கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.09.17

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Page 3
Letter From °Cf\e Bfôitor
The TULF Seems to have finally woken up to the reality til important problem confronting the Tamils and the governm nation as a whole is the urgent and imperative need to rest and ensure stability in the country. This is not the time, as W Stressed, for post-mortems or fault-finding (but extremists romantics and demogogues compel us often to polemics).
important task before everybody is to restore normalcy. U
done, life will not be worth living in any part of the country.
the Jaffna peninsula which many frog-in-the-well insularists thi for all Tamils. The lack of normalcy in Jaffna, owing to a variet has not only given rise to 'teenage rowdyism and delinquenc guerilla type of bank robberies. So far the robberies have b to the looting of government banks, but very soon, unless ch robberies will spread to the private sector also and no home
in Jaffna. These rowdies, robbers and thugs are operating c of a wave of anti-police animosities among the people of Jaffn is no doubt that this situation is the result of unimaginative an policies followed by some police officers during the Sirimavo ( especially since the ATR Conference in 1974. It is unfortun Jayewardene Government did not transfer the old police out Sooner it came to power-if this had been done, EXODUS l' have taken place at all. The situation in Jaffna has not been 1 the punitive police actions from the ATR Conference: there cipline has grown and at the same time a criminal element under cover of political slogans. The situation in Jaffna has to be because every time there is an anti-government sneeze in the
will be taken as an anti-Sinhala outburst and a communal confla erupt all over the island. Whilst careful attention must be police-civilian situation in Jaffna, even greater attention must be twenty to thirty thousand refugees who are in the peninsula. Ti is inter-linked with the restoration of normalcy in the rest of th physical and mental wounds of the refugees in Jaffna have to be to persuade them to return to their stations a great deal has to
the Sinhalese areas from which they fled. There is no doubt that
ment and a large number of organisations-Buddhist, Christian, Secular-have done a great deal to restore normalcy in many communal violence had taken place. The High Priests of A Malwatte have risen to the greatest heights of Buddha's Dhamme equality for the Tamils and one of them has even gone so far a Sinhalese should have opportunities to learn Tamil. All this about by the initiative taken by the Prime Minister who has r appeals for national unity. The government has announced t of standardisation which is the greatest single cause for the cr In this situation, peoples of all communities outside Jaffna look to the TULF leadership to contribute its mite towards restori Nobody wants the TULF to repudiate Eelam—if it does it will political climate of the country immediately in the most drama but only to lay Eelam by to a distant date. Under the hamm communal fanatics and anti-social elements (acting under a comf the TULF has climbed down so far as to say that for the mom only concerned with the refugees. This is a negative a political party's statesmanship and maturity is shown by its w adopt positive postures and to review and change policies, not tically, but in the context of realities which cannot be ignored pertinent, in this connection, to draw attention to the full pa ment that Tribune has run on its back cover for months: MAK SRI LANKA POSSIBLE: ON THE BASIS OF EQUALITY: -IR of race, religion, Caste; -OF LANGUAGES, Sinhala, Tamil, OPPORTUNITIES in education and employment on merit; - TRATION with regional or district council autonomy;-BEFOR with civil rights, rule of law, and an independent judiciary. A C arrangement incorporating these will meet all the demands of th the Sinhalese) for a long time to come. And this is the best this hope to achieve in a turbulent era of human history. Only state of normalcy and stability brought about by 'the first st and fair Constitution based on embryonic district council which economic development can take place, can this country vance to greater heights of quali ative progress which cantru the dictum of unity in diversity. To reach this still distant c must take the first faltering steps t right now in the darkness tension and national disharmony.

at the most ent and the re normalcy e have often
chauvinists, .
The most less this is Not even in k is a haven of reasons,
but urban
ten confined ecked, such will be safe in the crest a, and there di anti-Tamil Government, te the J. R. of Jaffna no 77 may not ormal since after indishas emerged 2 normalised peninsula it garation will baid to the : paid to the heir position e island. The healed, and be done in the governMuslim and areas where sgiriya and 1 in pleading s to ask that was brought made fervent he abolition y for Eelam. - desperately ng normalcy. change the Ltic fashioner blows of munal cover) |ent it was ipproach. A (illingness to opportunisit will be ge advertiseE A UNITED RESPECTIVE English;-OF N ADMINISE THE LAW, Constitutional eTamils (and country can from such a ep' of a just autonomy, in hope to adly implement bjective, we of communal
TRIBUNE
founded in 1954 A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs Editor S. P. Amarasingam Every Saturday
September 17, 1977 Voi, 22 No. 3
T R B U NE 43, DAWSON STREET,
C O OMB O - 2.
Telephone: 33 72
C O N T ENTS
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK
-Exodus '77 Plo 2
| THE LAST CHANCE 2
--James T. Rutnam P. 4
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE -Aug. 24 - Aug. 28 p 6
FOR THE RECORD -For A United Sri Lanka P. 0
LETTERS
--State Of Sri Lanka p. 3
CITIZENS COMMITTEE -For National Harmony p. 17
WHITHER SRI LANKA ? -B. Mahendra p. 8
RACE-MYTH AND SCIENCE-Dr. Arthur Weerakoon p. 9
DR. ANANDA K.
COOMARASWAMY –Jag Mohan p. 22
CONFIDENTIALLY
-is Eelam Viable 2= i p. 24

Page 4
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK
Preliminary Thoughts On The Anatomy Of Exodus 77
Colombo, September 2,
The communal disturbances, violence and looting which disrupted normal life from mid-August is one of the most traumatic experiences this country has known in the modern period. Not every socio-political upheaval of this kind has a silver lining, but this one has. For the first time citizens of all communities and different religious persuasions have come together not merely to condemn violence and to help the victims of violence but also to understand the motivation of those Who committed the acts of violence and those who instigated such violence. A very large number of organisations, in Colombo and outside, have come forward to restore normalcy. The Citizens' Committee For National Harmony (CCNH) is one of the organisations that has led the way in this matter.
"The most fundamental question affecting our Society today is one of re-thinking and re-building our pattern of life. In this respect it is not proper to leave this matter entirely to the Government. We, as responsible citizens, must Settle this for all time”-the Wen. Rey. Hevanpola RatanaSara Thero.
"The more serious problem today is the task of education. We have observed the havoc Wrought on unfortunate and helpless human beings and find it difficult to understand how one set of human beings could inflict such atrocites on their fellow beings. The nation is going through a sad tragedy'-Fr. Tissa Bala Suriya. The thoughts expressed by these two religious leaders at a Press Conference held last week end,
the CCNH. The that “the situ are now placec noW go out to gories of peop have suffered t flicted on them; committed ac (iii) those who other, instigate The CCNH, the promotion mony in Sri La believe in the Sri Lanka, wher pective of race, shall be equal rights.' The CC standing among religions and country.'
Mere sympat of the violenc The CCNH h; many other cha organisations, b of money to pri tress and for t victims. It has of clothing, cool hold requisites :
While the re and their reha sense a Shortproblem concer mitted acts of gated violence i of the utmost those who inf are the impulsi sons who join a to violence on ment roused by (they do not whether such is true or not) who plan such berately particip tions either to
COWER
The pictura of the still-jung has been a disa the SLFP rule has devoted a travellers and
at the Society for Religion and Society, constitute the guide-lines on which the CCNH has based its work. "Violence promotes further violence, and we are certain
Transport has and even exten The CGR was a The negelect tc
that no lasting solutions to human 19pment. It problems could be achieved, and Minister Will f no benefit can be bestowed on should.
people, through violence,' stated
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Went on to say tion in which we , our concern will at east three catele: (1), those Who rough violence in(2) those who have S of violence; for some reason or di violence.'
as as its objective, of national harnka. The members "ideal of a united e its citizens irresreligion and caste, in dignity and in NH 'fosters underthe different races, ideologies in our
ny for the victims e is not enough. as, therefore, like ritable and religious egun the collection 'ovide relief of dishe rehabilitation of also called for gifts king utensils, housesuch as bedding etc.
lief to the Victims bilitation is, in a :erm objective, the ning those who comviolence, and instis a long-term one importance. Among icted the violence ve unthinking per
mob or are driven the spur of the morumour or gossip pause to consider rumour or gSSSlp . There are others violence and delii ate in violent acsatisfy sadistic poli
National Harmony
tical impulses within them or to rob and loot.
But the most difficult category to deal with will be those who instigate the violence, some knowingly, consciously and deliberately, and others unknowingly, unthinkingly and unwittingly. The anti-social, criminal and subversive elements who plan and instigate violence are easily identified (even if they attempt to take cover behind political slogans) and it is not difficult to cope with their delinquency, but those in the shadowy world where allegedly dedicated persons preach and propound political pro grammes of hate that can only lead to violence are not easy to tackle.
The Tamil communalist (in or out of the TULF) and the Sinhala communalist (in the SLFP, UNP or the ULF) have now become political psychopaths who can be contained only if the spirit of national harmony and the realisation of the need for national integration (on the basis of unity in diversity) becomes part of the way of life of the vast majority of our citizens. Organisations like the CCNH can play a major role in containing and transforming the communalists in all communities responsible for the communal upheavals of 1958 and 1977.
In addition, among those who inflicted the violence and those who instigated the violence in 1977 are the young people (some now grown older) who participated in or sympathised with the Insurgency of 1971. A fairly substantial number of are employed in govern ment departhem and have fairly easy access to heavy vehicles (buses, lorries, tippers etc.) and also to implements which can be used for
DSAPPEARNG
on the cover shows a disappearing railway train in one le areas in the country. For a long time now, the CGR ppearing asset. In the seven years of United Front and from 1970, the CGR had all but disappeared. Tribunereat deal of space in the past to the problems of train overnmental neglect of the CGR. The new Minister of romised to rehabilitate the Railways, improve its services d the milegae-to start with, from Matara to Kataragama. ways the back bone of development activity in the country. the railways in recent years was a major setback to deveto be hoped that the new Government and the eW lfil their promises about making the CGR work as it

Page 5
Sinhalese Protection
violent acts. Some were possessed of
fire arms and others were in a position to grab dynamite and other ex
plosives from government developmental construction sites. A section of those who sympathised with the insurgents of 1971 are now employed in the Security
Services like the Police. Others
are in key government jobs in the
Bureaucracy and the administra
tion. An influential and activist
section of the 1971 insurgents have
also become professional robbers,
looters, and delinquent anti-social elements.
Whilst the officia JVP issued Statements against communalism and violence, it is clear that its influence among a large number 1971 insurgents and sympathisers is now only minimal: they no longer follow the lead of the official JVP. In many places, especially in the NCP, NP and EP, there are reports that ex-insurgents and also newly emerging terroristic groups played an active part in the violence: they had become the "military' and 'tough arm' wing of the communalists-among the Tamils as well as the Sinhalese. Every violent act in Jaffna and in Tamil areas had a ten-fold repercussion in Sinhalese areas. It is futile and stupid to waste time in arguing as to who started the trouble "first'- who is to blame (the chicken or the egg)2-but the problem today is to end the violence and curb the communalists through national harmony.
The country is today faced with the problem of terroristic groups of so-called 'militant youth' both among the Tamils and the Sinhalese and unless they are contained and the socio-economic causes that sustains Suoh terrorism are eliminated normalcy will be a dream.
The young have many legitimate grievances. The older generation have been so selfishly obsessed with petty parochial matters that they have let a Frankenstein grow in their midst on both sides of Elephant Pass. A great deal of thinking, discussion and re-thinking, about this matter has become essential and it is a happy augury that CCNH has come forward to examine violence in all its aspects.
Many observers have regretted that organisations like the CCNH and other bodies have not come forward in Tamils areas, in Jaffna in particular, to help esta
3.
blish harmony and
bouts of terroris made normal livin peninsula a night Tamils living there who have fled the turbances. Freedor and opinion has b
by terrorism.
There is a greate sense of the urgent harmony in many, Sinhalese areas whe out. This, as we h is a significant fea not there (in the in 1958.
Tribune has rect Ports and letters f Where violence h A detailed examina matters can be after normalcy and of Inquiry into t has completed its meantime we rep from a letter from in Kuruinegala-on cial towns where inflicted on Tamils
"...Of course, the spot in the dark
ture. Many Sinh rijk to their Live3 families. They co munal frenzy c
UNIONS VO
Public Service come forward to outside. Several c tives of Unions we tions passed by th communities whic in the past. The and Sinhala emplo favourable for the
It was decided by members of th normal. It was a any member of a ments will call up harassment to an deliberately creat out that disturban large scale absent
They also poir because of the c Patients in severa result of Doctors ments are severely reasons. The ur their entire memb time.

normalcy. Little n have already g in the Jaffna mare to many
and also those se after the disof expression een threatened
civic and public need for national if not in most, re troubles broke ave said earlier, ture which was present degree)
:ived many re"om many areas as taken place. tion about these indertaken only the Commission he disturbances work. In the roduce extracts a Tamil reader e of the provinviolence was
are was a bright and gloomy pic
example... My
that innocent people suffered because of rumour mongering. I must Single out the Regional Manager, North West Region, and the Manager and staff of the Bank of Ceylon, Kurunegala. Throwing fear to the Winds they went by car to placeş, like Nikaweratiya, Maho, Wariyapola and Rambodagalla to save their Tamil brethren who were trapped and were about to be attacked by the mob. Later they were housed in the Bank's premises. I must say that the Bank officers were not only humane but displayed courage of the highest order. Mention must be made of the yeomen service rendered to the refugees by Rev. Fr. Bede Fernando and the "Sister Theresas' of the Holy Family Convent, Kurunegala. They fed the people and nursed the Fick. . . I wish more people had emulated their noble reference here is to the voluntary and service organisations... The government Agent, Kurunegala, had his hands full but he discharged his duties to the best of his ability...The pall of gloom over Kurunegala has not cleared. There is genuine regret among people here about the events of the past. They say
talese, at great protected Tamil indemn the comind they admit
that a simple problem had been blown out of all proportion by mischief makers and innocent people
》就
Şuffered, aş a result. . . . . . . .
LUNTEER TO SAFEGUARD EMPLOYEES
and Corporation Trade Unions and branches have astablish communal harmony in their workplaces and onferences of Heads of Departments and representare held yesterday to give practical effect to the resolue unions to bring back accord among the various n have been working side by side in perfect harmony Ministry of Public Administration had permitted Tamil yees to keep away from office if conditions were not in to attend their work places in the respective areas. at these conferences that every step should be taken e unions to help bring the unhappy situation back to lso decided that every protection should be given to ny community who is in distress. Heads of Departon the membership of the unions to report cases of y employees by unruly elements or those who are ing mischief. Heads of Departments have pointed ces in Government offices and Corporations had caused Beism resulting in serious disruptions in work.
hted out the public have been seriously inconvenienced ompulsive prevention of persons attending offices. hospitals have not been able to get treatment as a and others not turning up for work. Several departunderstaffed and cannot serve the public for the same ions have given an assurance that they will call upon jership to help bring normalcy in the shortest possible
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 6
Similar tributes can be paid to a large number of Sinhalese families in all areas where there was violence against Tamils. In Jaffna, in the campus, Tamil students had protected Sinhalese students until they were evacuated. No single Sinhalese is said to have been killed in Jaffna though some Sinhalese shops and bakeries in the bazaar had suffered damage.
The picture on an all-island basis is not complete because reports have not yet become available. There have been many splendid instances of self-sacrifice in all areas where trouble broke out. There is hope for humanity in Sri Lanka if men and women of goodwill can get together to overcome the forces that have caused disharmony and violence to erupt in this island.
The government and all people interested in the future of the country are anxious that all refugees should be rehabilitated. This should be a two-way business. Even if the number is small, all Sinhalese who evacuated from Jaffna, Batticaloa and other Tamil areas should be rehabilitated in the same way that Tamil evacuees are being rehabilitated in Sinhalese areas.
in Sri Lanka even after there are special District Councils or regional areas to develop Tamil rights, Sinhalese, Muslims, Burghers and other citizens and residents of Sri Lanka must have a right to live and work in these areas, in the same way that Tamils have the right to live and work in Sinhalese areas. If such a development can take place and a sense of security created for all communities, it will not be long before a united Sri Lanka emerges.
Out of the misery of ExoDUS'77, great good can emerge. It is for the people of Sri Lanka to make this possible. The new emergent forces that have surfaced after the traumatic experiences of EXODUS 77 should continue to push the new momentum for national harmony with all speedand there is no doubt that a united country with national concord and amtiy will soon be a reality.
*港崇一 →器奏ー
THE LAST
A Nee Goodw
by James T
This will
this series V Age and faili claiming the writing later weekly or Looking bac Study, that cause of th ween the is the want tion. Langua, people toge tash Ce tOrn t
It is easy Bandaranaike Ananda Man, Sun of 2. remarked, their languag love. We mu age right:3. TI erected barri but Bandara When he ij Only Bill he the Tamil Federal Con: and one obje be raised ag. tem, but whe sipated an form of Fe be the only 2 July). But able to est
Thus we ha no correspon mills. This wa sided gains h Our constitutic fifty years. Sinhalese and campaigned f one people. torial represe lese at the ex
in 1925 the leaders enter medy the si not honoured dena is the | Pact now aliy Commissione They introdu Suffrage (inc Tamils of the Committee Sy
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

