கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.09.24

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Page 3
݂ ܶ
Letter FromA TAe EfÒitor
THE NIGHTMARE IN JAFFINA IS REAL. It has been real time. On the one hand, the Police stationed in Jaffna had mare to the ordinary citizens-and especially after the IA January 1974 the Police had thrown their weight about in a peaceloving citizens in Jaffna dread the sight of a policemar moment one was sighted. On the other hand, the shado, of young terrorists, who had surfaced in the North about 97 insurgency in the South, had initially acquired (owing vably stupid role of the Police and the United Front gove of Saviours of the oppressed Ceylon Tamils, have now be teinian monster terrorising into Submission all those not un realistic and provocative slogans about Eelam. This t has enjoyed peninsular immunity under the euphemistic the "militant youth wing' of the FP and later the TULF an to assume the role of National Liberation Army fighting purposeless examining the credentials of this self-styled mil TULF or its attempt to don the mantle of a Liberation Army first elementary pre-requisites of a separate state. Furthe not likely to be a realistic factor in Sri Lanka politics in th ture. The so-called militant military wing can at best be no a group of terrorists trying to impose their will and their cr one) on hapless Tamils and others who reside in the territ operate. History has shown-especially in the last hundre when terrorism had acquired ideological respectabilitylike crime, does not pay. And, what is worse is that only of romantics and dedicated ascetics among terrorists have to sustain the political idealism that had driven them to terr terrorism as such has failed in all countries and at all tit to achieve long or even short term political objectives. exceptional and rare cases has a terroristic group been a itself into an army of national liberation. In Sri Lanka, a T. a practical proposition now or in the immediate future, an inevitable that the so-called militant (military) wing of t degenerate into a group using terror to browbeat people views on Eelam, and also to collect money to finance i methods which can be only termed criminal and anti-Social. the Police were unpopular and in disfavour in the Jaffna peni anti-TULF politicians or killing policemen had a touch of r bravado, and because of this the people of Jaffna were not the police to apprehend these law-breakers. But today has arisen. The ultra-extremist political projections of group through a pliable TULF leadership, anxious to successes, led to the disastrous EXODUS '77. The ter. even some of the older TULF leaders also seem to think th has laid the foundations for separation: that such disaster an bring world-wide support for the Tamilians fighting to set in pursuance of such belief, TULF leaders have talked rec national newsmagazines like the Newsweek and Asiaweek abo of Tamil youth who were prepared to join a liberation arm expected arms to pour into their territory from severa terrible repercussions that such expressions of folly have b people made these leaders issue half-hearted denials but avail as the mischief has already been done. In the meantim groups have stepped up their criminal and anti-social residents in Jaffna who did not, and do not, subscribe to Eela are regularly terrorised-through psychological terrc interspersed with robbery, assault, arson and threat of ki Worked for candidates who fought the TULF are being shot at holders have been threatened that if they gave information ti about the criminal activities of the group the entire f "wiped out'. Banks and MPCS stores in Jaffna have bee regularity that staggers imagination. And now the terrorists rob private citizens and homes as well. Tribune daily rec robberies in private homes all over the peninsula, and th victimised were still reluctant to go to the Police. A la 'teenage rowdy and criminal gangs have also proliferated Jaffna a dangerous hazard. The TULF's Eelam politics h people in Jaffna to a life of permanent fear and to a total i peace with other communities in the rest of the island. It i. hing is done to end this unhappy state of affairs for the T.

for a very long become a nightR conference in way that made and to hide the vy underground the time of the to the un beliernment) the halo Come a frankenswilling to echo erroristic group nomenclature of d has now tried for Eelam. It is itary wing of the without evfeim the rmore, Eelam is e foreseeable fuothing more than eed (if they have ory where they ld and fifty years -that terrorism, a tiny hardcore ever been able prism. Moreover, mes as a weapon t is only in very ble to transform amil Eelam is not d it is therefore he TULF should into accepting its ts activities by At a time when Insula, murdering "omantic political willing to assist a new situation this terroristic score electoral rorist youth and at EXODUS 77 d suffering would üp Eelam. And, cklessly to interut the thousands hy and how they nations. The rought the Tamil chey are of little e, the terroristic activities. Tamil m have been and or at its worst ling. Those who . Ordinary houseo the authorities amily would be in robbed with a | have Started to ceives reports of at the people so rge number of to make living in ave reduced the nability to live in s time that someamil people.
founded in 1954 A Journal of Ceylon and
Editor S. P. Amarasingam Every Saturday
E
ܪ̈ܚܫܚܚ
September 24, 1977 Vo. 22 No. 4
T R IB U NE 43, DAWSON STREET,
C O L O M B O - 2,
Telephone: 33 72
C O N T S N s
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK —Eelam, Work, China po 2
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
-Aug. 29 - Sept. p. 7
MANDATE FOR EELAM -Fact Or Fiction P. O.
HISTORY AND EELAM -The Truth p. II
LETTERS
-Current Matters p. 12
REVIEW
-On Violence p. 5
RULE OF LAW
-And Buddhist Dhamma p. 17
WHAT THE COUNTRY NEEDS -Sound Education p. 8
İNANIA -Seventy Seven Years Ago p. 21
RACE-MYTH & SCIENCE-2
-Concluded p. 2
CONFIDENTIALLY | –ls Eelam Viable 2-2 р, 24
i - ܝܵܢܵܒ݁ܫܲܒ݁ܒܽ

Page 4
E DIT OR’S NOT E B 0 0 K
o More About Work And less About felam
O International-New
China
Colombo, September 19,
The results of the Pottuvil election did not provide any surprises: the UNFP and the ULF won the first and second places in this twomember seat. The SLFP man, M. M. Mustapha, a veteran from the area who has been many times in Parliament and who has held Ministerial office under different governments, came a very close third. There is no doubt that the results of the voting in Pottuvil electorate showed that it is an anti-Eelam vote. Of the 89,000 (approximately) votes (two each) cast, the TULF secured only a little over 23,000 votes. The Pottu vil vote is a further slipback from the percentage of votes that the TULF had obtained in other Eastern Province electo rateS.
With the general elections now completed, the UNP has 40 MPs in the NSA with the TULF having 8. But what is of significance, at the moment, is that in the Eastern Province the UNP holds 8 of the 2 seats whilst the TULF has only 4: (the seats held by the UNP are Seruwila, Muttur, Kalkudah, Batticaloa (one seat), Amparai, Samanturai, Kalimunai and Pottu vil (one seat), and the seats held by the TULF are Trincomalee, Batticaloa, seat), Pottuvil (one seat) Padiriippu). -
Already the TULF MP for Padi riippu has publicly stated that the people of the Eastern Province (no doubt those who had voted TULF) would reject the TULF's call for a separate state if the Government could satisfy their needs in the spheres of agriculture, education, transport, fisheries and certain other matters. Reports have reached Tribune that these sentiments are also shared by other TULF MPs not only in the Eastern Province but also in other places (especially outside the Jaffna peninsula).
and
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
Tamil Eelam
(one .
Tribune has f been urging the (to use legal jargo 5ine heartening to finc Hindu of Septem toria entitled HC SRI LANKA as leaders should for all, the idea of a We cite below t the record:
"THAT MR. J. Prime Ministër come out Sharp ment that he w the division of only to be expec the demand for State was the inc the Tani i Unite fought the recen Sizable number National A3șemb form the main But While it may potent pre-electi the Front Tegid, never have imag tion waii, the ani lems, though th HoWeris had goo frustrated at the of their interests
COWER
THE PICTURE O. a junction in the Giant's Tank an not been chosen lack of developm one of the rich agricultural proc tanks, Magnar is quantities of gr Subs oil (and bei can tube-wells surface wells a West German a with mechanical tube wells in ad fraction of what many times chea government dep lowest rainfall i plenty with gree moment , there
and becoming e. proper scientific limits of such ta can be done in a that an island-wi be undertaken w in this field have years after 1970persuaded to ret

Madras 'Hindu
r Some weeks of the country. Fortunately there "ULF to "lay by' are signs of a growing awareness n) the claim for a on the part of at least a section die o and it is of Tamil leaders that the grievances that the Madras of the Tamil minority are better }erʻ 8 in an edi- Settled by negotiations and through DME TRUTHSN a political consensus based on ing that ““TULF mutual understanding. True, the get, once and for communal is 5ue raised its ugly separate state...' head on Several occasions in the he editorial for past two decades. True too that
only temporary mea Şureş were R. JAYAWARDENE, taken to "solve' the problem, with
of Sri Lanka, has no new, lasting solution anywhere y with the state- in sight. To-day the position looks ould never permit more promising than ever before; the country was both the UNP Government's policy ted. It is true that statement and the speeches of the a separate Tamil Prime Minister and the Leader in plank on which of the House in the National Asd Liberation. Front Gembly have given a clear indit pol and Won a cation of the direction in which of seats in the it is proposed to tackle the probly (Parliament) to em of the Tamils. There is the Opposition party. reiteration of Mr. Jayawardene that have served as a he Will convene an al-party conon rallying point, ference to consider the whole probers should surely lem relating to the minorities and gined that Separa- its decisions will be incorporated Iwer to their prob- in the new Constitution to be rey and their foi- framed for the country. All this d reason to feel does appear to show the new Prime continued neglect Minister to be Sincere, and must by the past rulers be interpreted as such by the Tamil
H O FP E F O R T = E F U T U R E
N THE COVER, this week, was taken some years ago near remote Mannar town of Murunkan very near the famous d its fertile and prolific paddy fields. The picture has to draw attention to the mythical Eelam but to the total ent of an area which, with a little effort, can become est and most plentiful producers of rice and other luce. Many people do not know that, apart from the one of the areas where tube wells can reach immense oundwater hidden beneath the limestone beds in the ow). Only in areas with such limestone stratification be sunk but there are also areas in Mannar where re profitably feasible. A private organisation, with ssistance, has started sinking surface wells at low cost means in the Mannar District, and very soon it will sink dition. Wells are being sunk at a cost which is only a it would cost if sunk by manual labour. They are also aper than wells sunk by rigs owned and operated by partments. The Mannar District, which receives the in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka, will soon be a land of in fields and rich farms throughout the year. For the is no danger of the groundwater being over-pumped xhausted, but the future must be safeguarded by a hydro-geological survey to determine the saturation pping of groundwater. What is being done in Mannar ll the Dry Zone districts of Sri Lanka but it is essential de hydro-geological survey by competent persons should rithout delay. Some of the persons who were qualified Deen carried away in a tidal wave of the brain drain in the but there is no reason why they should not be :ԱՐՈ

Page 5
J. R. Jayawardene
minority. The question cannot be solved by sending all Tamils away to the north and east or bringing the Sinhalese to the South. Such a process will only wor:Şen the Situation, fanning the flames of Communal differences. The Prime Minister's clear cut reminder that the majority Sinhalese people have a right to live in the north which is dominated by the minority Tamils even as the latter have a right to live in the Sinhallege area,5 of the South is a home truth, the importance of which will Stand any amount of repetition. The TULF leaders should forget, once and for all, the idea of a separate State and work peacefully with the Sinhalese, and it is for the Government to act Swiftly to create the necessary climate of confidence So that the Tamils no longer feel they are a neglected lot and mere second class citizeni,' The Hindu has tendered this advice to the TULF in spite of a report published in the same paper on the same day under the heading TULF DENES PLAN FOR ARMED STRUGGLE.
Mr. A. Amirthalingam, General Secretary of the Tamil United Liberation Front, hai?, denied report5 that as a last resort, the Front is contemplating an armed Struggle to achieve a separate State for Tamils. He emphasized that if at all they launched any Struggle, it would be a non-violent Satyagraha campaign. He said in a Statement that reports that the TULF expected foreign countries to come to its assistance by "pouring in arms' were completely baseless. This denial was obviously made because of the question and answer interview which had appeared in the Asiaweek of September 2 (this issue of the weekly has not been circulated in Sri Lanka) in which, among other things, Amirthalingam had boasted that there were thousands of youths ready to
join a Liberation Army and that
arms would flow into their terri
tory from many countries. This
interview is only an elaboration, after electoral victory and the
eruption of communal disturbances,
of the same kind of interviews that
Amirthalingam has given foreign
newspapermen during the last three
months.
It is only after the events that have occured since the middle of August and the backlash that has overtaken the TULF and the Tamil
3
C2 mm unity that t thought it necesssa a denial through th of the Hindu. He it necessary to ho ference to issue s amplify how he hop Eelam through ah said about Amirth emotional outbu rhetoric the better It is significant th MPs have been st the days of travail in Sri Lanka in the (whether they wi relevant in the NS, 22 and 23 is yet t The Hindu dray Tribune has often weeks), to the stat Prime Minister Jay the problem of the Whilst firmly ass would not permit the country, the F that his governmen to meet the just demands of the Tam to the Eastern Proy before the Pottuvi 2), and the repor speeches reflects, way, the Governme. the matter:
The Prime Minis jayawardene, yeşte here not to Wate which was fightin State because thi be such a State Should algo not yo Opposition, the F dressing a rally at Stadium, in Supp. dature of Mr. M. UNP nominee for election. Aș the governme the bugine5Ş of te mic problem of was an unfortun the citizens of did not Know ho A Commi55ion he Chief Justice will inquire into how he said. The t Jaffna but there Why people in oi country should ki, Something that Jaffna. He could why people in the killed or looted fire to their bro dent in Jaffna an had hindered th gress of the go

