கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1977.10.08

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سمبرے
Letter From: CFsie Eròitor
ELSEWHERE IN THIS ISSUE we have published a very imp tion by Mr. R. Kahawita on the question of preventing th violence such as this country witnessed in July and Aug. this kind, under a communal or political smokescreen, has volume and magnitude since the year 1956. There wer communal violence in 1957, 1958, 1966 and now in August came long after the Sinhala-Muslim communal riots of I' also violence that stemmed from post-election tensions in also in July 1977. In 1971, there was violence that arose a insurrection against the government by the JVP-led Kahawita, like all decent-minded citizens, condemns such vic certain terms, and is also deeply concerned about the freq of such anti-social criminal activities. He points out that outbreak of violence, looters and arsonists carried out the presence of large number of neighbours and ordinary passively looked on whilst Tamils were assaulted, robbed a set on fire. The problems arising from the paralytic immo the connivance of sections of the Police Force, in standing criminal elements looted and burnt, has to be dealt with st Government which has the duty to re-organise, re-structul the Force. There is no doubt that the Government is alive and is taking steps to remedy matters. But, even more Mr. Kahawita, is the need to Create island-wide public coi every citizen has a duty to help prevent such violence di or any other group. Mr. Kahawita points out that, in the riots in 1915, the spread and recurrence of violence was st simple device-a levy on all persons living in a particular area looting or arson had taken place to cover the compensatio victims. Mr. Kahawita rightly points out it is an unnecessar Government to pay compensation to the victims of violence has been damaged or looted. What is particularly exas the criminals and arsonists, who have helped themselves t free, and the Government has to shoulder the responsibility the victims. There is, no doubt, if such a levy is made, the onlookers, who do nothing whilst the criminal elements loc energise themselves into activity to prevent such disorder Such a levy is also the only way of neutralising the effect c UNP or SLFP, or anti-ULF) or communal (anti-Tamil, or religious (anti-Christians, anti-Muslim or anti-Hindu or hysteria that has generated in the years after 1956 regular : and burning to take place in the presence of large numbers c persons may argue that such a levy savours of "colonialis would be tantamount to "imperialist' methods of rule. It i day for people to argue that everything done during colonia bad. There are So many excellent things Which We havi colonial times-they are too many to detail-and the lev violence will be only one more good thing we will have t past. The Government has a duty to rule (or get out), and t have peace, stability and communal amity to give people as and normalcy for economic development. With violenc arson breaking out at frequent intervals on the slightest pre is the only way any sane Government can adopt to preve activities. We cannot think of any better way of ensuring lawlessness which brought such misery, hardship and suffer people in the last two weeks of August is stopped for all ti together with a political settlement. But an attempt to minority problem at a political level will once again promp criminal elements to resort to violence and looting-unle ment reorganises and streamlines its security services and a legislation to enforce a collective punitive levy on the ps to wealth) in an area where such violence or looting t we said earlier, this method of ensuring peace in an area updated and streamlined ROTS COMPENSATION ORD by the British in 1915) may be opposed by some on the was used by a colonial government, but the very system government in which we pride is a heritage of colonial way than an updated RIOTS COMPENSATION ORD devised we will welcome it.

ortant contribuhe recurrence of Ist. Violence of been growing in e outbreaks of 1977. And, these 25. There was 1965, 1970 and s a result of the insurgents. Mr. blence in no unuent recurrence t, in the latest ir attacks in the people who had lind their houses bility, and often idly by, whilst eparately by the re and re-vitalise to this problem important, says nsciousness that rected at Tamils : Sinhala-Muslim opped by a very where violence, in payable to the y burden on the whose property perating is that o loot, go scotof compensating neighbours and bt and burn, will and lawlessness. of political (antianti-Sinhala) or anti-Buddhist) assault, robbery if people. Some m’’ and that it s too late in the all rule was or is e adopted from y to stop such o take from the he country must sense of security e, looting and 2text such a levy nt. Such criminal that the kind of ing to the Tamil me than this levy solve the Tamil it communal and ess the Governrms itself with 2Ople (according akes place. As by means of an INANCE (used ground that it of parliamentary ism. If a better 'INANCE can be
TRIBUNE
Founded in 954 A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs Editor S. P. Amarasingam Every Saturday
October 8, 1977 Vo. 22 No 6
T R B U NE
43, DAWSON STREET, C O L O M B O - 2. Telephone: 33 72
C on TEN
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK -Current Developments p. 2
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE -Sept. 18 - Sept. 29 p 5
FROM THE FOREIGN PRESS
—Elections ln Pakistan. p. 0 FOR PEACE AND AMITY -A Collective Levy p. 12
TAMIL AUTONOMY —As lin China p. 5
A PLEA IN ANGUISH -Satyodaya p. 6
FOR A NATIONAL UNITY -A Suggestion p. 7 RACE ROTS 95 -Anagarika's Letter p. 8
THE Two RUSSIANs -Who Fooled The Govt 2 p. 9
IN CANADA -Linguistic Duality GRAMA SASTRA-|| -Ella to Wellawaya p. 2 FOR THE RECORD -The Second Amendment p. 22. LETTERS
-Contemporania p. 23
CONFIDENTIALLY ---is Eelam Viable ? بھینسے
р. 20
P. 24

Page 4
E DIT O Rio s
NOTEBOOK
On Current Developments
Colombo, October 5,
The J. R. Jayawardene govern
ment seems intent to appoint Commissions and Committees of Inquiry to investigate every possible matter. Tribune has not kept count, nor does it want to take count, of the numerous Commissions and Committees that have been set up, but there is no doubt that some of the best talent in the country is now engaged on these probes.
There is also no doubt that every thing is wrong with everything in this country. Commissions of lnquiry may be needed to unearth some of these mistakes, but there are many departments and many places where what is wrong is known to everybody. In such cases, the appointment of a Commission of Inquiry is only a way of postponing of the day to take corrective action. It would be invidious to point out the instances where such Commissions of Inquiry are redundant because it would take time and space to draw attention to every one of them, but it is time that the Prime Minister and the other leaders of the Government take note of this situation where there is already a plague of such Commissions and Committees of Inquiry.
The plea is that miscreants of the past regime could be more easily spotted and held responsible by the investigations and reports of such Committees and Commissions, but they can also be used to divert and delay matters so that the scent gets cold and prevent an early start to the concrete work necessary to get things moving. The only concrete accomplishment the JR government can show in a big way so far, is the wholesale appointments of Commissions and Committees of inquiry. More such Commissions and Committees are in the air, and the only really important Commission concerning the post-election and anti-Tamil violence is yet to be set up.
Goods of a certain kind are more freely available, but the prices "have not moved down except in a
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
few cases. and a few s foodstuffs within rea: other price producers v these items but fish pric this Gover no doubt election vi Tamil riots. more expen come down plentiful an than the which had o vious regime
But the w in the kach ment depart to move. Ma bly be trott that stem f and anti-Tar why the ac not got goi are not gC time has alre ing the wo country in o ter productiv
COVER
ON THE CC in identifyin, picture show upwards inti spot, but as whether it is it is toward an upward c any matter. future we fe rupted norn not place to Those who assistance tc the country once this. p. and experien countries of denigrate so well either v. the present the IBRD (p difficulties a rescue and s undertake. in, and coun still shines, t monetary sy has all but on a just an economic gr rather than :

"he price of chillies ch items of subsidiary ve been kept down nable limits (but if do not come down, not want to grow or the next season), have gone up since hent came to powerecause of the postence - and the antiMeat has become even ive and eggs have not in price. Textiles are the prices are less nconscionable prices tained during the pre
»rst thing is the work heris and the governments have not begun hy excuses can justifiad out, notably excuses om the post-election hill violence, to show ministration has still ng, but such excuses od enough. Precious ady been lost in start*k of revitalising the rder to generate greare efforts.
Stagnation Continues
Except a few cases, most government departments are still dead -'deader' (to coin a word for Sri Lanka) than they have been in the past. Everything is stagnant and getting anything done has become more difficult than it ever was. It is even more difficult to get about one's work-except for those who have private transport, but even in such cases many parts of the country are still considered unsafe for private cars to be floating around at will.
But travel in the CTB and the CGR have become nightmarish. A great deal of propaganda is done about the "improvements' in the CTB, but what is important is that travelling with the continued indiscipline among the rank and file of CTB employees has become hazardous. Only a few cases of drunkeness come to light-when a serious accident takes placebut taking alcoholic drinks, at every important halt on long distance runs, has become a way of life for CTB employees. Supervisory officers-they also drink in the best CTB Style-are unable to exercise any control, because
A L O N G L O N G W A Y
VER we have a picture that no one will have any difficulty g. But, to us, it is not the locale that is important. The is what seems to be a never-ending flight of steps going 2 the heavens. In this case the steps end in a definitive We see in it a never-ending upward climb towards fulfilment, economic, or political, or cultural, or personal, or whether a spiritual nibbana or nirvana. In Sri Lanka, today, it is limb in every way. There is no easy and straight path on On the economic front, especially, it is an extremely difficult ce-made more difficult by racial upheavals that have disalcy and stability. In our desperation, the country must much hope or confidence in the IMF or the World Bank. manage these institutions may be willing to extend aid and Sri Lanka in order to ensure that the pro-capitalist turn took at the last elections is completely stabilised. But, litical aim has been achieved, then contemporary history e has shown that the IMF and the World Bank have, in many :he Third World, applied the screw in a way that tends to ereignty. And, it is also well to remember that all is not th the IMF and the IBRD themselves or the kind of capitalism losses and manipulators of the IMF favour. The IMF and pularly known as the World Bank) are in major financial d they have become more and more dependent on the vage operations that only the rich OPEC nations can now here is still a fair amount of leeway for the IMF to operate ties like Sri Lanka can make a little hay while the IMF sun t it is necessary to know that the post-war Bretton Woods em (of which the IMF and IBRD were an integral part) sappeared. Until a new international monetary system fair basis comes into existence bilateral arrangements for vth (and not consumerism) will be a better path to tread lind pursuit of the IMF and all that its stands for.