CHANCE 2
di For ill
". Rutnam
be my last article in shich began on 2 July. ng health are gradually r toll. I hope to resume , though not on a regular assignment. k find, on a deeper the most important e estrangement betSinhalese and Tamils of proper communicage which should bring
ther has in this ins
hem apart.
to blame S. W. R. D. The Reverend
gala is reported in the September as having The Tamil people love e. They love what we it give them their languhe Sinhala Only Act has fers.' Indeed it has, naike had other ideas. introduced the Sinhala had intended to solve problem through a stitution. "A thousand ctions', he said, 'could ainst the (Federal) sys1 the objections are disconvinced that some deral Government will solution.' (See Tribune Bandaranai ke was not ablish this himself.
ad Sinhalese Only, with ding relief to the Tay of appropriating oneas been a feature of onal history for over Arunachalam got the Tamils together and or political reform as This resulted in terrintation for the Sinhapense of the Tamils.
e Sinhalese and Tamil ed into a Pact to retuation, but this was 1. R. S. S. Gunawaronly signatory of this re. The Donoughmore rs came thereafter. ced Universal Adult luding Vote for the plantations) and the Stem
lack Of Communication
A homogeneous Sinhalese Ministry was formed by Senanayake. This really exposed the absurdity of the Constitution. The Soulbury Commissioners followed. They abolished the Committee System and established a Bicameral Legislature,
and also allowed the Vote for the SN
plantation Tamils to remain.
Eventually the Bicameral legislature was abolished, the Plantation Vote scrapped and we had a
lopsided form of Government that
further denied the rights of the Tamils. This was accentuated by the Sinhalese Only Bill. Both Bandaranaike and Dudley Senanayake attempted to appease the Tamils with Pacts which they themselves repudiated, owing to alternating pressures from the contending UNP and SLFP.
This is where we are now. The seven years of SLFP Government made further inroads into the rights of the Tamils. The Armed Forces and the Police were far too
disproportionately packed with Sinhalese who were recruited generally through the back-door.
Education of Tamils was strangled,
and there was open discrimination
against them in every field. The present UNP Government has inherited this mess.
The Elections exposed the pathetic State of the plantation Tamils who form nearly a million, and who are represented only by one single individual, Thondaman. The
Government has recognised the anomalies of the situation, and has acknowledged the need for
reform. in the meantime we have gone through a gruesome fortnight of agony and terror and even savagery unparalleled in our modern history.
Are we at the parting of the ways? Tarzie Vittachi had asked the same question almost twenty years ago at the end of his book Emergency '58. Our Prime Minister has not abandoned Hope. This will perhaps be the last chance for all of us to live happily together in one undivided Sri Lanka. Could this be accomplished 2
The lack of communication seems to be, as I said at the beginning, the prime cause of our division. As an administrative measure the suggestion given by the Deputy Speaker Bakeer Markar to carry in the Hansard Sinhalese translation of Tamil speeches and Tamil
4.
།ཛུ__

Page 7
Love And Compassion
translation of Sinhalese speeches is an appropriate step in bringing closer understanding among the Members of the Assembly. I would suggest that we have an English Hisard as well. It will be useful to both local and International Scholars, of which group we have an increasing number now.
It has been realised that in our hasty rush for SWabasha (Sinhalese in 24 Hours!) we had failed to appreciate the value of English. We have now produced two or three generations of graduates with hardly a working knowledge of English. This is fatal to intellectual progress in this narrowing world. it will thus become apparent that we should give very serious consideration to recognising Sinhalese, Tamil and English as Official Languages. Nehru in India Scotched the move for Separation by Tamil Nadu by allowing the use of English instead
of Hindi in this State. As a link language between Sinhalese and Tamils, English has an important
role to play especially in the present context.
I would Suggest a crash programme to be initiated by awarding attractive incentives to Sinha lese and Tamil students at Standards Five and Eight, for the study of these languages. The Sinhalese students should be examined by Tamil teachers and the Tamils by Sinhalese. The total number of prizes should be substantial, say twenty thousand prizes for Sinhalese and ten thousand for Tamils at each level. The suggestion made by the Maha Nayake Thera of Asgiriya that facilities should be provided for Sinhalese to learn Tamil as reported in the Ceylon Daily News of 6 September is a welcome sign of leadership given by one who has by his words and action distinguished himself as a wise and true counseller of the nation. Hearken to his call. It will bring salvation to this presently unhappy land.
The only epic of Hinayana Buddhism was written in Tamil by a Tamil. It is the Manimekalai, a classic which should be read by every Tamil. Its Sinhalese translation should be made freely available to our Buddhist brethren. They should treasure it as a token of their obligation to the fervent author and his fellow Tamils. Few are aware that the great Buddhagoșha Was a Dravidian, and that many monkS in the Maha Vihara
5
at Anuradhapura we of them was a Maha /Maha Vihara.
Knowing each C is not enough. We to produce a clima sion and goodwill a ple, who il believe more close to each any other people The presently Sir people of the Mai especially the Kari and Duravas, are ve to Elara and the Ta are to Duthugamu else. So why not other with brother and with no hate An excellent move form a Race Relatic under the auspices ment. We find this Kingdom and in Au
Summing up this s find that here and lowed myself to or wrongly, rathe vhenever I felt ol I suppose this com too near to event the distance which for myself in orde goodwill, love and no hate nor bitterne address this call t
would like to misunderstanding. teemed the Revere nasiha Thera of the ple, an abode intern for its learning an vities, thanks es: renowned Reverend had personally kn say been benevole by the Reverend Ka Theras (both alas, 1 fraternity.
In the course of r exception to a pr of troops to enforc sation in some place not opposed to the personally taking finding employment themselves in indust speaking areas. But State colonisation the communal or of these areas.
This is a univ | rule and regiona been conceded t Barcelona in Spair

bre Tamils. One 1 Nayaka of the
ther's tongues should all help ate of compasmong our peoare ethnically other than to in the world. halese-speaking ritime Province, avas, Salagamas ry much closer amils than they nu or anybody ook upon each ly compassion or bitterness? would be to ons Department of the Governin the United stralia.
eries of articles, there I had alexpress, rightly r Strong VleWS bliged to do so. es when one is S. However at have now set ir to appeal for compassion, for iss, feel should o myself first.
clear a possible | had always esind Madihe PanVajirarama Temlationally famous d Buddhist actipecially to the Narada Thera. l own, and could bntly influenced, Ssappa and Soma no more) of this
my writing took oposed stationing e State coloni25. I am certainly
Sinhalege people, up residence or , or establishing rieg in the Tamill
I did not favour that would change inguistic character
tersally accepted 1 autonomy has o such areas. In last week one
million Catalonions gathered to celebrate the imminent conferment of Regional Autonomy for this region. Scotland continues to remain the homeland of the Scots, Wales of the Welsh, but in England we find a large number of Scots and Welshmen, for (besides other reasons) London in England is the Metropolis of Scotland, Wales and England.
In taking up this issue with the Reverend Pannasiha Thera l feel that I had overreached myself. Hence this "unease' within me. I have been brought up to respect the members of the clergy, be they Buddhists, Christians, Muslims or Hindus, and while protesting 1 had no intention to disrespect anyone, yet for the sake of the cause to which we are all attached, would like to express here my sincere regret for anything said by me that might have caused hurt or sadness to the reverend monk.
in the same Strain would like to express my sentiments towards my boyhood friend, who is by any standard the greatest living political figure in the country, R. S. S. Gunawardena, with whom tool had to disagree in some instances. Despite occasional embarassments to himself when he is placed in certain offices or situations, he has for a number of years continued to work for Racial Harmony, and I have no doubt his invaluable and Signal services in this direction would be appreciated and remembered by this generation and posterity.
As for me I am a humanist. I am neither proud nor ashamed of being born a Tamil. This is an accident of birth. I am on the side of those persecuted because of this accident. Presently the Tamils unfortnately happen to be the persecuted ones. Not for long, I hope, with a Prime Minister resolved, like the great Asoka, to follow the
Dhamma, “whatever the consequences.”
R Se =2
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 8
SRI LANKA CHRoNiCLE
Aug. 24 - Aug. 28
DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD
COMPLED FROM DALYNEWSPAPERS -
PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDM-Ceylon Daily Mirror; CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DM-Dinamina; LD-Lankadipa; V K-Wira kesari; ATH-Aththa; SM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; CW-Dawasa; CM-Chinthamani; WK-VVeekend; RR-Rivirasa; EN-Eelanadu;
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24: Over three million rupees worth of looted goods have been recovered during the past 48 hours as the Police and Armed forces began mopping up operations in a number of areas which were reported returning to normal; the total number of persons arrested by yesterday morning according to the police and armed forces was over 1,000. Three persons were placed under house detention at Kandy and 34 others arrested by the police in Kandy; those under house detention were former Army Colonel and SLFP candidate for Senkadagala, Mr. Anuruddha Ratwatte, Mr. C. D. L. Fernando, a medical practitioner and a leading Kandy politician, and Dr. K. N. Rajendra. Although the government had decided to continue with the curfew islandwide to prevent any further acts of lawlessness, National Security Council sources said yesterday that the situation throughout the country had improved considerably. The Government Statement of Policy was passed in the NSA last night without division. The ULF yesterday appealed to all its supporters, progressive forces and especially to the organised working class to do all they could to see that normal conditions were restored as speedily as possible relating to the violence prevailing in the country; in a statement issued yesterday the ULF advocated the formation of peace committees in villages and city wards throughout the country and especially in affected areas as a positive step in this direction. A commission to inquire into the activities of the previous regime during it's seven year rule will be appointed by a UNP government soon. The Army Commander and the Navy Commander returned to Colombo last night after an on-the-spot inquiry survey of the situation at Trincomalee; the Army Commander said yesterday that the situation though tense was under control in the latest area hit by the current wave of violence. All long distance trains are now being escorted by armed guards with a view to protecting the passengers and the trains. Police investigations into a number of incidents in the Northern sector of the city, including the Pettah, revealed that gangs of hardend criminals bent on looting shops and other commercial establishments, had driven in cars to the city armed with molotov cocktails, knives and other weapons, a number of them were arrested; there are Still some incidents in various parts of the city-CDN. The District Judge of Colombo yesterday awarded damages of Rs. 2 1/2 lakhs with costs to the PM, against the Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd for publication in the Dinamina newspaper of a defamatory statement against him. "Don't Panic' is the advice passed on by the security authorities to
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

Sf Lankó Chronicle
all Tamils living in Colombo and other areas; mischief makers were rampant and they were exploiting the present situation to issue threats and even throw stones. The Minister of Agriculture and Lands Said he would invite all TULF members to see for themselves the results of their careless talk in the Central Province. The PM told MP's of the Government Parliamentary Group yesterday that the current situation was being brought under control. An organised gang mingled among crowds at the Pettah vegetable market yesterday morning about 8 and stabbed 9 persons and set fire to three stores-CDM. Tha government yesterday reiterated its offer to the Tamil community to get together to find a solution to their problems. Mr. D. A. D. E. A. Seneviratne, DIG was yesterday appointed co-ordinating authority for security operations in the Colombo District; The PM has appraised his Indian counterpart Mr. Morarji Desai on the developments here. The government yesterday decided to make available two ships from the Ceylon Shipping Corporation to evacuate the refugees who are now in transit camps in Colombo. Life is coming back to normal in Jaffna; yesterday shops were opened for the first time after the recent incidence of violence. The government will appoint a commission to probe the expenditure that was incurred by the previous regime on the non-aligned summit conference, the Minister of Local Government, Housing and Construction said. Mr. E. L. Senanayake yesterday accused an SLFP member of Parliment of having played a major role in the recent disturbances in Kandy. A twenty four hour curfew was clamped down in Trincomalee district following a fresh outbreak of violence that left seven dead in its wake. On the orders of the Kandy magistrate, 39 persons have been taken into custody in the Kandy district for security reasons-SU. Mr. Gurubachan Singh, the Indian High Commissioner in this country will personally visit the hill country to ascertain for himself the damage caused to plantation workers in the recent wave of violence that swept over the country to enable him to submit a report to his government-VK. Since the 20 of this month over a thousand Tamils have sought refuge in 22 centres in Bambalapitiya and there are hundreds of others who are still coming. The Ceylon Workers Congress is taking steps to send back the plantation workers who have been affected by the recent events to their estates-DP. Many refugees of Indian origin who have no connection whatever with Jaffna are coming North and they are being accomodated in Killinochchi at refugee camps-EN. Damages worth 25 lakhs of rupees have been incurred in Jaffna in the recent incidents. The DC 8 is running 5 flights a day to Jafna carrrying refugees-EN.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 25: Acts of violence and looting which took place in certain parts of the country have now decreased; though these criminal acts appeared on the surface to be a communal conflict it is believed that there was a political conspiracy behind it, States a government communique. The situation in most parts of the country including the city and it's suburbs has improved, the GP said last night. The IGP last night, announced that social service associations and other voluntary organisations would help the police from today in bringing the situation back to normal in the city and suburbs. On Monday and Tuesday there were minor incidents of arson reported from Grandpass, Modera and Borelessa and patrolling was intensified;
6

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Sri Lanka Chroniele
there was looting in Kirillaponne and one was shot; a number of refugees had come into Colombo from the subrubs and the outstations and were taken to homes of their relatives; a round-the-clock patrolling by police and the armed services was being conducted at private homes and social service centres where the refugees had been housed. The Sarvodaya Shramadana movement has decided to form small Shanti Sena units of ten persons each in villages and towns throughout the country in view of the present wave of violence. Discussions were held at the Ministry of Trade regarding what steps should be taken to bring down the cost of living. The Ministry of Trade yesterday announced that 65 lorries with vegetables had been brought to Colombo from upcountry and that vegetables will be made available in markets in Colombo and the Suburbs. Around 50 persons were arrested in Kandy yesterday for alleged looting and other offences committed during the past few days; this brings the total number arrested So far to about 650. The situation in the country will be well under control within the next 48 hours, the Army Commander said yesterday. The Sinhala Tharuna Peramuna has appealed to the PM and the gvovernment to take the sternest security measures necessary to arrest the current wave of violence in the country and restore unity and peace in the Republic of Sri Lanka. The co-ordinating officer of the Matale district said that since the Air Force took up security duty in that district, not one unfortunate incident had taken place. The LSSP leader, Dr. N. M. Perera left for London on SundayCDN, it appears that some people who were in power and have lost that power have attempted to obstruct the endeavours of the government to provide speedy relief to the people, this is stated in a communique issued by the Cabinet of Ministers yesterday. An easing of the situation throughout the country was reported by the Defence Ministry yesterday afternoon. Eleven public sector trade unions have in a joint statement condemned the present wave of communal violence, which they say, besides causing harm to persons would have effect of causing diversions among the working class and masses and retard the progressive movement in the island. The Citizen's Committee for National harmony says this is a time for national self examination and it also welcomes the appeal made by the religious leaders and wants citizens to declare for themselves Sunday. August 28 as a day of religious observence and fast-CDN. Nearly 7,000 men, women and children who have been displaced as a result of the recent disturbances have been accomodated at the Saraswathy Kóvil, Bambalapitiya, St. Peter's College and St. Pauls Girls School, Bambalapitiya. A new civilian volunteer scheme to assist the police was announced by the IGP yesterday. Mr. T. B. Tennekoon, former Minister of Cultural Affairs and his son have been taken into custody by the Kandy police for security reasons. The government is likely to mobilise the public servants with a view to curbing acts of violence being perpetrated 韶 hooligans and some unruly elements. The Indian igh Commissioner in Sri Lanka has conveyed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs details of instances where Indian nationals here have suffered injuries and loss of property, said the first secretary (broadcasting) The Indian High Commissioner in this country yesterday visited Kandy and Matale and inspected refugee camps there. Joint efforts by Ministers, MP's, Co-ordinating Authorities, GA's, Services and Police personnel are leading to a restoration of law and order in the country
7
th