he TULF leader try to issue such e correspondent did not think ild a pre5's conuch a denial or ped to win Tamil himsa. The less alingam and his rsts of volatile for everybody. hat other TULF rangely silent in for the Tamils last one month ll say anything A on September o be seen). vs attention (as done in recent ements made by awardene about Tamil minority. erting that he the division of PM has indicated at was prepared and legitimate nils. He had gone tince a few days l election (Sept. rt of one of his in no un certain :nt's thinking on
ter, Mr. J. R. rday asked voters a vote. On a party g for a separate ere would never
Pottu vil yo ter5 te for a depleted
remier said ad
the Akkaraipattu }rt of the candiA. K. Jalaldeen, the Pottu vil by
nt got down to ickling the econothe nation, there ate clash among this country. He y it had started. ided by a retired be appointed to they all started, rouble began in Wg3 m0 red50ր her parts of the each other over rad happened in not understand South for instance others and set perty over a incii by that act they e economic proVern Frent.
Yesterday he had visited Batticaloa and instructed officials to render all assistance possible to those affected by the recent spate of violence. Expressing his deepest sorrow for all innocent people who were victims of racial violence, the Prime Minister said he had always stressed that Sri Lanka
"is a multi-racial Society'. The
Sinhalese were the major community in the Society and the Muslims and the Tamils formed a very
essential part of the Society. There were Tamil-speaking Muslims and
Tamils who wished to see a United Sri Lanka, he said.
"I am not the Prime Minister of one race or one country.' the Prime Minister said. "In fact more Muslims and Tamils have voted for the UNP than for any other political party in the country at the Iaşt general election. Aș the Prime Minister, I have to think of all these people.' He said it was true that Tamil people had grievances which were reasonable. During the 7 year period of the previous government nothing was done to redress them. They were deprived of jobs and discriminated in education and government activities. He said this government already corrected the disabilities in education. Similar corrective steps would be taken in other fields too. Appealing to the Tamil and others to repose complete truột in him Mr. Jayawardene disclosed that a package of economic relief awaited the nation in the next budget. The nation's next budget was only two months away.
people
After that there would be rapid
progress in the economy of the nation which would benefit all, he said. -
He said within one month the present government had done what the previous government could not accomplish in 7 years.
Mr. Jayawardene who flew here by helicopter following a visit to Batticaloa and Trincomalee to inspect rehabilitation programs there was received by a mammoth crowd. /Mr. Jayawardene Said that the country was overflowing with paddy. The bumper maha harvest had brought in large Stocks. The Goyernment was expecting an equally good Yala harvest He şaid that the Paddy Marketing Board was finding it difficult to purchase all the paddy offered as there were no sufficient storage facilities. The
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 6
Minister of Food had been given Rs. Million to put up more stores and to import spare parts for the paddy mills. Mr. Jayawardene had instructed the government officers to purchase all the paddy that was offered. The Prime Minister also appealed to the farmers to sell their paddy to the Paddy Marketing Board and the millers. The Paddy Marketing Board would provide all the facilities for the storage of paddy. He asked the officers of the PMB to go to the fields and make the paddy purchases. The Prime Minister assured that all the paddy that was offered would be purchased and they would be given cash and documents of purchase. These documents would be honoured and they would get all that was due to them. Mr. Jayawardene Said that both the WellaWatte Textile Mills and the Salu Sala owed R5. 350 Million to the Banks. That was the record of achievement of the last Government in producing textiles. In the godowns of these two establishments there were textiles to the value of Rs. 35 Million lying idle. A very large quantity had gone bad. Nobody wanted to purchase them. Still they had to be disposed off, he added.
As we have often pointed out in recent Weeks, no Prime Minister of Sri Lanka has approached the Tamil minority problem in this way. No previous PM or Government have said and done the things J. R. Jayawardene and the UNP have done since assuming office on July 23.
One of the most important matters of great significance is the fact that Prime Minister Jayawardene has resisted the pressures from certain sectarian organisations which - have exercised great influence on Prime Ministers, Ministers, MPs and Governments in the recent past. A report in the Sunday Observer, September 19, 1977, by B. H. S. Jayawardene under the heading: RAPS ORGANISATION: DEPLORES NARROW THINKING: PM: "ALL CITIZENS ARE EQUAL' makes it clear that the Prime Minister does not mince his words even on Sensitive questions:
"The Prime Minister, Mr. J. R. Jayawardene haş, Şeverely criticised a recently constituted organisation which protested to him last week against the Government's
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
stand on the marks at pub language, the reliably under to the orgar Minister has placed his these issues b the general e. received a m to implement fully. Mr. Jay that he Consi Sri Lanka equ. treated equally opportunities i He has exhor to follow the t dha and that in the narrow Buddha had p and not race, Conider al h
Mr. Jayaward organisation th be better for the possibility speaking peop. dhism rather they be discri Prime Minister complaints fr that although received high tions they had belief that wh Ward area; Sh helping hand, fied should n against and all opportuniti
The Sunday deritands that who was in other Buddhi: Well lagt Wee attitude towai of liquor. He increased use try. He howe prohibition a; that it will c. much as the did not i elin has however paign to be in ter of Educa Wijeyeratne, f Where teache example and On the evils. C ment’s part,
proposal to ba
by persons bel teen years of introduced a
Ministers whe cocktail partie

'No' To Buddhist Sectarianism
standardisation of ic examination 5 and Sunday Observer tands. In his reply isation the Prime Stated that he had roposals concerning efore the country at ections and he had Indate. He intended
thoŞe propoFala awardene has Stated ders all Citizen: of tal. They should be and be given equal 1 a united Sri Lanka. ted the organisation eachings of the Budit Should not think terms of race. The reached for humanity and Buddhists should uman beingŞ - equal. 'ene haş, told the tat perhaps it might it to concentrate on of persuading Tamil le to embrace Budthan demand that minated against. The Gaid he ha 5 received om Feveral parents their children had marks at examinano future. It is his ile Student5 in backould be extended a Students Who qualiot be di5Criminated should be provided
eS.
Observer, also un
the Prime Minister Communication with t organisations as k ha3 Spelt out hiş ds the consumption Wa; di; turbed at the of liquor in the counver did not favour he did not believe ure the evil just as prohibition of murder linate murder. He advocated a camitiated by the Ministion, Mr. Nissanka 2r a Start in Schools is should set the
launch propaganda f drink. For governit is considering a in the use of liquor ow the age of eighage. It has already code of conduct for ‘e Only one attend : and for UNIP Mem
bers of Parliament who should not consume liquor in public.
The Prime Minj5ter ha 5 indicated to these organisations that he believes 'example is better than precept and laws." On the question of the propagation of Buddhism,
the other matter raised by Buddhist
Organisations government's policy is to encourage the translation and publication of books on the teachings of the Buddha which Will be undertaken by the Minister of Cultural Affairg, Mr. E. L. B. Hurulle, to whom finance will be provided for the purpose.
In the meantime, even the ebulient Mr. Amirthalingam seems to have been compelled by the realities of the situation to forget his Eelam and Come down to pragmatic Solutions to meet current difficulties. A report by Neville de Silva in the Daily News of September 9, under the heading TULF PROPOSES RE
SETTLEMENT PLAN, indicates the
process of climbing down from the high horse of Eelam to restoring the Status quo ante or something close to it has been reasonably fast:
''The TULF initiated talks with the Government on Wednesday on the major task of Settling Over 25,000 persons who fled their homes and work places during last month's violence, a Substantial number of whom do not wish to return. The leader of the TULF, Mr. A. Amirthalingam, told the Daily News that this was an urgent matter since most of the displaced persons were without any means of livelihood.
Mr. R. Premadasa, Minister of Local Government, Hou? ing and Construction who has been entrusted with the task of rehabilitating these perSoni, is expected to visit the North Shortly to study the Situation. The TULF which had discussions. With the Prime Minister Mr. J. R. Jayawardene and Mr. Premadasa proposed that the refugees be given State land in the North and East for settlement and that financial assistance be provided to allow them to get on their feet once again. Mr. Amirthalingam said that while Some of the displaced persons would take to agriculture there were others who had been occupied in one kind of a trade or another. If Settlements were opened they would be able to continue With their earlier occupations in the new settlemenčş.
܌

Page 7
ܓ݂ 7
Rehabilitation
The TULF delegation had also pointed out that şome of the professional persons such as teachers and doctors who had gone to the North be assigned to Schools and medica institution5 : in the North and East since many of them did not wish to return to their original places. The TULF suggested that generally public servants be given further time to decide whether they wished to return to work. The Government had pointed out that the first task was to collect all the data with regard to those Who had been eygcuated and those still in the camps. Once all the information iş availabie the Government would maþ out ita Strategy for the rehabilitation of these
person 3. syr. Amirthalingam Said
that before any dialogue could take place on outstanding issues it was urgently necessary to solve the present problem facing the displaced persons. A few days later, a report in the Daily Mirror (7/9/77) under the heading GRANT MORE TIME FOR PUBLIC SERVANTS TO RETURNAMRTHALING AM showed that Amirthalingam had got down to the serious task of negotiating with the Prime Minister and the Government without preaching rhetorical homiljes about the urgent need to usher in Tamil Eelam. The Leader of the Opposition, Mr. A. Amirthalingam ha; urged the Prime Minister, Mr. J. R. JayaWardene to grant more time to those public servants who did not report for duty after the disturbances to enable them to decide Whether they could go back to their former places of work or not. He has Stated that he gathered from the newspapers that the public Servants who did not report for work by September 19 would be put on no-pay leave. He also stated that a large number of people haye lost their belonging5 and are destitute. Any attempt to pressurise them Without any Consideration of the extent of physical and mental suffering and material loss they have undergone would be most painful. He has stated he would therefore make the following suggestions. (l) that these public servants be given more time to decide whether they can go back to their
former places of work. (2) If they
Cannot go back they should be given transfers to safe stations as appears to have been done in
5
the case of some S who were working (3) ln ca şeş, wher Servants had been physical violence in their offices in the outstation it to bring the offend adequate measures provided against a re these matters are c displaced public se port for work either Stations or at any n to which they a they be enabled to kachcheries or bra the North or East ments be made to full pay. Some of find the money to clothing for them. families.
Mr. Amirthdlingam Certain ingtain Ce5 0 have gone back to after being looted. With the TULF chastened mood t planeloads of Tamil returned to Colomb is more encouraging halese residents of Jai ted returning to the
This is not the critination. This is to harik back to post. This is the things done to bri back to the con the work of deve be started in rea
"T" = E UN SESS FOCU's atteratio the important facing the world. over a hundred items It is impossible to S Space available to us the more important confront the world. an important membe aligned movement a fore a special role in tions particularly in re number of matters aff aligned and the third Middle East, Rhodesia Africa, the conflict be and Ethiopia in the the New Internati Order, Third Wor etc. It Will be inter what policy attitude by the new UNF to these and other World Disarmament, Energy.

halege officer3 in the North. Tamil public Subjected to }r huimilliation Colombo and bis be taken 5 to book and of Security be petition. (4) Till justed and the Wants can reat their former aw safe station e transferred report at the nch offices in and arrangetive them their them have to buy even the lves or their
ha 5 also cited persons who their houses
eader in this rain loads and officers have Io. ` And what is that Sinfina have Star
peninsula. time for renot the time the hoary time to get ng normal cy try so that lopment can
ea rest. ONS WIL
on all problems There afe on the agenda. et out in the even a few of problems that Sri Lanka is r of the nonld has therethe deliberagard to a large cting the nonworld, eg. the and Southern tween Somalia orm of Africa, ional Economic d debt, etc. esting to see } are adopted government matters like Detente and
Vietnam has been admitted as the 49th member of the UN body. There is no doubt that Vietnam is destined to play a vital and important role in Asian and world affairs. And the role of Vietnam as a Socialist couptry, with a new dynamic and pragmatic approach to all matters, and which is also able to maintain successful relations with Moscow and Peking, is something that must be taken into cosideration. It may be sometime before the impact of Vietnam's new importance is felt in world affairs.
But Vietnam's giant neighbour, the People's Republic of China, has undergone a new transformation under the leadership of Hua Kuo feng and other leaders who have been described by commentators as “moderates and pragmatists'. Whatever terms are used to describe the changes, there is no doubt that China has reached a new landmark in its internal history. Much of it may be a further extension of policies of the past but there seems to be a great deal that is new and different. The recently concluded lith Congress of the Communist Party of China set the stamp of the new orientation. Hindu’s correspondent, K. V. Narain, writing from Tokyo, had one of the best summaries of what was achieved at the recent Congress. "Chairman Hua Kuo-feng's political report to the lith National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was a lengthy one, going to over 20,000 words, but in essence it boiled down to two major points, namely a detailed account of how the "gang of four' tried to usurp political power by resorting to underhand tactics and how this attempt was crushed, and, secondly, how the country should go about tackling the major task facing it now, that is, the speedy modernisation of the economy to catch up with the developed world before the end of this century. To achieve this, Mr. Hua recommended among other things a vigorous revamping of the structure and functioning of the party. The party constitution has been re-written to prevent in future attempts by a small coterie or clique like the 'gang of four' to grab power. The basis for achieving the speedy modernisation of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the armed forces without having to face major attempts
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 8
at sabotage by enemies within the country has been laid, in the first place, through a large-scale reshuffling of personnel at the highest centres of power, namely, in the membership of the Party Central Committee, the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee.'
The most important indication of the changes in China is the new leadership that has been chosen.
"The new five-man leadership that has emerged in the country, Mr. Hua and the fou ir Vice-Chairmen, Yeh Chien-ying, Ten Hsiao-ping, Li Hsien-nien and Wang Tunghsing, are all regarded as pragmatists. This can be readily seen in the fact that of the four vice-chairmen, three, Yeh, Teng and Li were close to the late Femier Chou En-liai. These same five people also now constitute the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, which is the party's highest decision making body. The new Political Bureau is made up of 23 regular members and three alternates. Included among them are a number of people known to be economic or technical experts. Similarly, the composition of the Central Committee has radically changed with a large number of officials, who were believed to have been under the influence of the 'gang of four' being eliminated, in their place have appeared a considerable number of veteran officials and pragmatists. This reflects the realisation by the new leadership that the four goals of modernisation cannot be achieved without the services of technologists and men of experience. There is also a significant increase in the number of military men on the Central Committee, and this may be regarded as a well deserved recognition of the key role played by the military in routing the 'gang of four'.
Chairman Hua also formally announced the end of the Cultural Revolution. Another important point made by Mr. Hua was his proclamation that the smashing of the "gang of four marked the Conclusion of the 'Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution' that i-year old period which witnessed chaos and disorder within the country. China's Socialist revolution and socialist construction, said Mr. Hua, had now entered a new period of development. In other words, the regime would no longer tolerate such nonsense as that radical ideo
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
logy was more proper education could do withou con the latest til lopments, etc. O are to be the w; future. For the gramme, Mr. Hi print of "eight attaining great land which in to continuing t the “gang of fou tion and rectific and vigorously the national eco. tance given to the ing the “four m seen in the fac is to be achieve of this century, it will be inte in the coming w of China's trans foreign policy, C old line of impl the Soviet Ui Tokyo about this policy reveals sor lights: 'Speaking quet, given in his man Hua, Presid against one of Ch concepts when “war is not una ceded that the tion was "very troversial' and problems "are 1. gives rise to ou not say to-day ti secured: Howeve avoidabie.”
Speaking befe Chairman Hua or ted the spectre war. He declare powers are fer their arms and and they are rivalry for Their continued to lead to a wo This is a questi be coped with :
'The Chinese the same Warni cent Peking visi tary of State, But at the bag Chinese and Yu emphasis in the similarities betw tries' independer frained from m. direct attack on Chairmam Hua lavia's policy of

important than or that China : any dependence echnological deverder and progress itchwords for the nodernisation proa offered a blue ighting tasks' for order across the lude in addition ie struggle against '', party consolidaation at all levels pushing forward nomy. The impor: target of achievodernisations' is t that this goal d before the end
esting to examine eeks other aspects formation. But, in nina continues its acable hostility to on. A report from aspect of China's me interesting sideg later at a banhonour by Chairent fito came out ina’s major political he affirmed that voidable”. He coninternational situacomplex and conhe fact that word not being resolved concern. We canhat peace has been Fr, var is not tin
re Marshal Tito, lce again resurrec
of another world d: "The two super terishly expanding preparing for war ocked in a fierce iyorld hegemony.
rivalry is bound rld war some day. bn which needs to eriously', he said.
leaders had issued ng during the reof the US SecreMr. Cyrus Vance, guet to Tito the goslav leaders laid ir speeches on the een the two count policies. Both reking any kind of the Soviet Union. emphasised Yugosindependence vis-a-
China
vis the USSR, but observers noted the moderate tone used to express the Chinese warnings against Soviet) “hegemonism”. This was in order to avoid any embarrassment to Marshai Tito, who was in Moscow just over a week ago.'
With China's theory of the inevitability of another world war as a result of super-power rivalry, the Hua Kuo-feng leadership have decided to modernise their army. it does not seem likely, in spite of persons like Admiral Zumwalt and others who are aixious to supply sophisticated weaponry to China, that President Carter will sanction the sale of arms to China immediately. Secretary Vances's recent visit to Peking was something of a flop
But China seems to be shopping for arms wherever it is possible to get them. According to the AFP, a top Chinese military delegation is to visit France between Septem“ ber 5 and 25 on the invitation of the French Defence Ministry. The delegation is to be headed by the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Chinese army, and the delegation is expected to visit several armoured, air force and naval stations.
Reports indicate that EEC countries will offer substantial credits to China to buy arms. France is likely to offer its services to help China modernise its Armed Services. China continues to explode nuclear devices and it is likely that she will be a major military power in Asia and the world before the tiri of the century. This is a fact that all countries in Asia in particular must take into account in matters of geopolitical strategy and in the conduct of foreign affairs.
NEXT WEEK
9 MORE ABOUT EELAM
g DEVELOPNG COUNTRIES'
DILEኮኅዙኅA
O PAKESTAN'S ELECTIONS
O GOVERNMENT'S PLANS
ekYuYTeTeTTAeTTSYSieTeieeeSSeSSeSYzYYeTeYYeYeYe
6