Page 5
Bus And Rail
the 'unions' are still powerful with the management. The only difference is that the same kind of indisciplined thugs who control the unions now wear green instead of the red or the blue as in the past.
Whether it is one trade union or several unions, the malady that has begun to eat into the fabric of our society is the total lack of responsibility on the part of trade
unions. The last Government and
even earlier governments had given a handle to unions to say that only under 'socialism'-no doubt only of the variety they will endorse-will they feel 'induced' to work as hard as they should. The CTB employees are among the best paid in the country and they are among the least disciplined.
The same is true of the CGR and railway workers-they do not earn as much as CTB workers, but they are still among the most favoured among the working population of the country. The Railways have been going down the path of suicidal self-destruction for a long time-for many many years in factbut after this Government took over the CGR the rot continues in a worse manner than ever before. Even after making allowances for the disruption caused by the post-election and anti-Tamil violence, the CGR has not pulled itself up by the socks (as the saying goes) or even attempted to provide a satisfactory service even within the limited possibilities.
Train travellers-long and short distance-have brought facts to the notice of the Tribune to show that if the CGR went on in this Way the entire system will grind to a halt very soon. Already there is no railway system to speak about. The Ratmalana Workshop is more dead than ever, and it cannot be
brought to life until the so-called
trade union "Czars'-who use every little excuse, eg. post-election and the anti-Tamil riots, to further their sectarian ends-are removed. Appeasing such anti-national and anti-worker elements, only because they change the colour of the cap they wear is dangerous and selfdefeating. The CGR cannot be put right by placating the present leadership of the trade unions (though they have now bought green caps). Discipline has to be re-introduced at all levels. The CGR is over-staffed, but this staff
3
does not do th they are paidmaintenance of other rolling sto One can list a matters which a the Railway but futile exercise. W and can be done, being done now, stand out glaring one who looks travels in its trair mittee has been . mine its record f years. One look the Committee m these worthy rarely, if ever, trav and it will take t if at all, to kno (and when they will be provided By that time, the ground to a halt
Of course, bure nocrats anxious to abroad will sugge be easier to im tives, Waggons an abroad rather than Workshop imme and maintain the already belongs to Unless the work in Ratmalana and made to do a job
purchases will su
the old. Bureauci that contracts a work by building (from Matara to
instance) will help will also seek it
government into These are pitfalls must avoid.
It is good thin mileage of the before Governmen costly ventures it set the existing Ratmalana Works the locomotives, riages must be se tained, the trains and goods tra again become a of the railways. " to be cleaned, the be kept free of train must be insp tenance staff at as in the past-to 'running parts' takes only a few m There are a great

a jobs for which especially in the locomotives and
whole lot of other te “wrong” with
this becomes a hat has to be done and which is not are matters which y in front of anyat the CGR or s. Instead, a Comppointed to exaor the last seven at the names in akes it clear that gentlemen have elled on the CGR, hem a long time, w what is what travel now they de luxe travel). CGR would have
aucrats and techmake purchases st that it would port new locomod carriages from set the Ratmalana iiately to repair rolling stock that the CGR already. ers in the CGR elsewhere are of work, all new |ffer the fate of rats who believe ind development new rail tracks Kataragama, for to oil the system o stampede the such activity. the Government
g to extend the rail system, but t embarks on such C is necessary to CGR right. The hop must work, waggons and car:rviced and mainmust run on time ins must once regular feature The stations have : rail tracks must grass and every ected by the mainevery big stopcheck that the are alright (this hinutes at a time). many other do's
and dont's which every senior railwayman-and many of those who were pushed out in 1970-know, and a Commission of Inquiry is not needed to inform the Government of the true situation.
WHILST THE COUNTRY has a plethora of Commissions and Committees of Inquiry, there have been also a great many speeches about a new economic order that is likely to be outlined at the time of the new Budget. The philosophy behind the new UNP economic order has not be spelled out in any detail, but from the very vague guidelines Set out in the Manifesto it is possible to envisage the kind of economy which
the UNP has in mind. The UNP
won the election on 'economic plans' set out in the Manifesto which won the approval of the majority of the voters of this country and these plans were based on the fact that the "pro-socialist' and 'radical' policies of the United Front and the SLFP had failed.
From the time of S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, every SLFP government, under pressure from the Left both inside and outside the SLFP, has tended to favour a completely PLAN-bound system which leftminded ideologues thought suitable for third world developing countries which wanted to by-pass capitalism for socialism. Plans were also drawn up in the time of the UNP from 1947 to 1956 which were pro-capitalist slanted-plans which wanted to curb free enterprise in a way as to create welfarism in developing countries. But these plans-World Bank experts had drawn up a Ten Year Plan in 1952/3 -did not go far. Then, after Bandaranaike came to power in 1956, a new Planning Commission was set up, and ever since that time we have had many long range and short range plans (including many crash programmes before each election) in order to help the country to reach out to socialism. The UNP between 1965-70 tried to infuse a doze of capitalism into the planning, but even these failed to get off the ground.
But every SLFP and even the UF government, whilst wanting to reach socialism in a hurry, had sought to give impetus to free private enterprise in the fond belief that it would be subordinate to the public sector. But all these hopes were dashed to the ground because
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 6
of the inefficiency and corruption in the public sector. And the taxfree and other concessions given to the private sector created not one but many frankensteins that destroyed the very 'socialists' who had wanted to make use of them. (Like Aladdin, they had wanted to use the genii in the lamp. The genii in the case of the Left and SLFP socialists, who wanted to use new capitalists to prop up the economy, destroyed all the "socialism' these governments have wanted to establish).
It was because the failure of the
economic plans of the SLFP and the Left to make any real progress that the UNP was able
to persuade the voters to try something that appeared new, but something which was only an updated re-hash of what is known as controlled capitalism for developing countries. What the UNP seems to have in mind is a hybrid cross between a Singapore-Hongkong type of export free zone economy and the more ambitious developmental exercises tried out in countries like Brazil, Mexico and other places. Tribune will examine the realities of both the Singapore and the Brazil type of economy, and critically examine whether the
hybrid that is being suggested for Sri Lanka will produce the results anticipated. In India,
the Morarji Desai government has put forward economic proposals drawn up on the suggestion of pro-western ideologues who believe that modified forms of controlled capitalism constituted the best way of achieving a welfare society ni in a developing country like India.
It is now possible to see the pattern emerging in India. The Planning Commission has terminated the Five Year Plan one year ahead of schedule and introduced in its place the “rolling plan'' con cept with a five year span in future. This major policy decision was taken at a full meeting of the Planning Commission about a month ago under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Desai. Thus the entire concept of perspective planning and fitting priorities into every Five Year Plan has been totally scrapped. (India had been more successful in implementing its five year plans than Sri Lanka has ever been able to fulfil any plan that had been formulated). The decision to cut short a full year of the Fifth Plan
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
is really to reality the Jan of planning for tion and small an
What kind of ing” will emerg difficult to say u1 is formulated a dential system : In the meant press, the NSA thirds majority Amendment to Constitution. Th of the amendme bers of the Go Were present an President of til leader of the C in the NSA. T. staged a virtu leader of the ( Amirthalingam, ment as to wh not participate after that all the Chamber q ing a demonstra The ex-Prime daranaike, mac statement as to posed the Bill that the speec repeat of the Dias Bandaranai Weekend of SL and immediatel SLFP members chamber en ma lin the circum Amendment was by 128 votes to of about thre with the ame by the Prime M Amendment wi tion on such Minister may published in Jayawardene mr ments to the Bill during the The first one s provision in til tution which immunity from the Second A earlier sought immunity. By Mr. Jayawarden for provision in ment whereby be open for le cising the func Another amel obligatory for consult his C appointments

translate into ata Party's concept agriculture, irrigad cottage industries. economic "plannge in Sri Lanka is ntil the new Budget nd the nev Presigets going. ime, as We go to has passed by a two(12810) the Second the Republican ose voting in favour nts were 127 memvernment party who d Mr. S. Thondaman, he TULF and the WC Political Wing he Opposition had all walk out. The Opposition, Mr. A. had made a stately the TULF could in the debate and TULF members left uietly without maktion of the quitting. Minister, Mrs. Banfe an explanatory why the SLFP op(it was pointed out h was a verbatim article by Felix R. ke published in the Inday, October 2), y after this all the walked out of the
stances, the Second passed unanimously nil in a record time 2e hours together ndments suggested finister himself. The Il come into operadate as the Prime appoint by order the Gazette. Mr. hoved four amendSecond Amendment 2 Committee stage. ought to retain the he existing Constigrants the President suit. Clause 7 of mendment Bill had to waive this another amendment, e, however moved, the Second Amendthe President would gal suit when exer:tion of a Minister.
ld ment makes it the President to abinet in making
to the Presidential
Economic Plans, Amendment
Staff. The fourth amendment was a consequential one.
There was no doubt at any time that the Amendment would be adopted by a two-third majority, but many people had expected the TULF and the SLFP to participate in the debate and point out the possible drawbacks of a presidential system. Mr. Premadasa's reply to Mrs. Bandaranai ke was effective and knocked the bottom out of her arguments, and without further clarifications and argumentation the SLFP case went by the board through sheer neglect in the NSA. (The SLFP now wants to carry its campaign to the people at large, but if it misses opportunities of fighting the issue it does not look as if it can stand up to the UNP in such
matters).
The TULF is still torn between its day dream of Eelam and active participation in the NSA. What the TULF may be waiting for is an Amendment to deal with Tamil Rights, but in view of the position it has once again adopted that as its only mandate was to fight for Eelam it would not be able to participate in any proceedings to amend the Constitution that did not deal with the granting Eelam. Such negative politicking will not do the Tamil community any good.
Already, as anticipated by the Tribune the TULF has begun to disintegrate. The CWC has broken away. From the time of the Vaddukoddai Resolution demanding Eelam, the CWC had publicly expressed its reservations about it but had con tinued to collaborate with the TULF for the sake of Tamil 'unity', but with the events following the elections (when the TULF took rhetorical steps to implement ဦး[ဒုm'); the CWC has been slowly but surely back-tracking on its commitments to the TULF. With Mr. Thondaman and the CWC thus openly breaking with the TULF on the Second Amendment and joining hands with the Government, a new stage has been reached in the politics of the Tamil minority in this country. There are reports that the TULF High Command will take 'disciplinary' action against Thondaman and the CWC. The High Command has no option but to do this in view of the rigid inflexibilities of its tactical attitudes. If the TULF does not go easy and “lay by” the demand for Eelam, more breakways can be expected.
4
*

Page 7
Sri Lanka Chronigle
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
Sept. 18 - Sept. 29
DIARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD COMPILED FROM DALY NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDM-Ceylon Daily Mirror; CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DAM—Dinamina; LD-Lankadipa; VK-Virakesari; ATH-Aththa; SM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; DW-Dawasa; CM-Chinthamani; WK-Weekend; RR-Rivirasa, EN-Eelanadu; IDPR-Information Department Press Release
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 8: The PM has severely criticised a recently constituted organisation which protested to him last week against the government's stand on the standardisation of marks at public examinations and language, it is reliably understood. The National Savings Bank has mobilised a massive Rs. 70 million in fixed deposits during the seven working days since its attractive new interest rates became effective on September 7. 5 of Sri Lanka's 24 Ambassadors abroad have been asked to return once their contracts end this December; they have been told that their contracts will not be renewed. The Government of Sri Lanka and Prima Singapore, a private wheat miller, yesterday signed an agreement for the setting up of a 30 million US dollars flour milling complex in Trincomalee. Sri Lanka's pearl beds which abound in several parts of her coastline are in danger of total extinction, the well known underwater expert Rodney Jonklas said yesterday. In six months, the television era will dawn in Sri Lanka; but at the start TV will be utilised only for educational purposes; this was stated by the Minister of Trade at a seminar on Youth Development Schemes. The dismissal of 3,286 employees from the CTB on political grounds during the past few years has cost the board Rs. 6,250,691; this amount has been paid as compensation and back wages to these employees. The British Government has promised to grant extensive Support for Sri Lanka's economic development programme; this follows talks Finance Minister Ronnie de Mel had with Mr. James Callaghan, UK PM last Friday. The contract for Pexamin for petroleum exploration in offshore areas around Sri Lanka must be fully probed, the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation Executive Officers Union has told the Minister of Industries and Scientific Affairs. One hundred and twenty five million rupees, representing the compulsory savings of about 6,000 tax payers, has still to be refunded to them although the previous government announced in March last year its decision to refund the moneys-ST. The Defence Ministry is to set up a special Intelligence Unit in the north to keep a close tab on what is believed to be the organised activities of alleged subversive
groups. Former MP's who were issued with revolvers
for their protection during the 1971 insurgency have been asked to return them to the Government Agents. The PM is expected to explain the proposed Constitutional Amendments to Government MP's when the Parliamentary Group meets on September 22. The approval of the PM will now be necessary for Ministers
to put out publications of their speeches or activities
5