U. Over 2500 persons have been arrested by the lice up to date for acts of violence, arson and looting. out 12 refugee camps have set up in Killinochchi and out 2500 persons are housed in them. Security operains in the Colombo District have been intensified ceyesterday-VK. There was a total hartal in the city Madras in Tamil Nadu yesterday in sympathy with the troubles the Tamils in Sri Lanka were facing. decision to appeal to the Central Government in dia to stop the atrocities committed against the Tamills Sri Lanka and to stress to the government of Sri nka to afford protection to their property has been ssed yesterday in the Assembly in Madras-DP.
ti DAY, AUGUST 26: Departmental procedure is ignored and the applications of ordinary people jected in the allocation of flats belonging to the apartment of National Housing by the last government; most all the allottees of about 1000 flats belonging to e Department were made to supporters of the CP, e LSSP and the SLFP; thousands of people who were departmental waiting lists and who were eligible r allocation have been ignored; these are the findings
the Commissioner of National Housing which have ten forwarded to the Minister of Local Government, pusing and Construction. Religious leaders, trade ions and voluntary organisations have cond mneed e acts of violence that have taken place during the st few days and have called for the restoration of peace id goodwill among all sections of the community. he law and order situation in the island had shown a arked improvement in the 24 hours which ended sterday and the tension was easing in the more troued areas of Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Mannar, police ld armed forces said yesterday. Vigilance committees ganised by a number of volunraty organisations began sisting the police to maintain law and order in the ty and suburbs yesterday. Three ships that left olombo harbour on Thursday morning carrying regees to Jaffna will return to Colombo with a large insignment of Subsidiary foodstuffs from Jaffna accordg to the Deputy Minister of Trade. A plan to make Addhist temples and other religious centres Sanctuaries r people in distress was launched yesterday at the ajirarama by four leading members of the Sangha; he scheme has been launched to restore present condions to normalicy-CDN. Defence Ministry sources ascribed the present situation as a vast improvement'; oradic incidents were reported from some areas ld the security forces have got the situation well in bntrol, they said. Several peripheral medical units ere unmanned for the past two days as the staff kept way; even in the outstations the DMO and MOH areas ere has been large scale absenteeism. Police are now ying to track down the culprits responsible for creatg panic among Tamil residents in what is called telehone directory warfare; police sources said that certain is chievous elements took the telephone numbers f Tamils from the directory at random and informed hem that the Tamil houses down their street would e the targets of attack that night; the message was then assed on to other Tamil residents and utter panic reigned such areas; the telecommunication authorities are ying to asssist the police in trying to bring the culprits 5 book. Many imported food items have arrived here; ney include dry fish, cow pea, dates and dhall. The hree vessels of the Ceylon Shipping Corporation arrying 1800 refugees are expected to reach Jaffna this
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

Page 10
ད། །
8
peo edsp sulosed eqeue o senseeu ene pauuu 'epo pue AAel Liqeaujeu dieu on au jeu! Seu u21/W 20e o2 o![qnd Feue'U93 eu 2 se IIeAA se Kaled Jeu go Suequeu IIe pensenbe. eus pue sue uoddo eboduo e3ueAe. Le»e2 3UAeu O dNfn e U suepee peSnooe eus :3Ue3Xe Ue Lyons o? pepeleose eAeu nou pnoNA sue33'eu nUeuUueAo3 e 42 Aq Ua>23 ueeq peu u o!30 e 93e!peuu! J! 3eu? Ples ose eus :tiopen?!s queseud eup on peinquguop ose -in... etj? Jo saoueue32n eu2 jo euos neu2 KepJense K penssi 2ueue2 e3S e u pres əxeUeue PUÏeg o Aeuuu! S * Sul, “d-S eų? Jo JƏPeƏI ƏųL "ņuəuuuuəAo3 əų. Kq ano pə> uo,wa 3Ujeq AAOUI əue suolae uleua ureaqo on Kununoo eup useo Uequinasp eq2 Aq pepeIdsip suosued eigeue on seunseau ejepeuu aseo ueuanoS eua punoue Bues sunou 98 go Keuno Snopel pue 3uo eua pUe ees Kq see 3nge o quod sueua eu2 UI Pa AIOAU 2 soo u3 u eu Jo weau si sua sees (q go peepsu, Pu'e[JeAO euger on see3njeu pues on 3uquUe[d WoU. S.) 2Ueu -UuƏAo3 Əų ‘ų sỊAA Kəų, jų ‘ų uoU əų. U sƏuolų Ju!Əų3 o 3 o3 on unos eu) usue eqeue on aueueõuele leeds S! u 3 ep euu seu KeńWJ!e... eu 2 : pelunn Liesexuex o 3. UnJ 2009-d!P e uo auguou sun uu'd Z be eu ene age ugeun Iepads w "Ju equədəS yo >ƏƏAA pU opƏs əų2, U4, s3UI43ys eɔUƏuuuuoo o Poloedxe s! 'eoueloja jo soe Jouno pue 3uj3oo "Uosue Jo DNeds Ueoeu eu? oJ pe hæu sesmeo eu? jo Shoedse Ile egoud o3 Kunbu jo Uossuuod leau opseud et L *WGJO-KUIouJeų pule Əpeəd IeUoyeUIyo Uojououd əų. Joy Pue e buello! Ajo uo!3esseo aup uo ue Keld go Kep e se 3Z 3Snonv“AepunS 3Aesqo on suaeg e o sugeupe uodn peleo ÁepueseÁ suepee snoy3 el rey euou eun se. Pue peq 3e3 o) Jeej u seuou u gela age ou A seenpeAe asenbeu o2 epeu oq plnoAA souoge neu2 ples se2.Inos Ie|2990 euot. UJinxe. O3 pexeoo eq o2 eue SquinqnS eu|2 pure oquuooo U sƏuolų uolu səənpe A “ KunUnoɔ Əų UI ! Kuue eunuuoo usaese-elu on seoaues Jeu puie2xe on suo poes e Asse.3oud e pUe sue»uoAA eua Uodn pe||2O Seu unoqet go uo!3elepa- uoi Keo etj. “Kepuese K. pjes sebunos Kasu 00ueed pue->eem elu Ka euJou eq pnoAA suo puoo nel pedou senA a pue KunUnoo eua 2nol3 -nou Aqeepsutoo 3usee eueAA suo sue L Pesseo-nos elogo “Sure Ae Uebe. Aq peuuee edoed eu2 UI eousepy -Uoo eJoseu on 3udjeu Ka edAues ueuoeK peulojJed S3un eseu “suopeedo Anoes ulaua u seo\es peuue pūre əɔĮod əųn BuyasỊsse əIųIAA : KepuƏŋsƏK UogeluƏdo o2U! 9ue2 301-12sld oquoloo eu 2 anou 3 noJu2 S2!Un eo Ulieged] „uee aun IoA Ulle![Algo eu L : KeňAe Ulepp!u 2ooL e-lou pePIeu/K e Aeu ejo! Io + pluie pluieuuuuoo [eunueco Kuuluvo eu42 Kq suone-uədo pəu quoɔ Ieuluou 3 uuuooəq nsey Əq o pe)Jodelu ele suIo3pUoo eua pUe Uo3e e 2 Ueo eu. Luo pe)Jodel Ueeq eAeu sueppu oN Sau8y uoÁeo uvulo oquuoioo uuolluy eugger om e Aeu2 on 3 unueñW Ulosued Kune plue see3njel on penss 3Ueq euena euger on sexpia eel*ƏɔUƏIO! A lų2ĮMA pƏUƏpeƏJų3 SPIOųƏSnotų jo uopoenold et Joy sdnoug) poolsunoqu3|aN, uuoy op Peppep JJeup 9l43 u ! sseJiŝuojo 3sgupping uo[Keo Ivy huep!seJd “euepJe^^ -9Un5 queueues JIS un AA peu ubium KuouJeH [2Uo!2eN Joy ese3ayuuoso suezalo eu "seo.unos Áalunbes o 3 u. -pJoooe peseee.J edeAA Kpuey ae Uoj3ue2ep esnou JePUn peoed ueeq Jeju ee peu ol w suo sued go equinu e eliu M -uee uu “se!3!A!!noe nuebe-u u peum anoqle Saule3.unsu ! 3unJ -do) Buyuopsenb pəɔUƏuuuuoo KepuƏŋsƏK CO əlų "SunƏ3 99es Uo up3ew dee) PUIIe UO42e2 !PƏp pUe Kļuebus uļAA Kanp uļəų uu-uojuəd pinolųs suƏ>-uo wÄ IIe əsod und syų uoj 33UeuuuLue Ao 3 et42 go ujo.ueuu pJueñAJIoj eu2 2onJ2sqo om ueuu 4ouseu uieu pure suono e eola od peneeep Aq peuoeu Koeajdsuoo seuoneu-2ue əų3 Que NAų3 O2 SƏAIƏSuuƏų3 Ə4 Un O3 ue ua pe3un ose set eu : sebuolegp kgqed Ie peus O). sexuoña Molley pue su equieu sal IIe on peleeddie seu Uoya
3/2/U0.4.) DyuD7 IJS

L6 AI Jegusades зNnaЧi
-elope- Uojun ope-LIeuopeNaolajesoland ey jo 4e2 -əuɔəS IeuƏUəə əųL *eueųJA əų3 pure Knəyes s 3U PJEBə. SUOSJI 9 d. 3 UU3 sƏp Kq pƏa enɔ ɔ SJK nou nu əseg pəUəp Keuese K naAlaeuleN e.eu!A edeepesen eUeund eu? go K3 ed Peuel A euL'Su3 Ueunuluoi abedse pUe 3upue: -suepun (enanu UIo peseq sinsuesob reballod e spueMO3 }uom O2 pule suosued puebouU! jo Kuadoud pue se A! I JO SSOI 913e 12 eu9 Joy e[qISUIOdse. Ueeq seul qpuAA e3uel -o! A. Awe upse Kaueueuuued plue Kemeduuoo oa se 2 gunu -uoɔ le go ədoəd əua Uodin 3U eo quəuƏeas e, pƏnssi eAey oquooo u suepe Illuel queuguoud Auquino BU) U svo [[e on 421sjú! poo4 eu? uOJ KepJe}seÁ no Quəwa sa uued ƏsƏų ənss! on suononusu! : AuņUnoɔ eu2 o 2ued Kue UI e Aneuedo-oo o Joanquasip poo pƏsuolų, ne Kue uoluj, suojelu KPəəAA uļəų meu P o 3 uueų? eqeue o seo Uequnasp e un 3Unp Sooq UO3 e 1943 PeoeIds!p „uo 2 soI eAeu ouqAA sUIos-ued I[e o’3 penss! 3u!eq eu e s? Iuuued poo, Iepeds : z LSnsonv “AVOIYi
"CJT—3Senbe.u UAA o Jeu? 3e euger o que S 8uleq eue siguel “eoUeged, yo Kusju, əų ujejogo ule on 3 upuoɔɔv "Oo-uəquədəS U e Meue. Joy dn seuoo 3o ed epei 2 e»ue S-OUIS 9 u 2 (IleuqwA Julee K 2xeu eU14O Uuoly eo-I jo suo2 000'00z jo Əseųound əų, uo, əneno 3əū o pənəədxə sų ex Ueli l-uS'buleuu -Uue AO3 eu 2 Kq Joy peueo IIe see3njeu 000', Áfueeu Spueu ujeua uji e Aey Ias sejauouane euh :uoj3e. KPUe eu) u! Ieuou penuodeu euea suoyapuoo Kep puobes eua Joh See i peddeos eq pInous Uogedo duoo sua “eod eq!ssod 2.semoi eu) qe jeunsuop e ua o? Pos subnpoud S3. pue UIo12on poud IInj ne peugeaujeu eq on si KuusnpU euo !! : sa 12xe) peun3pegnue u K[[ebol go aSop q31u eu2. Joy ƏĮqsuodsə-u Uəəq seų uope.uoduojo səIddnS au AeƏWA Əų “Kusin pu IIeuuS go uəqueųo exule 1 uS əųn on 3upuoɔɔvy pe}nq!Josip pue peauqud Ueeq seul III qPUeu e jouJoy eu: U! queue Jeas eu 2 : sndueb euyer eu 2 go quou saüepnos sisayə əų Kq pƏnss! quəuənens e skes “sindueɔ eugef au 2 go que pnos e[euUgS e13us e o2 euop sem uJeu ou pUe su epinas eleuUIS eu deje peloo Kasue Aluin eu yo sndueo eugef eu, pănoue sunoqu3țeu pue sauepnis Iuel. CK0 SaaYKLLLL CL CLGLaaKGL aaaaSLLL aLLS0 LLCGLL ESYSS LS0 LI seee8nge 00SC peajoose Kepue2seK euuosued Kuue Ko ueƏŋ vy" Kepsənuo ngəų puse 3 u pjeƏuq əSinolų jo Ə seo e u?!A Uopauuoo u I epirod e ke Kued eu? Kq Kpoqsno O2U! Uexe2 sapedsns eAy eu) 3Uoue eu9AA sque3unsul LCLLLCS CCSKKSS SKmLmDLK K C0LLKCKC S L KCCCCCaLLG KK0 3u!AAOIIO} eoUịAOdd eAn Uị ÁpoạSno onu! Ue>ieạ Ueeq eAeu S.O. (eue Aes 3u1.pnpu suosued 00: JeAO episano pue seoeduow usua u Auoueu eunuuoo usiqease on pJeAAuo euuoo e Ael Seuloue.q pUe suo Un epei Uo!3 e -Joduoso pue eloAue-S o qnd '3uuuou sel yo su nou Áuee Əų2. U eƏue KaUeųs > ufeg IeueO əų. Uo pelu suyuƏŋų3 e pƏŋɔnpUIolo ou AA əood ənnemeəAWA əųn Kq 3unooli yo se3.netpuo Aposino ou Uexen euena Ueuoma e 3upnous sUosJed Ue-L "ÁepJenseẤ nee.Jng pneu4 oquoloo eua Ấq peạse.JJe eJeW Soueunoop pe3uoj 3uịonpoud Áq ưOịa -euoduojo seuəe, 3 Uping əų uoluy spoo3 əseųɔund o pƏduƏnne olųIAA əIdoəd go dnou3 vy *3uhoo pue əɔuəIoA yo Əneds əų pUųəq əq o pƏŋɔədsins Əue o tųm, suome. I'd suoro | eo yn y fod, eugh u mop >|peium on suo!he34?seau! penU-12UIO0 00![Od eu 3 j0 Uols!Ald selo!Aues epue3IIeau əų. Se ƏɔUeIII 49 Auns uƏpun pəoed Uəəq əAeų olų AA əsolų 3UIoue ƏuƏAA Seuɔneəunq uəuluoj, puie soon! (od 3 upjueu ų34ų IeuƏAƏS "WOJO—Kosuə KpeƏue Kəų2 Sayyəuəq əų, o uoyalippe ut leuUosuedeolod Ie on ue A3 eq pInow Kepued e-12XƏ G “SY 3eų3 PƏɔUnoUUle Nd Əų. *eluje s Juoj əAeəI o }Uem ouNA sea3nya. e sou? Joy euger o snually lepods I8 ƏeuƏdo o SUIəuuə3U'e uue Əpeu seų uo Kəo uĮvy *3uuuou