Page 9
Sri Lanka Chronicle
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
Aug. 29 - Sept. 1
DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD
COMPLED FROM DALYNEWSPAPERS
PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDM-Ceylon Daily Mirror; CO-Ceylon Observer; Si-Sunday times; Div-Dinamina; LD-Lankadipa; VK-Virakesari; AIH-Aththa; SAW-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; DW-Dawasa; CAVA-Chint hafrani; 醬。蠶 RR-Rivirasa; EN-Eelanadu:
MONDAY, AUGUST 29: Reports received by the National Security Council from the co-ordinating officers of the 22 districts in the country indicated the situation in the entire island was returning to normal after the two-week wave of violence; goods estimated at Rs. 5 million have already been recovered by the police and armed forces and search and recovery operations were continuing on a large scale throughout the island, police and armed force officials said yesterday; over 4,000 persons have been taken into custody for offences ranging from murder, arson, looting and breaking the curfew. Sources said that 2 lives were lost and 25,000 rendered homeless and property estimated at around several millions of rupees were damaged and looted. The PM stated in a message to the World Peace through Law Centre Conference which was held in Manila last week that his government doesn't believe in the achievement of economic prosperity at the cost of human freedom. The islandwide curfew was imposed from 9 p.m. last night until 4 am, today, except in Jaffna. Thế CTB is now operating most of the short distance buses since curfew hours have been relaxed, according to a CTB spokesman. The CGR will run four special trains from Colombo to Jaffna, Batticaloa, Kandy and Badulla today. The President of the SLFP, Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranalike has appealed to its members and supporters and the general public to help maintain law and order; she was critical both of the government and leaders of the TULF. The police and armed forces will intensify preventive action' from six o'clock this morning in order to consolidate the incident-free situation that prevailed during the weekend, an armed forces spokesman said last night. The Ayurveda Drug Corporation has begun a massive scale campaign to dispose of Rs. 30 lakhs worth of imported drugs at present Stockpiled in the corporation's stores in Pettah. The Ceylon Communist Party hopes that the recent tragic events would make the TULF leaders think again, says the General Secretary of the Party, Mr. N. Shanmugathasan in a press release issued yesterday. The CP of Sri Lanka in a press release has condemned the recent incidents of violence and has called upon the working class and all patriotic forces to categorically reject the path taken by the anti-people elements. The MP for Mihintale has given notice of a motion to be moved in the NSA calling for action to be taken to afford the opportunity of re-employment to youths who lost their employment on account of their involvement in the April 1971 insurgency. All state

orporations which run at a loss will, in future be closed lown, the Minister of Agriculture and lands said yesterlay-CDN. Thirty five thousand persons sought protecion in the refugee camps set up by the defence forces in many parts of the island, according to statistics gathered by the government. Operation business as usual tarts at 7 a.m. today in the Pettah backed by the Security Forces. Priority would be given to farmers to purchase ractor spares and service of tractors from consignment {epots which would be shortly set up in major agricullural areas in the island said the Chairman of the State Training (Tractor) Corporation. Conditions were back o normal yesterday, defence ministry sources said. The Police and Army have formed a unit to recover ooted goods in the Kandy area-CDM. The FM is to ummon an all-party conference shortly to consider he problems of the non-Sinhala speaking people; its ecisions will be incorporated in the present constiution. The NSA which meets again, according to the tanding orders, on September 6 is likely to adjourn mmediately after it assembles. The Indo-Ceylon steamer ervice between Talaimarinar Pier and Danushkodi as been suspended indefinitely. A police inspector ttached to the Moratuwa police was interdicted yesteray because he had under the influence of liquor, threabned volunteers working in conjunction with the police D maintain law and order in the area. The Minister of ousing and Construction yesterday directed the Commsioner of National Housing to take immediate action to revent unscrupulous landlords cashing in on the current tuation and evicting tenants. The Police are to subit a report to the PM on the circumstances that led the recent disturbances. About it,000 refugees who pted to leave Colombo have been provided all possible sistance and transport facilities by the government. bomb was thrown at the Colombo residence of Mr. yril Mathew, Minister of industries and Scientific Ffairs at about 1.00 p.m. last Friday-SU. Communal citers and those who instigate acts of violence should : very severey dealt with is an order given to the police di armed forces by the Ministry of Defence. A rehabilition scheme to settle nearly 40,000 refugees in the orth and East has been devised by officials connected ith the refugee rehabilitation scheme-DP. A large imber of secret messages are coming the way of the lice and armed forces as to who instigated the cert disturbances in the country and they are followg it up. People of Indian origin who have gone as fugees to the North can be settled in the Killinochi ea in gettlement schemes-WK. The situation in Jaffna s improved a great deal with the lifting of the curfew; filians belonging to organisations such as the Lions, d Rotarians will also patrol the streets with police rsonnel it was decided-EN. The International Devepment Association has sanctioned 4 million dollars to tend the pipe borne water scheme in Colombo and wns south and North of it. All the cement factories the island will go into production again and will be le to meet the country's entire requirement of cement cording to the Minister of Industries and Scientific fairs-CO. There have been frauds to the value of Rs 1. chs and a great deal of bribery and corruption has taken ace in the Tobacco Corporation according to the Minisof industries and Scientific Affairs. Many of the people refugee camps feel that in such a small place with ry few Tamils, it would not be feasible to have a sepe te State-D.M. The government is Spending about a sh of Rs. daily for the refugee camps in the island-LD.
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 10
TUESDAY, AUGUST 30: The Chairman of th Cement Corporation said yesterday that the govert ment lost around Rs. 25 million this year as a result of
major breakdown in cement production at the country three major production units in Puttalam, KKS an Galle; in Puttalam alone the loss of revenue is estimate to be in the region of Rs. 5 million. The all-island curfe was imposed from 10,00 p.m. last night till 4 a.m. toda except in Jaffna. The Minister of Agriculture and Land expressed the satisfaction that the situation in th Central region as a whole was now fast retrning t almost normality. The by-election to the Pottuvil se. in the NSA is scheduled to be held on September 1. The Minister of Local Government, Housing an Construction in a reply to the letter of the leader the SLFP has said that it was incorrect for Mrs. Bandar naike to allege that no timely action was taken regar ing the Jaffna incidents; in fact the PM categorical stated in the NSA that a presidential commission wou be appointed to inquire into the whole matter; t reduce the genesis of the incident in Jaffna to a simp squabble is naivete in the extreme, he stated. The Mini ter of Agriculture and Lands has directed that th National Livestock Board with its expertise and facilitic should establish agro-industrial complexes in the estates. The General Secretary of the Sri Lank Vimukthi Balavegaya has called for an all-part round table conference to solve the problems that exis between the Sinhala and Tamil peoples. Mr. H. M Navaratne, former deputy Minister was produced be fore the Kandy police and remanded. India has expresse satisfaction at the steps taken by the government to loo after the interests of persons of Indian origin who wer caught up in the recent spate of violence. The city an suburbs were free of any incident yesterday accordin to reports received by the security sources; the inter sified patrols which began at dawn with the lifting c the curfew continued throughout the day with Ai Force helicopters carrying out reconnaisance flight and radioing any suspicious movements of persons t police stations and armed forces units in the respectiv areas. Tea and rubber estates throughout the islan resumed production yesterday, as the situation in th country improved further and people began going abol their normal business in areas which had been affecte by violence earlier; police reported that 70% of th shops which were closed at the height of the distu bances had been re-opened yesterday-CDN. Refuge from Colombo and other parts of the country affecte by communal violence are pouring into Jaffna by ai
sea and rail; already about 10,000 of them have arrrive and 6,000 sent either to their homes in Jaffna or to thos of their relatives and friends; there are about 4,000 st left in the 10 camps in Jaffna; there are also 4,000 most from Vayuniya in the Killinochchi district. The eleve day Kandy Esala Perahera ends with the day perahe
today. The Ceylon Fisheries Corporation contribut only 2% of the total fish consumption of the countr according to statistics of the Ministry of Fisheries. A cording to the Chairman of the Building Materia Corporation, sales depots would be opened in eve electorate by the BMC so that house-builders and othe
would be able to purchase their needs in their ow
areas. Conditions in the country returned to norm
yesterday except for an incident reported fro
Vavanikulam in the Vavuniya dsitrict; Tamil gover
ment and mercantile officials who had kept away fro
work last week resumed work today-CDM. The Jan
wasa Commission set up by the previous governme,
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Sri Lanka Chrefijele
has been abolished; the Minister of Agriculture and Lands has placed the management of all Janawasa institutions in the country in the hands of GA's. The Commission of inquiry into malpractices in local bodies headed by the former Chief Justice will hold public sittings on Sept. 5, in respect of matters relating to the Colombo municipality . The Pi yesterday moved into his official residence Temple Trees-SU. The Municipal Council of Jaffna has agreed to rebuild the 105 shops in the old market and 26 Shops near the bus stand which were burnt in the recent fires. Yesterday there was curfew in the Puttalam district from 6 p.m. till six a.m. this morning; in other areas it was from 10 p.m. till 4 a.m. Railway officials who were working in the Southern part of the island and who have gone to Jaffna as refugees have decided that they will not return to work in the South. Mr. S. Thondaman has asked the government to
set up refugee rehabilitation schemes under the Ministry
of Social Services and give them relief-VK. Many people who have been the victims of the recent wave of violence in the country, have either resigned their jobs, or else left them, while others have asked for transfers to the North and East. All Heads of Departments and Corporations have been issued orders to see that their 蠶 are given adequate protection when they getback to work-DP. Traders in Jaffna have agreed to open their shops and conduct business as usual except for the jewellery shop owners who were rather diffident after the recent incidents; lorry drivers had refused to bring things outside the peninsula and take back other foodstuffs. A lorry carrying refugees from the Mankulam area to Mannar was attacked en route and four persons were killed including a constable. The TULF has set up a committee to collect information regarding the recent violence in the island-EN.
WEE}NESDAY, ÀUGUST 3 : Sri Lanka yesterday condemned Israeli moves to set up three new Jewish settlements on the occupied West Bank and invited the international community to take effective action to halt these moves; addressing a news conference yesterday the Foreign Minister said that the government was "disturbed and alarmed at the current developments on the Israeli occupied West Bank. The Minister of Social Services yesterday visited refugee camps in Colombo and assured the refugees that the government would do everything possible to help them to overcome their present difficulties. With conditions gradually returning to normal persons in transit Camps are moving out to their former homes; the Director of Social Services said families who had decided to return to their former homes and are in need of financial assistance would get Rs. 50 per family to purchase cooking utensils; in the case of a family whose house is damaged Rs. 300 would be paid to repair the house; this would only be if the family stayed in the house. More shops, boutiques and other business establishments re-opened yesterday and were given maximum protection by the Police and armed forces. SLFPers who took a hard line at this month's Stormy session of the party's working committee are collecting signatures of card carrying members calling upon the Freedom party hierarchy to summon an emergency meeting of the 600 member executive committee immediately. The Ceylon Leather Corporation is working out a scheme which would provide employment for 8,000 persons within six months, according to the Chairman of the Corporation. A Committee under the chairmanship of Mr. S. Thondaman has been appointed for the express purpose of assessing

Page 11
Sri Lanka Chromiele
damages suffered by Tamil victims of recent incidents of violence and to explore ways and means of obtaining appropriate relief to such affected persons. The President of the islamic Institute in a press release on the recent event in the country has advocated the setting up of a permanent committee of national unity, comprising prominent members of each community which could work immediately for peace and harmony in the event of any exigency-CDN. The situation in Jaffna had returned to normal and Tamils who had gone to Jaffna after the recent outbreak of violence were now anxious to return to their homes and jobs in Colombo and other areas; this has been reported by a high-powered team of officials sent by the PM to several areas affected by the disturbances to ascertain the conditions prevailing, especially in regard to the food situation. The Minister of Education has ordered that the teaching of 'Principles of Socialism' in schools be stopped immediately; this was a compulsory subject for the HNCE examination. The Janawasama Commission has not been scrapped but the board removed from office till such time as new members were appointed. The curfew in the whole island, except in Jaffna district, was operative from 10 p.m., yesterday till 4 a.m. today; in the Puttalam district the curfew was operative from 6 p.m. till 6 a.m. today. An all round increase in industrial quotas to industrial entrepreneurs is in the offing; the Minister of Industries and Scientific affairs, has decided to ease the system of foreign exchange allocations now being made to local industrialists and increase such quotas. The Minister of Trade has decided to distribute synthetic textiles through private authorised traders channelled through the Lanka Salu Sala; hitherto 80% of synthetic textiles manufactured by the private sector and government undertakings was distributed through co-operative Societies; the other 20% was distributed through the manufacturer's retail outlets. A woman doctor in a Suburban hospital has been sent on compulsory leave by the Minister of Health for allegedly refusing to attend on a patient-CDM. An alleged
attempt to shoot the MP for Badulla is reported to have
been foilled by one of his supporters. The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has decided to raise the bank rate in the country by 10%. The Dehiwela-Mt. Lavinia area will soon have a new telephone exchange-SU. DMK Ministers have appealed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in India requesting them to send aid in the form of food to help the victims of the recent violence in Sri Lanka and the Minister Vajpayee has agreed to think over the matter. Mr. A. Amirthalingam will meet the PM soon to discuss the position and steps that can be taken to reha
bilitate the refugees-WK. About 1794 families had sought
refuge in camps in Colombo; of this 1040 lost their property; 21 families came out of panic for refuge leaving their things behind. 543 families did not lose much-DP. The Commissioner of inland Revenue has said that the nonpayment of income tax in 1974 amounted to Rs 73 lakhs-LD.
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER : The islandwide curfew which had been in force for the past 10 days was lifted yesterday following security reports that life had returned to normal in most areas and the situation in the entire island was calm and quiet; the only area which had the National Security Council worried this week was the Puttalam district, but the tension was now diffusing; security Sources said that the Armed forces would stage a phased withdrawal of troops in most areas, while the police would heighten
9