their Ministries through the Government Press-WK. nce the government is thinking of appointing 22 inisters in the 22 districts the question has arisen to whether the TULF MP's will accept the posts-DP. is reliably understood that the government is formuting laws to impose penalty of imprisonment for }ssessing unlicensed firearms, production of hand ombs, giving military training, bank robberies and her such subversive acts against the State-EN. The bvernment is going to start a new project to give bs as dressmakers to 50,000 girls-SLDP.
|ON DAY, SEPTEMBER 19: Sri Lanka's top secret essages to her diplomatic missions abroad are vularable to interception by any intelligence agency in e world; Foreign Office sources said the cipher "anch of the ministry continued to use the two codes unded down by the British in 1947. The West German vernment has made a grant of 10 million deutschmarks help Sri Lanka finance the importation of goods for irrent requirements. At a meeting of Tamil speaking overnment Servants held during the weekend it was cided that those who had left their places of work ring the recent disturbances should not report for ork today. The Government has decided that all state stitutions should display all photographs of PM's of i Lanka except the single caretaker PM. A proposal set up a large scale gunny bag factory has been forarded to the Minister of industries said the Chairman the Jute lindustries Corporation. In the latest publition of the Industrial Development Board it is revealed at the tamarind seed could be used in place of gelatine r making jujubes-CDN. A total sum of Rs. II illion in foreign exchange earned by CRA holders at present lying idle as a result of severe restrictions posed by the previous government on the import of bods on CRA. All workers councils and advisory comittees in the corporations and statutory bodies coming nder the Ministry of industries and Scientific Affairs ill be re-started. A special team of police investigators ls been asked to probe the fibre glass fire at Walkers, otahena in which several lakhs worth of fibre ass was destroyed. The Federal Republic of Germany ill today grant Sri Lanka rupees one million for rural avelopment activities; the agreement will be signed is morning. The Minister of Plantation Industries will duce the price of tea and make available quality tea a reasonable price to local consumers. Sri Lanka will port only 30,000 tons of rice from abroad next year hereas this year over 500,000 tons were imported. he Ayurvedic Hospital, Ayurvedic Drugs Corporation ld Ayurvedic Research Institute at Nawinna are to be impletely re-organised-CDM. Several foreign counies and overseas organisations have offered assistance the government for rehabilitation and reconstruction ork arising out of the recent disturbances. A highwered Government team arrived in Jaffna yesterday make an on-the-spot study of the security situation the North, following a CD probe on the activities * an alleged subversive group. The PM has requested 1 Ministers to prepare an employment-oriented six onth programme of work in their ministries. All :cent recruits to the police will have to undergo a fresher course. A project to generate hydro power
rpassing even that of Laxapana, has been recommended
b the Minister of Irrigation, Power and Highways to ert an anticipated shortfall of power by 1980-SU. he government of Sri Lanka will seek financial assisnce from a private firm in the Federal Republic cf
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 8
Germany to complete the copper magnatite survey that was initiated by the Geological Survey Dept; it is expected to cost 2.2 million deutschmarks. An appeal has been made by the All-Ceylon Union of Government English Teachers to abolish all tutories as it feels that private tution in this country is doing more harm than good-CO. In order to offer protection to Sinhalese employees and businessmen it was decided at a meeting in Jaffna to form neighbourhood groups with the help of the police-EN. Mr. Ronnie de Mel, Minister of Finance who is in London now, met Mr. James Callaghan, PM of Britain and had a detailed discussion on the Financial and Economic policies of the new government in Sri Lanka-DPR no 220. The Congress of Religions appeals to all religious and lay leaders in the country to work closer together to establish a conducive atmosphere in which the many problems pertaining to the people of our country could be dealt with and solved without recourse to violence-lDPR no 218. The Textiles Corporation has incurred a loss of over Rs. 5 millions during the last regime according to the Minister of Textile industries-DM. TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20: Several top-level transfers have been made in the 7,000 strong police force as a prelude to the re-organisation of the force; police officials said yesterday that 200 persons have been sent transfer orders during the past two weeks including 50 officers-some of them in the gazetted rank. The official organ of the UNP has urged the government to impose restrictions on heads of departments, chairmen and directors of corporations attending diplomatic parties as has been done in the case of ministers. The government's present exercise of offering bank depositors higher rates of interest to flush out undeclared money will not be a set back to the creation of new jobs according to the Acting Minister of Finance. Prospective investors from Middle East countries have started making inquiries about the proposed Free Trade Zone in Sri Lanka-CDN. Legislation will shortly be introduced to compel employers to pay employees' wages promptly and regularly. Hotel Taprobane, managed by the Bank of Ceylon has gone on the rocks financially. Police sources say that they have received numerous complaints from traders about extortionists who exploited the recent disturbances by promising "protection'-CDM. The PM is seriously considering giving fertilizer free to farmers. The Janata Government of India did not desire a division of the country nor will it support the demands of the Tamils of Sri Lanka for a separate homeland and the Indian government has no desire to interfere in the internal affairs of Sri Lanka according to a leading spokesman of the ruling Janata Party. The Livestock Development Board has requested the Canadian Executive Service Overseas to send four volunteers to help in developing the wool-weaving industry which is to be started in the country-SU. According to a Defence Ministry source, about 60% of the people who fled North and East during the recent disturbances have returned-WK. Police will be posted to large public examination centres in the future to help the examination authorities to maintain discipline and prevent dishonesty, the Commissioner of Examinations said yesterday. Street lighting in Colombo is seriously affected because some Colombo Municipal officers are away from their posts. The Minister of Food and Cooperatives has requested GA's in surplus rice areas to take immediate steps to distribute rice that has been in their stores for a number of months, to deficit areas
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Sri Lankog Chronicle
CO. Mr. N. Wimalasena of Kandy is to be appointed Ceylon High Commisioner in London-IDPR. The government of Sri Lanka, in concurrence with the Government of the Republic of India, has decided to appoint H.E. Mr. Arthur Basnayake, as High Commissioner for Sri Lanka in India, in succession to H. E. Mr. Justin Siriwardene-DPR. Her Excellency Miss Ampha Bandranawik has been appointed by the Government of Thailand as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Sri Lanka-i-IDPR. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Burma, with the concurrence of the government of Sri Lanka, has decided to appoint U Saw Tun as Ambassador Extraordianry and Plenipotentiary of the Socialist Republic of Burma to Sri Lanka-IDPR. The Minister of Plantation industries will issue manure, seedlings etc. to improve coconut production in the country-LD.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2: The blueprint for the re-organisation of the armed services is now being drawn up, according to the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence; one of the features would be that all service personnel would be trained in guerilla warfare, essential to combat terrorism; another feature would be that all members of the armed services would be given refresher courses and he said that recruitment would be on merit and smartness. Mr. R. Premadasa has promised to build a larger fish market soon in Colombo. The National Lotteries Board will conduct sweeps in foreign countries and famed gems will be the main prizes while free airline tickets for a holiday in this country will be consolation prizes. The PM will notice members of the NSA on the presentation of the second amendment to the constitution; the NSA meets at 2 pm tomorrow. Fifty senior police officers yesterday conducted the first in a series of pep talks to 2800 policemen manning the city's 20 police stations aimed at restoring a shaken public confidence in the police and building a new image. Rs. 23 lakhs worth of textiles were discovered in go-downs of the Nattandiya Textile Mills. The Ceylon Bank Employees Union has threatened to stage a walk out in all banks of the Colombo Metropolitan region on September 27 and a one day general strike on Septbemr 30-CDN. With the abolition of standardization of marks for University admission, the Ministry of Education and the University of Sri Lanka are working on a formula to safeguard the interests of rural students. School text books-58 in all covering the whole range from the kindergarten to the University-will be provided at cost from January next year, in keeping with an election pledge held out by the PM. The scheme to streamline the railway will start from today with a change in the administration of the Railway-CDM. The Defence Secretary has directed the Police to indict persons in the North against whom there is evidence of involvement in illegal acts during the past seven years. The new NSA will be sited on a 20 acre block of land at 'Duwa’ in the Kotte electorate. The high powered police team which is investigating into the causes of the recent disturbances in the city and suburbs has estimated the damages caused to property within the area so far covered by the investigations at Rs. 700,000-SU. About 25 schools which were affected during th recent disturbances are not in a State to be used-DP. Four youths in the Valvetitural area have been arrested and kept in custody after investigations regarding the recent spate of robberies were conducted. The Tamil Workers Union has requested the govt, to gran 3 months leave to the people
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Sri Lanka Chronicle
affected by the recent disturbances-EN. The World Bank has that Sri Lanka's Gross Domestic Product will grow between 4 to 5% this year compared to the 3% growth recorded the previous year. The government has decided to pay Rs. 3,000 as compensation in the first instance to each widow who lost her husband during the recent disturbances in the Country -CO, 60 lakhs of sardine tins have been discovered in the CWE stores recently, therefore the government will reduce the price of this commodity-LD. The Ministry of irrigation, Power and Highways requests the public to lodge their complaints immediately at the Flying Squad set up for this purpose at the MinistryDPR.no. 229. Employees of Government and Statutory Boards, who had left their places of work on account of the recent disturbances and who have still not returned, are informed that they will be regarded as being on no pay after Monday, 9 Sept, unless they apply for and obtain leave-IDPR no. 233. -
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 22: Positive proof of an extensive hidden trade in rare live animals as well as dead specimens has been received by the Wild Life and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka. The Bank of Ceylon will in the future, extend financial assistance to the small holder in the agricultural and industrial sector with less stringent loan conditions. The CWE has warned all co-operative Societies that they must draw their quotas of foodstuffs to be issued on the ration by the 25th of each month. A school health survey recently conducted by the National Joint School Health Committee has revealed that scabies is fast spreading among the primary school children in the country-CDN. The leader of Sri Lanka's UN Delegation, Foreign Minister Hameed yesterday opened the General Assembly with sharp attacks against the white minority governments in South Africa and against Israel. The Bank of Ceylon would encourage local engineering firms to venture out and obtain foreign contracts particularly in the oil-rich Middle East countries as part of a new approach to earn foreign exchange and stem the brain drain to some extent. The NSA and the President will be supreme instruments of State power under the proposed amendments to the Constitution. The Tamil Refugees' Rehabilitation Organisation has put forward proposals to various social service and welfare organisations to provide housing and employment to refugees in agricultural complexes for a year commencing preferably before the rainy season-CDM. The CTB is planning to establish seven Boards to represent seven regions in the country in a bid to streamline the transport services. A joint operation by the Army and Police in the north yesterday led to the discovery of several face masks and chemicals. A pay rise for employees in the state and private sectors is to be announced by the Minister of Finance in the first budget of the new gvoernment to be presented on November 2-SU. The State Flour Milling Corporation this week purchased 10,000 tons of Australian wheat at US dollars 99 a ton-one of the lowest prices ever. The public galleries of the NSA, which were closed to the public on the last two occasions that the assembly met, will be re-opened today. The Colombo Municipality with the help of the police has allotted 250 pitches in the 'World Market'. The Ministry of Trade will import before the end of the month 23,000 cwt of dry fish and 4,000 cwt of dried chillies from Pakistan and India respectively-DM. The Minister of Transport has instructed the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Division
of the Railway Department to take immediate steps to
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dy the shortcomings of the Kelani Valley train ce-IDPR no. 234. The Ministry of Health is taking | to launch a fresh programme of work with the tance of the MP's for the areas concerned for the ose of remedying the shortcomings in Government itals and Ayurvedic Hospitals-IDPR no. 236. For benefit of commuters and employees the Minister ransport is pursuing action to complete the cons:ion of the Central bus stand in Colombo initiated :he previous administration but which remains mplete-lDPR no. 238. Mr. K. G. D. D. Pathirana he Sri Lanka Administrative Service has been apted Additional General Manager of Railways-DPR 39. DAY, SEPTEM BER 23: The free sale of a musus drug in pill form which has resulted in 13 persons g so far admitted to hospital during the past two cs is causing alarm among Health and Narcotics :au officials; apparently people show criminal tenies after taking the pills. Rice millers have alleged they are being regularly fleeced by some store lers of the Food Department and the PMB; this revealed during official inquiries into the breakn of the movement of rice between the PMB and Food Department. Pirith and Dana will be held at SLFP Headquarters to mark Bandaranaike Comoration Day. The Minister of Shipping, Aviation and rism yesterday issued instructions to the effect no protected species of Wildlife be permitted to be rted without her express permission. The governt of the Federal Republic of Germany gifted pment worth 8 lakhs of rupees through the Freedom Hunger campaign in this country to be used in res run by the Agriculture Ministry. The PM and e Cabinet Ministers met a TULF delegation headed he Leader of the Opposition in a one and a half r discussion yesterday-CDN. The Minister of Edubn has a plan to set up a campus of the University ri Lanka in each of the 22 districts; he said he would set up campuses in Matara and Batticaloa. The neers in the public service have conveyed to the that the economic progress of the country has not rapid because of the failure to develop an indedent local technology to bridge the gap between urces and requirements. The second shipment prising 9,000 tons of cement from the Republic hilippines (to meet the acute shortage of this comTity) arrived in Colombo yesterday-CDM. The Brnment has approved a recommendation of the PM appoint Parliamentary Consultative Committees to y ministry. Two major schemes-one in the Kaluga and the other from the Gin Ganga-will be inrated within the next two months; the cost will met by the already negotiated World Bank loan of 100,000 dollars. The number of days of meeting of NSA is likely to be increased. The Commander of Sri Lanka Army is to be appointed Additional retary of the Ministry of Defence-SU. The Acting ister of Finance said that Credit Councils were set to bring relief to those in debt-IDPR no. 243. Anyone wishes to start industries worth less than a lakh get 75-85% of it as a loan from the bank, according the Ministry of information and Scientific Affairs. Water Supply and Drainage Board will spend 34 ion dollars to improve the water supply scheme Colombo and the suburbs-LD. URDAY, SEPTEMBER 24: The PM told the A yesterday that the government was wedded to
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 10
the principles of the sovereignty of the people a the multi-party system; the PM who was speaking the proposed amendment to the constitution said th the main thrust of the amendments was to provide f a President elected by the people; he said that an elect President will permit a stable executive even if t elected government has to bow out before its tim The Minister of Local Government has issued an ultim tum to the water works engineers to improve the wat supply scheme quickly. The TULF is satisfied that t PM is making an honest effort to rehabilitate and gi financial assistance to persons who have been affect by the recent communal disturbances said the lead of the TULF. Air Ceylon is seriously considering sto ping the sale of cut price tickets in Britain from ne month-CDN. Sri Lanka’s garment export indust which has been fast expanding since 1972 is now fac with import cuts by major buyers in the Europe Economic Community and the Scandinavian countric The PM in the course of his speech said that he w not afraid of the insurgents. Two armed gang robberi one in Batticaloa dist. and the other in Colombo we reported to Police headquarters yesterday-CDM. T. PM yesterday announced that he would repeal t Criminal Justice Commission Act. The PM has given directive to all ministers that no person can hold off as director in more than one corporation. The Min ter of Food and Co-operatives will appoint a one-m tribunal for each co-operative district to go into col plaints of political victimisation of Co-operative el ployees—SU. In the Jaffna district, outside the refug camps, there are about 1500 refugees in private hom and farms-EN.
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 25: The government seriously concerned about the issue of thirty thousa. gun licences without any proper security screenin or checks during a nine-week period between Mar and May 1976. The University of Sri Lanka which h remained closed for the past several weeks on accou of the recent disturbances will be re-opened in mi October. Eight persons were killed and 4 were injur yesterday when a Pettah-bound CTB bus crashed into tree. The Assistant Administrator and Regional Direct for Asia and the Pacific said that the Free Trade Zo would be assured of help from the UNDP. The Lan Salu Sala has called for world wide tenders for t purchase of 20 million yards of synthetic and 10 milli yards of cotton textiles to meet any possible shorta during the Christmas and New Year season-SO. T proposal to increase the salaries of all employees the public service and state-sponsored corporatio will cost the government an additional Rs. 750 milli annually. Saudi Arabia has imposed several strict con tions on the employment of foreign labour includi thousands of Sri Lankans in that country-ST. The Poli and Armed Forces are to launch a country wide ope tion to crack down on subversive elements attempti to disrupt normal life in the country. The Departme of Immigration and Emigration has now been broug under the Ministry of Defence; this means it will cor under the direct charge of the PM. Pre-dawn sear operations by combined Army, Navy and Police squa are now under way in the north. Seventeen Asian a Far Eastern countries will meet in Colombo in Dece ber this year to work out a joint action programme combat smuggling in the region. The debate on t second Amendment to the Constitution will begin
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