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Sri Lanka Chronicle
by the present disturbances in the country to obtain their rations are now being worked out by the government-SU. Except for the Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts where the curfew was from 6 p.m. last evening to 6 a.m. this morning, the curfew was in operation from 8 p.m. last night to 4 a.m. this morning -VK. There was a large crowd gathered at the KKS pier to receive the refugees who were taken by ship; this was because nobody knew who would be on the Ships. About 2 a.m. this morning some shops near the bus stop were on fire and efforts made to put it out were of no use. In the Vavuniya district 14 villages were set on fire and burnt and over a hundred families have escaped to safety. In the town itself, over 5 large shops and many small ones were looted and burnt-EN. The Minister of Health has discovered that while there was a shortage of ayurvedic drugs in the country, Rs. 30 lakhs worth
of ayurvedic drugs were rotting inside the Ayurvedic
Drugs Corporation Stores-DW.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 28: A luxury yacht-building industry, that will involve a production cost of Rs. 50 million a month once the factory is in full gear has got off the ground in a Sri Lanka Air Force owned World War 2 hangar at Malay Cove, Trincomalee. The Indian PM has said that there is no reason for public opinion in India to be perturbed over the incidents in Sri Lanka, according to agency reports. Fourteen envoys are due to return to Sri Lanka by the end of the year on completion of their terms of office; another will return by the end of January, while two others announced their intentions to resign earlier. The curfew was operative between 9 p.m. last night and 4 a.m. today islandwide except in Jaffna; official sources expressed satisfaction about the law and order situation throughout the country and said that normalcy was being restored; the number of incidents reported had been few, the sources said. The Minister of Transport has placed before the government a blueprint for placing the CTB on an entirely new footing; it envisages the establishment of seven regional autonomous boards in the seven regions the CTB now envelopes. A large consignment of onions has been airlifted from Jaffna on the instructions of the Minister of Trade and will be available for sale from today. The exodus of refugees which began a few days ago was a land, Sea and air operation on a scale rarely seen in Sri Lanka before-SO. The PM has welcomed the initiative of the Citizen's Committee for National Harmony in devising measures for easing tenSion within the community and in helping to solve some of the problems that have arisen in the present crisis. The government has taken action to ensure adequate supplies of food and fuel not only to the North but also to other parts of the country according to official sources. The Sub-Committee set up by the Citizen's Committee for National Harmony to assist refugee camps appealed to the public for donations of food, clothes and toys The situation in Batticaloa appears to be returning tonormal after the Strike of bank, mercantile and government employees last Thursday and Friday in protest against certain sections of police personnel earlier in the week, according to Army personnel; in Colombo the situation was almost normal yesterday except for some mopping up operations by the security foces who were rounding up criminal elements; over 90 IRC's and other criminal elements were rouned up during the past three days in some parts of Colombo; Tamil refugees
9

n the camps at St. Sylvester's and Trinity Colleges and he Ampitiya seminary were moving to the Teacher's raining College at Polgolla yesterday. The MPfor Mihinale has given notice of the motion in the NSA that early ction should be taken with a view to granting an mnesty to those connected with the incidents of pril 1971 who are still supposed to be in hiding so as D enable them to come into the open society without ar. Mr. Nissanka Wijeyaratne is the first Diyawadane ilame to have conducted the Kandy Esala Perahera ccording to a schedule under a curfew-ST. The Cabinet as given approval to a series of far-reaehing constiutional amendments to be presented in the NSA by he next month. The death-toll as a result of the current save of violence have risen to 105; this figure includes oters who have been shot by the security personnel; ccording to police officials nearly 3,000 persons have een arrested for charges varying from curfew violence, hurder, looting and arson; these suspects are remanded the country's 3 remand prisons; a large quantity f stolen goods and valuables have been recovered by he police from various parts of the island. Over 25,000 ersons are now lying in refugee camps in the country waiting evacuation after last Week's outbreak of vioince. Very few incidents have been reported throughut the country yesterday and the general situation s well under control; the security forces were mostly ngaged in flushing out operations resulting in large uantities of looted goods being recovered. The People's Bank has agreed to give loans to those persons who wish o purchase mechanised boats for the purpose of fishing -WK. The government is working out a rehabilitation cheme for all those estate workers and other people in the hill country who have been affected by the recent pate of trouble and who have been driven away from ome. The free Air services for refugees has been susended from yesterday. Sources connected to the PM have said that it is very likely that he would assume uties as President of the Republic. After a week he town was returning to normal; early yesterday morning right in the midst of the town, 25 shops were et on fire and gutted, and So all other shops closed; ollowing this, the co-ordinating officer of the area has contacted the government and requested them to remove the curfew in Jaffna. A team from the defence Ministry will visit Jaffna this evening in an air force plane to investigate the fire which had broken out the day before yesterday-EN.
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 12
FOR THE RECORD
ON THE COMMUNAL CONFAGARATION
Compensate victims of racial violence too
-Pieter
"The Communist Party demands that the Governments' decision to compensate victims of the violence experienced in the first few days after the general election should be extended so that victims of communal violence could also be compensated, General Secretary of the Communist Party, Mr. Pieter Keuneman said on Sunday when he addressed a conference of the Communist Party branch secretaries at Cotta Road. He said "the communal violence of the past few days can only evoke feelings of shame and alarm among all who value the good name of Sri Lanka.
"The Government's handling of the situation had been far from satisfactory. Some of the Government actions and most of its studied inaction seemed to be dictated more by partisan political consideration rather than its duty to maintain public peace and security. Certain actions, such as placing persons under so-called ' house arrest', appeared to have no basis in law.'
Mr. Keuneman said that no one should imagine that once violence subsided, normality would be restored. Unless energetic action was taken now to solve the fundamental questions underlying the erruption of communal violence, there was a grave danger that a situation such as existed in Northern Ireland or in Cyprus would become "normality” in Sri Lanka.
it was also not enough, for the Government merely to reiterate its intention to Summon an allparties conference. It had the clear duty, before such a conference was summoned, to set out its own specific proposals on how the problem of communal relations could be solved, so that other parties and the people as a whole could consider those proposals. Only the ULF had made specific proposals on this matter, which were set
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977
out in 紧 elect TOpOS21S pTOV 器 蠶g" th negotiation.
“Sending Ta North and Sin South was only of giving both However, more repetitions of attempt at an C ment, would o support for thi that Sri Lanka into separate s Mr. Keunem: ted a United Sir should guarant zens, irrespect have the right peacefully and part of the col
Problems
must be st
Mr. Prins ( MP for Habara retary of the Balavegaya in : day Said that should evolve the problems He states that were not agains of the Tamils
The present States, has w of the Sinhale and had a ge evolve courage to solve this p sekera also ste incidents whic at a carnival i communal turn grateful that by the Gove prevent mass and property. thank the re and other vo forward to prc Tamil speaking
They should evolve a just such communa had occurred 20 years. Upto adjustments ha out finding a to the probler could hencefor to this prob

on manifesto, those ded the last hope problem through
nil refugees to the alese refugees down a temporary means
a sense of security.
and more frequent this, without a real verall political settlenly help to increase : erroneous demand
should be divided tates.”
in said all who wani Lanka to continue e that all its citiwe of race, should to live and work without fear in any
Intry. -Ceylon Daily News -2718/77.
率
of Tami is blived: Prins
Gunasekera (former duwa), General SecSri Lanka Vimukthi 1 Statement, yester: the Government a quick solution to facing the Tamils. the Sinhala people t the just grievances
being redressed.
Government, he on the confidence se and the Tamils hod opportunity to Dus and honest Steps roblem. Mr. Gunates that the recent followed an event Jaffna has taken a They were however certain steps taken rnment helped to destruction of life They would also igious organisations unteers who came tect the lives of the
people. all now Strive to solution to prevent disturbances which thrice in the past now only temporary re been made withpermanent Solution is. No Government h turn a blind eye em. The previous
For A United Sri Lanka
Government after winning 20 seats could have solved the problem, However the leaders of the former government were not much worried about national problems.
Mr. Gunasekera calls upon the Government to stop the evacuation of Tamils to the North and the Sinhalese from the North to the other parts of the country. By that step the authorities were only unwittingly helping in the creation of a Tamil Eelam. He added that the Tamil residents outside the North should be afforded police and armed services protection with the co-operation of the Sinhalese people in the area.S.
-Ceylon Daily Mirror -28/8/77
※ 来
Recent events must make TULF leaders think again -Ceylon Communist Party
The Ceylon Communist Party hopes that the recent tragic events would make the TULF leaders think again, says the General Secretary of the Party Mr. N. Sanmugathasan in a press release issued yesterday. The following are excerpts from the release.
"The political bureau of the Ceylon Communist Party, which met on the 27th instant, reviewed the unfortunate direction which events in the country had taken during the past two weeks. What started as a confrontation between the police and a section of the people in Jaffna has been turned into another communal holocaust, second only to the 1958 events by designing communal politicians on both sides and by the excesses committed by the police in the North as well as their refusal to take stern and immediate action against offenders of the law in the South.
“While, a detailed examination of the causes that led to these ugly events must await more time, we cannot gloss over some of the inflammatory speeches made in this connection. The speeches of TULF leaders have lacked statesmanship. Equally regrettable is the fact that the SLFP leader did not use the platform of the State Assembly
O

Page 13
For The Record
to condemn racial violence. The Ceylon Communist Party reminds the working class and revolutionary movement that it is always the first victim when communalism rears its ugly head and therefore calls upon it to fight back with all its strength every attempt to incite communalism and to protect all minorities living in their midst as a sacred task and thus slowly lay the basis for restoring the shattered national unity.
"As a party that has consistently opposed the demand for a separate state for the Tamils, we hope that the recent tragic events would make the TULF leaders think again. But we also call upon the Government to help in this process by granting the just demands of the Tamily minority and thereby restore national unity.'
-Ceylon Daily News 28/8/77
事 家
CP (ML) decries
violence
The Communi;t Party of Sri Lanka in a press release has condemned the recent incidents of violence and has called upon the working class and all patriotic force; to categorically reject the path taken by anti
people elements. The full text of
the release 'Signed by Mr. H. L. K. Karawita, member of the Secretariat of the Party reads:-
"The present communal disturbances and the resulting mindless acts of plunder, assault, looting and arson are inimical to the interests of the working people and the broad masses of Sri Lanka. They are yet a further manifestation of similar acts of vandalism and terrorism which erupted in the aftermath of the recent elections. The Communist Party of Sri Lanka (Marxist-Leninist) calls upon the working class and all patriotic foces to categorically reject the path taken by these antipeople elements.
"Despite occasional differences the Sinhala and Tamil speaking peoples in our country have lived together in harmony and close cooperation for centuries. Isolated conflits such as the present one, have failed to drive a wedge between the working peoples of the various communities. The events
now taking plac interests of the are harmful to th among the work pective of langua "History has munalism and ter out exception h of reaction to selves by causing the exploited m World countries are under the h alism communalis by the failure to day problems of
"The CP (ML) tion of both the speaking peoples inherent in the country. The unit integrity of our resolutely mainta interests of all will be served. tendencies conti even greater da powers may use differences to ga over the country own selfish ends time to lay blan goats. We appea masses to oppos developments at efforts to recor unity among all island home.’’
Thwart ant plot by def factions
—TU federa to membe.
The General Sec Service National ration, Mr. Doug appealed to all fellow workers to ference5. He ha to unite themise anti-national con defeated political henchmen to C march of the G þurþ0Fe all wor, their duty with cation and keep

are not in the working class and 2 forging of unity ng people, irresges and religions. hown that com"orism have withBlped the forces onsolidate themdivisions among isses. In Third like ours, which 2el of neocolonim, is heightened solve the day to
the people. draws the attenSinhala and Tamil to the dangers division of the y and territorial country must be ined so that the the communities these fissiparous tue there is the nger that foreign our temporary in a stranglehold to further their . This is not the ne or find scape1 to the working e these anti-people ld help in the struct the base the people of our
-Ceylon Daily News
28/8/77
i-national eated
tion appeals
"S
retary of the Public Trade Union Fedelas Abeydeera, has
its members and Shed al petty difalso urged them ves to thwart the spiracy hatched by
factions and their struct the forward vernment. For this ers should perform Şincerity and dediwatch on saboteurs.
The following is the me;3 age:-
The UNP Government headed by the Prime Minister Mr. J. R. Jayewardene has within one month of assuming office taken several noteworthy measures for the common benefit of the masses. Just as the Government got down to the task of redeeming its pledges to the people, unfortunate incidents have erupted in several parts of the country. As a result of various false rumours inhuman acts of sabotage looting and harmful acts are taking place under the guise of communalism.
full text of the
It is evident that a certain group of people are trying to create dissension and trouble at Government departments and work places on the pretence of communalism. The attempt made by some defeated political parties with the concurrence of state officials and Trade union leaders loyal to them to create trouble by misleading and instigating workers can be identified as a conspiracy to obstruct the forward march of the UNP Gover; reint and sabotage the speedy plans it hoped to implement for the welfare of the masses.
Already these acts have occurred in Some Government departments and workplaces. Instead of resorting to unpatriotic and wasteful activities, the working class which desires national prosperity, has given a massive victory to the United National Party to overcome the oppression and untold suffering experienced during the past period.
The UNP Government headed by the Prime Minister Mr. J. R. Jayewardene is ever ready to work for the benefit of the common masses. In order to enable the Government to perform that task, the working class should lend its unstinted co-operation. The only way we could achieve our common ambition is by helping this Government, which commands our full confidence to speed up its march forwyard. •
We should never allow room for the conspiracy hatched by opportunist political factions who have already brought national destruction. We should never allow them to raise their heads once again. You should also keep a close surveillance on those Government servants who are trying to obstruct the Government by being pawns
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