preventive action and maintain maximum vigilance throughout the day and night in all areas. The Central Bank has increased its bank rate, which is the rate at which it lends to commercial banks, from 8 1/2% to 10% effective yesterday, the Senior Deputy Governor of the Central Bank said today. The issue of the sugar ration which the government announced last month will commence today. The PM has asked Cabinet Ministers to submit plans to provide employment for 5 lakhs of unemployed before the Cabinet meets on September 5, according to Mr. R. Premadasa. The Minister of Plantation industry has told the Janawasama, Sri Lanka State Plantations Corporation and the Usawasama to launch a "Crash Food Program' immediately. The Finance Minister in the new government of Sri Lanka will seek West German support for his country's economic development in talks here next week, the Sri Lanka Embassy in Bonn said yesterday. The period of office of the GP has been extended by one year with effect from August this year-CDN. The Minister of Transport, has directed that Workers' Councils in the CTB and the Railway be dissolved with immediate effect. A conference was convened by the GA, Jaffna dist, to enlist volunteers among the civilian population of Jaffna to do 24 hour patrolling of the entire Jaffna city in association with the police and army units commencing from Monday. Four employees of the BMC retail depot were interdicted yesterday for alleged indifference and discourtesy to the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs and Sports, according to a senior official of the corporation. 89 incidents were reported up to last Friday from the Pettah area in the one week of violence. The distribution of synthetic textiles will be channelled through the private trade from today. The CWE has now in stock, 500 cwts of dried fish which will be made available to the public through its retail distribution outlets, co-operative societies and authorised dealers, the Ministry of trade said yesterday-CDM. A top-level CD inquiry is under way into an alleged threat on the life of the PM. All night mail trians, suspended due to the recent disturbances and the curfew, will be resumed from tonight. The Minister of Agriculture and Lands has decided to utilise the Agricultural Extension Centres throughout the island for the storage of one million bushels of paddy. A sum of Rs. 420 million is being utilised for a five year programme of intensive malaria control. The Ministry of Education is making arrangements for teachers who left their stations due to the recent violence, to return to their respective schools. Nearly 140 shops in Jaffna belonging to the Municipality have been burned down. The Minister of Sports and Parliamentary Affairs has assured the staff of the Department of Rehabilitation that the government had no intention of scrapping this dept. The Minister of Public Administration and Home Affairs said that all cases of political victimisation after 1970 would be probed by his deputy minister and he has been empowered to recommend redress including compensation and promotions-SU. Over 40% of those who were victims of the recent spate of violence have not yet informed the police; therefore, all those who suffered in any way are asked to report to the nearest police station.-DP.
@ @
fR BUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 12
ULY ELECTIONS
Eelam
-fact of fiction ?-
by Fir. Tissa Balauriya Director, Centre for Society and Religion
At the general election the TULF sought a mandate from the Tamil-speaking people on its demand for a famil Eelam.
The writer contends that the voting figures do not indicate an overall mandate and that the Tamil-speaking people have by the manner in which they voted pointed a way out of the impasse.
in order to understand the signia ficance of the 1977 general election concerning the demand for Eelam, one must see how the TULF interprets the issue. According to its manifesto the new 972 Constitution was drafted by the Sinhala people for their own advantage. it is said to have been rejected by the "Tamil Nation' which is now said to have no alternative but to take its sovereignty into its own hands. For this the TULF wanted a mandate from the 'Tamil Nation'.
How does the TULF understand the "Tamil Nation'? Its manifesto details the grievances of the Tamils including “the Muslims in the Eastern and North-Western regions of Ceylon'. It says "When we speak of the Tamil Nation, we refer to the entirety of the people in this country to whom the mother tongue is Tamil'. It adds the "TULF views the forthcoming gene
fai election ås obtain the man Nation and on t to self-determi the independen
famil Eelam, the sovereignty
But when t that the 972 rejected by the account the bo the 9 elected tives' but igno elected Muslim the Constitutic an ambiguity terms“Tamis’’ ;
There is no of the area, c.
The only re 13th century time, the terr the Western se through Puttal. thence to the and in the Ea also the Batti extended Souths of to the Nor Kumbukkan O) tablished as the of the Tamils. of Tamil Eelam
This is a la anka. It is f. Northern Pro the area in contested.
The TULF m 'the General E crucial one to It ends with the “Tamil N: the TULF, beca verdict of the ple is indispens peal to you tose for, or prejudic candidates to of region, cas with the one mination of
TULF WOTE ATT GE
Jaffna Peninsula Northern Province Eastern Province Northern and Eastern Province Puttalan
ele
Northern & Eastern Provinces & Puttalam
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

an opportunity to date of the Tam. he basis of its right nation, re-establish ce of the state of the expression of }f the fami Nation
he manifesto says Constitution was Tamils, it takes into ycott “by 5 out of Tamil representabres the support of representatives for n, Hence there is in the use of the and 'Tamil Nation'. clear indication ai med for Eelam,
ference is to the position. "At this itory Stretching in aboard from Chilaw am to Mannar and Northern Regions st Trincomalee and caloa Regions that wards up to Kumama thern banks of the fa were firmly es } exclusive homeland Ts is the territory
. arge chunk of Sri air more than the vince. This is also
which the TLLF
anifesto stated that lection of 977 is a the Tamil Nation'. a fervent appeal to ation' to vote for use "the unanimous Tamil-speaking peosable. Hence we apat aside your passions es against individual forget differences te o or religion and and the only determaking the Tamil
Wates Ångiyšęd
Nation master of its Destiny. To VOTE for the Tamil United Liberation front, for the emancipation of the Tamil Nation for the Freecorn of Tamil Eelam.” (Quotations froin ULF Manifesto in Tribune August 6 and Aug. 2, 977).
This article does not seek to discuss the reasons for the demand for Eelam. It attempts an analysis of the results as published in the newspapers and is Subject to correction. We believe, however, that these do not affect the Subitance of the argument.
We have written earlier in these columns concerning the distribution of the famil population in Sri Lanka. More than half the Tamils are outside the Northern and Eastern Provinces (58% according to the Tribune of 27.8.77). Less than 13 of the Tamil population is in the Northern Province, if we take Tamil-speaking people as the Tamil Nation, then the proportion in the Northern Province is still smaller. Colombo with 03,000 "Ceylon Tamils' is the biggest city of 'Ceylon Tamils' in Sri Lanka.
in order to analyse the TULF genera election results, We shall consider four areas: Northern Province in two sections (a) Jaffna Peninsula (b) Mainland of the Northern Province excluding the Peninsula: (c) Eastern Province; (d) Puttalam Electorate. Thereafter we can see the results for both Northern and Eastern Provinces together.
in the Jaffna Peninsula the TULF got a clear verdict in favour of it. The 10 electorates gave the TULF 223,463 votes out of the total of 3,235 votes. Independents got 76,103 votes, UNP 7,140, LSSP 4,529, SLFP 1,042 in the Peninsula. Hence 7.8% of the votes were in favour of the TULF. This was 58.5 of the electorate. One could therefore argue that the Jaffna Peninsula
NERAL ELECTION 977
ota Absten- Total %. TULF TULF % :torate tions & polled polled votes 9% of votes
spoilt elec
torate 38,59 70,356 3,235 8.5 223,463 58.50 7.8 493, 76 86,919 406,257 82.5 278,293 56.4 68.5 385, 9 49,792. 335.40 87. 92,163 23.9 27.5 878,367 36,709 741,658 844 370,456 42.2,4994 37, 77 6,07 3,070 83.5 3,268 - 8.8 0.5 95,544 42,816 772,728 84.4 373,724 40.8 48.36
O
ר
བོད་

Page 13
responded positively to the TULF
demang, Ten of its 8 seats in the National State Assembly are from the Peninsula,
in the Northern Province, as a whole 68.5% of the votes and 56.4% of the electorate were for the TULF i.e. 278,293 votes out of 406,257 voters and an electorate of 493, 76. Abstentions and spoilt votes were 36,919 or 7.5% of the electorate.
in the Northern Province 85% of the population is 'Ceylon Tannii and 95.4% is Tamil-speaking. Hence even here that one third of the votes was against the TULF has some significance.
In the Eastein Provirite the case is clearly against separation. The UNP won eight seats: Samanthurai, Kai kudah, Kalmunai, Seruwia, Batticaloa 2nd) Amparai, Muttur, and
ottuvi ().
The TULF won Padi rup= pu, Trincormaiee and Batticaloa (ist) and Pottuvii (2nd) At Padiruppu the LSSP, SLFP and UNP together got 6,42 votes as against 5,877 for the
ULF. in terrins of votes the UNP had |36,296. TULF 92, 163, SLFP 8,49, LSSP 6,970, FP (Batticaloa) i 1,22|| and independents 7,252. The UNP, SLFP and LSSP which are definitely against separation obtained 224,778 votes or 67% of the votes. The TULF had only 27.5% of the votes cast. Abstention were 49,792 or 12.9% votes of the total electorate.
The TULF obtained only 23.9% of the votes of the total electorate, although 76.7% of the population are Tamils and Moors (Ceylon and Indian) and Ceylon Tamils alone are 40.9%. The Sinhalese population is only 22.5% of the population and hence could not make up the bulk of the 66.9% that voted for the parties that are definitely against separatism. One would have expected the TULF to be quite sobered by this decision of the Tamil-speaking people in the Eastern Province. It has definitely no mandate to claim the Eastern Province for any proposal for an Eelam.
When we take the Northern and Eastern Province together we see an important phenomenon, Within the Jaffna Peninsula 7.8% of the votes were for the TULF, but in the Eastern Province only 28%. Taking both provinces to
gether the ULF This is 49.9% of as there were the TUF yote
the total electo and East. The
8.5% in the P. the 4 Northern the Peninsula a Eastern Province, age was 87.2%.
Nearly one-fift has not voted. Th pulation of both dered together that the people whole positively State. Only half t for the Ti`U.F. B ti the electorate ha the TULF.
The F°uttaelarmr ches Mannar in t nearly 20 per ce 38.4 per cent C 2.9 per cent l, Moors. Hence 6 population are The TULF toye of attracting th electorate to its suits were disas only 3268 votes c and an electorat
his is 0.5 voters and 8.8 electorate. He per cent Ceył have not a y Tamil-speaking the Northern
Province trave r posal for Eelam
The election clearly that the Muslims do no This is seen in vince, and in P. nar the Musi; 30 per cent of may explain against the TU rate where on the population
One can say t failed to obtain Moors for its pr rate state for people. Not a siji MP is a Moor.
This also con tion that the T ple have not acce Constitution of
The Ceylon (CWC) which joi

had 370,458 votes, the votes cast. But 36,709 abstentions is only 42.2% of rate in the North voting patten is Brinsula, 85.1% in sectorates outside ld 87.1% in the The Tiational aver
of the Peninsula erefore, the popuprovinces consione cannot say have voted as a for a separate The yotes CaS. Wyere t 57.8 per cent of we not voted for
| EtecÉorate touhe North and has nt Ceylon Tamils, eylon Moors and ndian Tamilis and per cent of the doors and famils. d with the idea e people of this fold. But the retrous. Et obtained but of 3070 voters e of 37, 77.
per cert of the per cent of the h€e evera Élie 2{} of agri is here otec - ad people outside alfast Easteria ejected the pro
.
results asso show e Tamil-speaking it favour Eelam. the Eastern ProAttalain. E. Manms being early the population the large vote LF in an electoy 4.2 per cent of
is Sinha lese.
hat the TULF has :he support of the oposal for a sepashe Tamil-speaking ngle TULF elected
tradicts the posi
amil-speaking peo
ted the Republican
1972.
Workers' Congress ned the TULF, ex
přešed its inwillingness to Support the idea of a separate state for the anti-speaking peoples. At the general electio_ad in the new parament
the CWC stands apart from the
※
TOPiCA
history hid alli felast
by Gr, C. R. de Siya Dept. of History, University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya
THROUGHOUT the ages history has been used (or distorted) to serye a variety of causes. in ancient times the preservation of legends about their past enabled tribal groups to fashion a common cultural heritage, in more recent times empire builders like the British have used the study of history to train and inspire their colonial administrators and to instill a sense of awe in their colonial subjects.
Closer home, in Sri Lanka, it can be argued that the recording of pious deeds and the patronage of religion by local rulers in ancient times was designed at least in part, to inspire later rulers to continue the tradition. In contempo rary Sri Lanka, too, the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) has turned to history to justify its demand for a separate state.
The TULF leaders assert that there was a separate and distinct Tamil kingdom, in the north for centuries before the Westerners arrived in Sri Lanka. There can be no contradicting them on this Score.
A separate kingdom centred in the Jaffna Peninsula existed in Sri Lanka from about the early 13th century to 69. In fact, one can go even further. During certain periods within these four centuries this kingdom was the most powerful in Sri Lanka and for a brief space of time it even seized the Western seaboard almost up to the environs of Colombo. The Portuguese, coming to Sri Lanka in the early sixteenth century, often used the word CEYLAO to denote only that part of Sri Lanka south of the Tamil kingdom,
But the use of history to justify one's position is a two-edged weapon for we know many other
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 14
facts about the history of this Tamil kingdom. For most of the four hundred years of its existence It was a small and rather weak kingdom confined to the Jaffna Peninsula and its environs. It never wielded power over the present Eastern Province which the TULF claims is part of the "traditional homeland' of the Tamils.
Nor was this kingdom always Independent for it often acknowledged the suzerainty of the dominant power in South India and it was once overwhelmed by a Sinhalese army from the south.
But what is most significant is that the Tamil kings of the north did not really think of themselves as separatist rulers of a "iʼa nmi 1 kingdom. They like all Sinhalese kings aimed ultimately at being CHAKRAVART- S-monarchs of all Sri Lanka. It is the later historians (including myself) who have for the sake of convenience written somewhat misleadingly of kings of Kotte, Kandy and Jaffna. Their inscriptions show that all these rulers considered themselves as rightful (and protential) Kings of a united Sri Lanka. Indeed, on concentrating their gaze on the reality of a fragmented polity in Sri Lanka in this 400year period of our history the TULF leaders might well have come to underestimate the strength of the ideal of a united island-an ideal fashioned during the first one thousand five hundred years of our history generally termed the Anuradhapura period and kept alive by historical writing thereafter.
it was an ideal strong enough to persuade the Western colonial rulers-Portuguese, Dutch and British-to place the control of the northern areas not in the headquarters of their possessions in South India but in Colombo.
But this ideal of unity can be preserved only upon a foundation of justice. Instances of discrimination on the basis of race, language and religion have been rare in our history-at least up to recent times.
Tamils rose to high positions under Sinhalese rulers and Sinhalese willingly accepted the Nayayakkar's from South India as their rulers. Sinhalese kings set up inscriptions in Tamil as well as in Sinhalese.
For many centu Tamils have live friendship side b unless justice and sured the idea soon be belie disunion.
Contemporary solved by examin of the present wit future. An unde past could help it see the whole just the portions CaSe.
Our history is so that any one can division, injustice, hatred if he looks are these to be our future?
ETTERS
ON CURREN
General At
Sir,
I hesitated to w a pseudonym, but September has a karan Reader. a boldened to wri Tribune Reader in that you will put I was delighted "Confidentially' in made very gene references to Ge Attygalle. The every word 浣 that article. i to add to it abou happened at the recent communal 3.00 p.m. one aft information that family with 2. Sir likely to be the that night. Th vised the family it was well int their interest as
My first react them away. On I felt it was has therefore contact Official and sou; fairness to him most understandi tic, but very cle I could not expe
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

ries Sinhalese and di in peace and y side. However | fairplay are en
of unity might by the reality of
conflicts must be ng the problems h a vision of the rstanding of the we are ready to picture and not that suit one's
long and 50 varied find instances of conflict and even hard enough-but the foundations of
MATTERS
tygalle
rite to you under your issue of 10th letter from ThinaLim therefore emte to you as a to the expectation
lish this letter.
to read the page which you have rous and gracious neral Don Sepala General deserved had written in you permit me t an incident that 2 height of the violence? About ernoon received a Very young hall children was victims of attack 2 neighbours ad
to quit. Perhaps
entioned and in well.
on was to take cooler reflection, ty and unwise. I ed a high Police ht his help. In must say he was ng and sympathearly told me that t any help! How
Army Assistance
good would it have been if he had offered to jump into his 504 and at least call on this frightened family, merely to show that he even cared But no. He advised me to pray and said he would do the same was half inclined to remind him of Napolean's exhortation to his troops Trust in God but keep the powder dry (I must apologise for the reference to Napolean, because the TULF has also sought to rely on him, but was debunked by our PM).
What could I do next? It was evening and night would soon set in. I remembered a Major in the
Sri Lanka Army-one whom I knew,
but not so well as the High Police Official. I telephoned him and he answered the call. His first question was "Is it Security you need'. said "Yes. But are you quite serious that you can help me immediately -in a matter of hours?'. The Major shot back (very kindly of course) with the rapidity of a machine gun "Quick-do not waste time. Give me the address. Give me the name. My men will be there in less than half an hour. And I will see them myself personally later at night'. I gave all this information to the kind Major and called back the family 15 minutes later
to find that the soldiers had already
gone, done a round of the neighbourhood and promised frequent patrols of the area. The entire atmosphere changed. The neighbours were more friendly and the young family was more at peace. This is not all. The Major, true to his word, called on them and personally assured himself that the danger that had been building up had been contained and defused. For some days later too, this very considerate Army assurance was given and the family is now more confident.
What a contrast to the Police response. What illness has come over the Police? Is it so thoroughly inept and totally demoralised? What does it think it is there for and paid for by the taxpayer? Is it merely to don uniforms, run around in 504 cars and participate in Welfare Association meetings? I do hope that the Prime Minister will re-organise the Policeand soon.
Obviously, the Sri Lanka Army owes it's ethos to the General. We are all proud of our Army. That
young family is alive today be
cause of General Attygalle and his
2
ܘܥܝ݂ܰ
ܣܛܔ