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Sri Lanka Chronicle
October 4 - WK. Many politicians, religious leaders and social service workers have expressed the opinion that the promise given by the PM, that no citizen for the sole reason that he does not know Sinhalese will be a second class citizen, should be put into practice-VK.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26: A top level probe of Police and Ministry of Trade officials has been summoned on Thursday to map out a strategy to combat
a well organised gang of hoodlums operating in the Pettah who are reported to be responsible for artificial increase in the price of vegetables in the wholesale market which supplies the city and suburbs. The Indian High Commission has said that it will not be able to accept any application for Indian citizenship from persons who have already been granted SL citizenship; after the recent disturbances, many have sought Indian citizenship. Police have alerted health authorities to have stricter control on ten types of drugs following disclosures that they are being used as substitutes for alcohol and opium on a widespread scale. The governments of Netherlands and Iraq have indicated to Sri Lanka their willingness to start two massive fisheries projects in this country. The 18th Bandaranaike Commemoration Day ceremonies will be held today at the Horogolla Bandaranaike memorial; Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the President, and representatives from the diplomatic corps will participate-CDN. The infrastructure for the proposed Free Trade Zone to be completed by the end of this year, while production within the area is likely to begin in June 1978. Price control men conducted over 20 successful raids on errant traders during the past two weeks-CDM. The government has decided to appoint a Presidential Commission of Inquiry to probe the "illegal activities and excesses of the previous regime. A decision will be taken tomorrow on whether the countrywide Security alert, including the co-ordinating Authority system that came in the wake of the recent disturbances should continue or not. The PM has conveyed to TULF leaders his decision to nominate former Chief Justice Mr. M. C. Sansoni, as the one man commission to probe the recent disturbances. The Parliamentary Group of the TULF last week decided to abstain from voting when the second Amendment to the Constitution comes up for a decision in the NSA-SU. The Tamil Teacher's Union has decided at a meeting that the government should grant leave to teachers till the 30 of this monthEN. The Armed Forces have urgently undertaken the task of stopping highway robbery and such criminal acts that are taking place in the Polonnaruwa district-VK.
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 27: The PM addressing the inaugural convocation of the Bandaranai ke Centre for International Studies held at the BMICH said yesterday that Sri Lanka's foreign policy stood for the preservation of its freedom, strengthening of its democratic principles, not -aligning with any powers and devotion to prosperity and welfare of the country. Mr. S. de S. Jayasinghe, Minister of Fisheries and MP for Dehiwala died yesterday afternoon at the Coronoray Care Unit of the Colomobo General Hospital. A water taxi service run by the Colombo Municipal Council on the Beira Lake will come into operation soon. The General Council of the Bank Employees Union has decided to launch its one day token strike scheduled for September 30 in connection with the termination of services of 97 persons who were recruited to the banks after
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Sri Lanka Chronicle
the NSA had been dissolved-CDN. The Acting Minister of Finance has said that all those persons who have been dismissed from the services of the three state-owned banks are free to apply for fresh appointments as and when vacancies occur. Helitours-operated by the Sri Lanka Air Force has earned a record sum of Rs. 65,800 in foreign exchange during the month of August. The PM stated yesterday that the country should stay out of power blocs and preserve democratic ideals for the welfare, peace and prosperity of all humanity-CDM. The government has decided to set up a Food Production Board to spearhead one of its top priority projects-stepping up the country’s food production. The dependents of the victims of last Saturday's bus accident are to be paid immediately 50% of the compensation payable by them to the CTB. A draft bill to repeal in toto the Administration of Justice Law, is to be introduced in the NSA next month by the Minister of Justice. A country wide general census will be held in October by the Department of Census and Statistics. Only locally grown rice will be distributed on the ration from today. The number of Administrative Districts in Sri Lanka is to be increased from 22 to 28-SW. The National Savings Bank has attracted a massive Rs. 24 million into fixed deposits within the two week period following the launching of its new savings scheme offering attractive interest rates. The Sri Lanka Navy will take over the Habarana Rest House this week to billet a company of sailors who, together with the Army and Police will help stamp out terrorism in this area. The Minister of Health has decided to appoint a committee to co-ordinate the functioning of the Civil Medical Stores and the State Pharmaceutical Corporation-CO. It has been alleged that during the
recent disturbances in the country, about 25 insurgent
leaders were creating trouble in Jaffna and afterwards they are supposed to have escaped to India by boat; the authorities here have apparently informed the Indian authorities about this matter-DW.
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 28: The Minister of Plantation industry has embarked on a complete reorga
nisation of the tea industry to rescue it from the depths
it had fallen into during the past few years. The cremation of the late Mr. S. de S. Jayasinghe will take place tomorrow at the Dehiwala People's Park. The District Judge of Colombo yesterday issued an interim injunction restraining the Ceylon Bank Employees Union from
implementing a decision taken by the General Council
of the Union for the members to stage a walk out
yesterday. The Ministry of Textile industries had decided
to step up production of synthetic textiles in the country.
The Sri Lanka Air Force will operate a base at the Palaly
Airport, Jaffna from next week-CDN. The Up-country
Tamils and the plantation workers have always vehemently opposed the demand for a separate state for the Tamils in Sri Lanka and they are for a united country, according to a memorandum they have addressed to the PM. The government will grant relief in foreign exchange to persons who opt to return to India because of the recent disturbances-CDM. A series of far reaching changes are to be introduced in the country's educational structure from next year. Special Police action stations have been set up at several Strategic points in the NWP frequented by tourists. An armed gang of young men broke into the Bank of Ceylon branch at Palugama, seventeen miles south of Batticaloa and got away with Rs. 3,500 in cash according to reports reach
9

