-balance. fact that such litical precedent ble for our specions, since it is storical circumsat a particular ment of those e to take into hat the working System, partiarican contexte disclosures of Watergate, the Klux Klan and does not neces -
Morarji Desai
sarily provide an inspiring working model for any country.
What the inexorable compulsions of the Indian situation demand is the evolution of a political set-up which can and must mobilise the nation for a relentless struggle for the elimination of poverty
together with the ful and active participation of the masses in the democratic
process suited to our native genius.
if indira Gandhi's political career suffered a shattering debacle at the hands of the electorate in March, it has been mainly because of two reasons: her inability to live up to the promise of "garibi hatao' and her total disregard for the democratic process, as the monster of Emergency demonstrated. The two-party or the multi-party functioning is only a matter of form; what really matters is the content of our political commitment and the firm adherence of the political leadership to that commitment.
This is the point on which the Janata Party will be judged from now on. It has come to power in a manner which was totally unexpected for its leadership: the massive anger against the Emergency regime which was gathering in the northern States-almost imperceptible not only to Indira Gandhi and her caucus but to practically all political parties-came like a dam-burst at the Lok Sabha poll, and the only credential demanded of the victorious candidates was whether they were opposed to the Congress, since in the eyes of the masses, Emergency was the handiwork of the Congress raj.
Once the nightmare of Emera gency is over the old credential alone will not do. The discerning public will certainly give the Morarji Government a breathing space; it will mark time for the debris of the Emergency misdeeds to be cleared, whether by way of restoration of normal democratic functioning or punishment of the guilty men and women of the mafia. But the return to the democratic process Will not by itself help the Janata Party to have a stable tenure in office. In the ultimate analysis,
20

Page 23
Congress Unchanged ?
the new Government's Stability Will depend on its efforts to honour the commitment to strive for a just and equitable order in which poverty Will be eliminated: unemployment banished and economic disparities reduced. While the traditional hundred days have to be granted to Morarji Desai and his Government before any judgement, however tentative, can be passed on it, its insistence on forcing State Assembly elections on as many as nine States by executive diktat has, to say the least, not enhanced its commitment to genuine democratic functioning. While on the political plane, the Congress in these States had lost its credibility to govern after its total debacle in the Lok Sabha poll, the Janata Government's resort to constitutional squeeze could not possibly have helped to strengthen healthy precedent in democratic functioning. The open Strain generated over the difference with the Acting President could have been avoided by a less precipitate approach to the issue. The Congress camp was certainly not united on the question of challenging the legal validity of the Centre's powers on the subject, as could be seen in the West Bengal Ministry's refusal to be associated in the reference to the Supreme Court. There was a touch of poetic justice in the entire episode since the unwanted Forty-second Amendment which had been forced through Parliament by the Indira Government under cover of Emergency, took a Way the la Şt vestige of Pressidential prerogative, and its first fall-out could be felt to their detriment by the Congress Ministries themselves. Although the coming State ASsembly elections need not bring about an exact replica of the Lok Sabha election-since the issues facing the electorate are differentthere is little chance for the Congress to recover a substantial part of the lost ground be cause of its inability to put its own house in order even after the March poll debacle. The stubborn defence by Indira Gandhi of the mafia that played havoc during Emergency is the main cause of the prevailing disorder inside the Congress. Corresponding lack of firmness on the part of those opposed to the mafia will extract heavy toll from the Congress in the coming foll. As the political parties will be absorbed in State-wise election in the
2.
coming two month situation shows no ment. By the time will be over, the i economic front Wi sions on the politic And it is precis that Chandra She Chairman of the face the greatest political career. lessons that he lindira Gandhi’s fa persistent refusal gress into a fun organisation was t responsible for h. Compared to t Janata Party cann better equipped many ways it re 1969 Congress wi rence that the ( have any RSS-b; element within While Some sect regard the prese knit RSS as an assure that it has transformation, it saying the fact the Janata Party number outside able to reconcile that of secularism The bias for Big rich farmer in th no less than in t With such a pai Chandra Shekhar perspective cf en frontations. For ship of the Janat to be a crown o the best wishes for his politics towards building a
鬍
New Delhi, May 14 Politics in India by a strange bankruptcy. Wh to the Janata or Cr to the Left, Spectacle of infan refi. of any sense the bargain, the Índian life-the pling with pover ment among th widening disparity and the Have-in and as a result, i. ngth of this gre.