Page 14
in the hands of defeated political factions.
We therefore appeal to all sections of the working class to resolve to destroy this anti-national conspiracy by Shedding all racial, class, caste, and other petty differences and uniting to perform each one's part of duty with sincerity and dedication.
永 米
More religious bodies, TUs appeal for peace and amity
More religious institutions, Welfare organisations and trade unions yesterday appealed to all concerned to co-operate with the Government in resorting law and order and to give assistance to those in need of care and protection.
“FOSTER BROTHERLY FEELING FOR CONUNTRYS PROGRESS'.
The Ven. Hadigalle Pannatissa Mahanayake Thera, Chief High Priest of Bharata in a message says: "If there are any shortcomings or problems between the Sinhalese and the Tamils these should be discussed and settled by peaceful negotiations. Hence all of us in this little island should foster brotherly feelings for the progress of our country. This is my kind appeal to all.'
The Christian Workers’ Fellowship appealed to all Trade Unions and progressive forces in the country to take all possible action to deal with the latest threat to the unity of the people. The statment said "The Fellowship warns the working people in particular that racism can only divide them and divert attention from their real problems and thus strengthen the hand of reaction in the country. It appeals not only to Christians but to all men of goodwill regardless of race and religion to join together purposefully in resisting these cowardly attacks and in affording relief to the victims.”
The Union of Baptist Churches of Sri Lanka unanimously pledged at its annual conference its loyalty to the Prime Minister and the : Government and decided to pray for the success of the Prime Minister's efforts to create a just and righteous society.
The Catholi Lanka has appe to co-operate wi in restoring law release issued by Acting President “An important i tion is to take each one's neigh confidence and also urge all from careless tal of rumours. Let being misled by The Secretar
National Inte Mr. U. EL NM || ment said : “If
the lifferences ourselves peacef of an integrated our children W suffer in future. own interest ar. of our motherlar sent tension and an end better it peal to all to thir of common int. their influence sent calamity to The Lions trict 306 (Sri an appeal to all and Leos to he to bring peace Following is the statement: "It is of responsibility all Lions, Lion L. help in the effor to our beloved we will only be commitment to tanding among p justifiable sense C tribute to thos Ladies who hav an active role in less victims of th I am glad that we with a large cons (over 1000 garme fore appeal once Lions Family to Officers in their their Services SC come sooner. It at a conference of voluntary se in greater Colo ned by the Ins Police, that clubs contact the Su Police and offer Mr. Abdul President of til Islamic Institut
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

c Union of Sri aled to all citizens th the government and order. A press Mr. A. G. O. Perera, of the Union said: step in this direcpositive action in bourhood to inspire to allay fears. We citizens to refrain ( and the spreading : them also avoid
rumours.''
ty of the Ceylon igration Society Farook in a statewe do not settle which arise among ully and in a spirit nation, it is we and s'ho are going to Therefore in our ld in the interest ld, sooner the previolence come to is for all. We aplik and act in terms erest and use all to bring the pre
a halt.” nternational DisLanka) has made Lions, Lion Ladies alp in the efforts to the country. : full text of the with a deep sense that I appeal to dies and Leos to its to bring Peace land. In so doing 2 exemplifying our promote undersboples. It is with a if pride that I pay e Lions and Lion e already played helping the helpis terrible tragedy. were able to help gnment of clothes nts). May I thereagain to all the contact the State area and offer that Peace could Vas also suggested of representatives Vice organisations mbo area conveector General of in the area should berintendents of their assistance. W. M. Armeer e International 2 in a message
For The Record
States:- "At an emergency meeting of the International Islamic Institute it was decided to make an urgent appeal for communal accord and harmony and for the restoration of peaceful conditions in our beloved country.
"It is the duty of the Muslims to play their historic role as peaceful mediators to bring about better understanding between the major communities. It was further decided that an appeal be made to the leaders of all communities to make a concerted effort to settle the outstanding disputes and differences among them.
"We wish the Prime Minister Mr. J. R. Jayewardene and his Cabinet all success in his valiant efforts to restore normalcy and set Sri Lanka on the road to prosperity.
Mr. C. V. Velupilai, Administrative Trustee, National Union of Workers said "At this moment of national crisis it is heartening to note that organisations and public spirited individuals have come forward to assist the government and the law enforcing authorities in the speedy restoration of peace and harmony'.
The Sri Lanka. Jaycees have appealed to the youth in particular and the public in general to cooperate with the authorities and help restore law and order. It would be clear to any citizen that what is happening in the country is resulting in a loss to everyone in Some way or the other. Thus, it is in the interest of every citizen to make even the smallest possible contribution to help restore normalcy in refraining from Spreading or believing rumours.'
The General Secretary of the UNESCO, Mr. Sri La Caldera on behalf of the youth of this country, appealed to all communities to foster peace and harmony for the general good of the country.
The Ceylon Federation of Labour has appealed to all progressive sections to exert themselves to re-establish conditions of communal amity in this country. It has urged the formation of peace committees in all work places and in the neighbourhoods to provide protection to all.
Ceylon Daily News 27|8|77
2.

Page 15
From Our Readers
LETTERS
ON AND ABOUT WOLENCE
Wanted A New Approach
Sir,
refer to an Appeal signed by several Tamil citizens which had appeared in your journal. I have no doubt about the genuiness and sincerity of their words. But I fear that Statements and Appeals such as these could lead to a further worsening of the present situation. For they start off by saying that the Sinhalese and Tamils have lived together in peace for centuries. It would be correct to say that the Sinhalese and Tamils have lived together for the last few decades with the Tamils occupying the status of a frustrated second class citiZenship, denied at all times natural justice, with periodic eruptions of violence such as the one happening now. No less an authority than the present Prime Minister has admitted this. And every signatory of this Appeal can from personal experience vouch that Tamils in this generation are being treated as second class citizens. By Appeals Such as this they are asking for the Statu; quo to be maintained whereby the Tamils in every part of the Island are to be pushed around, bullied, ill treated, prevented from securing, employment, patronised, denied legitimate promotions and aspirations, and the protection of their persons and property.
The accentuation of the situation can be dated from the time that sole prominence was given to the Sinhala language and continued with increasing emphasis by every Government since. The fact that some Tamils accepting this situation have by hard work, thrift, competing in public examinations and by merit been able to secure good employment and property in predominantly Sinhala areas should not blind one to these hard facts. In more recent times discrimination against the Tamils has affected them in every field of endeavour, excepting among those Tamils who for one reason or. ano
3
ther were prepare with the predom
politicians to obtail
and favour of the
The truth is tha populated by con citizens and that veneer of reasonab rance there is a ha has passed under th prejudice. How i els count for the fact th of the “Reichstag Fi aar at Jaffna, all over ets of plunder and quickly and beca unless there was a mering cauldron of waiting for some over. Disgruntled tunists and crimina have taken advantag ing unrest, but th done so only if th loving population or turned a blind e so obvious at the Steps.
I have heard a Sir how in the City of number of Sinhales in a cluster down on having an isolated living right in the this curfew in broa all these families wa front gates, a mob household and pilla it and then walk ol as they entered i article in the hous Il asked, “or any oth ber that were watc a token of protes effectual it may hav this act of lawless in front of your which there was no
I was discussing with a Sinhala col Said that one of t the present tensio restrict Tamils to 20 sity admissions ir their proportion i. Population. To whi that 20% only of conservancy labou Tamil. He accused facetious, but whe add that then 20% investment should wards the Tamil sp that 20% of the A High Commissione Chairmen and Direct men and that ever

d to join up nant Sinhaliese the patronage State.
this Island is munal minded beneath a thin eness and tole"di core of what e term 'racial' e can one acat within hours re” in the Bazthe Island pock iolence erupted me widespread constantly sim"racial' enmity event to boil political oppor1 elements may 2 of the prevailey could have e general peace
allowed them ye to what was ir front door
halese describe Colombo of a e families living e of the Streets Tamil family center, during d daylight with tehing from the enter this single ge and plunder ut as brazenly in with every e. “Did you,” er of the numhing offer even it, however in 'e been, against ness committed very eyes?' To b reply.
recent events league when he he solutions to in would be to 1% of all Univerkeeping with in the country's ch replied then the country's rers should be me of being n li went on to of the national be directed to eaking areas and mbassadors and rs, Corporation tors, Bank Chairy fifth Inspector
and Navy Chief,
General of Police, Army, Air Force Chief Justice, Governor of the Central Bank, President of the Nation and even Prime Minister must be a Tamil, he agreed that this would be reasonable and logical, but he wondered whether he would accept or tolerate such a position.
This is what I mean by "racial' prejudice, where the "rational' mind will always be overruled by the dark uncomprehending passion of bigotry. So when the political arm of the Tamils, the TULF (and there should be no mistake made about this, the TULF speaks for the Tamils irrespective of whether all the Tamils voted for the TULF or not, just as much as Mr. J. R. Jayewardena rightly says that he is the Prime Minister of the whole nation including those who voted for the SLFP) makes a statement it must be listened carefully and not labelled as inflammatory out of hand. As Amirthalingam pointed out when the Sinhalese talk of their rights this is termed nationalism; but when the Tamils talk of their similar rights this is termed communalism and inflammatory.
The myth that speeches of the TULF members especially Amirthalingam's are the sole cause of the present communal problem, a reason assiduosly trotted out by very many Sinhalese including
protect Our Tamil Brothers Buddhist Prelate Appeals
The Ven Kotugoda Dhammawasa Nayake Thera, Chief lncumbent of the Sri Dharmapalaramaya, Mount Lavinia and Patron of the Sinhala-Tamil Friendship Association, has appealed for better understanding and closer friendship between the Sinhala Buddhists and their Tam j1 Brothers.
In a Statment issued yesterday the Nayake Thera said Sinhala Buddhists and Tamils should work together to foster peace at this critical moment facing the country. He appealed to members of the Association to do everything possible to foster better understanding between the two communities and to provide protection and assistance to the refugees.
-Sun, 26/8/77
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

Page 16
several members of the UNP has been demolished by recent events in Puttalam where the violence is between the Sinhalese and Muslims (not to mention the Puttalam deaths under the SLFP regime). These acts of violence cannot possibly be related to TULF speeches. And what about the 95 and 1958 riots when there was no talk of Eelam. When Amirthalingam speaks of the desire of the Tamils to live as free citizens able to control their own destinies in the light of their cultural and religious traditions without fear or favour and achieve their innate potential then this legitimate cry from the heart must be heeded if we are talking of Democracy, Fairplay and Justice.
Mr. J. R. Jayewardene as all of us agree is an honourable man and when he says that he wishes to settle the Tamil problem we know he means it. But he is only one man and mortal at that. Even if he were to make arrangements today that were satisfactory to all, suppose for one reason or another he was no longer in power tomora row, who would honour the promises? Or even if this UNP Government with its massive majority changes the present constitution to satisfy the Tamils what is there to prevent the next Government with a possible bigger majority undoing and taking away those provisions which seek to give all citizens equal rights and opportunities in the life of this country. All this has been pointed out time and again by the several Tamil leaders during this century and very ably debated by the TULF in the elections. The simple truth, as recent events so very clearly point out, is that the Tamils cannot stake their whole future on the promises of the Sinhalese people as a whole, leave alone the good faith of an isolated or single person.
This must therefore lead to the formation of some system whereby the Tamils have the fullest say in the control of their destiny within the shores of this island. By evacuating Tamils to the Northern and Eastern Provinces for their safety this Government like all other previous Governments has acknowledged these areas to be Tamil. By definition a Tariil area is also a place where a Tamil can live in peace without being assaulted and killed by a Sinhalese civilian for communal reasons with
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977
or without P. port. How m to be shed b to communal
Colombo, 10 September
Get Back
Sir,
Reference pearing in y. let it be cle the majority in the North Vinces have V the rest of th questing the in the Sinhale to the North vinces. Well, ling to do so to integrate v ple and live ! Our decision the State of vocable as su ernments hav arrive at this be achieved not now. The tion of looki
Who are th in Colombo appeal? They Sinhala Tamils in Sinhalese in the east co They have b from time to years, but the in preventing Governments against the T possible.
“Advocate's Lo Valvettitu rai. 31st August 19
usa
is Eelam
Answer ?
Sir,
is Eelam til This is the que the minds o
* Tamils most
living in Colo in peace and of the other

plice or Military supuch more blood has afore a new approach problems is adopted
D.C.
, 977
your notebook ap
our issue of 27.8.77, arly understood that of the Tamils living ern and Eastern propted to separate from he island. We are re| 58% Tamils living se areas to get back ern and Eastern proif they are not wil, they are at liberty vith the Sinhala peowith them for good. to separate and form Tamil Eelam is irreccessive Sinhala Goya compelled us to decision. This will at any cost later if *re is now no quesng back. nese Tamil Residents who have issued an are not Tamils but with wested interests a reas. We are not incerned about them. een isSuing appeals time for the last 2 y have not succeeded Successive Sinhala from discriminating amils in every way
K. C. Adiapathan dge'
77
臺
he Correct
he correct answer? stion that is agitating f all right-thinking of whom have been mbo and other areas amity with members
communities for a
letters
considerable period of time. To get a correct picture of the problem, that calls for solution in the interests of national progress, it is imperative that all should realise that the democratic verdict of the people in the General Elections of July 21 was quite clear and unequivocal.
To say that the result was a landslide for the UNP would be a gross understatement. It was a roaring tornado that relentlessly swept before its fury every other party that Conte sted the electior.S. The UNP that got almost 78ths of the seats in the NSA did not have in its manifesto the carving out of a separate Eelam state in the North and East for the Tamil speaking people.
indeed it is the first article in the UNP's creed that every citizen of this country whatever his nationality, caste, creed or political persuasion has the inherent right
to live in any part of the country
(from Dondra Head to Point Pedro) in complete freedom and free from fear, it is this too, that got for the
UNP a vast number of minority
votes, which gave this party its resounding victory. The Prime Minister fyr. J. R. has dedicated himself to ensure that this is not merely an empty political shibboleth or vote-catching slogah.
It is intrigu ing that the TULF claims that its electoral victory of a mere 7 seats in a 68 member Assembly (and that only of the Tamil spaking electorates of the North) gives them a clear mandate to divide the country by setting up a separate state in the North and the east The Tamils resident in the areas other than the North
and East outnumber those who
voted TULF. It is hoped that the TULF will even at this late hour
pull itself out of this nightmarish
Ora SS. Eelam could pay dividends as a tongue-in-cheek political slogan. This has apparently captured the imagination of the disgruntled and restless Tamil youth who propelled the TULF to parliament.
These youths, like most youths ,
in other parts of the country, have been given an extremely raw deal by the bungling partisan policies and programmes of the previous gOV eransiert.
C. J. Anandappa 74, Hapugoda, Kandana. August 31, 1977
4
Jayewardene

Page 17
Letters
Another Rumour
Sir,
Your analysis of the recent communal carnage is exceptionally realistic and should be read "and digested by all Ceylonese.
However, I wish to place on record yet another rumour gossip currently gaining ground amongst the middle class familians. The | source will perhaps remain a mystery as in the other intances.
The rumour is that, the UNP was never genuinely interested in solving the Minority problems. It was only with the express purpose of winning the Tamil votes in the Sinhala areas they showed some anxiety about this problem. Now that they have got a steamroller majority, they do not want to de-stablise their political position nor they wish to provide any political lever to the SLFP. The situation being so, the gossip peddilers State that the current communal carnage will be only a Smoke screen to the UNP's withdrawal from their proclaimed position. The believers of this hypothesis believe that a section of the UNP is behind the communal halocausts, backed by a section of the press and others. They argue that a section of the press deliberately played up the TULF leaders and focussed public attention to their meiodrainic statements and thereafter proceeded to provide an easy solution to this problem.
P. Suntha, rallingam Kantharmadam,
30th August, 1977
器 Calling The Bluff
Sir,
The TULF leaders should be well advised to read your comments on the recent communal carnage. Perhaps someone should get a Tamil translation of your article for free circulation amongst the Tamilian youths in Jaffna, so that the violent lads behind the cadian curtain may realise the gravity of the situation and behave themselWeS .
The recent loss of lives and property is a small price for what the Tamil lads are To lament over these incidences
5
demanding.
is hypocrisy and
armis should be majority commun traint manner in acted. Look arour recent happenings tries where simil made,
One has no all wonder whether credited with 'n' they have. Surely, blind to the bolt wall. The change name as 'Liberat not make any di are essentially pi arcs. How can the tion War'' when at their doors të shudder in fear a they defend their land' if they can to res ist a few th Just imagine the beration war with ha. . ha. .The te 'home-land' does a secure hidding enemy decides t sea and air attack called 'fiberation verties tucked empty stomachs, launch their atta purely at the "enemy' for food
Brigadier Amir that you are At time you call of
only fire power
is 'Voice Boint deployed has eve OWinsmen, more
nents. Brigadier bugle and comm
turn and narch
turn back to see is following you. will be none.
“Shanthi Pura” Nuwara Eliya. 2nd September, is
影
Politicians
Restraint
Sir,
All right thir this country wo condemin the cru length and breadt This sanguinary country was par