g Colombo yesterday. All five suspects who were rifted to Colombo from Jaffna in connection with rtain incidents of robbery and violence that took place the Jaffna area are to be sent back to Jaffna so that ey could be tried there-SU. The government has insucted the police to file action against 5 youths in the orthern Province who are supposed to be responsible r much of the thefts, murders, hijacking of cars etc. mmitted during recent months-DP. The security ert clamped down in the height of last month’s disturinces will be lifted very shortly, but the authorities e taking every precaution to meet any situation that ay arise there-CO.
HURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 29: Authoritative sources id yesterday that unscrupulous rice millers were aking quick money by dumping unpolished rice on e Food Department as rice was now being accepted weight and not volume. The Minister of Trade will sit Vietnam next month on his return from China :er talks on the Rubber-Rice pact. The IGP has warned s senior officers to maintain maximum vigilance on bversive activities. The fotmer PM said yesterday at they should re-organise themselves to oppose the reat of a dictatorship in the country-CDN. The tendment to the Excise Ordinance seeking to empower e Minister of Finance to issue, renew or cancel liquor ences has been challenged before the Constitutional purt. Sri Lanka is expected to receive 200,000 tons of ur from the US under PL-480 next year. Sri Lanka rrowed a sum of over Rs. 272 million from the IMF t year to finance vital imports and to settle other tstanding payments-CDM. The Colombo Municipality s drawn up plans to train bakers and bakery workers modern hygenic methods of baking flour based food ims. Mr. S. Thondaman is to appeal to the help to ose who have now opted for Sri Lanka citizenship to nounce it and obtain lndian citizenship on ‘humanirian grounds'-SU. The PM's office has called on the ajor political parties to nominate a representative ch to sit on a Committee that will examine incidents post election violence-CO. An additional 9,000 assrooms are needed to accomodate the children who Il be entering schools next year and while the Educaon Ministry is taking all steps to build as many as ssible, they will also have to put up temporary cadian ructures-LD. The flying squad of the Ministry of Irrition, Power and Highways has achieved excellent relts within the past three weeks-/DPR no 253. A new lephone exchange will be commissioned at I. am Friday, 30 September at Embilipitiya-DPR no. 250.
"EXT WEEK
JVP STATEMENT
THE (NEW) LEFT SAMASAMAJA
INDA - LEFT UNITY
PAKISTAN - ELECTIONS
TRIBUNE AND EELAM
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FROM THE FOREIGN PRESS
Elections in Pakistan
by The Recorder
Elections are scheduled to take place in Pakistan on October 18, in a broadcast to the nation early in August, General Zia-ul-Haq, (who had proclaimed Martial law on July 5 and had taken over as Chief Martial Law. Administrator in an interim Government replacing the administration of Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto), had announced that elections would be held in October when power would be transferred to the elected representatives of the people. He said that he wanted to make it absolutely clear that neither had he any political ambitions nor did the Army want to be detracted from the profession of soldiering. Political leaders had failed to steer the country out of a crisis and the armed forces had to fill in the vacuum to prevent it plunging into a more serious crisis.
While the Armed Forces took over the administration, former Prime Minister, Mr. Bhutto, some of his Cabinet colleagues and top PNA leaders were taken into protective custody. The National Assembly and the Senate and the four Provincial Assemblies were dissolved and the Provincial Governor and Ministers were relieved of their posts. The Chief Justices of the High Courts were to act as Provincial Governors and Provincial Martial law. Administrators and would head the Provincial executives. The Constitution has not been abrogated but some of its provisions were suspended. The Military Council consisted of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Chiefs of Staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
About the man who has taken over power, little was known before July 5. The London Financial Times had an interesting article about him by David Housego: "The Pakistan and Indian armies are both products of the British tradition that soldiers keep out of politics. The Indian army has not wavered from it. But this week's coup in Pakistan organised by General Zia-ul-Haq, the Army Chief of Staff, is the third time
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
since indep tary have rment. Part history is of the Mos along with Were regar army in for partition c. natural that regard itsel fragile isla particularly exacerbated squabbling.
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endence that the mili= aken over the governof the divergence in ue to the shared pride lem officer corps, who the Moslem troops, led as the pick of the mer British India. When ame in l947, it was a Moslem army should as the guardian of the nic State of Pakistanwhen the fragility was by sterile political it was Mr. Bhutto's he took over in 97 m the Pakistani army me apolitical animal as y. He soon dismissed handers who had placed wer even though they gst the few whose read survived intact the defeat by India. He ntly replayed on teleilm showing the Pakistan at Dacca. Above all he mediocrities to fill the in the services. General hat mould.
uesday's coup the disture of his career was as an officer who lived is and could be counted w orders without quesrigadier in 197 with a record behind him of ice in Burma, Malaysia sia during World War II, of combat experience 5 and 97 wars with subsequent promotion ic. He became a major 1972, then a Corps and in 1976 was ellethe heads of several manders-much to their e Army Chief of Staff. o particular flair for pr military strategy. But Bhutto did not envisage r and did not want a who would challenge
earance General d moustachioed, looks yard caricature of an r officer. An important s that he is not out of pper drawer as many of y colleagues or Mr. self with his wealthy
background. He was 24 in Jullander in East v part of India-to a modest means. He has di frugally and followed ciples in abstaining from
Zia,
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liquor. When he took over as Army Chief of Staff, he forbade alcohol to be served in officers' messes. Mr. Bhutto evidently hoped that his social origins would deprive him of weight. The paradox is that they contributed to Mr. Bhutto's overthrow. For it was
the small shopkeeping class, devout if not fajnatical Moslems, who took -
the lead in the Street agitation in pursuit of Mr. Bhutto's resignation. General Zia had an instinctive feeling for their grievances.
“Throughout the l l weeks that the army administered the key cities of Karachi, Lahore and Hyderabad under Bhutto's limited declaration of martial law, General Zia kept his ear close to popular feeling by regular meetings with civilians. Officially he was sounding out opinion for Mr. Bhutto, but he was also making his own political assessment of the mood on the streets. As a military man, General Zia now faces immensely complicated economic and political problems. In the two best known political figures in Pakistan-Mr. Bhutto and the Opposition leader Air Marshall Asghar Khan-he is also up against strong personalities. He has embarked on a course whose
end is impossible to predict būti s
which is likely to leave the army the dominant force in Pakistan for a long time yet.'
In the absence of any newspapers from Pakistan-except a few official publications which give no real information-it is only possible to gather information about Pakistan from foreign newspapers and magazines about the complicated and fast-changing situation in that country. In the main, only papers and periodicals from India pay adequate attention to developments in Pakistan and though there may be an element of bias stemming from old Indo-Pak sensibilities, by and large the reports in the indian press have a surprisingly high degree of objectivity.
Daily newspapers in Sri Lanka
have not devoted enough space is
to developments in Pakistan, and
to help Tribune readers understand developments in Pakistan, Tribune will publish selected extracts from different papers about recent happenings in that country.
The Madras Hindu of September 19 editorially summed up the situation up to that date thus: "With General Elections scheduled for
O

Page 13
Complicated Stuation
barely four weeks from now, the military leaders of Pakistan are certainly cutting whatever they are up to very fine. The third incarceration of Mr. Z. A. Bhutto since July 5 clearly shows that they have had enough of the authoritarian demagogue who, on the morrow of his unexpected release on bail by the Lahore High Court, charged that an unholy attempt was being made to destroy him politically and appealed over their heads to the 'highest court' in the land, the people. The arrest of Mr. Bhutto in connection with a political murder dating back to 1974 and his release on bail a few days ago could be said to belong to the rule, of non-martial law in relation to which the military bosses could, with some credibility, claim a role of non-intervention. This time Gen. Zia-ul-Haq has intervened in a political capacity-under the martial law-to 'detain' Mr. Bhutto and some of his top associates on grounds of endangering 'peace and security and the purpose for which the martial law has been proclaimed. Has the timing of the latest detention of Mr. Bhutto and others any special significance? Only time can tell but, closely following Gen. Zia's discussions with the Shah of Iran and also the Juntas selective and discriminatory relaxation of emergency measures, the whole thing done suggest the external and internal factors at work in the politics of Pakistan. ran is no small element in the politico-military complex in this part of the world and the Shah, who has shown himself to be a sympathiser, if not a benefactor, of military regimes in Pakistan, is likely to have been taken into confidence about the course of action the present Junta proposes to follow in the coming weeks. And the political opponents of Mr. Bhutto, who have charged the 49 year-old leader of the Pakistan People's Party with high treason and subversion of the Constitution, also seem to have their prayers to Gen. Zia answered. The use of preventive detention on Vague grounds of endangering the peace and security of the country and the institution of court martial proceedings to force the issue raise disturbing questions concerning the role of the military, but then Mr. Bhutto, with his profoundly anti-democratic record, is certainly not qualified to speak up for civil liberties. He took far
too many libe With the par with his politi the people and tary leaders to
in Pakistan's
political situati Pakistan will in although Mr. B ted with a brei the stifling b: phere of the and Yahya, th fessions of this stand up to t Economic polici ing the basic p ple combined wi of form of disse his policies, har Sures directed front of politic and nepotism C extinguishing c dons and civi disregard for th scales even in the record of that aroused trollable forces situation that towards open yention of th to have the ed Bhutto, out. Th 5 coup proclai political umpir rarily fed up \ whose job wol the parliamenta according to r of which the would have no that foir. Bhutt in India, has b that riding a t business even a Though confro charges rangiri own facetious murder to the Nr. Bhutto Stil the overriding that he has de wrong. He ha demagogue's the sole rep “masses’ and ha tical nerve to with Dr. Aller can deny, when the basic incon action of the emergency im by Yahya Kh the obnoxious and the rest been formally Bhutto and his
 