is, the economic sign of improvethe election fever imperatives on the Il force new ten5 of the country. ely on this score khar as the new Janata Party will challenge of his If there is any can learn from te, it is that her to build the Conctioning political o a large measure er fiasco. he Congress, the ot claim to be a organisation. In sembles the preth the only diffeCongress did not ased Jana Sangh its composition. om of the Janata ince of the Wellasset and try to been undergoing here is no gainIhat many inside itself and a large its fold are not its ideology with n and democracy. Busine55 and the e Janata Party iş he Congress. rty at his disposal, has before him a counters and conhim, the President a Party promises f thorns, with all that he deserves of commitment 5 new social order. --Nikil Chakra varty
9. L today is marked demonstration of ether one turns
to the Congress here's the same tile Squabbles be
of perspective. In
basic realities of Juestion of grapty and unemploye millions, the between the Have ot-are neglected he inherent streat nation is dissi
pated or undermined. Although it is too early to make an assessment about the Morarji Government performance record, the style of functioning of the Janata leadership reminds one of the ramshackle political entity that the Congres5 had reduced itself into just ten years ago-with this difference that there is not even a Syndicate today to ensure organisational viability.
It is no secret that one of the reasons why the Janata leadership was in a hurry to force State Assembly elections in nine States is that it expected that a mini-general election might help to galvanise the Party. But the reality as has unfolded so far shows that the differences inside the Janata Party have been intensified to the point of open in-fighting. All the dirt could not be swept under the carpet but the carpet itself is getting worn out. The last few days have sharply brought out the lack of cohesiveness among the leaders of the Janata Party coupled with Charan Singh trying to play the boss. The manner in which he attempted to blackmail the Janata Party, with-holding the accepted electoral symbol until his terms about seat distribution was settled, is a measure of Charan Singh's anxiety to dominate the Janata Party through organisational trickery. He has bullied the Janata leadership into conceding that he himself would be the election campaign "observer' for UP, although it is a tested convention in Indian politics that a leader does not become an observer in his own home State. In fact, Charan Singh is reported to have asked for the right to choose Janata candidates not only in UP but in Haryana as well. The poll symbol episode is only a symptom of the growing malaise inside the Janata camp. Charan Singh's allergy to both Chandra Shekhar and the Jana Sangh is well knwn; nor can he suffer C. B. Gupta and Bahuguna, with the result that in the key state of UP the Janata on the eve of the election (which it has on its own called) presents the spectacle of a house divided against itself.
And it is not only over UP that Janata President Chandra Shekhar is having headaches. In Orissa, Biju Patnaki does not Want to share his political Zemindary with anybody else, with the result that Nandini Satpathy and the CFD cadres are left wondering if it is
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 24
worth continuing within the Janata. It is not an easy job for Chandra Shekhar to discipline Patnaik. In West Bengal, P.C. Sen's admancy is making it difficult for the CPMled Left Front to have any electoral understanding with the Janata Party. The number of seats that Sen, in his self-delusion about his party's capacity to win the election battle has so far offered to the CPM and its allies is no more than what they can win on their own, without any agreement with others. Chandra Shekhar's SOS and Madhu Limaye's mission to West Bengal seem so far to be making little impact upon P. C. Sen. The mess over Raj Narain's mishandling of the inquiry into the allegation about the damage to JP's kidney began at the Cabinet level with his insistence on a judicial probe with the Saner elements among his Cabinet colleagues voting for a medical probe. The manner in which the respected Dr. Koshy has been forced to abandon the investigation shows the level of irresponsibility at the Ministerial level.
Much more serious is Charan Singh's mysterious delay in arranging for the start of the three Commissions to probe into the Emergency excesses, the Maruti Scandal and Bansi Lal's misconduct. Even the terms of reference have not yet been announced, nor has a substitute for Justice Khanna (who on grounds of propriety has declined to head one of the Commissions) been so far selected. All this is adding to misgivings in the public mind as to what Charan Singh is up to, and these misgivings have not been allayed by the reported sub rosa visit to the Home Minister by one of the Mafia characters, Yashpal Kapur,
There is nothing on record to show that Charan Singh in his
political career has been slow at
taking decisions; that makes it all the more inexplicable why there is Such inordinate delay in going ahead with the investigations into the Mafia misdeeds, the platform on which-and on which alonethe Janata Party could romp home to victory at the poll. In normal course one Would have expected the mafia to have been put behind bars as under-trials by now. Instead, one finds them merrily arranging for the destruction and disposal of incriminating papers; while rumours as a result have been going the rounds that Bansi Lal had
TRIBUNE, Juna 4, 1977
managed to have with Charan Sig the Morarji prompt steps t these suspicions.