Page 15
~
even Compares
letters
Army. It is a Tamil family. I think we should not permit the General to doff his uniform for Some years to come. With him at the head of the Army and Prime Minister Jayawardene in Temple Trees, we can sleep peacefully at night and get about our work by day. Ils Eelam worth even talking about? Let us be one proud Nation.
General, I salute you and your Army. salute the Major and his men. May the good God be with you and your officers and men. refrain from naming the Major, for it can be misunderstood. He repeatedly assured me that he was only doing his duty. William Wordworth's "Ode to Duty' may perhaps be dedicated to General Attygalle and his Army.
Regular (recently) Tribune Reader-A Jaffna, Tamili. Colombo.
2.9.77
Colonisation ?
Sir,
In your issue of September 3, Mr. James T. Rutnam dismisses as a fantastic idea, the colonisation by Sinhalese of the 'traditional homelands of the Tamils. He it to the Jewish settlements on the West Bank, which is a totally different problem, as the one refers to colonisation of territories occupied Subsequent to a war of expansion and the other, to population migration within the confines of one's country.
The moduş operandi suggested by the Nayake Thero of Vajirarama Temple leaves much to be desired. However, i feel that the basic concept is correct.
The Norman invasion of Britain and the Chola invasions of Sri Lanka occured round about the same period (there were Tamil settlements here long before this too). The Normans and Saxons
ceased to be two separate races
within a couple of centuries and were referred to as English.
In our country, separatism continued throughout the centuries and the tragedy of communalism led to the disastrous events of last month. It is this insistence on a Tamil Homeland, as distinct to the areas populated by the Sinhalese (whether referred to as Eelam or not) that nourishes the monster of
3
communalism, lem can only bi tary migration i -North and 'Homeland' wi thing to us all
ኮ4፤
Anniewatte Kandy. 89.77
Division O
Sir,
According tc news item in th of 6.9.77 the F Maha Nayakes allow the cour
incidentally d of the division this island int And this has by the wholesa Soulbury Const publican Consti fact that much past the Kelan Soulbury Const
lf when inde ted we revert three provinces ple“ space and : groups to Stre develop accord this problem of have arisen.
Certainly it to consult the matters but su uld not be con f, in secular ma tation is consid Hindu, Muslim too, the Maha ing historic Sh Deepa, Tissamal Anuradhapura, gana, etc., rei Laity and even atheism should consultation Sh and not narroy
| have observ Kovoor expres and reasonable san religious clergy themselv
The earliest were not But and the Kata Furthermore t masses (laity) in

feel that the probe Solved by volunin both directions South-and then ll mean the same —Sri Lanka.
"s. P. Amerasinghe
f The island
the front page e Ceylon Daily News M has assured the that he will not try's division. oes the PM approve by the British of ..o nine provinces
been perpetuated le copying from the litution to our Retution ignoring the water had flown i Bridge since the titution? pendence was graned to the original which permit amscope for all ethnic toh themselves and ing to their genius, * Eelam would never
is not un reasonable clergy on secular ch consultation shoined to one coterie. ters, clerical consulered necessary, then and Christian clerics Sangha administerrines such as Naga harama, Kiri Vehera, Kelaniya, Mahiyanresentatives of the representatives of be consulted, i.e., ould be broad based
W.
ed that Dr. Abraham Ses more un biassed views even in parti
matters than the еS.
kingdoms in Lanka ldhist e.g., Ravana's ragama kingdoms. he voice of the hust also be heeded.
World history is replete with instances of mighty kingdoms and empires that have crumbled to dust because their rulers ruled according to only their own and their private clergy's wishes and not the people's wishes e.g., Pharoah's kingdoms, Babylon, Niniveh, ancient - Persia, Russia etc.
R.W.W
5, De Alwis Avenue, Mount Lavinia.
6.9.77
@
TULF Alone
Sir,
read your journal regularly
because you objectivelyanalyse the
political scene here and elsewhere. But why do you wear blinkers sometimes when you refer to the TULF? You have not given them the necessary credit and prominence due to them by virtue of the fact that they are the major Opposition party in this country and that their leader is the leader of the Opposition. You also gloss over the other undeniable fact that they and no one else can speak for the Ceylon Tamils.
That some Tamils did not vote for or agree with the TULF is as immaterial as .2 million Sinhalese did not vote for the UNP. This is surely the main thrust of parliamentary democracy. You have never concentrated on this crucial issue, namely-has the TULF the right on behalf of the Tamils who gave them a clear mandate on this issue to ask for a separate state? Other matters eg, whether such a separate state is feasible or practical are different questions. You have made very pertinent comments about the statesmanlike qualities or lack of them of the TUL F.
But what do you and your readers have to Say about this request by the major opposition party remembering that they are the only party to openly declare that they are for a Sovereign, Socialist and Secular state.
R. Y. Chandra
61, Pita Kotte Road, Kotte.
September 1977
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 16
Ratepayers Pight Sir,
Like a lone voice in the widerness, have been agitating for the past two decades in the interest of hapless ratepayers throughout the country to obtain relief for them in the matter of the iniquitous "Warrant costs' consequent on their inability to pay their rates on the due date for reasons beyond their control. have been doing this with every change of - government without success and
am taking the liberty to appeal
to the dynamic Minister of Local Government in the hope that he at least will take appropriate action in the matter to remedy this uphealthy state of affairs ere long. Never again wil! I revert to this subject.
A tax-payer, whose quarterly tax is rupees ten, has to pay a rupee extra as 'warrant costs", while one whose contribution is 黜蠶 one hundred per quarter is called upon to pocket out an extra ten rupees is it fair to penalise the latter in this manner isn't it rank discrimination against a certain type of people? After all the cost of writing out a 'warrant' --if issued at all-and the labour expended in the process is the same in both cases. Why shouldn't there be a sliding scale for "defaulters' with twenty five cents as the minimum and a rupee as the maximum amount recoverable on this score? in the large majority of such cases, rate-payers experience difficulty in finding the money to pay tax on the due date for various reasois, and it is grossly unfair to penalise them so heavily for no fault of theirs. It is tantamount to harrassment of already over-burdened taxpayers.
Incidentally, there is another matter which calls for the consideration of the authorities. Should it not be made a legal requirement that necessary amenities must, as far as practicable, be provided in all wards before a council is justified in recovering rates from the rateayers of a ward that is sadly negected for political reasons-as it so often happens nowadays-or otherwise? This will ensure that ratepayers of every ward will get a fair and square deal at all times.
Our rulers are apt to forgetwhen it suits them of course-that we are no longer under colonial rule
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
and that it is timi laWS etc., enacted changed for the b
le Whom they
t is indeed, a pity of local Governi pendence had ad to Sic fnatters ; the necessary cha tive Ordinances modern trends. present holder c remedy this in aff rg
3, Ainagarika Dha Mawatha Dahow 30.8.77
籌
Witch-Hunt
Sir,
All right-thinkin country, irrespect sympathies at the heartily welcomed ter's statesmanlike ing Mrs. Bandara the nation over and of making a that Mr. Anur accommodated that Went to N'El sor. Gamini Diss of irrigation, Pow Even those who J. R. Jayawarder giving a responsit Opposition was ol demagoguery, had thoughts. Through gave an indicatio world that he was minded as to f. the vanquished. that he was prep his righteous thou
The attitude th quite in keeping sophy that the co sections of the p obtained to soly and achieve rapid country. He eve; absence of veteran Perera and Dr. C. in the NSA and e sire to get their solving the natic
But unfortunate now developing, instance of a myo the ranks of the 器

: that rules, byein that era were Snefit of the peocairn to serye, that no finister ment since indeiressed his mind is this and made nges in the relain keeping with t is up to the if this office to healthy state of
C. E. Aies
Arifmapala ela.
g people of this ive of their party general election, the Prime Minisgesture of allowhai ke to address the State radio specific request Bandaranalike be the helicopter iya to bring back Inayake, Minister Sr and Highways. thought that Mr. he's talk about ble place for the nly election time to rethink their this action he in to the whole S not so pettyurther humiliate He also showed ared to translate ghts into action.
nus displayed is with his philo-operation of all eople should be e the problems progress in this in regretted the is like Dr. N. M. olvin R. de Silva xpressed his deco-operation in n's problems.
bly a trend is probably at the
sic section within
overnment itself,
teżers
which may, instead of uniting the people, keep them divided forever and even obstruct the implementation of the leader's lofty ideals. The present trend is to harp on the misdeeds of the previous regime, going even to the extent of hurling personal abuse, and to find in the defeated parties an easy scapegoat for all problems, whether it be communal or post-election clashes.
if this trend is allowed to develop unchecked the expected departure from the earlier pattern which began with the dawn of independence, will continue. Earlier pattern has been for the government to do the very things (good and bad both) they criticised from the Opposition and for the Opposition to induige in the very things they condemned from the government benches. Examples are many to illustrate this national weakness. And this unprincipled behaviour on the part of our political parties has been the greatest obstacle on the way of our nation's progress. It is, therefore, our fervent hope that the Prime Minister Mr. J. R. Jayawardene will surmount every obstacle on his way, whether from within or without and establish in this country a righteous and socialist democracy. ፶. ጽv1 Colombo.
9.77
"Take Away Atheism, And I'll Accept
Marxism’“ (TRIBUNE, July 23)
Sir,
We cannot but agree with "Inna' when he points an accusing finger at the exaggerated idea of the right of private property which many who called themselves Christians have harboured and continue to harbour, and which has given occasion to the rise and spread of atheistic Marxism.
lf only we had properly grasped Christ's insistence on spiritual detachment from our worldly possessions, shedding off greed and avarice... if only we had listened to what especially the recent Popes have told us about the common
4.
ܡܛܠ

Page 17
9n Violenge
purpose of earthly goods, paying just wages, sharing responsibilities and profits. . . . . . . .
Did not Lenin himself say, at the end of his life, that if Russia had had tean St. Francis Assisis, there would have been no need of the terri ble bloodbath that was the Revolution *
And yet, even while we say together “mea culpa!”, we are unable to admit that Marxism could be unreservedly baptised after taking away atheism from it.
Marx, as is well known, built
his system on Hegel's dialecticism,
and on the materialism of Fuerbach, for whom matter alone existed from eternity to eternity, there being no room for an immortal Soul nor for life beyond the grave.
Of course, once a Marxist admits God and sheds his atheism, materialism falls to the ground as a pack of cards.
But then what would remain of Marx's philosophy? You might rejoin! "At least his analysis of the capitalistic society would stand, with the remedy that he proposes, which remedy is: Nationalisation of all the means of production; State monopolies; a continual class struggle in violence and mutual hat red; dictatorship of the proletariat; totalitarianism.”
I ask you: Can a true Christian meekly swallow this new gospel and still remain a Christian
The spirit of Christ is not the spirit of Cain. This continual violence and hatred is repugnant to Christ as much as to Buddha. It makes man fit for the jungle life, like Cain.
Neither would Christ approve of an authority that would not be there to "serve' men, but to “dictate” to them arbitrarily, making them a pack of dumb slaves, frightened into silence and acquiescence. The State is for man, not man for the State. Even He who creates every human being to His own likeness, respects the human creature and gives man what really makes him a man, this awful, exhilarating, terrible gift of freedom, of independence. The dignity of every human person is supreme in our christian Social outlook; and this is the very reason why we would like to spread the right and practice of private ownership, "to provide man with a fully necessary area of independence, an extension and safeguard of personal freedom.'
S
velow, teotali Fot of all t:
futilation
Evidently w as our broth) be labouring sions. We mu earn how to is our faith, Church's stan dialogue and to bring abou reforms thro board Channe Yet if we us tianity stands xism involves Pius X still s tian cannot | Eyefn if it we xism to shed of human libe to pay for a
Deniyaya.
REVIEW
ON Viol
by Jayantha
The Gui Afraid -
An intellig events of the begin with an the strength popular mass minantly Ko ught J. R. J. on July twent in our last at the Tail whic before the ci
As soon : that the UNP of governmer lence began. young Suppoi in its initial
that it was di SLFP Mudala who had en the expense the previous were instance: were forcibl buted among commendable

arianism cuts at the is fine tree.
:tian agree to that
must ove Marxists is even though they inder dangerous illut pray for them and we with them. Strong and relying on our , we can prudently ven work with them the necessary social gh legitimate aboveS.
derstand what Chrisfor and what Marthe verdict of Pope ands: "A true Chrise a tre Marxist’.’’ re possible for fiarits atheism, the loss rty is too big a price
plate of lentils.
C. Jannaccone, S.J.
ENCE
Soñas da rãnh
ity Are
ent appraisal of the last two months would acknowledgement of and extent of the movement of predong people, which broayawardene to power y-first. This was done ticle entitled Tiger by h was in fact written ommunal riots began. as it became known I had retaken the reins it, a backlash of vioit was led by the rters of the UNP and stage could even be with, to the extent irected against corrupt is and co-op officials riched themselves at of the people during seven years. There s where hoarded stocks y taken and distrithe people-this was
it is important i te remember however, that the UNP has never been democratic or disciplined as far as it's internal party structure is concerned. Thus the people who took to the Streets following the election were not disciplined UNP cadres, but most anybody who wanted to join the bandwagon of merry makers. And this included criminal elements as well.
Post-election effervescence rapidly degenerated into naked violence, leading finally to a curfew in some areas. There was systematic looting and arson directly against SLFP supporters throughout the island. In addition, violent reprisals were carried outresulting at times in injury and death. It is estimated that over thirty people lost their lives within the first week.
it is interesting to recall the condemnation which Mrs. Bandaranaike came in for, due to her refusal to publish the Siriwardene Report on 'post-election violence 970'. In the columns of the national press there was a lot of lead wasted about commissions to investigate this year's violence. Upto now nothing has been done, is it perhaps that those with influence and power are afraid to expose the guilty?
The initial violence was politically localised, in that it was directed only against the SLFP, and other sections of the population were oblivious of, and indifferent to, it, Moreover the national press was careful to play it down. The conduct of the police at this stage merits consideration. It is strange that despite the pre-election measures regarding security that Mrs. Bandaranaike had taken, intensive and prolonged violence directed at and property took place.
ere any serious attempts made by the police to stamp out the violence and looting? Or as occured on the Peradeniya Campus, were those who were at the receiving end of the looting silenced in remand
We now get on to the second phase of post-election violence. This occured mostly within government departments and corporations, it consisted of the harassment of non-UN Pers. The victimisation and dismissal at all levels of those whose loyalty was suspect was widespread, and what the UNP Unions could accomplish, breathtaking. The harassment meted
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1877