rties, in his time, Liamentary process, zal opponents, with even with the mjisurvive and flourish never-reliably-stable on. The people of at easily forget that utto's regime starth of fresh air after Lrrack-room - atmosregimes and Ayub e democratic procivilian rule did not e test of practice. es incapable of solvroblems of the peoth fierce intolerance nt or protest against sh suppressive meaagainst a very wide I forces, corruption in a large scale, the if democratic freeliberties and utter e need to hold the elections-such was the civilian rule bitter and unconof opposition. In a was moving rapidly :ivil war, the intere military appeared fect of bailing Mr. e leader of the July med himself a none who was tempowith politicians, but uld be to see that ry game was played ules in the shaping ikes of Mr. Bhutto say. The truth is o, like Mrs. Gandhi een slow to realise iger is a hazardous it the best of times. inted with specific (according to his observation) from import of poodles, seems to maintain national principle ine and can do no is resorted to the Sua claim to be resentative of the s even had the policompare himself de of Chile. None all is said and done, sistency in the latest military junta. The posed six years ago an has been lifted, curbs on the press of the media have abolished. But Mr. top party associates
are to be deprived of the benefits of the restoration of the rule of law and must face a summary court martial, that is a military-style emergency procedure. The military bosses expect to be able to announce in a matter of days whether Mr. Bhutto is guilty or innocent of the various serious crimes he is charged with relating to his fiveand-half-year record in office. The fallen civilian dictator might be getting a strong dose of the same anti-democratic medicine he has been liberally administering his political opponents, but the larger question facing Pakistan at this critical juncture is: Will there be a real return to parliamentary democracy free from 'guidance' by the military bosses or will the menacing clouds of a military dictatorship continue to overhang that much-troubled land even while the motions of restoring civilian rule are gone through?'
With the Supreme Court in Pakistan not cowing down to the military Martial law. Administrator -inspite of the compulsory retirement enforced on the Chief Justice by lowering the retiring age-the tuzzle between the army authorities and Bhutto has reached an interesting stage. Under the heading “WALL ZA OUTSMART BHUTTO?' Batuk Gathani tent the following despatch on September 22 to the Hindu: 'There is a sudden upsurge of sympathy and compassion for the cause of the deposed Pakistani Prime Minister, Mr. Z. A. Bhutto, in the Western capitals. Mr. Bhutto, languishes in prison with his bank accounts frozen and the noose of military rule tightening menacingly round his neck many observers here feel that Mr. Bhutto may emerge as a national hero if the military Government under Gen. Zia continues to blunder its way in the minefield of Pakistani politics. Now that the Pakistan Supreme Court has agreed to hear Begum Nusrat Bhutto's Writ petition on the constitutionality of the detention of Mr. Bhutto and his 10 colleagues, there is some hope for Mr. Bhutto's future. Obviously all this amounts to a serious and surprising setback for Gen. Zia and the Army authorities in trying to outsmart Mr. Bhutto. Apart from the fact that the admission of the petition has created an interesting legal situation, observers are wondering if Pakistan's Constitution will give way to the
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 14
Martial Law or the Martial Law will break down in the face of the Constitution. In the past the Supreme Court of Pakistan had admitted the supremacy of the Martial Law by invoking the doctrine of necessity. All along Mr. Bhutto had been confident of his ultimate victory. The other day, he told correspondents that if he was ever handcuffed and dragged into the court, he would create a crisis in the country's jurisprudence'. Mr. Bhutto's People's Party, under Begum Nusrat's leadership is attracting sizable support. At this crucial hour can Gen. Zia and this men let the Bhutto bandwagon roll on 2 This is the most daunting and imponderable question in islamabad now.'
While this tuzzle goes on, there are no indications as yet of any attempt to postpone the elections. According to the AFP “Twenty political parties and groups will contest the October 18 general elections in Pakistan, according to a list released by the country's Election Commission. The Commission named the contestants when it allocated elected symbols to each one of them. The former ruling Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) of deposed Prime Minister Z. A. Bhutto got the symbol of a sword while the nine-party Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) was allocated the symbol of a plough. Both had the same symbols in the March general elections, which led to a bloody political crisis. All other parties, except the PNA and the PPP have little standing among the electorate. Some of them comprising defectors from the PPP may however draw votes from Mr. Bhutto in the coming elections.'
What the AFP report did not mentio is that for the first time a new Left Front had been formed to fight the elections.
O. After we went to press, it was announced that the election in Pakistan has been postponed indefinitey. Whether this was witat the military had always wanted is not clear, but normal elections, as understood in democratic countries, could not take place under the conditions laid down by the army. The second part of this article, corsisting of excerpts from the foreign press, brought up to date, will appear next week.
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
FOR PEACE AN
Collective
Locality Le
- To prevent \
lo
by R. Kahawita
According tc ports, bru man have ca few has bee have been se lands except teless who any living Sp 1ief funds ar few refugees to their diese
houses and w
like after a a few Vultur around, look spots.
The wounds minorities fr 31st of Aug long time to larly those w comrades in but to the vered that carried dagge their innerr This kind o is hard to clé sions. There changes, both out to guara and their acce and partners to the pre tion to work the confident ties.
This is not t nation has
kind of barb gone throu, 1958, 1965 at were not were politic the crimes
ciety. We h with it foi
Time has cor to this, if we Country anc as equal par ing and deve try and to e

2 AMTY
Vy
iolence, ting, arson -
newspaper realities against med down. Curlifted, refugees it to their homethe stranded stare still without ace. Refugee ree growing and a are trickling back ted or ransacked ork places. Even torm, there are es still hovering ing for trouble
inflicted to the om the 8th to ust will take a | hea. Particuho trusted their work and play, ir dismay discothose comrades Yrs of hatred in nost thoughts. i disillusionment ar by peace mismust be radical within and withhtee their rights ptance as friends it is now left ent administrathat out to win e of the minori
he first time the Experienced this rism. We have h it in 1956, 1970. All these mmunal. Some All the same 'ere against sove been playing twenty years. e to put an end are to unify the move forward hers in governpping the counablish a demo
Colonia But Fool-Proof
cratic society-just and free; that is our goal.
On more than one occasion, before and after the 'communal riots', the present Prime Minister has said that in no circumstances the country would be divided. Therefore the present administration and the citizens of this country must see that the circumstances which forced a curfew on the people of
Sri Lanka do not occur again.
Sri Lanka population is multiracial, multi-religious, multi
cultural, and economically
multi-structured. This is a fact and nothing one group does to another group can change this fact. We have to live with it. Every one has a right for protection from unruly criminal elements, to maintain that cosmopolitanism.
A government must take steps to see that law and order are maintained throughout the country so that every citizen is free to go about his business with dignity and without fear. The instrument a Government has to maintain law and order is the Police Force. There may have been lapses on the part of the Police during the last episode. This may have been due to shortcomings in training, education, and instructions. These can be easily overcome by revitalizing the force. But the task of the Government is to ensure that the kind of looting, arson, violence and murder by various communal groups setting upon one against the other, do not recur hereafter. Any individual or group who is guilty of Communal violence must be severely punished, and punished in a manner that such punishment is a deterent to others who may entertain such thouughts. For, by their acts, they forefeit their right to justice within the normal law of the land. A Government must realise this fact and do everything in its power constitutionally, legally, and administratively to respect and honour each other's rights, irrespective of ratios in numbers etc. as some theorise
OW.
2.
& ܝܵܫ...ܓ.

Page 15
ܬܹܐ
Colonial But Fool-Proof
7.
To deal with crimes against society and its members, there must be special laws and codes of punishment included in the statutes of the country. This is very necessary in a multi-this or that society.
Preaching of violence against any communal group, writing of anti-social articles, or commentaries that may incite anticommunal feelings should be Prohibited by law and punishable if found guilty of such a crime according to the same codes of punishment as above. After the past experiences this class of legislation has become necessary and urgent if the JR administration is to establish a just, free and democratic society. The voters have endorsed this though, there may be a minority who have opposed it. It is to deal with that minority such special legislations and laws are necessary. One bad apple can infect a whole basket, so is the natural law.
if we look back over the past half a century or more, the first communal disturbances were in 1915. It was as serious and as disrupting a situation like the recent one, but the then colonial Government had a solution to such anti-social activities to prevent their recurrences. Today we criticize the policy of a colonial power and ac. cuse them of a divide and rule philosophy. When we think of the good done this seems far from the truth. Their policy made the people united and united even to the extent of ousting them out of power; and so united in their objectives that when independence was being discussed at the negotiating table, except for the minor diversion of fifty-fifty-all communities worked and talked to a man to be free from the colonial power. Then there was no communal tension. So one could not say "divide and rule Policy' gave birth to anticommunal activities.
Thereafter they, the imperial power, was able to build u
communal harmony and goodwill till complete independence was bestowed on Sri
Lanka and , Even on tha was what Fifty-Fifty f pendence, t and harmo munal rel was peace in 1956, w issue was ra Weapon to having got Various acts and omissior the Sinhala gan to be fe and erupted province in Set in that ye phrase of 's four hours' favour with 1 munity and of power. people ther cious of ty overnight, language, r etc.-Two variance wit maintain th Separate unit daranaike wh Phrase polit and ever si kept on eru with the for Since then, lence that th through last feature of o Was repeated 1970 and in least provoca term of crime looting, arso etc. On all oc rits got away political patric the present that has take to punish the ments and c. who suffered.
This is the to be smoth for all by manship and li law communa all levels anc Those who in those who lo means of y rights must b share the re. mer by seve latter by repa damage caused

thdrew in 1947. date when there as to be called rmula for indeere was cordial ious - inter-comionship. There bir ten years till en the language sed as a political gain power and into power by of commission the rift between and Tamils beit in the country in the Eastern 1956. The rot tr, with the catch inhala in twenty coined to win he majority comet into the seats The Ceylonese
became consvo communities separated by eligion, culture, communities at h each other to eir identity as s. It was a Bano gave this catch tical significance ince then it has pting periodically ce of a volcano. the kind of viohe country went month became a ur life style. lt in 1958, 1965,
1977, for the tion but the pates was the same, n, murder, rape casions the culpwith it due to bnage. It is only
administration positive action 2 anti-social ellebmpensate those
folcano that has ered once and udicious statesegislation to outtil incitement at for a times. dulge in it and ok upon it as a indicating their e called upon to sponsibility-for-re punishment, rations for any ... What we have
gone through during the last two weeks of August, and within four weeks of JR's administration, it is hard to believe that the hand of the vanquished is not stained with the blood of the victims.
Why do our people, who claim a 2500 year civilisation and adherents of an ancient religion, preaching Compassion, equaminity etc; commit such barbarous acts against fellow humans, un common even among animals? These anti-social activities seem to be as regular as the annual ragging in our seats of learning. lt is because successive Governments were so preoccupied as to find ways and means of staying in power that any solution on the
basis of give and take with
the minorities was foreign to them as it would have jeopardised their political stake. Whatever may be the reason time has come to remove the disabilities of the minorities regardless of what may come; but to prevent a repetition of August for conceding the minority de
mands, the Government must
pass special legislation to prohibit anti-communal propaganda and such other acts
which may incite anti-communal feelings. Anti-communal activities should be
declared 'out of bounds' so to say at meetings, speeches, publications in the press and other mass media.
It is difficult to fathom, why the majority community is so afraid of the minority community. One could underts and if the majority community is ignorant, illiterate and are just emerging out of the bush like the Blacks of Rhodesia who are demanding
majority rule and equality with the minority whites. The minority in Sri Lanka
is only asking for equality, and freedom as members of a common country and of a common constitution. And the majority by mob violence do not want sto accept that position. This to me, is the real cause of the trouble, incited by political vultures who want to prey on the sentiments of the masses. This
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 16
has to be eradicated before the Promised 'just and free society' can be built up and nurtured to full flowering.
Considering the explosive
nature of the situation today,
Such legislation should have
been enacted and enshrined
in the statutes after the 1958 riots. But then it was that administration that gave cause to it. The present administration should not gloss over it. It has a committed duty to remove the disabilities of the minorities. The slogan should be "those who live by the sword shall perish by the sword ' and more, those who allow such things to happen in the community must share the responsibility and pay reparation to those who suffered while they looked on. The colonia Government of 95 had a solution and passed special legislation to prevent a repetition of such anti-social activities which enabled the citizers to exereise tie ir democratic rights and freedo rn, to tive and move about a gay where they liked, irrespective of race, creed or language. Their solution was to hold every member of one community that inficted harm to the other community coiectively responsible to compensate for €chea har cdos ne. "The damage was assessed and a levy imposed on at the members of the community to pay reparation to the corn in sity that suffered, on the theory that by their orrissio, aici fack of civic duty they also must share LLLLs S LLLLL tttLL L LSSS SS S000 SLLLLLtLtusse had to pay coectively to the Muslims. The levy was legalised, collected and cae fusions contpensateld. What was thea fest. The corning inities then seves took care to prSvent sich anti-sociai 2Ctivities and if committed assisted in apprehending the avi doers and punish
The present Government has accepted the obligation to pay compensation for the victims and instructions have gone out calling for reports
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
20.
and asse in certai extensive Maho, gamtᏗWa-- I have s jmmovat may runa million r may be a ly too, ernment from the the coun collected approved annual al that. If ti to pay will be a grainismes in the a If a Govi the resp COinpeasa the cupri Tiage an looked ol squad we their ne Were lo burnt do Sode bet terror W. sible for US must t○三う3
lo 普。 living in destructic responsib everyone to their society t pectiye o economic sions. the ornis mitted. A levy every m munity vñ, responsib by acts of sion. f. || F'munity ti Property the levy to pay ti and se o started from eac and wor: may be s There is kinds of sufferers; sole mea