i certainly, the thankful for the ity for the res
which they re
ned the world for in other coun
air demands were
ternative but to the Tamils are horebrain' than they are not so i writing on the of their party's ion Front'' does fference, famils eace loving cowby fight a “Liberaa slightest noise eps makes them ind flee. How can so called 'homenot get together ugs of their area. mi fighting a “liin an invading army rine of their s not even afford place when their o launch a land, c. magine the so army' with their ap marching on even before they ick, as they are Emercy of their and fuel Supplies. (don't imagine min), it is high your bluff. The in your armoury is' which, when Brytime hurt your than your oppoAmir, blow your and 'right about forward'. Don't : whether anyone I am sure there
Anton Rasiah
977
And
nking people of uld unequivocally el carnage in the h of this country.
Situation in the tly aggravated by
the untimely
sive
utterances of the politicians of both communities.
The present Government under the able and wise leadership of Mr. J. R. Jayewardene, is earnestly endeavouring to remedy the ills that beset the Tamil community. He and his Cabinet collegues have admitted with conviction and candour that grave injustices have been perpetrated on the Tamil community and the Tamils are smarting under a genuine grievance. They have also stated that the solution to this difficult and delicate problem is a necessary prelude to a good, peaceful and efficient secular Administration which is the beau ideal of any civilized Governmeilt.
The SLFP has not expressed anys official disapproval or even made an unfavourable comment on the tangible steps taken by the present Government to end this
perennial problem. The Left which
had so cory bantically espoused the cause of the Tamils, still adheres firmly in principle to the indefeasibility of Tamil rights. This has created a climate conducive to the solution of all salient differences between the two major communities that inhabit this island.
in this background the pronouncements of these politicians are far from being propitious. The refugee camps that denigrate the beautiful city of Colombo, are stark testimony to the tragic thoughtlessness and tactlessness of these politicians. The murder,
mutilation, devastation and the in
effable and nightmarish anguish of these unSUSpecting victims So unwittingly caught in the coils of
passionate hatred and undisguised
lust to loot is a grim reminder to us all. This may haunt the halls of deliberation and may tend to cloud the atmosphere necessary for the
calm and dispassionate review of
the problem. There is evidence that the baser elements in the country after venting their aggresacquisitiveness against the Tamils are now seeking fresh and verdant patures. in the Muslim meadows. This can escalate into a national conflagration of unprecedented magnitude.
Such future incidents can hamstring the Premier and other responsible leaders from an objective appraisal and an expeditious and effective solution to the Tamil impasse. It is fervently hoped that
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 18
the politicians would be more circumspect in their expression of their views on matters which have an emotional undertone.
C. Aruchu na Thambasetty, Point Pedro. 22.8.77
豪
Post-Election Violence
Sir,
The Editor's Note Book on the "Antomy of Violence' in the Tribune of July 30, 1977, correctly stated that post-election violence started in March 1965. I think it should be pertinent to consider why there was such violence even though on a mild scale in March 1965 and not before. It could not have been due to the fact that the winning party was the UNP thereby indicating that the incidence of thuggery etc., are more rampant among the UN Pers. If it were so there should have been even a milder form of violence after the UNP victory in March 1960, followed probably by retaliation against the UN Pers in July 1960 after the SLFP victory.
ln my opinion post election violence of March 1965, if it could properly be called violence-probably in contrast to Ahimsa and Maitri as understood locally-was the natural reaction of the victors to their political victory, at the General Election of March 1965 which confirmed the Electorates' support of the victors' constitutional victory in the Parliament over the famous motion of No Confidence on 1964. 12.03 the political significance of which the defeated coalition government of the SLFP and the LSSP refused to ac
cept at first, by trying all possible a
means-with fair and foul-like demonstrations by the supporters of the LSSP and the SLFP who to their party leader were "The People' to remain in power even after their defeat in Parliament. Even this mild violence cannot be condoned.
Post election violence of an alarming degree last month, in my opinion was also due to the fact that over the last few years people have inclined to be more violent in nature, and have tended to behave more like beasts than as human
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977
beings, impulsi face defeat. Pos was, I think, major sociologi Finally I cor was greater the majority o' the defeated pa range coinciden pear to have bee than the victo world elements
– who started lar,
Batticaloa. 28, 1977
Police Forc
Sir,
In the light o apology is need for reproducing to some of th exactly four ye the Observer in its column "Force of Law'. “There iş fre heart-rending c 'excesses' in th days, arising C baric a3 Şault:S cently in diffe country, not a f to be un Warrar men Seem tO the level of not realising pe atrocious act5 tire Police Ser and even ma stock. What word 'excess' jargon? Does i Officers could on the public their duty“ pro ce5Sive? If so, mine its extent
'To the best and belief, the rea5onable - u3e bring a crim Should it beco under no ot Every person Police for what and perhaps gement iş a t law, is not net and Such a pi be treated with human being,

ive and unable to st election violence another aspct of a cal problem. sider that violence ast month because
f the victims from
Jrties by some stce or by design apin ready for violence rs-not the under
mentiond by you, gely for jubilation.
U. Nanda.
e
f recent events, no ed from me, I think the letter I wrote e daily newspapers :ar:3 ago and which
of 18.8.73 carried is under the title
quent reference to ind alarming Police е теwspapers тоwaput of several barOn the public reBrent parts of the ew of which appear ited. Some Policehave descended to, the common thug, :rhaps that by such they bring the envice into disrepute ke it a laughing exactly does this signify in Police E mean that Police normally use force in the exercise of vided it is not exwho could deterand how?
of my knowledge law permits the
of force only to nas under control me necessary, and er Circumstance5. pprehended by the in their considered inchallengable judransgression of the essarily a criminal, r.ŞOn iş en titled to
consideration as a and not maltreated
letters
as a den izen of the jungle, until he iş produced before a Magistrate to be dealt with according to law. .
"It would be useful for the public to know under what circumstances force could be used in an individual who is not a criminal whilst in Police custody, and whether there iş a limit to it? The public would welcome elucidation from the IGP on this point through the press. He would be rendering a real service not only to the public but also to his officers by doing so. Merely stating that it is difficult to lay down a hard and fast rule in a matter of this nature would be unhelpful.”
consider that in the light of the current deplorable situation, the publication of this letter in your esteemed journal would be useful to the government. Should this catch the eye of the PM and pompt him to take steps to effect a change in the attitude of the Police towards the public (which is long overdue) he will, I am sure, earn the lasting gratitude of the entire nation and the admiration of friend and foe alike. The public should never be made to feel that the Police is their inveterate enemy as the notorious Dowbiggin perhaps meant it to be-but as their friend, counselor and guide at all times and in all circumstances. Could there be anything more desirable from the point of view of the public anything, more conducive to the welfare of a State, than healthy Police-Public relations? Should it not be a government's highest endeavour to achieve it in the interest of all concerned? Isn't it worth earnestly striving for? Surely it is not an insuperable task for a person with a will to succeed!
Any resort by the Police to 'extra-legal' procedure, which is a transgression of the law, is deserving of the strongest possible condemnation. The basic function of the Police is the prevention and detection of crime and this function has to be performed in strict conformity with the law. The use of unnecessary force must be eschewed in this enlightened age and in a predominantly Buddhist country. It would, I think, not be inappropriate to reproduce herein the the comment of the Basnayake Police Commission about the conduct of the Police:
6
سجن

Page 19
Letters
"The Police do not enjoy the goodwill of the public. The public image of the Police is not at all what it should be. The fear of battery by the Police is in every citizen. Several cases of torture have come to light in the Courts. The Police have therefore, to Win the Confidence by a long period of correct behaviour before public co-operation can be gained. Their outlook and attitude of mind towards the public ha 5 to change. Courteou 3 attention and civility must replace the rude and militaristic attitude that iş characteristic of a Police station. No laws can effect the change. Even after public atten
tion has been focusied on a number
of incidenti, the Police have belaboured the public; reports of Police violence still continue to appear in the press. We think that this attitude of mind is largely due to the fact that the machinery for investigating complaints against the Police at preçent iş un Satisfactory | and doe5 not Command the Con
fidence of the public.’ The pity of it is that no action was taken by the former government to remedy this unhealthy state of affairs, and the people have had to pay dearly for it.
Evacuees to be coaxed to fetur
Evacuees from homes , in Colombo and the suburbs are to be coaxed to return home. Official sources said that efforts would be made to request evacuees who left their homes in fear to get back and resume normal life. They said that the various social service organisations have promised to help to resettle these families who were terrorised by the wave of violence in the past week. The police would éstablish temporary police posts in troubled residential areas to give confidence to the people who hurriedly left their homes in panic after incidents in the neighbourhood. Police sources said that closed houses were ideal targets for burglars who appeared to be exploiting the present situation. They advised people to keep houses occupied as much as possible.
-Ceylon Daily Mirror 28/8/77
7
The PM would da for this report, per (if he has not don and take appropriat out fear or favour, indeed ripe for such the public will whole come as a Step in t tion and at the Will the PM rise to
3, Allan Avenue,
Dehiwala. 20.8.77
Θ
Mistake Or
Sir,
Eversince the electoral victory of July, your journal eminent in providi objective and cons ment of the new actions. It is in th seek publicity for
lin its statement o ing to foreign affai ment Stands pledge defend the integrit try. Its first publi to that end has beer as to Warrant comin the reported expul inst two Soviet na under suspicion of our internal affairs, quent revocation
of CWC leaders.
The declaration igner is per5ona noi ventionally, a de and definitive dip which does not len cation. It is not t say, with the trans servant which is lat a sympathetic c representations. In the initial order and revocation place th poor light, in inté for it means that:
- either the ini
ill-considered - or the Govern
ter weight to of CWC lead reports of it Service. lin the first case, i that a poor, small presume to trifle thi

o well to call use it carefully Le so already) e action with. The time is action, which :-heartedly wellhe right direcproper Season. the occasion?
C. E. J. Alles
Bungling ?
unprecedentsd the UNP last has been preing a balanced, tructive assessGovernment's at context that these views. if policy pertainrs, the Govern!d primarily to y of the councised initiative so mishandled nent. I refer to sion order agationals allegedly interference in and its subseat the behest
that a fore
1 grata is, con
eply considered lomatic action d itself to revoo be confused, fer of a public er altered from onsideration of
this instance, its subsequent is country in a 2rnational eyes,
tial order was
and hasty,
ment gave greathe mere word ers than to the S Intelligence
t must be said nation cannot us with a Super
| 07, Cotta Road,
power. In the second case, it must be said that a slur has been cast on the Intelligence Service which can only undermine its morale and efficiency. In either case, the national interest has been harmed.
In the context of the Dharmishta Society, the Government retained in their posts those high officials who stage-managed the previous Prime Minister's posturing on the international stage. It is to be hoped that they do not create for this Government an equivalent international image.
స్లో
C. Samarasekera
Colombo 8. 7 September, 1977
@
SOMETH ING TO BE PROUD OF
The Citizens' Committee
for National Harmony
Formation of Neighbourhood Groups
A group of concerned citizens drawn from all faiths and communities in this country met under the chairmanship of Sir Senerat Gunawardena, President of the All Ceylon Buddhist Congress, to consider how best in they could fulfil their moral and social responsibility at the present time of national crisis to help prevent acts of violence against innocent individuals and households. Among the various initiatives that were proposed, special emphasis was placed on the formation of neighbourhood groups which could be organised to control and prevent such violence. Many such groups have already been formed in different parts of the District of Colombo and the suburbs and have functioned effectively in Safeguarding life and property. These groups have organised themselves to act together in an emergency and be responsible for the protection of the households which are being threatened with violence. At present the effort has been confined to relatively isolated groups. It is vitally necessary to extend this effort on a nation-wide scale to create a wide network of such neigh
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 20
bourhood groups. This would have the effect of imparting the neces sary confidence to each individual group and strengthening its capacity to preserve peace and create conditions for communal harmony.
The term "neighbourhood group' was selected consciously in order to indicate that this would be an initiative taken by small groups of households themselves living together and interacting closely within a limited area which has the character of a genuine neighbour
hood. These groups would be acting
informally and responding to their own deeply felt human concern for the well-being of their neighbours who through no fault of their own have become exposed to in human acts of violence. These groups should not be regarded as committees that are set up on bureaucratic lines. They should be created in response to a Spontaneous desire for mutual aid within a community. The objective of this group would be not only the immediate one of taking responsibility for protecting the households which are exposed to violence but also a more fundamental task of demonstrating intercommunal harmony and the capacity of our people to live as a unified nation. The neighbourhood group would therefore be a focus for activities which will help to create
conditions of communal harmony, in which lasting and just Solutions
could be found to the communal conflicts which have disfigured this country since independence.
in implementing this programme.
for the formation of neighbourhood groups, the Citizens' Committee which met on 23rd August 1977 decided to call upon various voluntary agencies which have been active in the field of social welfare to participate in the programme, The programme has the support
of the various religious organisa
tions which will take an active part in promoting the formation of these groups. The religious organisations, the voluntary agencies and other individuals who have formed themselves into a subcommittee to carry out this Programme will get in touch with communities in their respective areas and help in setting up these groups.
A few guidelines for the orga. nisation of the group are given below: -
(1) Leadership persons who ej of the communit initiative.
(2) Territoria group should be fic and identifiabil or a group of should be not mc houseS to each ui will cease to have hood character.
(3) ©rg8sat Surances of corn 3 males and fel household for sp performed as r obtaiting commit 100 persons for e
(4) Functions:
deploy its perso.
certain weil de
{a} formatic formation about and likely sources bat rumours. Pas: ti on to action gl (b) Pa. Érdi grc of holises to hav it would be useful torches etc.
(c) Public rela ing continuing cc Service personne of Parliament. E neighbourhood g
nity and work
mutual assistance.
(d) Groups of fluence in the are: hoc vis its wher suade the popul areas to partici gramme aiad ali
communal tens Further infor had from:
THE CITIZENS
NATO NA HAR
Hony. Joint Secre I. A. T. Ariyarat Sri Lanka Sarve Sangamaya, “ຂຶth Medura 77, De Soysa Road Moratuwa. *Phone: 072-375 2. Rey. Fr. Tissa Centre for Society 27, Deans Road, Colombo 0. "phone: 95425
జిహాద్లో
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

3: One or more njoy the respect Ey must take the
areas: Each Limited to a specie area, Say, a lane,
50 houses--there Dre than about 75 nie, as larger uits 2 a genuine neigh
on: Obtain asmitment cf 2 or males from each ecific duties to be equired. Aim at ments from about ach of 50 houses. The group should nin el according to fined functionsr: To obtain in
potential areas of trouble. ComS on valid informarOU F.S. - ups: Each group e a patrol group. to carry whistles,
tions: Maintainbntact with Police, 1 and Members
stablish links with roups in the viciout methods of
persons with into arrange housee feasible to per|ation in outlying pate in the proay and eliminate ions.
nation could be
COMMITTEE FOR MONY
taries:
[1e pdaya Shramadana
量,
Balasuriya,
and Religion,
POINT OF VIEW
Whither Sri Lanka ?
it is hardly possible to exaggerate the impact of the recent communal violence on the fabric of this country. Rarely in its recorded history-objective history, that is, not the perverted sort bandied about by all sides in Parliamentcan the country have been face to face with a crisis of this magnitude, Many considered 953 to
have been an aberration, the re
sult of the activity of un hinged minds; the economy then was Sounder, no organised separatist movement existed and a recovery of sorts could be made. 1977 seems far different; the situation is grave because it transcends rivere commuឧ15.
Those of us who voted this Government into power did so in the hope that Stability would in turn lead to progress and a new order would be established. It now appears that we did our job not wisely but too well. As in 1970 no responsible Opposition now exists, the penduum now having swung to the other extreme. The government, provided with an unassailable majority, has been strangely dis inclined to tackle problems boldly and has been dissipating its energies in Seeking Scapegoats. Official parancia has been ascending alarming heights and far from engaging in some heart-searching at home, Spokes men for the government within and without parliament have indulged in innuendo and personal abuse, and action against dissenting individuals has been particularly vindictive and Smacks of a Witch-hunt. It is unnecessary to point out that this is far from likely to restore peace or goodwill, or even consolidate whatever democracy gained from holding the last elections. -
About a year ago in these columns
i described the de facto separations
existing in the land owing to a breakdown in communication between Sinhalese and i armilis, especially the younger generation. Now the situation is compounded by the presence of refugees. What sort of United Sri Lanka are wa to build if at every turn of communal strife Tamils have to be despatched
8