Page 18
out to non-UNPers within government institutions was also totally blacked out by the national preSS.
This is not surprising when one remembers that the state controlled press was also fair game when it came to the loyalty-test. In this column we documented the happenings in one such institution Lake House.
What is worth noting in retrospect is, that while men and Women were being knocked around inside state institutions like Lake House, the police were on guard outside. The police were increasingly becoming idle byStanders while people who did not PaSS the green litmus test were been given the works.
We need hardly go down the list department by department and corporation by corporation. But the gathering momentum of mobrule was becoming increasingly visible. In the CTB where the UNP chairman was arbitrarily removed due to pressure from the unions, we had an example of the direction in which things were going.
Looting and arson had become a way of life. Thuggery and intimidation was now the accepted norm. And the police were progressively abdicating their role as defenders of the citizen. The rule of law was non-existent.
As in the case of the attacks directed against SLFP shops and co-operative officials, the violence of the unions did not become nationally prominent. But indiscipline was growing at a tremendous pace. It had to break out on a national scale sooner or later.
普
Tell it. To The Birds-2
Many people including ourselves
vehemently oppose the policies of the TULF. Nevertheless, to lay
the blame for the events that began
on August sixteenth at the door of the TULF, is to be myopic to the extent that one discounts the first two phases of post election violence, phases that we dealt with in this column earlier. It is true that TULF leaders have indulged in extravagant and inflamatory oratory. But they are
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
innocent of the v minated in Jaffna it was a straight civilian clash, of tensity that is Jaffna. It was the gan on Tamilis Sout pass on the night that set the terrif lence rolling.
Beginning on for ten days, with sity, violence was ghout the island. dents took place of the thirty-five It is relevant at th draw attention to t ligence of the rai] trains on the Nort morning of the se they knew that th trains and stations line had already lt would appear t ment and its de anxious, even at life and property, facade of normalcy
It was violence Cowardly and sadi lums never took who could defend th Tamil and Sinhales predominently the Women, children an The level of sadis Such that we have to call ourselves a no matter what our religious leader With. Our Society iş The national neur played itself in the c attacks of both Sin hoodlums and the rence of bystander mediate attention.
It would now be examine some of that has arisen in th country at large, ab behind and the fo communal violence.
One important a that the whole thin plot from beginning ever, to grant the S of conspiracy cum would beg the quest were not used to s the election itself. why such potential gave them no pre the vicious attacks, der, directed at the diate aftermath of

iolence that geron the sixteenth. forward policethe type and innot unusual in attacks that beh of the Elephantof the sixteenth ying ball of vio
..he seventeenth, parabolic intenrecorded throuThe worst inciunder the cover 2 hour curfew. his Stage to also he criminal neglways which ran hern line on the aventeenth when e Sixteenth mai 1 on the northern been attacked. hat the governpartments were the expense of to maintain the
that was both Stic, The hoodOn opponents hemselves. Both te victims were defenceless. d Linarmed men. n displayed was lost the right civilised nation, Pius platitudes "S may Come up very very sick. *osis that discowardly sadistic halese and Tamil placid indiffeS calls for im
! interesting to the specuation le press and the bout the causes rces directing,
legation has it lg Was an SLFP to end. HowLFP such genius Organization, sion why talents successfully win And secondly, S for violence otection against including murm in the immethe election.
More Violence
Another interesting theory is that the police were inactive and perhaps condoned the chaos because they were with the SLFP. But this makes nonsense out of the conduct of the police in the first three weeks after the election. If there was such a great degree of loyalty, let alone sympathy towards the SLFP within the police why didn't the police defend them when they were being murdered and their shops looted? Further, if the police was known to be unreliable and disloyal to the UNP, why were precious days and lives allowed to slip away before the troops were called out Health Minister Senanayake told parliament that the police were not doing their best to quell the violence and he related how a man was murdered, in front of the Kandy police station. Strangely though troops were not directly deployed until the all-island curfew had been introduced on the twentieth and volunteers were only mobilised on the twentysecond. While the troops were on the Streets and the government in a position of strength why then didn't they purge the SLFP elements in the police?
Another theory is that the hoodlums were SLFP supporters. But how the dickens can one reconcile such a theory with the obvious identity of hoodlums who were loose between July twenty-second and August seventeenth?
The SLFP is a party with virulent communal elements within it, and it has used communal passions to political advantage. It is Perfectly conceivable that such elements would exploit an ongoing process of communal violence. But to give them the centre stage in the drama that really began on the twentysecond of July is to throw reason to the winds.
We see therefore that the pat theories of Government politicians and their national press don't hold Water. This story about violent SLFP inciters and non violent SLFP policemen-tell it to the birds.
¬ܛܓ
ܫܠ

Page 19
Dhamma And The Law
FROM THE CEYLON DALY NEWS, SEPTEMBER 5, 1977
Rule Of law And Equality
by O. H. de A. Wijesekera
In enunciating his concept of "Dharmishta Samajaya' the Prime Minister has emphasized that in a righteous society the Rule of Law should prevail and that there should be equality before the Law for all citizens. While most of those who have commented on the concept have dealt with the religious and ethical significance of it, not much attention has been paid to the above facts highlighted by the Prime Minister. It is of course, natural that to the Buddhist mind what looms large in the idea of "Dharma' is its basic sense of the Doctrine' which in the sociopolitical context refers to the layethics (gihi-dhamma), as outlined in several ethical sermons of the Buddha, especially the ten Principles of Righteous Rule (da Sa-raja dharma). This aspect of the concept has received considerable treatment at the hands of able exponeints of Buddhism. The purpose of this article, however, is to inquire into the relationship of the concept of "Dharmishta Samajaya' to the socio-legal principles of the Rule of Law and equally before the law, which have been emphasized by the Prime Minister himself in this connection. It is also significant that the Prime Minister asserted in the same breadth that whatever religion one adheres to, whether it be Christianity, Islam,
Hindu or Buddhism, these aspects
of the 'Dharm istha Samajaya' would be agreeable to all. Thus it becomes clear that the Prime Minister was laying down Socio-legal principles for universal application, and not merely referring to any sectarian doctrine.
As I have shown elsewhere (Buddhism and Society, 1951), there are several references in the earliest Canonical Buddhist texts to the legal basis of social organisation and good government . In the Cakkavatti Sutta of the Digha Nikaya there is considerable evidence to prove that even the monarch had to subscribe to the Rule of Law. The ideal monarch is described as one who 'honours the Dhamma
7
(the law of
pects it and rei to it and haic passage (5) u of right over n the Rule of La (9 the king w autocrat (5vam in unmistakab Norm or Dha from the soc holy men who lousness that
toxication of forbearance : who have mast fected themse) advise the m good and ba
From the a it is clear that rity for the leg on the monar developed mor men, llaw i'n derive from th perfect human the philosoph) similarity bety concept of the thority and th Law in the Aristotle.
To quote a on the subject of natural law Aristotle's id of any creatur obligations m what it will most perfect to say, what m and qualities from others an living, are full make allowan between the in the conce perfect humar admitted that run parallel
Even more above Principle in the Buddhi legally pregna before the lay prise those w thoroughly w the teaching the same Sutt: is a passage (1 that the mon domain treat equally (şam The Pali phr: majority of m. *dhammend ș
 

righteousness) resers it, paying homage wing it'. This whole holds the superiority ight: in other words, w. In another passage o rules by fiat as an atena) is condemned e terms. The regal ma is said to derive o-moral insights of 'renounce the calarises from the insense, devoted to ind sympathy and red, calmed and perves are thus able to onarch on what is d in government.''
bove cited passage the source of authoal obligations binding ch is the spiritually all conscience of holy
other words must e insights of morally
beings. Students of of Law may see a ween this Buddhist 2 source of legal aue theory of Natural West as found in
recognized authority ::: *** The man instream thought flowing from ea that the “rature re from which legal ust be derived is be in its fullest and development, that is an is when the power distinguishing him d his impulse to social y developed.' If we e for the difference East and the West ption of the ideally being it has to be the two theories to a great extent.
important than the e of the Rule of Law st view is the socioint concept of equality y... This idea may surho are not acquainted rith the contents of
of the Buddha. In a as cited above there 2) which clearly states arch should rule his ing all his subjects ena), i.e. impartially. ase according to the anuscripts should read amena" meaning that
the ruler should administer his domain not only righteously but aiso with equity. The Fali word samena is derived from the adjec
tive gama meaning 'equal' and is
used adverbially in the context.
The socio-legal principle that all citizens shoulgi be treated as equals and that even the ruler must consider himself as equal to the others is emphasized in another sociomoral doctrine contained in the Four Bases of Popular Service (sanghaha-yatthu), namely liberality, civility in speech, altruistic service and the feeling of equality or impartiality (şamanattata). This last word implies the right of each person to be considered equal to every other citizen, politically or socially,
it must be kept in mind, however, that Buddhism does not make the bland assertion that all human beings are equal. According to the Buddha human beings vary infinitely in their psychological capacities and biological inheritance. What, therefore, this term means is that everyone has a claim to human rights, and that the ruler should make no difference between the citizens on the basis of any inherent rights and privileges, such as sometimes claimed for racial and religious communities in some societies. In the light of these considerations one can well understand why the Prime Minister, with his deep knowledge of Buddhism, referred to the principle of equality before the Law in promoting his idea of Righteous Society.
in emphasizing this principle in his administration Mr. Jayewardene is following in the footsteps of the greatest Buddhist ruler in history. In his Fourth Pillar Edict, Asoka, the most illustrious emperor of India, if not of the whole world, admonishes his administrators and agents in these words: 'it is most desirable that there should be absolute equality for all in all legal proceedings and in the dispensation of penal justice (viyohalagamata ca dandasamataca”) lt can be seen that this injunction of Asoka merely attempts to put into practice the doctrine of equity. laid down in the early Buddhist scriptures as indicated above. Students of the history of civilisation will no doubt appreciate the fact that the Buddha nearly 2500 years ago had realized the Socio-legal value of the concept of equality in the administration of the State.
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 20
The importance of the concept of equality in the theory of natural justice has been emphasized by writers on the philosophy of Law. As an upholder of the theory of natural law the distinguished German legal philosopher, Gustav Raduburch, has declared quite clearly that "where justicea is not even striven for, where equality which is the core of justice is constantly denied in the enactment of positive law, there the law is not only "unjust law' but lacks the nature of law altogether."
in conclusion may point out that the concept of "Dharmishta Samajaya as envisaged by our Prime Minister is a legitimate Buddhist concept enshrining the best features of the ideal Buddhist Society as outlined in the Pali Canon and practised by Buddhist rulers of all times. it is unnecessary to add that in the present context when antagonisms are aroused in the minds of individuals in our multi-racial Society the need to respect the print ciple of equality in political and
social dealings is of paramout importance.
来 ※ 率
A Sound Educational
System
-to develop the personality of
meet the demands of the development of the countryby R. Kahawita
In a modern society, education has become the obligation of a Government. Democracy cannot survive in a Society that does lip service to education or so designed to subvert the young mind to undermine the established social order. The main functions of education are: first to generate a citizen who can fit into a democratic way of life with a sound character and develop a moral personality, and secondly to arm him with knowledge to contribute his moiety to the community in which he lives. The prosperity and progress of his community depends on what each one of its members can contribute
to the community and materially.
A civilized comm their day to day life of Virtue, goodnes manliness'. These p based on the relig they followed. In countries which car influence of Christian and building up of m started in the great Similarly in Sri La, times, Pirivenas a Monasteries devote their time to educat lopment of human pe temple in the village of learning-teaching to humanities, mor: character formation. the ideals of educatio had a common gro teaching Monasteries civilizations. Early irrespective of the human Societies, real of a religious backgre the “moral man”. Ti tion of other forms was subservient to though there was the to go side by side to understand nature vironment on his e. to be "like unto his
ln our own politi have declared ourselve based on Buddhist F have accepted Budd State Religion, while the freedom of all e to free flowering w mocratic way of life say, a Buddhist state dom to all other relig a religious denomir Then if we accept obligation of the educ is to build up the “a moral man” accc religious convictions religious education a tice of the individ must form a part of s This has been acce major political partie party has done so in tion but by what th educational system degenerate our youth
Before Sri Lanka pendence, during th gned colonial era, the denominational schi teaching of religion v routine and formed
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

both morally
Inities shaped on principles and 'true inciples were ous teachings the Western e under the ity, education bral character Monasteries. Ika, in early ind Buddhist d much of on and deversonality. The was the seat was confined values and in this respect In in Sri Lanka nd with the of Western educationalists location of ised the need und to create The accumulaof knowledge the former, need for both to equip man 2 and his enonward march
creator.
cal orbit, we ls a democracy "rinciples, and hism as the guaranteeing ther religions thin the de... that is to with full freeions-in short ational state, hat the first ational system "moral man”, rding to his and beliefsind the pracial's religion ich education. ited by two $ today, one st by convic} nationalized as done to
gained indemuch-malis e Were many ols, where is a rigorous
part of the
Before Schools' Takeover
school curriculum, and compul" sory to those students who be longed to the religious denomination of the school. There were several disadvantages to the indignous religious believers because their schools were in the provinces and piirivena teach ing never got beyond 'classical education'. Whereas the foreign religious denominations came to Sri Lanka armed with the Sciences and very aggressive teaching religious orders. They scored on this point compared to teaching institutions managed by Buddhists. Even here, the few schools there were, were inspired by "Foreigners'. This denomiational rivalry was the beginning of state interference and the educational deterioration in Sri Lanka. it became a very portent and fertile ground to gain political popularity with the masses who were born to a Buddhist environment,
Before State took over education and its management, we wish to recount briefly what was in Sri Lanka before independence. Then elementary education was compulsory and free. The child was taught three R's. Reading, writing and Arithmetic. This teaching was provided in state run schools as well as
in religious denominational schools
which were supported by a grantin-aid scheme. This took the child up to the fourth standard at about age level years. Thereafter secondary education of a child started in schools run by various denominations. State financed one such institution of a non denominational character. They were all fee levying, supported by a supplementary grant-in-aid scheme, provided the schools were open to periodical inspections, assessment of quality of education, for purposes of up-grading. The Public Examinations were Junior and Senior of the Cambridge University and London University Matriculation. All examination papers were set in England, corrected in England and results issued within three months the most. The system worked very well and never was there any question of rigging, unfair marking of Answer papers, or marking failures as passes to satisfy political pressure-not an infree quent occurrence today.
The curricula covered many subjects which prepared the student for various walks of life he chose to follow. In order to guarantee
8