ssment of damages. in areas damage is like in Kandy, Anuradhapura, Galthese are places een-the damage to es and movables into hundreds of upees. The question sked, and very rightwhy should a Govpay compensation normal revenue of try? The revenue is for specific purposes by the NSA in the ppropriation bill for ese funds are utilized :ompensations, there setback to the proand services covered ppropriation bill. ernment takes over onsibility of paying tion and exonerates
its who did the da
d those who just as if a demolishing ere in action, while ighbour's properties oted, damaged and wn, the whole epiQfS
a carnival 6f
2.
ith no one respon- * : ?
it. No, everyone of be made responsible compensation. SinFinis, Musiñs etc. a defined 'area of bn.' Such collective ility Wi make conscious and alive obligation to the they live in, irresf any kind of social, , or cultura diviEveryone must feel sions they have com
must be made from ein ber of the comthose members were le for the crimes commission or omist is a Sinhala comat damaged etc. the of the Tamis, then is from the Sinhala he Tamils, vice versa n. The levy must be at the village level h Grama Sevaka area upwards. The lev pread over a period. ould also be other relief given to the those who lost their hs of 1ivelihood must
22.
23.
Colonial But Fool-Proof
be compensated to rehabilitate themselves, those who suffered damage to their property and movables must be given relief to make good the damage. There may be others, though they suffered damage, but are in a position to rehabilitate themselves-for them the relief may be given in the form of tax concessions, repair and reconstruction as an item deductible from income, The case of each victim will have to be gone into and according to the merits of each case a schedule of compensation worked out. The basic principle unerlying the collection and payment of compensation is to make every member of the community feel guilty of the wrongs done and pay at least a fraction of the compensation. Those who are not in a position to pay, they must be called upon to organise shramadana in rebuilding what has been damaged.
We appreciate that a plan of reparation as suggested above may be politically in advisable, when viewed with the next election. But to build a just and free society with unity among all cornmunities is a greater political
obligation than staying in POWer. To remove the disabilities
of the minorities, there must also be safeguards to ensure that the trouble makers do not run amok as they did in August. Having done all the damage before the very eyes of the Law and to getaway with only a punishment is not a sufficient deterrent to a repitition. They must feel materially also and legally bound to pay for the damage.
The present Government has committed itself to remedy the disabilities of the minorities. There must be a permanent solution with the necessary legislation to protect the community till the conscience of the majority is penitent and are willing to accept all groups as one people, one nation. At the commencement we must anticipate trouble. As in a volcano Steam and fumes will gather force,
14
S
ܠ ܐ .

Page 17
Ås in Čhliña
as there are many ready to ignite for their own advantage. So anti-communal activities of any form or shape should be out-lawed by special legislation and should be in force till we begin to live together as one human society. Such legislation must precede the steps to be taken to build a just and free Society.
率
TAMIL RIGHTS IN SRI LANKA
A Plea For Auto
nomous Regions
by Kumar
Our Prime Minister, Mr. J. R. Jayawardene in a recent policy
statement broadcast, says he un
derstands the disabilities the Tamils
in Sri Lanka have been suffering
from and says he is determined to remove them. He has already removed Standardisation and has resisted a powerful Buddhist organi
sation which tried to pressurise
him. He says that a Sinhalese must have the right to live in a Tamil area and a Tamil in a Sinhalese area and that all citizens are equal.
These are impeccable principles which if enunciated and practised a generation ago, at the dawn of political independence, would have avoided the communal bloodshed which has occured four times since independence. The communal clashes with Muslims, the other ethnic group, have been localised while with the Tamils it has become islandWide,
think it is generally realised now that recurring communal strife hurts everybody and must be stopped. Mr. Jayawardene in the course of the policy statement broadcast referred to above stated he proposes to have 22 District Ministers and this will be tantamount to creating separate 22 states, not one or two We have had a taste of decentralisation through Political Authorities appointed by the last govern" ment. It is argued that the proposed District Ministers will be different as they will be responsible to the National State Assembly. The Political Authorities were appointed by the then government and were
embers of the NSA. The similarity is too close for comfort
5
摔 M章。县a go down in who solved in Sri Lanka have a close lying causes The gener above abot equal does n position tha is a multira the Sinhales parate ethnic languages, r These two lived in the of years in the Sinhales language, re. their area, is theirs. Ther any harm to
Unfortuna tics, the should c. language, ture is ta country. wrong. Creasingly every sep has the r
The right Welsh to b their own in from the Eng This is a gro guage, religioj have lived as Kingdom (U close that and Welshm Niinister of t dom withou (Ramsay McD are recent
A Tannii of Sri Lanka us landing on are not aspir Lanka. All the in areas whic land; for ce able to lock affairs.
One poin It has been ar, are given this be given to form a ser There is no more than o country and be given to develop its culture. Wit an auton Ono cannot be d

awardene aspires to history as the man he communal problem he will do well to look at the underof communal clashes. lisation adumbrated t all citizens being it face up to the proin Sri Lanka there cial society and that and Tamils are segroups with separate 2ligion and culture. ethnic groups have island for thousands eparate areas. Just as are keen to foster igion and culture in to are the Tamils in cannot be possibly the Sinhalese in this. tely, due to poliidea that Tamils evelop their own religion and culken as dividing the This is completely It is now being inrecognised that arate ethnic group ight to do so.
of the Scotch and e able to look after ternal affairs, separate lish, is now accepted. up with the same lanin and culture and who one people in a United K) and have been so many a Scotchman an has been Prime he entire United Kingcause for comment onald and Lloyd George examples). being PA of the whole iş aş remote a3 One of the moon. The Tanil ing to be P/M of Sri y are açking for iş that have been their home. turies they should be fter their own internal
needs clarification. gued that if the Tamils right, the same should the Muslims who also arate ethnic group. objection to having he ethnic group in a every facility should each ethnic group to anguage, religion and regard to creating is area for them, this one unless they live
in sufficient large numbers in a sufficiently large contiguous area to enable such an autonomous area to become viable.
The most urgent need in Sri Lanka today is for the Sin finale lese people to realise that providing an autonomous area is not dividing the country. it is only recognising that in this beautiful island of ours there live more than Gre ethnic race who must be free to develop their own language, religion and culture. If they live in sufficienty large contiguous areas they should be permitted to look after their internal affairs, like local government, education and health.
What harm can accrue to the Sinhalese people if in an area where most of the thousands of people in a whole district are Tamils and they run their own local councils schools, hospitals etc. They can be helped to develop their local resources by joint effort. Mr. Jayawardene, in that important policy statement broadcast recently, stated that the UNP under his leadership recognises that socialism is necessary for a poor country to develop. The first thing a socialist country does is to look after the minorities and help them to develop.
China, soon after liberation, ident tified more than 50 minority groups and sent people belonging to the Han race (their largest ethnic group, corresponding to the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka) to live and work with the minorities. These people helped to develop the local language ပြိးမျိုး၌ had not even an alphabet and one was created for them) and fostered the local cuture. Together with the local people they developed their natural resources and brought prosperity not only to the minorities but to the country as a whole.
The numerous autonomous regions of China have not divided China. China remains a united country. It was liberated after we won political independence. During this period it has abolished poverty and provided al it people, including al it minorities, with adequate food, clothing ard shefter.
We, both Sinhalese and Tamils, without adequate food, clothing and shelter and in the struggle to survive, are slaughtering each other.
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 18
FROM SATYODAYA'S BULLETIN
No. 54, SEPTEMBER, 1977
Hope For A Nation ln Anguish
"My family left for Jaffna yesterday With my cousin who is a doctor. There has been no trouble at my place. Even So, I have sent them to their parents' home. I too hope to wind up my affairs in Kandy and go for medical treatment abroad and then think of our future. When one's life is not safe, and one's family and the hard-earned essentials of every day cannot be kept safely in one's custody, one cannot live in that style for long. Hence... I have definitely decided to Wind everything up by the end of September. . It is my duty to thank-and-for all the assistance given to me and I am extremely happy to have come to know you both.. Until September I will Continue to give you my a? Si Stance. . After that, however, my small Services will not be available to you. It is my duty to inform you in time so that you might get another person to continue our work........
This is from a letter which we received at Satyodaya on 30.8.77 from a Tamil friend who has worked with us for our people over the past eighteen months. It needs neither explanation nor comment.
Satyodaya is fully committed to the task of rebuilding hope in those who have lost all hope because of the recent sad events. Many of our collaborators and friends at Satyodaya have been Tamil. All of them, like the writer of the letter which we have reproduced, have suffered great mental agony. Several have had their homes mercilessly looted.
One of our resident Tamil collaborators who speaks Sinhala fluently and has several good Sinhala friends not only had his home close to Kandy completely plundered but has also had to endure the killing of his father in a shop a few miles from Satyodaya. He has nevertheless continued to work with us every day during the terrible crisis, seeking seemingly against all odds to keep hope alive in his heart and striving with the rest of us to rekindle it in those who have lost it.
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
But Satyodaya is fi to yet another task: hope of their own those Who have dont to stifle it in others do all that we can killers, the looters, of communal hate tc We have to rekindle the hope that all is no themselves, that they back, seek the pardor
have wounded, retra
over the blood th to that common ht in their brief hour they had so tragicall
The full extent an the tragedy is not Setting out from have seen some of it camps in Kandy an looted houses, the the senselessly brol the smashed cooking desolate line rooms workers around Gam pitiya and Matale ar hunted looks on the dreds and thousands dren and their pow their anxiety, thei despair.
But neither is th and intensity of th some Sinhala peopl We at Satyodaya ha\ of this in action tC the Sinhala family that protected the mother of a Tamil fa her under a bed a five days walking t Kandy looking for the children and grandc they finally found the that the father ha and broke down ir was the estate super sent a group of and their children i. of his house and ke vigil himslefalone o determined that if : be lost, the first wou
Where then are sources for the se n deep anguish?
First, in the basic
I sent religious cultur
try. In this conne point to the treme sibility that rests
gious leaders of our the Buddhist clergy people to the fu socially so potent v.