Page 21
ܐ ܐܒ
Whither Sri Lanka ? .
North and East and Sinhalese brought down South. It is the bitterest of ironies that the authorities who would fight to the death to stave off separation have had to oversee the evacuation of refugees in both directions. If the basic trust needed for the Sinhaliese and i armis to live together in any part of Sri Lanka is lacking what hope for unity do we have? One would have thought that a government which has received such overwhelming electoral support would have put statesmanship before politics and tackled this problem instead of frittering away time and energy in hurling abuse at its opponents.
It is clear that the economy has received a serious blow, one which it is in no position to withstand. There was precious little Stability in the economy and civil violence has succeeded only in diminishing productivity Stijl further. Some of the grander schemes to attract investment, both local and foreign, are in jeopardy and the extensive international coverage given to the carnage will almost certainly be as great a disincentive as the worst excesses of the SLFP regime. Foreign i vestors have little to play around with these days and an unstable volcano of a country is not likely to be an attractive haven.
The racial violence was tragic enough. But an even more disturbing development is a recert times has been the total break own of law and order following the slightest provocation. At first it was postelection violence, a meaningless taking of revenge, against opponents, in which both major political parties have indulged. The situation today is such that at a drop of a hat-an election victory, a Police-civilian clash-the esntire cou: Entry erupts and the rampa. It indiscipline in the ranks of a segment of the security for ces is Cordu Cive to a videspread conflagration.
The situation is made worse by successive governments which despite their frightening electoral strength have been unable, or unwilling, to take appropriate action promptly. In 1970 the victors beatup the vanquished as part of the celebrations, as a facuous Prime Minister assured us. In 1977 the wrecking, looting and killing have taken place in the shadow of res
9
tored freedom and
society. Is the price of 'freedom' and "morali losis of liberty of the m ther political or racial
fYearyàyhille, one liv dation because any may give vent to in that will seek victims verient minorities. it is a sobering thou So-called guardians of in all their armed spl been ingularly ineffect disorder begun, if colleagues--we will the inquiring commi latively unarmed mob. the imagination how ciplined lot would ha against any organize of armed individuals be no mistake, the that manifested itself vices being ineffectu of the pece during til tion period and after vide comfort to an) that has designs on
ment.
If there is a si įver this horrendous grey outside our range o government to date h; despite noble word: to cope with fundar It has not guarantee consciously minimise of its tyrannical maj contrary, at least du month, it has repeat takes and in some i further than the SL of despotism.
The minority problem itself but neither the ter nor his party, giv cedented mandate a to be both United : have faced up to the lf statesmanship prev no reason why a pect problem cannot be s man beings but, as it happened, politicians ( matters Worse.
. It is madness to divi but i: it any fess insc Serni-divided land indu riodic bouts of commur

a righteous "democracy' ty' to be the inorities, whe
es in trepifuture crisis lass hysteria among Con Furthermore, ght that the aw and order endour, have ive in quelling not by their eave that to ssion-by reS. lt boggles this i Indisye perormed d miljov Erment for, let there : indisci, line in the sertal custodians he post-eleccan only pro7 organisation the govern
lining in all , it has kept f vision. The as not shown, s, an ability mental issues. that it will
the effects ority-on the pring the first ted the misin Stances gone FP- ULF brand
has obtruded
Prime Minis"en an unprend professing and National, challenge yet. tails there is Liliarly human olved by hu
has so often can only make
de this country ine to have a ging in penal warfare ?
ܢ
RACE-MYTH & ScENĆE- I
Race-Prejudice Ånd
Reaction
by Dr. Arthur Weerakoon B.Sc (Lond), Ph.D (Glasgow), F.R.E.S. (Lond).
This article is am abridged version of a lectures Dr. Weerakoon first delivered in July 956-a few weeks after the incidents on Galie Face Green when the Sinhala Only Bill was introduced in Parliament. The second and concluding part of this article will be published next week.
in the context of the racehatred preached in 1958 by certain political elements in Ceylon, Dr. Weerakoon emphasised that the who ie concept of race superiority is based on a myth.
This article was published in the Tribune in December 1958.
Near Maidanek, in Poland, the Nazis erected a vast community of destruction. Scores of buildings stood within a circumference of barbed wire, but of them all two have special interest. In one of these was found the store of clothes accumulated from the victims-a pathetic heap, which contained everything from men's suits to baby's shoes. The other building had three rooms. In the first of these the prisoners were made to remove their clothing; in the second they were passed under a series of shower baths; and in the third they were packed so tightly that no one could possibly fall. Three pipes led into this room from the outside, and there was a fourth aperture through which a guard might watch the happenings within. When the room was filled with perhaps two hundred persons, there suddenly came a shower of crystals through the pipes. On contact with the air these crystals generated deadly gases. Then the guard through his aperture had the duty, pleasant doubtless to him, of decideing at what moment all two hundred persons might be consi dered dead.
for a time the corpses were buried, layer upon layer, in enor
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 22
mous trenches; but as the tide of battle began to move westward, the Nazis sought to remove all traces of their crimes. For this purpose they built a crematory, a series of five ovens, each just large enough to hold a human body. The bodies were shoveled in on ladies of precisely the right shape and size. At first the cremations proceeded slowly, because the ovens were not hot enough. But then Nazi 'science' worked the oven heat up to 1,500 degrees Centigrade and the furnaces began to consume as many as 2,000 bodies a day. In this manner no less than 500 000 people perished at Maidanek.
One evening when the furnaces were in full blast, a group of newly arrived prisoners came by. It was an error, for prisoners were not supposed to know of these events. By chance also the Nazi commandant was present at that moment. A woman among the prisoners, seeing thus suddenly the fate which awaited them all, shriecked aloud. The commandant ordered her to be silent, but hysteria had over come her. Then at a further command, two guards seized her and threw her alive into one of the furnaces. There was a flash of light as the hair caught fire, a last horrible cry. Then silence, the silence of fascist death.
What you have just read is an account of a German death-camp from a book by an American philosopher, Barrows Dunham, a book called "Man against Myth'. The victims referred to in this account were members of various so-called 'inferior races', the Poles, the Czechs, the Belgians, the Lithuanians, the Jews and the like, but mainly the Jews. All this happened over a dozen years ago; why bring it up now? There are no deathcamps today; why bring this up now WHY RACALSM. To answer that question we must go back in time to the period after the 1914i8 war. Germany had been badly defeated in that war and had been forced to accept a harsh and humialiiting peace. lin Germany poverty, unemployment and inflation grew apace. The Emperor and those capitalists who had led the country into the war were no longer in control. There was a republic with democratic-socialist parties in power, parties pledged to socialism, but hamstrung by their reformism and quite unable to do any
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977
thing to solve culties . Comr come into po tries; and in to succeed in on the highrc prosperity. Mo were turning Party of Germ as their only
This did no capitalists and those who wis || up for anothe venge, but esp nial markets. people must b was this to b must be led : the people mu that some cau pointed to by the cause of of their short shortage of of employme what other Rosenburg pr the Jews.
There was Germans, as in many European against the Jew Hitler and R use. These me it is instructiv called their pa the National Party-theşe pe for everything.
Germany ha was due to the Front. Ge ced to accept pay Vast Sums of war repara due to Jewish in the govern the peace. Til ment in Ger cause Jews had numbers in th them to; a favoured felic Jew out and enough for t Germans.
The inflati almost imp thing wort wages, the fantastic ri these too the Jews, o in our ba cians in ou wish trade

2 the country's diffimunist parties had wer in other counRussia seemed likely putting the country pad to progress and re and more Germans to the Communist any and to its policy
hope of salvation. 't Suit the German war-mongers a bit, hed to build Germany r war, a war of reecially a war for coloThe attention of the be diverted-but how e done? The people away from socialism;
Ist be led to believe,
se other than those the communists was
all their troubles; age of food, of their clothes, of housing, nt and so on-but cause? Hitler, and ovided the answer;
already amongst the deed there is amongst
peoples, a prejudice vs; and this prejudice osenburg decided to an and their partyre that these fascists Irty a socialist party, Socialist (hence Nazi) ople blamed the Jews
d ost the War-that Jewish treachery at brmany had been fora harsh peace and to : of money by way tions-that again was
treachery, this time ment that negotiated here was unemploymany-that was bemore jobs than their e population entitled ew in office always bw Jews; kick the there would be jobs he true-born Nordic
on that made it ossible to buy any
hwhile with one's
soaring prices, the sing cost of living, were the work of of Jewish financiers nks, Jewish politi|r government, JeErs in our shods.
On Race Hatred
The Jews! the Jews the Jews It is always the Jews at the bottom of everything, and when it is not the Jews then it is the Communists-who are mostly Jews anyway.
THE LIFE. It mattered not at all to these Nazi racists that there was no truth in any of this; it never does when one's purpose is to fan members of race-prejudice into a blinding, un-reasoning flame of racehatred. So the lying propaganda went on, and gathered momentum as it went. It has always been thus. The Jews rejected Jesus Christ and crucified Him. They sacrifice little children at their Passover Feast and drink their blood. And now these filthy Jew-Communists Want to nationalise our wives; and to make us all slaves of the state.
The Jews have always become a vile and filthy race, filled with all most disgusting qualities. They
New Body To Help Refugees
Tamils who were affected by the recent disturbances and who lost their property and valuables will be assisted by a newly formed "Helping Hand' organisation. At a news conference, three officials of the organisation, Mr. K. C. Nithiyanandan, Mr. K. Kandasamy and Mr. S. S. Santirakasan, revealed the plan of action they propose taking. Speaking to newsmen at the Hindu College, Bambalapitiya, they said the organisation was non-political and would engage only in social service. The funds, they revealed, would come from the Government and voluntary bodies both local and foreign. It was revealed that there were about 40,000 refugees who had lost their properties and their positions. They said there were 1,800 refugees housed at Hindu College, Bambalapitiya, Saraswathie Hall, Kathi resan Kovil, St. Peter's College and St. Paul's Girl's School Milagiriya. The rest were housed in refugee camps all oyer the island. There were refugee camps in Kurunegala, Kegalle, Galaha, Kandy, Matale (the largest refugee camp). Galle, Matara and Negombo, the organisation revealed.
-Sun, 29/8/77
20
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Page 23
Ón Race Hatred
have always stood in the way of man's progress. But we Nordic Germans are a chosen race, chosen to lead the world. All mankind's greatest steps forward, the invention of the wheel, the invention of agriculture, all such inventions were Aryan inventions. And the Nordic Germans are the only pure Aryans in the world today. We are destined to lead the world; Deutschland, Deutschland Uber Alles; Yet at every step our efforts are frustrated by these Jews. Beat the Jews, shave their heads Boycott the Jews Kick them out of Germany. This is a Nordic country, this is a Christian country; Kick out these Jews.
This campaign against the Jews soon gathered support from the great German industrialists and landlords who found it an invaluable smoke-screen for their own activities-activities which were the real cause of the unemployment and the inflation and the povertyand they contributed large sums of money to the Nazi party funds.
And also, more slowly but with steadily increasing force, it gathered support amongst the German workers and peasants themselves; sufficient Support to sow confusion in their ranks and to help put the Nazi Party into power in 1933. Thereafter the campaign was stepped up. Jews were sacked right and left; even Jewish conductors of orchestras were not spared Jews were debarred from profession after profession, from trade after trade. 'Nordic' Germans were forbidden from living in houses owned by Jews, from buying goods in Jewish shops, from marrying Jews. Soon the property of Jews was confiscated.
The myth of the racial superiority of the Nordics and of the racial inferiority of the Jewis was introduced into every aspect of life in Germany.
Children were taught to make fun of,
to jeer at and to assault Jewish children-on the principle that it served the Jews as they ought to be served, and at the same time trained the German children to be mainly, brave and sentimental.
German science was their anthropologists and sociologists demonstrated the pre-eminence of the Nordics in every field of human endeavour and the baseness and inferiority of the Jews and other non-Nordic peoples. When the Germans were defeated time and
perverted;
2
again by Negro at the 1936 Oly held in Berlin, it pologists worked explanation to sa Nordic superiority, generally run faste than man, the human, part man they beat the No. thing
Did someone was after all a Je anthropological ved beyond any a true Aryan, S German soldier Roman army of 0. tine, and of a Pe had come to Pale ing caravan from one point out th have the fair ha and the long h characteristic of the truly great Ge Kant and Schille quite non-Nordi Perhaps they we appearance-butt their souls were N
EXTERMINAT this indoctrinatic all these discrimi the Jewish minc German peopleyou, as gentle as telligent as any brought the Ge such a state of mi no effective pr effective resistant erected death-c systematically to we might exterm the Jews and Nordic people as
After all these sub-human, and herently vicious what was so terr rid of them just other vermin? Th done; that is how people were per to behave like is how they wer road to Maidanek sen, Buchenwald Nazi death-camps it was done; for this hue and cry foisted a fascist d German people progress towards
There are today; neither

athletes from USA "mpics which were hese Nazi anthroout a neat little ve their theory of
animals they said 2r and jump farther negroes are Fubpart ape; naturally dics at doing these
claim that Jesus w? Rubbish Nazi research has prodoubt that he was on of a Nordic serving with the ccupation in Palesrsian woman who stine with a tradPersia. Did someat Hitler did not ir, the blue eyes ead stated to be the Nordics? And :rmans like Geothe *r were similarly, c in appearance? ire non-Nordic in hat didn't matter; Nordic.
ON: Well, all in with falsehood, natory acts against brity brought the -a people, mark kindly and as inother people2rman people to ind that they made btests, offered no ce when the Nazi amps and began exterminate, as inate vermin, first later other non=
well. non-Nordics were if they were inand inferior, then ible about getting as one got rid of hat is how it was a decent humane verted and led 2 monsters; that e led to take the , to Dachau, Beland all the other And that is why under cover of the Nazis neatly ictatorship on the and halted their
socialism.
no death-camps
in Ceylon nor
elsewhere. But journeys do not begin at their destinations; and the road to the death camp is a long one. Before we begin erecting death-camps, this road will have led us to the perpetration of one absurdity after another, one atrocity after another. And to be persuaded to tread this road people must first believe in certain falsehoods of which one of the most important is this: that there are today different races of man, some of them superior to others intellectually and morally.
Certainly, there are no deaths camps today; but equally cers tainly there is plenty of this race-prejudice, not only in Little Rock, USA but also in Britain, not only in South Africa, but also in Ceylon. Most of us in Ceylon are convinced that the Sinhaese and the Tam is are
two races, and that one is supe
rior to the other. Which one is superior depends, of course, on whether one is oneself labelled Sinhalese or Tamil; and if one happens to be labelled Burgher . one looks down on both the Sinhalese and the Tamis-and is looked down on by both of them! We haven't yet adopted all the stupidities of Apartheid but racial-prejudice has already retarded the progress of our country (and, last May, has already killed some of our people). That is why it has been necessary to remind ou rselves of Germany so many years ago.
(To be Continued)
Maitriya
On the evening of 25 August one observed a touching gesture of love and consideration shown by some members of the Sinhalese Community towards the Tamil refugees camped at Saraswathie Hall at Bambalapitiya. Malathie de Silva, an artist and sculptor and Nirmala Chandraratne, grand daughter of the late Sir Ernest de Silva and children of the late 'Sheba' de Silva of Matara, accompanied by a British University Scholar, Dr. Jane Russel, unloaded a large car-full of foodstuffs for distribution among the refugees.
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