Page 21
ܠ ܐ .
After Schools' Takeover
a minimum standard of general education to make the student an intelligent member of society, there were three compulsory Subjects at the rior level which the student had to pass in addition to two other subjects of the Student's choice-in all five subjects to qualify for a certificate, failure in one of the compulsory subjects or a failure in any one of the two optional subjects disqualified the student. This was a grading test to weed out "the unsuitables' seeking higher studies when they could be of better use to the community in a lesser role than an unemployable "drop out' at University level. The Cambridge Senior Certificate and London Matriculation were entrance examinations to any British University and latterly to the "Ceylon University College' which was affiliated to the London University, and under the administrative control of the Education Department of the Government.
in the year 1947-with the gain of independence, Universal free education from the "Baby class' to the University College was adopted as the Education policy. When this step was taken, the denominational Schools-mainly secondary education were given the option to come into the free scheme and be under state control or remain outside it with no grant-in-aid but could levy fees. Several schools catering for the children of the well-to-do opted to remain “Priwate'. Thereafter education became the sole responsibility of the State and in keeping with this, several "Vidyalayas and Mahavidyalayas', were set up in areas where schooling facilities were lacking and to meet the requests of Politicians to build up their own popularity in their constituency. Buildings sprang up but the training of teachers to man these schools lagged behind the building programme so the content of education, quality, and discipline deteriorated rapidly in the state managed schools.
This created a severe cotrast between denominations nal schools that opted to remain outside the free schenae and the new institutions built, equipped and man ned by Government. Dissatisfaction began to brew among the parents, teachers, students, and the administration alike over the different standards. The Gov
9
↔*證罰惡體售一擎a embrassfing : YAffai: Vyas : Baization wa Government its own si ministrative,
to saeiter i men : cecide take-oyes'. ' ginning and education Sy:
Now let us take-over' and SLFP Governm: Mrs. Bandaraja the denominatic neither here I protests from who owned the and managed Badi-ud-din Yia Parliamentarian, cf Education ar take over the
some shoots we
to go private
to be charged some of the de this last reed
private, with t that there will from the paren independence, q
I of education anc
a more reason: government inha cess of Nation these hopes mainly because among the par minations to re. As time went that went no private landed the result the over or graceft Government. with all kinds maintain them line.
This process cies and the di denominations given Sri La of educational fee-levying, Pr ing and finally of them ad he aspects of edu category deno levying private schools the they are in fo their children titutions, othe schools-Gover alike-are not

s facing a very
itation.
a g. ຂຶgະ
ຂຶ to ffiອ o* Congs, ad= incompetence, is of ideas. Thus sef the Severnon the School This was the bethe end of otr te.
bok at the “School the aftermath. The int of 960 under ike took over all nal schoos, vith a or there kind of the denominations : school properties thern wei. Dr. himud a nominated was the Ninister ld the tool used to School. However re given the option but no fees were from the pupils, nominations grasped of hope and went he firm conviction pe sufficient support its to maintain the uality, and content i that at some stage ble and democratic y reverse the proalization. However were not realised there was no unity ents and the deno}quest for a change, on some schools n-fee levying and on the rocks with y were also taken illy handed over to Some still carry on of devious ways to above the water
of Government Polietermination of the
to carry on, have nka several classes
institutions-Private ivate non-fee levy
free schools. None re to the financial cation to what the tes, except the fee schools. In these barents know what r when they admit to one of these insrs the so-called free nment and private
free as far as the
parents are concerned. There are all kinds of demands under various guises which the parents have to pay up to maintain the children in tha schoolis, These demands are as great a financial outlay as when fees were charged prior tq Nacionalization.
The na: results of Nationalization are: quality of education has deteriorated to such levels never before experienced, institutional loyalties and the pride of belonging to a particular Institution is not there any longer-a very important outlook in building up character in a growing child, and upholding the traditions of the old school. Teacher-pupil relationship has disappeared altogether and without being accused of exaggeration, the only relationship that exists today between pupil and teacher is for immorality or to generate indi:- cipline: thus destroying the respect a pupil ha 3 towards; hii; teacher:S and accept them as guides and moral menter3. Teach ing profesGion, what used to be a dedicated Service to the school and country, ha degenerated to another Way of earning a living, no different and no better than a clerk in a government office who puts in the ពព្រៃវេm number of hour in d working day to qualify for his Wage5. At the time the schooli were taken over there were no plan; to restructure the educational system to be in line with National needs and aspirations. It was politically motivated to be able to say, that all schools, by nationalization, have been reduced to the village level; that the colonial idea of "Old School tie’’ bandiam ha 5 beein destroyed; the Superiority of denominational Schools in education discipline, and building up of moral value:S have been levelled down to inefficient teaching uniti-Slogan was "equality in education and equal opportunities to all'' and it stopped at that. To maintain the slogan, quality of education was reduced and to maintain a balance between members seeking higher education from city schools and village schools, marking of answer papers were rigged to show that village schools were better than the city schools. This was called 'standardization.' it meant pulling down the 'gifted child' below the average level. Though politically this may have been a popular move, the capable, child suffered.
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 22
With the 'take-over' of denominational schools and the ban placed on employing religious orders on the teaching Staff of Schools, created a vacuum in religious and moral education. The full meaning of education is to produce citizens of good moral character agd with high ideals, these are prerequisites to the building up of a healthy well conducted society. Lack of moral and religious education after the school take-over has released a band of school leavers of no credit to any institution or country.
To support this statement, evidence is not wanting. On several occasions the erstwhile Prime Minister, Mrs. Bandaranaike, has referred to the deplorable conduct of our students. She is the one that masterminded the school take-over and it is good for herself to realise the results of her actions. On the 4th of August 1976 at a Dhamma school day celebration she said that the reason for ragging and obscene vulgarity exhibited at the campuses were due to lack of religious education. Again on Saturday the 4th of May 1977 at Milagiriya at a similar function, she bemoaned the lack of religious teaching in schools, lack of religious teachers and a host of other shortcomings in our religious and moral life, Education in religion and secular moral values must run parallel to education in languages, sciences, history etc. She even mentioned on this occasion, that one moral commodity Sri Lanka could export to the Western world is Buddhism and suggested that about 5000 Buddhist monks should be trained and sent abroad for evangelical work. It is rather strange that this should come from a Prime Minister who was responsible for the take-over of the denominational schools and repatriating the religious teaching orders, thus denying the teaching of religion to our children. There were other religious orders who ministered to the lepers, the sick, the maimed and the destitutes, like the internationally famous Mother Teresa of Calcutta, in Sri Lanka too such fountains of kindness and Service to humanity were there, but with the SLFP Government coming into power, they were sealed off and smothered to gain political popularity and supremacy. So, almost after seventeen years of degenerating our youths, it is heartening to hear a cry of “Mea Culpa” from these very politicians who cried
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
down the denomin teaching and pract in the school, if thi Sion of the Prime M considered assessem result of the schoo the nationalized edu the whole parent
Sri Lanka endorses
expressed by the the ter at the two L functions. At the Prime Minister and for Education must s for the degeneration and the awful act campuses as reveale ratne report. Fortu country they are no
The schools were 1960 to give Sri Lan system of educatio as recently as Febr Minister of Educati admitting that he ha covered the Natio Education. Still the Lanka are going thr of experimentation. it may be pertinent was wrong with th fore Nationalization' has produced good m of character, learnin wisdom including Politicians who we in the attempt to cha through which they heights of ambition e to this question m for Political power : power at any cost. nOW.
If we ponder Mrs. statement further; th taken over about fift the students who in the campus rags diers at the time of They reached adult the des ecrated Sch reached the higher e titutions where they These mature teen were the products schools, where dis known, teaching of religious practices at ned, if not, never 1 lack of moral and re. ship in the nation Teaching of religi substituted by teach munism, socialism sp capitalist propaganda, and religious value by material values to against another. It i

tional schools, ce of religion ; is the admisinister and the nt of the nett take-over and :ational system population of the Sentiments in Prime Minishamma school arme time the her Minister hare the blame of our youths, vities at our id in the Kulanately for the inger in power.
taken over in ka 'a National ''. However Jary 1977, the on was heard d not yet disal System of :hildren of Sri ough a period At this stage
to ask 'what he system be2 That system en and women g and full of Some of the e responsible Inge the system
reached their tc. The answer ay be awarice nd to be in We pay for it
Bandaranai ke’s e Schools were een Years ago, Nere involved tc. were todthe take-over. nood through bols till they ducational inswent beserk. ager students of nationalised ipline is unreligion and e almost banaught due to igious leadertized schools. in has been ing of comced with antisense of moral is replaced set one class this that has
Who is To Blogne 2
corrupted and despoiled the one time excellent system of education, managed by devoted teachers, religious orders dedicated to the education of the young in the fullest sense of 'education', administrators who took pride in the quality of the school products they sent out into the country to man the various walks of life and they in turn upheld the traditions of the institutions they belonged.
When there is trouble in the centres of education the Government is quick to blame the students, the teachers, Presidents, Vice-Chancellors and others involved in edgcation, never the establishment nor the Government which are responsible for the educational Policies and the content of teaching. She studients etc. cannot e blamed. They are only tools in a system, designed to demoralize the younger generations. Having witnessed and experienced what is happening to education since the school take-over, it is high time the parents sit up and take stock of what is happening to their children and demand a change.
It is only in Sri Lanka that her people are too glad and willing to Surrender their rights without even a murmur. Many a visitor to the country has commented on the case with which a Government has taken over private Property of the citizens without a protest, denied the constitutional rights of the people, carried on the Government under repressive emergency laws, passed legislation with retrospective effect to destroy those who may have opposed their political adventures, interfered with the independence of the judiciary, appointed judges to courts who will endorse the actions of the Government rather than sit in judgement. In fact all actions of the Government designed to harass the Subjects, even thuggery and vindictives, partisan in appointments andopportunities, discrimination in the conduct of academic studies, became injudiciable. With the steam roller majority in the House of Representatives, with no other democratic political institution to moderate the excesses of the legislature; laws were passed overnight with retrospective effect which no civilized country would do or ac
20
پہیہ"  ̄

Page 23
Flash Back
cept to exterminate the opponents of a Government. All these the 'Free citizens of Sri Lanka who are constitutionally supreme' Sto mached without a whimper of Protest.
How did the Government do it? By breaking down the moral values in the younger generations, setting One class against another, Caste against caste, poor against the rich, labour against the employer, dishonest against the honest, thuggery against the law abiding, denying the rights of the one to the advantage of the party sto0ge, so the story goes on. These acts of commissions against the state and the subjects are recounted with relish by the members of the erstwhile Government and her Ministers. This is what they did to get back into the saddle. The educational system was taken over to prostitute the growing generation to enable a Government to carry on as we have experienced to date. By our submission we connived with a corrupt Government to degenerate the future generations. On the 21st of July the people have stopped this rampage. We have a new leadership today. The parents should now ask for a Presidential Commission to inquire into the education system of the United Front Government since May 1970 to date and report to the President with recommendations to put the educational system to be in keeping with National aspirations. This is an obligation of the new Government and action should be taken without delay.
Education is free and is available to all, but the parents never nor the people of Sri Lanka ever bargained for this kind of deal. It has not helped the parent to ease his financical commitment to educate his child nor produced an educated child to his desire or to his aspirations as to what his child should be. It is only in Sri Lanka that a parent could be so irresponsibly tolerant.
in
the other
By INNA Seventy Seven Years Ago Fr, Wallyn S. J.
It was the year 1900, and the missionaries had walked the length and breadth of the land. The root
2.
causes of paup clear, but unmi showing thems the causes Wo reflect still fur from history ir That was diffi of the tea-plan about 33 years of 33 years ma Slow: much Wo ted in a short later; much mo time a hundre just 33 years 2 anyone to an and get to rooi measureS.
That is just the Jesuit did. He wrote an analysing on causes of paup causes of the which the ni others can Obie tions with the Seventy-seven bypassed some and religion of sweep: 'the r the moral and of his poor people His purpose nine-page articl note Some of which, indepen general causes mental and adm ten presented which maintain poverty.' He w to the Indians \ ght over in the He lists as cau following, with analysis and co We outline:- Causes of mise ... false idea they want o work is a de 2. early marric Tamils, child the age of re 3. family on in taking a wi family: wife'. ፴re S00m ሀዘገC don't dream away. Even if of rice, they 4. Undue and the occasions feasts in gene 5. Usury. (From Notes 'Missions Be Jesus,’ 1900 p.

arism were not that Stakeable lines were elves. To take all uld have meant to ther and to recede ito a vantage-point. cult. The upsurge tations had begun earlier, and the pace y have been rather uld have been effec: while, fifty years re in a still shorter :d years later, but fter 1867, don't ask lyse, reflect dissect causes and radical
what Mr. Wallyn,
article in that year, a minor key, "the arism in Ceylon, the moral-Social scourge isionary more than ve in his daily relaindigenous people.' years ago, he had of the men of rank today in his wide missionary's work is material upliftment
in writing that e (quarto) was “to the local abuses dently of the more ("such as governministrative vices ofby others')-causes our population in fas mainly referring who had been brou: foregoing decades. ises of misery, the a fairly detailed mmentary.
they have, of work: ffice work; manual gradation, they feel. ge: especially among en married before ፴SOff}. ganisation: a man e marries the whole parents and all, fer one roof. They of sending anyone they have a handful share it.
foolish expenses on of marriage and rall. -
du R. P. Wallyn, ges de la Comp. . 375-363)
What, may ask, had this gentleman done to merit the encomium of a pioneer social apostle in Sri Lanka, among the estate population, except that he was more reflexive, more inclined to see the scotal man, the integral man, sixty-segen years before Pope Paul's Development of Peoples?
Wouldn't most people accept that this is the fuller christianity, the more human type of the Divinity with the human face? True, he did not see, at that time, the ravages made by estate-pioneers on the economy of our peasantry and on the destiny of that dweller in the dingy line-room, but he was on the right track of pursuit. The humane English government had disliked usury; had allowed only percent per month as interest, in S. India. The ancient laws of India, it seems had forbidden people to ask for more than 2 percent from a Brahmin, 4% from a Vaysia, 3% from a Kshatriya and 5% from a Sudra.
Here was one whom so many years ago, was interested in Community rather than in an isolated Communion in man's material needs also, rather than in his moral ways only; in bread as well as in the word of the Lord. He could assert with modest pride:
" It is for us catholic priests to react against all these cases of pauperism: it is Our Social question. lt iş a tough problem, all the more difficult to eradicate among Oriental peoples, as every ingrained habit is difficult to 5olve. . . . . . . .
RACE-MYTH & SCIENCE-2 Are There Races?
-culture and raceby Dr Arthur Weerakoon
B.Sc. (Lond), Ph. D. (Glasgow), F. R. E. S. (Lond). Professor of Physical Sciences, Vidyodya.
There are no races; the human species is not divisible into races. It is a very variable species almost infinitely variable, but it is one, just one. That is the verdict of biologists and of anthropologists who have studied this question for many, many years. A race is a part of a species (or kind) of animal which is distinguishable from the reSt.
This concept of race is one that has been arrived at by eminent specialists in the field of such stu
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 24
dies-and it applies to all life; not
only to animals but also to plants,
not only to the lower animals, but also to man. If we accept it, as we must if we value truth, then man is not divisible into races.
Because although one can adivide
up men into groups none of these groups meets basis requirements of a race namely that the characters by which the group is distinguished must be heritable and must form a set. What this means
will become clear if we examine
a few examples.
Thus one may divide human beings into those who play cricket and those who do not play cricket. But this character the playing of cricket is not one a man is born with; it is one he gradually learns, acquires, in the course of his growth after his birth. It is not a heritable character; and cricketers are not a racial group. Similarly, though men can be divided into groups, which grow their hair long or which cut it Short, or into groups whose main food is either the potato or wheat, or rice, or rye, into groups who believe that there is one God or that there are many Gods or that there are no Gods, into groups who speak English, or Dutch, or Bengalese or Chinese or Malay or Sinhala or Tamil and so on, yet none of these groups is a race. None of these groups is a race for the simple reason that none of these differentiating characters is heritable; none is capable of being handed down from one generation to the next at birth, or to be more exact, at the moment of conception.
So much for groups based on characters which are not inherited. One may also separate men into groups based on characters which are inherited. The colour of our skins is inherited; and one can divide men into three groups depending on whether their skin is whitish (like Englishmen) or yellowish (like Chinese) or brownish or blackish (like ourselves).
But though these three groups are natural they are not races because these groups are based on differences in just one character, skin-colour. The same applies to groups based upon other heritable characters like hair-colour (golden or brown or black) or hair shape (straight or wavy) or height (short or tall) and so on. None of these groups is a race, for a race is a group which is different from other
groups not in on time, but in a nu ters all at the sa
What is more, one-character grc vaguely outlined. although we may pi of men, the white black-skinned, all des in between V are also found a that the gap be groups is fully groups tend to c
Groups based u ter of our blood fe to this rule. They tinct from each o ing could be less blood-group of me
should like to : about it since ther rant talk of “Eng 'Sinhalese blood' blood of man ha and heritable differ it responds to c treatments applied deed been found the main types of bl. types have been in letters of the alph and O. According blood men have th into 4 groups; Gro Group AB, Group
Now we come t portant point-all found amongst the and also all four ar. the Indians and am and amongst the fact all peoples, all world, have all ti of blood! And ther thing as English ble blood or Tami 1 ble
This is a matter tical importance in accidents and majt is often necessary into a patient to For this the corre must be giyen or will be killed by t injected into him 'correct kind of blood of the corr, (A, B, AB or O). blood comes fron or from a Chinese makes not the slig if it is of the cor priate group it will though it will not an Englishman or Tamil in any way : the Wrong blood g
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