The middle-cla scrapping of the posit Scheme is point for the but populist me: it are few, since the compulsions preSSure. The bound to campai climate of civil restoration of th ness Allowance bonus of 8.33 per a few in Morar Support. Very diş dition in the Cou dispoSSessed sectior munity have been fensive from the r ing Janata Support rampage. Not to 5. labourer, forced be even where he the Agricultural into submission pect of getting h enforced.
The Janata le realise that even catching, the rut growing army of a rers thrown in c gest segment o and it needs to that with all the gency, the bulk vote from the from agricultural the last election. the Janata leade ing the resistant Wested interests men like Charan Singh Badal-pro for the rural po chance of its Gc ing viable. In fa should concern ship while workin for the coming should certainly worry for its p like the CPM w| to ignore in the of the impoveris if the picture camp is far t vyra: De Ceg today is sh With a score the folk Sao heavy to ex Emergency

: a secret meeting h. It is time that Government takes o clear itself of
ss relief over the Compulsory Deno doubt a plus new Government asures available to it cannot escape of the inflationary wage-earner is gn in the present liberties, for the e additional Dearand the minimum cent-which quite ji's Cabinet would turbing is the situntryside where the is of the rural comfacing serious of ural rich who turnter has gone on a peak of the bonded Ick to debt-slavery was emancipated labourer is forced without any pros is statutory Wage
Badership has to in terms of yote"al poor with the igricultural labouonstitute the bigf the electorate; be noted by them excesses of Emerof the Congres countryside came abour even in Unless and until irship-overpowerce of the rural represented by Singh and Prakash
vide a fair cea
por, there is little vernment becomct, this question the Janata leaderng out its strategy boll battle-and it
be the major frogressive allieshich can ill-afferd ong run the urges hed rural masses. 2 in the Janata rom reassuring, Engress presents Jocking indec2c.
of over 350 in ha despite the (tracted by the misdeeds, the
self-criticism,
Charan Singh & Indira
Congress even in the rinidst of the greatest crisis in its ang political career, could have played an important role in the national politics.
For that, the Congress needed to purge itself of those whose misdeeds particularly under Emergency, led to its ignominious poll debacle and the loss of executive power which it would command uniterrupted since independence. instead of Such a purge however, it was lindira Gandhi with her protective patronage for her Mafia, that has been able to get the better of the Congress organisation, as the recent ACC Session demonstrated. Not to speak of honest there is not even formal acknowledgement of the guilt, and her stage-managed shedding of tears at the session looked like a school teacher consoling her pupils who could not get through the exam. Catharsis has been reduced to a farce.
It is but natural that the disgust at this state of affairs should create revulsion among some of her Staunchest supporters. If Barooah has had to pay the price for his indirais-India sycophaincy, his murmur of dissent has led to his exit; while Siddhartha Shankar Ray, one of the authors of Emergency, has had to stand up to the shameless move on her part to persist in dictating the Congress politics even after the exposure of her mafia raj. Many no doubt have been leaving the sinking ship; many more have not moved out because the Counterattraction offered by the Janata Party has been eroded by its own internal weakness that have begun to surface.
S 2.SfG Hof the ACC majority bey Indira. Gandhi Eyega after SF Geratification with the Sanjay Mafia, has surprised many, but careful Observers VMyod not fai || 6:0 rote that the average ACC Ribeira ber knows é:3.t: sibe 3,82 c: e mafia. Congo a gine fu inds and has a Barge a mount to spa re-their Emergency accrinuation can be counted Roy millions- and that is what raters most when many of therm have to con
test the elections k a few Vyeeks firmae. Siddhartha Shankar Ray may have a
just cause on his side, but the finances for the electoral
22

Page 25
Importance Of Money
war are at Indira Gandhi's comman c.
The honest Congressman, in such a sordid situation, is left without any choice buit. Lo fight en uneven battle. His old-style functioning in which the funds could be drawn from the party coffers, can no longer do. He has to fight with whatever record he has of service to the masses, of dedication to the ideals that had once inspired him in the leadership of Gandhi and Nehru. Radical shibboleths will no longer help but hard work among the working people. Before him has come the challenge of India Gandhi and her caucus who want to cash in on the name of the Congress with all that it stili stands for in the minds of a
large Section of the Indian people.
For him the Congress flag may have been tainted by the misdeeds of the Indira Raj, but he still hopes to wash it clean by getting rid of whatever she and her mafia stand for today; if he walks out of the Congress, it is lin, dira. Gandhi who will exploit the name of the Congress among the masses still committed to it. This is the mental make up of the honest Congressman of today who with all his baffling dilemma still prefers to remain in the organisation.