Page 24
A BRTH CENTENARY TRIBUTE
* Dr. Ananda K.
Coomaraswamy
by Jag Mohan
The author has written a
biography of Dr. Coomaraswamy
圣
to be published by the Publications Division of the Govern
ment of India and also the script
for a 50-minute film tribute to his memory.
PRE PARATIONS are afoot in Sri Lanka, USA, UK and of course, India for the birth centenary celebrations of Dr. Coomaraswamy
since he was born on August 22,
1877 at Colombo. This year also happens to be the thirtieth death anniversay year of Dr. Coomaraswamy. He passed away, within a
F fortnight after his seventh birthday
century.
on Sepbetmer. 8, 1947, at Needham, Massachusetts, USA. And the world lost a great man, who was considered in his life-time a Sage and a Savant.
Dr. Coomaraswamy was one of those rare Universal Men like Romain Rolland, Albert Schweitzer, Bertrand Russell, Rabindranath Tagore and a few others of this Coomaraswamy started his professional career as a geo
logist and the doctorate was con
the exponent
ferred on him for his significant work in this branch of Sciene., including the discovery of Thorianite. But, he turned his back to a lucrative career as the Director of Minerology, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and devoted his life to the interpretation of the Indian, Ceylonese, nese, Indonesian and Islamic arts and to the Writing of art history.
This serious involvement with the art of the past enabled him to become a philosopher of aes - thetics, both Oriental and Occidental. Finally, towards the end of his life, Coomaraswamy became of the Perennial Philosophy of Mankind. Thus, as one of his friends remarked, Coomaraswamy had a series of "avatars' one leading to the other,
DR, COOMARASWAMY was a man of two cultures in more than one sense. He was a man of science who took to the arts. When he
abandoned his he did not methods of used the prin. =of scientific vantageously i ing art object styles. He wa cultures in a conciled the C tal cultures c embodiment. that Dr. C born of a Ceylon and a woman from his middle na
Dr. Coonra son of Sir Mu remarkable T. in Ceylon. H Mudaliyars fro had migrated and settled d Mutu's father his services to such that he the title of Sir Muttu was . in several la went to Lon Victoria’s reig impact. It is Mutu produce “Harischandra” sion for the fascinated by copy of the
Though C born in Colom him to Engla few months ol about a year Lady Coomar bring up her sic Young Ananda schools and \ had a scientic accordingly he geologist. It V twenty-six tha
and of his appointment Minerology, C service for o during that sh course of his
Dr. COOMA as a minerolo remote Corner observant eye of arts and cra he got interes and the artisa that due to B rialist policies,
TRIBUNE, September 17, 1977

career as a geologist, spurn the scientific 2nquiry. In fact he ciples of "taxonomy'' classification ad1 identifying and dats and classifying art S also a man of two nother way. He re)ccidental and Orienf which he was an must be remembered OO maraSWarmy Was ami 1 aristocrat from philosophic minded Kent, UK (Hence, me, Kentish).
swamy was the only tu Coomaraswamy, a amilian from Jaffna is forefathers were m Tamil Nadu who
from South India own in Ceylon. Sir was a translator and the British were was honoured with a "Gate-Mudaliyar'. a scholar well versed guages. When he don during Queen n, he made a great on record that Sir 2d the Tamil play. , in an English verQueen, who was so it that she kept a play by her bedside.
oomaraswamy was bo, his mother took ind when he was a d. And, when he was old, Sir Mutu died. aswamy decided to in in her own country. was sent to public Wycliffe College. He - bent of mind and 2 was trained as a was at the age of it he discovered the orefathers after his as the Director of eylon. He was in
nly four years and ort period, the whole life changed.
RASWAMY'S work gist took him to the 's of the island. His noticed the treasury fts in Ceylon. Slowly ted in the craftsmen S. But he also found ritish rule and impethe indigenous arts
an artistic renaissance.
Scholar And Pre-eminent
and crafts were deteriorating. Dr. Coomaraswamy was also under the influence of the Guild Socialistsespecially of William Morris, the leading protagonist of workmen's guilds.
Coomaraswamy became a nationalist and took to 'native' costume of dhoti, turban and even the "angavastram'. He started the Ceylon Reform League and a magazine too to propagate his ideas. He was soon caught up by the nationalist Surge in India. He made several visits to lndia, met the Tagores, (Rabindranath, Abanindranath and Gaganendranath) Nandlal Bose and others. He met Dr. Annie Beasant and he joined the Theosophical Society. After his induction into the indian national movement, he decided to resign his job and become a freelancer.
During the years between 1907 and 1916. he made several trips to India. He wrote several booklets on the Swadeshi Movement and "National idealism'. He pleaded for He Wandered up and down the country collecting paintings, sculpture, art objects, artefacts and fine pieces at Indian crafts. He was no mere collector. He began a serious study of Indian art and its history, about which at that point of time there was much of prejudice and misinterpretation.
Dr. Coomaraswamy is today remembered for his pioneering Work in making an all-rouhid survey of Indian arts, including the performing arts and in writing extensively in various magazines. He also wrote voluminous books that gave a coherent view of the various schools of art and the various styles that evolved. Where he was great in his task was in his 'syncretic''' approach-the unifying aproach.
Thus, for instance to undertand the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist sculptures, Dr. Coomaraswamy undertook along with a friend, the translation of Nandikeswara's classic on Abhinaya. This book, "Mirror of Gesture', helped him to interpret the "mudras'. Then Coomaraswamy made a special study of Bharata Natyam and even made a film over forty years ago. To interpret the Rajasthani paintings, he similarly went into a detailed study of the Bhakti
22
|-
-<

Page 25
Scholar Pre-eminent
school of poetry as well as folk songs. He had to go into study of the Ragas for explaining the Ragamala paintings.
Dr. Coomaraswamy's services to Indian art were many. First and foremost he established that the evolution of the Buddha figure was out of native tradition and out of the Taksha figures and not because of the Greek craftsman, who had come after Alexander's conqueust of India. At that time, there was a notion prevalant, that the Greeks modelled the Buddha after their own Greek gods. This was because of the hybrid art of Gandharasculptures. Coomaraswamy stunned a conference of orientalists at Copenhagen with his well-documented thesis on the origin of the Buddha image.
Secondly, he truly discovered "Rajput' Painting. What is now known as Rajasthani and Pahari schools of painting used to be dubbed as Mughal painting till Dr. Coomaraswamy wrote his two-volume study on them. He distinguished these paintings from the Mughal paintings and then he classified them according to style and content.
Besides, Dr. Coomaraswamy wrote those monumental volumes on the 'History of Indian and Indonesian Art', 'The Dance of Shiva' and much earlier, 'Medieval Sinhalese Art'. In fact, he is credited with over 330 publications ranging from tomes to monographs, from translations to critical assessments, from book reviews to polemical attacks. Each and every one of his writings was marked with erudition, with quotations from diverse sources in half a dozen languages, in which he was adept.
With the passage of time, he became more and more, philosophically inclined and he found that through history ran the parallel strands of philosophy which had much identity and unity. Thus he was led to the Perennial Philosophy.
it must be recalled that Dr. Coomaraswamy was requested to organise the Fine Arts section of an exhibition of arts and crafts which was held at Allahabad in 91 by the then British Indian Government. In the course of his travels for collecting the exhibits Dr. Coomaraswamy became a collector himself. And at one time,
23
he made an appeal nalists that if a buil given to him, then h his entire collectio would run the muse Pandit Madan Mohau founder of Banaras
sity to pay heed ti But deaf ears were
Oddly enough ab Denman Rosa, a trus ton Museum of Fi was herein India an Coomaraswamy. Wi flourish of an Ame and philanthropist, over entire collectic maraswamy and app the Keeper of India medan Art at the B Thus, Dr. Coomaras in 1916 unfortunately and disillusioned ma years he stayed in came one of the Ori qmong the Bostol What was india's loss gain. All the same, wamy never lost in It was his spiritual
IT MUST BE RE When India attainec Dr. Coomaraswamy a meeting of Indians India's Tricolour. S seventieth birthday place with testimon out this time in the interview and in th letter to a friend,
wamy, revealed that bition to return to
the days of his "Val remote place somew Himalayan foothills.
Even while he and Louisa can Arge grapher and art lor paring themselves Índia, Death snatche tember 8. One mome in his garden and h See some paintings had brought. And th he was dead.
Twenty years lat brought Dr. Cooma to be immersed in in Sri Lanka and in India. It was as a lo she came and visited ed by her husband son, Rama Ponnam a practis ing doctor

o lindian natioding could be e would donate n and that he um. He Wanted Malaviya, the Hindu Univero his request. turned to him.
out this time, stee of the Bosne Arts, USA d he met Dr. th the usual rican collector he thought bn of Dr. Coopointed him as and Muhamoston Museum. wamy left India
r, as a frustrated
in. For 30 long Boston and beental "pandits' in 'Brahmins'. was America's Dr. Coomarasterest in India. home.
CALLED that i independence, presided over and he raised Foon after his celebration took ial, dinner. Aba course of an le course of a Dr. Coomarasit was his amIndia to spend haprastha in a here near the
his wife, Dona htinian photover). Were pre
to return to is him on Sepint he was alive e was about to which a friend e next moment
er his widow, raswamy's ashes River Kelaniya the Ganga in he pilgrim that places mentionand by her only balam, who is t at Deerborn
USA. It is to be noted here that Dr. Coomaraswamy who was a vegetarian all through his life, wantëd his son to be so. And he had sent Rama when he was young to India for a short stay at Gurkul, Kangri.
Scores of indologists and art historians have written extensively about service rendered by Dr. Coomaraswamy to Indian art but there is no space to quote them here. Suffice it will be to quote what Rabindranath Tagore and Dr.
Sarvapillai Radhakrishnan had said of him.
Tagore wrote of him thus:
"Whatever we call him--an art critic or a historian or even a scholarwe find something is left over, some thing in his work, which in the last analysis is undefinable. Dr. Coomaraswamy exceeds all our definitions. Ali our definitions fal! far short of his actual work. He is always something else.'
And Dr. Radhakrishanan acknowledged his indebtedness to Dr. Coomaraswamy : "I had been a student of Dr. Ananda Coomaraswamy's writings for many years and had the great pleasure of meeting him at Boston in 1946. Among those who are responsible not only for Indian rennaissance in the world, Dr. Coomaraswamy holds a pre-eminent
position.'
-Courtesy / Socialist India
来源 米 来 k
NEXT WEEK
O NIGHTMARE IN JAFFNA
G) IS EELAM VIABLE ? -2
O RACE-MYTH AND
SCIENCE-2
O CURRENT POLITICAL
TRENDS
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

Page 26
Confidentially
is Eelam Wiable?-1
IS IT ANY SURPRISE that Tribune should have been bombarded in the last fortnight with one question from a large number of our readers from the North, East, Colombo and elsewhere! IS EELAM VABLE IS IT AN ECONOMIC PROPOSITION? That from the letters we have received it is clear that hardly anybody has given ser rious thought to this matter? That in the first place the territory of Eelam has not been properly defined and that it is therefore not possible to answer the question satisfactorily? That the TULF speak about the Northern and Eastern Provinces as the 'homeland of the Tamils'? That this cannot provide a complete answer because there are areas in the Northern Province (eg., South Vavuniya) and a several areas in the Eastern Province (Seruwawila etc.) where the Sinhalese are in a majority? That in these two provinces there are also a whole number of areas from Mannar to Batticaloa where the Muslims predominate? That it is inconceivable that the people in these areas will want to be incorporated into a Tamil Eelam? That many find an easy way out of the dilemma by asking for the restoration of the territory which was the Tamil Kingdom when the Portuguese first arrived in the island? That any serious political observer will admit that this kind of demand harking back to a misty past to create
boundaries can be only considered
an emotionally romantic anachronism? That as between sovereign states the demand to revise boundaries in accordance with something that had existed many decades or centuries earlier is described by a dirty word 'revanchism?' That the situation in the
island of Ceylon has changed after
the time the Portuguese arrived in the island? That it is not realistic to ask for a determination of a separate state on boundaries that are supposed to have existed prior to 1505. That in any case, the question of drawing boundaries is academic at the moment because the Government of Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese have not conceded the demand for Eelam as a separate
State (and will no the establishmen state has been a Sinhalese does boundaries arise? of boundaries will the Sinhalese agr to Eelam or the victors in a frat there is not the now (or in the fic for either the Sin a separate Sovere the Tamils to win the Sinhalese to a Struggle by ahi Satyagraha to car state is only a í demogagues who they say? That a s not be won by a himsa? That it that the 13; mil Tamils can possi of attrition to fo to concede a sep no foreign power help the Ceylon for a separate si dream that in sor a separate Tamil ter Dravidastan w ign Tamil Eelam te tence in Sri Lanka to speculate or di separatist soverei (which has not ye tence and which come into being help the Ceylon separate state? Til only to take in the immediate p in the absence of being conceded force of arms it is to discuss the bou That in the abse territory it woul to make a scienti of the viability of only a mirage-lik
IS IT NOT TRU realists among th common or horse that District Cou Councils which corporate the 't lands' of the the best way of self-respect, digni
... of the language,
lisation of the T That such distir councils with ad to safeguard Tamil considered by m way of preservin
TRIBUNE, September 7, 1977

c)? That only after t of a separate greed to by the the question of That the question arise either when ee (by persuation
Tamils are the icidal war? That slightest chance preseeable future) halese to concede ign Eelam or for a war and compel concede it? That msa and peaceful fe out a separate anciful dream of do not mean what eparate state Cana satyagraha and is inconceivable lions of Ceylon bly win a war rce the Sinhalese arate state? That is ever likely to Tamilians to fight tate? That some me distant future
Nadu and a grea
ill help a sovereo come into exis2 That it is foolish epend on what a ign Tamil Nadu t come into exisis not likely to ever) will do to Tamils to form a hat it is realistic to consideration ossibilities? That a separate state or being won by a futile exercise ndaries of Eelam? nce of a defined d not be possible fic determination an area which is e dream?
E that pragmatic he Tamils (with e sense) consider
ncils or Regional
coincide or in: raditional homeTamils constitute safe-guarding the ity and integrity culture and civiamils in Ceylon
ct or regional equate autonomy | rights has been any as the best g the identity of
Slogans And Territory
the Tamils in the multi-racial, multilinguistic, multi-religious and multi-caste state of Sri Lanka? That the Federal Party had unfortunately mixed its "federalism' with propaganda slogans of independent sovereignity (Tamil Arasu)-no doubt for electoral success and bargaining-and many times missed getting either Regional Councils (of the abortive Bandaranaike/ Chelvanayakam Pact) or the District Councils (of the ineffective Dudley Senanayake 965-1970 Government)? That on each occasion extremists and chauvinists among the Sinhalese were able to torpedo the regional or district council
by raising a hullabaloo about "Tamil Arasu' which they said sought to divide the country?
That 'Tamil Arasu' was a rhetorical emotional slogan that had made any settlement impossible? That when the Sinhalese were in a mood to agree to regional autonomy extremists and chauvinists among the Tamils (fearing an electoral challenge from more realistic and pragmatic Tamils) launched the cry for Eelam? That Tribune had warned its readers about the dangers of this slogan of Eelam? That Tribune had also pointed out that it was the built-in chauvinism of the United Front government (including the LSSP and CP) that made discriminatory practices like standardisation a way of life that enabled Tamil chauvinists to raise the slogan of a separate state?
That in the atmosphere of discrimination, Tamil extremists had also raised slogans about the boundaries of Eelam which has played havoc as recent events will show? That from pre-election platforms in recent months these Tamil fanatics had talked foolishly about getting every Sinhalese out of the Northern Province and pushing the boundaries of Eelam well past Medawachchiya and other places? That such speeches were made use of by Sinhala extremists to mount attacks on the Tamils in the whole of the North Central Province and elsewhere? That when the trouble had erupted the vast majority of such Tamil slogan-shouters in the so-called border areas had fled pell-mell to the safety of the Peninsula leaving the poor Vanni Tamils to face the music alone? That this attempt to define the territory of Eelam by slogans on election platforms brought disaster?
to be continued
24
has only
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