character at a mber of characme time.
almost all these ups are very That is to say, cture two groups skinned and the manner of shahite and black mongst men So ween the two ridged and the isappear.
bon the characrm an exception are sharply disther. Yet nothLike race than a
.
ay a little more e is much ignolish bloodʼʼ and and so on. The s been studied 2nces in the way ertain tests or to it have init there are four ood; and these amed by certain |labet: A, B, AB to the type of ey can be divided up A, Group B,
O
o the really imfour groups are English people, e found amongst ongst the Tamils Sinhalese! ln nations of this nese four types 2 is just no such Dod o'r Sinhaliese Dod.
of great prachospitals. After or operations it to inject blood keep him alive. it kind of blood else the patient he blood that is By the term blood' is meant act blood group Whether this an Englishman or from a Tamil htest difference: rect, the approsave the patient, change him into a Chinese or a it all; if it is of roup it will kill
There Are. No Races
the patient even if the patient and the blood donor are both Sinhalese or both Tamil or both Chinese.
Another thing about these onecharacter-groups which makes it quite clear that they cannot possibly be races: most of us can, without much difficulty remember families in Ceylon, both amongst the Tamils and amongst the Sinhalese where the father and the mother are brown-skinned, but one of the children is so fair as to be almost white-skinned and another so dark as to be almost black-skinned. lf groups based upon one character
are races then these children of
the same parents would belong to different races. Which is absurd In the same way it very often happens that though both father and mother belong to Blood Group A the children belong to blood group O.
lf one insisted on thinking of these, one character groups as races or even as varieties one should have to put these parents and their children into different races or different varieties! which is again absurd.
It should be quite clear now. that there aren't different races of man. If there aren't different races of man, there cannot of course, be morally superior and morally inferior races of man. But what of these one-charactergroups like White-skinned, brownskinned and yellow-skinned into which we have seen it is possible to divide man?
Even though these are not races is it not possible that some of these groups are superior to others. For example, is it now possible that the white-skinned group of people is cleverer and kinder than the brown-skinned group
The answer is a very definite No. Moral or psychic qualities like kindness and cruelty, generosity, stinginess, dishonesty, honesty and so on are NOT inherited. They are chiefly the result of the conditions in which the growing child is reared after it has been born.
A child will be dishonest not because it is born of dishonest parents but because it is brought up by and amongst dishonest people. A child of dishonest parents if brought up by and amongst honest people will grow up to be perfectly honest. This has been proved by many careful sociological studies. No man is honest or brave or kind merely because he has a white skin
22

Page 25
There Are No Races
or blue eyes; nor is a man cruel or stingy because he happens to have a white skin or blue eyes. A child may develop any of these qualities according to the conditions in which he is brought up; whether he does or does not have anything to do with the colour of his skin; nor with with the shape of his hair, nor with his height nor with any such characters by which man may be divided into minor groups. None of these one character groups is Superior or inferior to any other morally.
One final important point about human groups. The Germans believed that they were a pure race and despised all other European
peoples for being more or less mixed
with inferior non-European peoples like the Jews; and they prohibited the marriage of Germans and Jews. White-skinned South Africans today are equally afraid of mixture with the dark-skinned South Africans. And in Ceylon the Sinhalese, the Tamils the 'Dutch Burghers' (to name just three of our communities) are each certain that they are a pure race, the Tamils being perhaps more certain of it than anyone else! Are there pure races? Are there unmixed groups of men, racial, communal or otherwise?
It is a well known fact that men and women of the most diverse appearance live together as man and wife, and have children-blackSkinned Africans and yellowskinned Chinese, white-skinned golden-haired Europeans and brown-skinned black haired Sinhalese and Tamils, for example. The children of these unions are perfectly healthy and perfectly normal both in their bodies and in their minds and in their morals. Mixture between different people occurs today all over the World. And it has done so for thousands of years, for hundreds of thousands of years, in fact for at least a quarter of a million years. Men of our species, our kind, have lived in this world for at least that length of time; and almost from their first appearance they have roamed over the entire habitable worldmuch more slowly, of course, than we do today but just as certainly; and with the same results-interbreeding. Even if "once upon a time' there were pure unmixed peoples, there cannot be any left today. There aren't any in exis
23
tence today; we Tamils as much the Portuguese Burghers. We a members of just are also a thoro Amongst men th races, no pure pure groups of ar. ourselves on the raCe Or COrm Inn un] about the most si thing a man can
But you may not different races that you can disti man from an India between these per difference they c rences in Skin-col and so on. But seen that these no racial signific: case there are and India's who no bodily differenc distinguish betwe man and the Indi in the way they they walk, in the v their manners and and So on.
in short you di them by what their cultura di which are picked the course of Between the Si: Tami is these are ficant differences there aren't an Whenever you a Sinhalese from a cause they show cultural difference
Does this mean Sinhalese are ju that their Buddhi damaged and wi appear by contac ture? That those who fear that th culture will be finally disappear Sinhalese culture?
No they are n fears are as unr groundless as are Germans that th luted by contact y as there are no p So also are there n
All existing c. cultures formed tion of parts of c

are all mixed the as the Sinhalese, as much as the re not only all
One Species-We ughly mixed lot. ere are no pure Communities, no y sort. To preen purity of one's ity or nation is premely ignorant
do.
bisk, if there are
of man how is it
nguish an Englishn. You distinguish ple by the bodily ften show-diffeour, in hair-colour we have already differences are of nce; and in any often Englishmen
show absolutely es at aj. You ajso een the Englishian by differences talk, in the way vay they dress, in in their customs,
Stinguish between might be called ifferences, all of
up by them in
their upbringing. nhalese and the
the only signithat can be found,
y physical ones. re able to te a
Tamil it is bev Some of these 2S.
, then, that those stified who fear st culture will be Il ultimately disit with Tarni 1 : cutTamils are justified eir Tamil Hindu damaged and will
by contact with
ot justified. Their easonable and as : the fears of the ey Would be polNith the Jews. Just ure races of man, o pure cultures.
ultures are hybrid by the incorpora5ther cultures into
themselves; they are hybrid cultures produced by culture contact and inter-mixture. And the more flourishing a culture is, the more it flowers, the more hybrid it will be found upon examination. Thror ughout the long history of the island, Sinhaliese and Tamil Cultures have existed side by side, have been in intimate contact with each other-and it is well to remember that at no time did this contact harm either of the cultures. There is no reason why contact between them should be harmful
OW.
It is also very important to remember that the one certain way to destroy one's own culture is to attempt to develop it at the expense of another’s. The Germans set out to destroy the Jews and Jewish culture. They certainly succeeded in killing millions of Jews. But they did not destroy Jewish culture. The culture they did destroy was their own; making monsters of themselves, they destroyed their own wonderful German culture.
The same holds true for us in Ceylon. If we Sinhalese attempt to destroy Tamil culture, or to develop ours at the expense of theirs, we may be certain that we shall damage our own most grievously. And if the Tamils in unreasonable fear, oppose a healthy revival of Sinhalese culture, they too may be certain that they will thereby damage their own.
There are no races of man. The Sinhalese and the Tamils are not two races. They are one people. Between them there are only cuitural differences. VVe should rejoice that in a country as small as ours we have so many cultures; the Sinhalese, the Tamil, the Muslim, the Burgher and so on. Let us foster them all.
Let us not make the blunder of supposing that we can foster one culture at the expense of any other culture; nor the blunder of imagining that cultural differences are racial differences. For if we do these things, be ready to be gulled as the Germans were by the Nazis fascists who called themselves National Socialists. We shall be ready to be hoodwinked as were the Germans, whose political and economic emancipation was set back a whole generation, whilst they, poor fools, were busy burning and baiting the Jews.
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977

Page 26
Confidentially
is Eelam viable?-2
IS IT NOT TRUE that many Tamils who have so far talked enthusiastically about a separate state and Tamil Eelam are only now seriously examining the question about the viability of such a 'sovereign, secular and socialist State?' That it was because a large number of our readers had asked us this question that we started on this series IS EELAM VABLE in this column last week? That we had set out some preliminary thoughts about the totally evasive TULF vagueness about what constitutes the territory of Tamil Eelam? That elsewhere in this issue, Fr. Tissa BalaSuriya-a great friend of the Tamils if there is one-has carefully explained how in the recent general elections, the Tamils had not given a mandate to the TULF to demand (or attempt to set up) a separatist Tamil Eelam? That in the course of his arguments he touched on the question of the "territory' the TULF claims as the Tamil Eelam? That Fr. Balasuriya cites the TULF's manifesto, "... when we speak of the Tamil nation we refer to the entirety of the people in this country to Whom the mother tongue iş Tamil...”? That Fr. Balasuriya then goes on to say, "that there was no clear indication of the area claimed for Eelam? That the only reference is to the 13th century position: "... at this time, the territory 3tretching in the Weştern geaboard from Chilaw through Puttalam to Mannar and thence to the Northern Regions in the East, Trincomalee and also the Batticaloa Regions that extended Southwards up to Kunding or to the Northern banks of the Kumbukkan Oya were firmly established as the exclusive homeland of the Tamils. This is the territory of Tamil Eelam”? That Fr. Balasuriya commented: "This is a fairly large chunk of Sri Lanka: it is far more than the Northern Province. This is also the area in which the TULF contested'? That Fr. Balasuriya is not the only person who has been stumped by the failure of the TULF to define the territory of Tamil Eelam in a way that even friends of the Tamils in other communi
TRIBUNE, September 24, 1977
ties can understan That a careful scrut Manifesto (vide Tr and 3) does not Manifesto in a bi Muslims into Tan "... bound together
a common language lives in a common ught together by t ger of total destru and the Muslimīộ ra pensability of joint tó the ŞafeguardŞ identity of the Musl their sovereignty, th Front joined the fa. ation Front as a
the rights of the the Tamil State of amplified further ir when we speak of t we refer to the ent ple in this count mother tongue iş Tam
IS IT NOT A FACT in the Eastern Pro lam have now mad that they are no That the total rej Eelam by the Mus called Tamil areas h bottom out of th as defined in the the Manifesto furt fication for Eelam in That after indulgin and doubtful dicta and Tamil kings a the distant past it situation that is said when the Portug the maritime regi “ . . at this time, the ti in the western sea-b through Puttalam thence to the North in the East, Trince the Batticaloa Regio southwards up to K northern banks of th kan Oya were fi, a5 the exclu5 jwe h Tannis: this is the Eelam”? That all thi TULF manifesto o confusion more ce. if one sought assis speeches of the and spokesmen du election campaign Eelam, one will h tive but to conclud implications of TUL made known in th this country will table hell for seve
 

d or appreciate? tiny of the TULF ibune, August 6 help? That the d to bring the 1 i l Eelam states: by the bonds of and inter-twining territory and brohe common danction, the Tamils ealișed the indi: action; subject of preserving the im5 and ensuring he Muslim United mil United Liberconstituent unit: Wuslim people in * Eelam will be this manifesto: the Tamil Nation, irety of the peoy to whom the ዘiዘ””?
that the Muslims Vince and Puttae it amply clear It Tamil Eelam? ection of Tamil lims in the soas knocked the ė TULF's Eelam Manifesto? That her seeks justiancient history? g in speculative
about Sinhalese nd kingdoms in pounced upon a
to have existed uese conquered ions of Ceylon
erritory stretching
oard from Chilaw to Mannar, and tern Regions and Omalee and also ni that extended mana or to the e river Kumbukrmly establisehd tomeland of the erritory of Tamil at is said in the inly makes the infounded? That stance from the TULF candidates ring the recent to define Tamil ave no alternae that if the ful F speeches were e Sinhalese areas become a veribral generations?
Calling The Bluff
That even at this late stage TULF propagandists should learn to forget emotional rhetoric and resolve the problems confronting the Tamils in a realistic and pragmatic way? That we have strayed away from the question IS EELAM VIABLE 2 That we have done so only because this question is intimately tied
up with the exact boundaries of
Tamil Eelam? That everybody will also acknowledge that Tamil Eelam has not been defined by the TULF in a way that will enable either economists or social scientists to decide whether Taimil Eelem is, or is not, a viable proposition? That it will be interesting, nevertheless, to examine the arguments of TULF apologists about the economic viability of the yet uncertain area of Tamil Eelam? That in answering the question whether a Tamil Eelam would “be able to pay its own way in the world', Amirthalingam, according to the AsiaWeek of July 8, "has no doubt on the score: last week he made the point of reminding his listeners that the North produces the bulk of Sri Lanka's onions, potatoes, chillies and tobacco as well as a goodly volume of rice and grapes'? AsiaWeek itself had commented on this claim thus: "none of these crops is even remotely near the tea, rubber and coconut bracket as a foreign exchange earner -but an independent Tamilnad presumably would have a ready market for its products right next door in Sri Lanka: if that was what Amirthalingam had in mind, he seemed less than concerned about staying in the customer's good books...' That, in the interests of all people in Ceylon it has become necessary to examine critically the claims for economic viability for Tamil Eelam put forward by TULF apologists? That the TULF is as evasive about economic viability as it is about the territory of Tamil Eelam ? That the time has come for this demogogic blufi about the economic viability of Eelam to be called? That the time has also come to discard illusions of viability because of such dispensable or importable onions, chifties, potatoes, rice and grapes 2 That it is necessary to examine (critically) the TULF case for viability even on the basis of territory that cannot be Eelam
(To be Continued)
*差*宗- →翔-窪一
24
however,

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