Such elements inside the Congress
could be won over-even with their
retention of loyalty to the legend that was the Congrei-had the Left in India today emerged ai, a political entity endowed with wisdom. The Socialisti are engaged in what they regard a3, the experiment: Cf the Janata. The division among the Communisti, persit. If the CPI has lost heavily its credibility because of it; unconicionable attachment to the Emergency policies of the Congress and its consequent refusal to join hands with those in the Left
who would not tolerate the Emer
gency raj, the CPM leadership today, in the eyes of many of its friends, seems to be in danger of making the same mistake; hitching its Wagon to the Janata Star and inisting on electoral alliance with it. To regard
the Janata Party as more acceptable than the anti-indira Section of the Congress, may be dictated by the prospects of election gains, but can certainly not be termed as good Marxism.
Had the two Communist Parties been able to come to terms the very development would have made a
23
qualitative differe and they togethe able to raily elemento joide the Congre;3, at won over the who are today in introspection afte infantile adventu manship come þu5h them on tc at least towards Surely, the p serve a far bet what the differe can prc vide the
營
LETTE RS
o Train
Sir,
We Were ab who had gone f the hill-country gramme of study and were retur to Colombo on rata Menike. Th full. One of us persons standin, N"Eliya to Colo speak for ourse the large num VOÜerS, mén, Wo babes-in-arms, m woman, Workin. and file of our backbone of our not mind it very ll:S Sea :S Or (Oi gracious and off we took turns : how.
it is true out has many defic we not discuss to remedy them transport office travel on the la of holidays give he would note Compartmenos g what Station or could recommen a station onward Oya, or from B or from Badull new bogeys (it more) may be way, all will know understand that is trying to do medy the situa
 

nce in the 5ituation, r would have been the forward-looking both the Janata and ld also could have
Naxalite extremişti?
the midt of Feyere }r a long spell of rim. Will state5over the Left and the path of unit,
united action? eople of India deCeir leadership than nt political parties m today.
--Nikil Chakra ya rty
警
ravel
out ten Sic en 1.s or a short rest to after a hard proin the HİNCE class "ning on 8i:h May the up - train llid da.-- e train was chockCounted over 344 g all along from mbo. We do mot Ves alone, but for ber of would-be men and children, uslim ladies, a sick g men, the rank people, and the Country. We did much if they gave . They were very ered us, SGats, but ind managed Sorne
transport System iencies buit: could together and try a2 if some wise would care to 3: È day of a period
in by Government,
down how many et filed and from stations and then d that, 'from such is, say, from, Nanu. and arawela beyond a itself, so many may be, only one needed'. In this v and see 2nd surely the Government something to retion. We may b :
school-girls, but we want to say that our educational programme makes us interested in the country, and cur christianity (RC) studies make us interested in the human weli are also, of all men. This is why we write lo the paper, in the hope that our words will be accepted and taken in good part, because we Write Lo the paper without any bad will, but only to let ourselves be heard on behalf of so many good people who suffer on trains and buses, paying the same amount for a seat and unjustly getting noseat. We think it is unfair.
Couldn't. Something be done, abou: this? Valerie Meider, Maryse Baidsing As rid Fernandopuile, Shiro ni Rodrigo, Portia Fernando, Arlene Casie Chetty, Sandra Miranda HNCE Class, Good Shepherd Convent, Kota hena, Colombo 3.
25.77
ଷ୍ଟି o Canned
- Fish
The object of the conference bei.ween the Acting Minister of Food and Co-operatives (C.D.N. 10/5/77) was to ensure efficient distribution of consumer goods. The C.W.E. outlet at the Bambalapitiya flats has 50/60 cases of Conned Fish stacked up since midApril and no sales are permitted without authority from Headquarters. If these cartoons are meant for distribution to Co-ops, this outlet is flanked by two in the same building. On inquiry from he police staff the stock reply is "We are awaliting transport. Lo take the cartoons away.'
if it is to be sent to another Urban or rural Co-op, it is time action was taken, either to distribute or effect a sale at this very store, instead of hoarding, and quietly allowing it to fall into unauthorised hands. Fresh fish is sold at premium prices in pre-monsoon weather, and no customer needs canned fish when the times are rusty and bloated. I wrote to the Editor, Ceylon Daily News, on 10th May, 1977 but my letter has not been published. 3 ܂ *
Douglas John
27A, Melbourne Avenue, Colombo 4.
25.77
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977

Page 26
Confidentially
O Land Reform-2
S T NOT A FACT that the Department of Agriculture has been (from 1972) so overwhelmingly engrossed in the work of Land Reform that several essential sectors of its work have suffered? That those who know what the Department of Agriculture is expected to do and what it has done in the past to assist farmers and agriculturists (and also maintain the state farms and institutions) now admit (privately till now, but they will speak out soon) that "everything' is in a state of virtual collapse? That for sometime now many sections of the Agricultural Department had slowly slipped into a state of rear-paralysis and that now everything has come to a standstill? That whatever passes for activity and work is no more than a maya-like mirage? That the work that now keeps the wheels running is generated by free-wheeling on the past activities and record of the Department? That the Extension and Research sections of the Department have been the worst sufferers in the avalanche set in motion by Land Reform that has atrophied all work? That the best research officers have either left the country or have been shunted into administrative posts where they sleep over files most of the time? That the few research officcers who do any work at all have become frustrated because their work is not recognised? That their work cannot be even published because the journal of the Department, known as the Tropical Agriculturist, has not been published for two years (or more)? That the excuse for the delay, or the failure to publish, this prestigious
journal, very essential for the growth and development of agriculture, is that the Govern
ment Printer has been chock-a- block with work in the periods the Government Press was not on strike? That whispers filter through that Some interesting and excellent research has been done in Maha lillapalama, or Gannoruwa, or Tinnevely or some other stationbut these findings on fungicides,
TRIBUNE, June 4, 1977
on legumes and have not seen the far as the farmin Cerned 2 That, one research officers a and earth to quit order to get oppo tinue their researc tries? That it is benefits alone th: people to seek e where (though t butory factor) bu that stems from do research and th the satisfaction t was being recogn ciated 2
That more tha search Stations, t vice of the Depa Culture has taken 2 That there is no E worth speaking ab in the process o mocratising' the W cultural Departme (Agriculture Produ have been entruste important work t been done by the vice—viz. supplying rial, fertilisers, etc., etc.? That, taking over, bure: res have been tre rupled (with the lays) and the costs community of basi gone up tremendo sed cost it is said Salaries, allowances ments for the Sta That in addition bigwigs of the A Lockheed-like cuts now mainly got supplies direct fron more often than local agents of mul these APC bosses the products of Corporation? That for them are told 'out of stock'2 charged for agroch tilisers in many higher than the pr market? That farme to buy at these they get these es of the loans advan agricultural produc this officially legit tion, is it any wo farmers default loans? That a re report had stated

other plants light of day so g World is conby one, the best e moving heaven the country in rtunities to Conh in other counnot the material at compel these mployment elsehis is a contri: the frustration the inability to le failure to have hat their work ised and appre
even the Rene Extension Serrtment of Agri! severe beating? Extension Service out today? That f allegedly "defork of the Agriit, the new APCs Ictivity Centres) d with the most hat had earlier Extension Serg of seed mateagro-chemicals with the APCs lucratic procedubled and quadconsequent deto the farming c essentials have usly-the increais to cover the and other payif of the APCs2 to all this, the PCs want their 2 That this is by arranging for in the Suppliersnot from the tinationalis ? That do not favour the Petroleum those who ask that they are That the prices nemicals and ferAPCs are much ices in the open irs are compelled prices because sentials as part ced to them for tion? That with imized exploitander that most on their cent newspaper that the People's
Research And Extension Service
Bank was faced with unpaid agri
cultural loans amounting to Rs.
266 millions? That this is not surprising? That in spite of the paper stipulations about the manner the loans had to be given and the stringent requirements that have to be fulfilled, Political Authorities and MPs were able to secure agricultural loans to all and sundry (people who either helped them in the last elections or who were expected to help them in the coming elections)? That most of such money was not used for agricultural production? That it would be impossible to recover any of this money? That genuine farmers, who obtained these loans, are compelled to default because of the high costs of production and the low prices (compared to the costs) for their products? That a myth has been fostered that farmers were swimming in wealth because of the "high prices'? That what really happens is that the farmer spends what gets for his produce with gay abandon without paying his debts (governmental) because he has first to meet his consumerist needs and when even the barest minimum has been bought there is no money to pay the debts? That the APCs have become a new tier of exploitative bureaucracy? That it is a political bureaucracy of ignorant and corrupt elements who have clambered on to the bandwaggon of MPs and Political Authorities who were vested with Executive, Administrative and even quasi-judicial powers from which there is no appeal That APCs are only part
and parcel of the monstrous Fran
kenstein that has begun to devastate this land under the cover of MPs chits and letters? That Bryan de Kretser’s campaign against the MPs letters and chits, if it succeeds -as succeed it must-will also sweep over the APCs as constituted under the United Front (and
latterly under the SLFP) from the
face of Sri Lanka?
NEXT WEEK
RAIL 'STRIKE” ELECTION TUSSLE e LOCAL AUTHORITIES
9 LAND REFORM SCANDALS
24

Page 27
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Page 28
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