lly committed recreating the humanity in their utmost We have to to recall the the purveyors their senses. : in them too st lost even in can still come of those they e their steps y have spilt manity which of madness y forgotten.
d intensity of yet known. Satyodaya we : the refugee di Matale, the burnt homes, cen furniture, utensils, the of poor estate pola, Nawalald Kandy, the faces of hunof Tamil chilerless parents, fear, their
e full extent e heroism of e yet known. fe Seen Some ho. There was
in Ampitiya
aged grandmily by hiding ld then spent he streets of grandmother's hildren. When im, they learnt been killed
tears. There intendent Who amil Workers to the rooms pt an all-night his verandah, iny life was to ld be his own.
we to find the tion in such
and ever-pre2 of our counction may we ndous responipon the reliland, especially to recall our damental and lues of a himsa,
What Next 2
maitreya, karuna and bhakti? Second, in the basic good nature and the natural kindness of the overwhelming majority of our people. whether Sinhala or Tamil. Third, in the numerous friendships that exist between Sinhala and Tamil individuals, families and groups. Fourth, in the natural moderation of most of our people in the face of the extremist demands of Tamil separatists on the one hand and of Sinhala, chauvinists and great—nation theorists on the other. Fifth, and most importantly, in the basic identity of interests between workers in the urban areas and on the estates on the one hand and peaSants on the other, whether they
be Sinhala, Tamil or Muslim.
We have to return to these
sources to find hope.
The alternative is too dismal to
consider. -
-Editorially
30, Pushpadana Mawatha, Kandy.
“The present un rest in the country has assumed a communal nature. Communalism by any means is not a solution to the problems confronted by the Tamils or any other race. While we categorically state that the one and only solution to such problems is the creation of a socialist society, we strongly deplore the wrong direction offered by the TULF. We would also remind that unfortunate results have occurred in the country owing to certain estranged sections of the society taking the law into their own hands. Such tactics only aid and abet the degrading activities of looters and other law breakers. We therefore humbly appeal to all sections of society to think of their national responsibilities as members of a decent society and deplore the victimization of innocent people and to assist in bringing all law breakers under control' (from a Statement of the Engineering Students Union of the Peradeniya Campus as reported in the Ceylon Daily News, 26 August 1977).

Page 19
ཨོ་
ܛ܌
Towards National Unity
A SUGGESTION
To The National
Parties
by S. Sri Kantha
So much had been written by so many in the press in recent times that the UNP Manifesto unequivocally declared that there would not be discrimination against the Tamils. Well, in the seven provinces (barring North and East) nearly all the Tamils accepted the Manifesto as it is and voted for the UNP and contributed their share to bring the party into power. But, it is a surprise that in the selection of candidates to these seven provinces, for the last General Election, the UNP Nomination Committee failed to satisfy the sentiments of the Tamils residing in seven provinces, by failing to nominate at least a single Tamil (be Ceylon Tamil or lindian Tamil) as a candidate. Even the other National Parties (SLFP, LSSP and CP) had failed in this matter.
If the majority is willing to accept the minorities as a part and parcel of this country, then they should enable candidates of the minority races to contest a seat (on a party ticket) in electorates dominated by the majority race, and win it. It is a matter for satisfaction that this should happen in two of the single-member electorates, respectively. Borella (Mr. M. H. Mohamed, UNP) and Balangoda (Mr. M. Aboosally, UNP). The UNP must be congratulated for making this bold decision. But, why the UNP, as well as other national parties, failed to nominate a single Tamil in the seven provinces, in other electorates, especially, those with large Tamil populations?
If it is that it is suicidal for a Party to nominate a minorityrace candidate, in a majority - race dominated electorate, because, the election campaign in Sri Lanka is still conducted on narrow sectarian race-religion-caste basis rather -than on the wider interests of the country, what about the following electorates in the seven provinces, where the minorities tip the scales on above 50% level?
7
Electorate
Passara Hali-Ela (fo Haputale Kotmale Nuwara Eli (3-m
Even in th (returning 7 Parties failed Tamil-speaking nal harmony S on an excellen all the Nati make it a poir dates belongin at least in th
It seems no man, 3rd MP Maskeliya, is t representing t of Tamils (Ceyl scattered in t minated seven Thondaman's hustings was when taking i ture in the t
In the same to witness a s. another trade Stature, repres interests, Mr. been earlier a First Parliame poor three-fig polling contest a humiliating deposit also.
If two Tamil nominated by this particular
Electorate | . Colombo WN 2. Colombo Ea 3. Bore11a.
The minority
Electorate | . Colombo WN 2. Colombo Ea 3. Borella
I have heard
minded Tamils TULF supporte accept that T but equally cc the UNP, SLF

cn
Indian Tamils Cey. Tamils Cey. Moors
& Moors
53.38% 4.3% 1.81% mally Sorantota) 47.67% 3.09% 1.99% 53.33% 4.05% 鐵機 53.56% 2.32% Ao ra-Maskeliya 7† 20% 6.97% 1.59% ember)
ese five electorates MPs,) the National o nominate a single candidate? if natiohould be maintained t level in the future, onal parties should t to nominate candig to Tamil minority 23e five electorate;Ş. w that, Mr. Thondafor Nuwara Eliyahe sole Tamil voice, he whole population on as well as Indian), he majority-race doprovinces. Even Mr. performance in the not that creditable, nto account his starade union sector.
electorate, we had ad spectacle, where union leader of equal enting the minority A. Azeez (who had elected MP, in the int) made a very ure score in the , and had to suffer defeat, foregoing his
candidates had been UNP and SLFP (in
78% of the voters are Tamil-speaking) and if they would have won the 1st and 2nd places I would not have bothered to discuss the “eroding behaviour” of the National parties, at the expense of the minority races. But looking at what has happened, many of the neutral-minded Tamils feel that the interest shown by the National parties in the welfare and the future of the minorities (especially Tamils) is at best skin deep. It is this kind of parochial behaviour on the part of National parties (they have their own reasons for acting the way they do), that demoralises the fair-minded Tamil (who is proud of his ethnic background), and he therefore abstains from taking a keen interest in the National parties.
My point is illustrated further by the following example. According to Father Tissa Balasuriya, "Colombo with 103,000 "Ceylon Tamils" is the biggest city of "Ceylon Tamils' in Sri Lanka." (Sunday Times, 8.9.77). But the statistics released by the Peoples Bank Research Department (Economic Review, July 1977) enlightened us that, out of the five lowest polls recorded in 1977 Election, 3 electorates comprising the Colombo
electorate, where City tops the list. They are:-
Electoral strength Votes Polled Total No. %
est 37,983 27,509 72.4 St 43,574 33,566 77.0 4,634 32,67 77.3
ethnic representation of these electorates are as follows:
Cey. Tamils Cey. Moors Ind. Tamils & Moors 'est 27.56% | 1.47% 5.93% St 16.67% 4.2% 4.75% 12.39% 8.37% 4.98%,
many of the fair
(not the die-hard rs) say: "Right, we ULF is communal; mmunal have been P, LSSP and CP in
the post-1956 era, and they haven't practised what they preached.'
Will the National parties pay attention to my suggestion, at least in the future, and prove themselves national as well as rational?
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 20
SINHALESE MUSLIM
ROTS OF || 9 || 5
The Anagarika's Letter To Ramanathan
During the SinhaleseMuslim Riots of 195, Ponnambalan Ramanathan was the only leader among the people of this country who stood up against the British rulers who had run amok and had inflicted untold hard ships on the Sinhalese peopłe. To compensate the Musim victims, the Government collected a punitive tax from the Sinhalese under a Riots Compensation Ordinance. Ramanathan's speech at the Legislative Council was one of his boldest and greatest speeches. The foi lowing is a copy of the Anagarika Dharmapala’s letter to him after reading this speech.
Sri Saddharma Mandir 44, College Square Calcutta. October 2, 1915
Dear Mr. Ramanathan,
Please accept my sincere congratulations for the historic speech you made at the Ceylon Legislative Council, which I read in "The Ceylonese.”
The day that you are taken away from Ceylon, from that day there will be none to defend the poor neglected Ceylonese. They are a doomed nation, with none to guide and protect them. Unhappy Sinhalese! If only they are under the Government of India, a hundred newspapers would be there to ventilate their grievances. The two religions, Buddhist and Hindu, that are to be found in Ceylon, came from India; and the two races Sinhalese and Tamil, do trace their origin to India. Their civilisation is indian, and just as the Colonial Britisher looks to England as his mother-country, so should the Sinhalese look to Northern India as
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
their mother-country. Colonial Office, the S the Tamils will neve justice with the Britis Not so with the India time to commence Ceylon to have Cey under the Governme. Without the protect of India, Ceylon wo
It is the view of able
cians, that to get jus should be brought unc Office and made part and Bengal. Burma is Government of India
is to India as Ceylon
India. May you live Ceylon and India work under the same Gove
The Indian papers little about the Riots, thing that the Ceylon do now is to scatte your speech in pamphl British papers should addressed and the ag The Riot Bill, when law, will be a blot on escutcheon. It is a pit Germans are being c their brutality, that should go down to h the tarnished name.
The Proclamation that the people shoi at sight is frightful an of Rs. 2000/- for a m supplied has a territ ness. When the Wa true account of the welcome reading. Til committed under the the Court Martial sht history.
The Sinhalese allo from the invasion of in the 10th and 2 and all India went Java was Mohamedan 15th century. When under Muslim rule w of British Officials t end of Buddhism co reign of righteousnes culminate.
You will, I hope, d. to save the poor B you are trying to sav from injustice. The G Pali scholar and yet dhists he has come not angel. He is able to h dhists more than any nor. Will he do it Island signing the of the Buddhists?

Under the inhalese and get equal h Settlers. Office. It is agitation in on brought it of India. ing shadow jld decline. ndian polititice, Ceylon er the lindia of Madras under the and Burma is to South ong to see ing together Tinment.
know very and the best people could 1r broadcast et form. The be especially itation kept.
passed into the British y, when the riticised for
the British listory with
of Fraser ld be shot d the demand ale goat unble frightfull* is over, a riots will be ne atrocities
Orders of puld go into
ne escaped Mohamedans th centuries down. Even ised in the Ceylon goes ith the help len will the me and the s and mercy
all you can uddhists, for e the people O Vern Or S a to the Budas a guardianelp the Budother Goveror leave the leath-warrant
On Race Riots
Let us hope that his heart will melt with the pleadings and the wailing of the Buddhist mothers in 10,000 Buddhist homes. May you succeed in softening his heart.
Yours sincerely, Sgd. Anagarika, Dharmapala
一※一,一※一
FROM JAFFNA CAMPUS
On The Recent
Incidents
We publish below a statement of the University Teachers Association (UTA) of the Jaffna Campus issued on 22.9.77. A friend in sending us this statement wrote to us as foll
o Wys:
"It is very unfortunate that a whole community was harassed to satisfy the frustrations of Some disappointed politicians and bureaucrats. Of which I will be writing to you later. This is not the time to judge events. But certainly TULF cannot be blamed for the recent events. However their demands may have contributed its share in certain instances. I am personally aware that the Campus Sinhala community was given all protectionwithin and outside the Campus by the Campus staff and students and by the public. They were well aware that any harassment of the students will have worse reperCu5Sions on the other side. In the meantime, I am sending a statement issued by the Campus Staff (Jaffna) of the events. I understand that students (Sinhalese) of the Jaffna Campus have sent a petition to all the members of the National State Assembly with the idea of prejudicing their minds against any idea of sending them. back to Jaffna much of which is false. The UTA pamphlet, I understand, is to Scotch any such development.”
-Editor
The UTA of the Jaffna Campus notes with regret that the public has been presented with distorted versions of what happened in the Campus during the recent disturbances and feels the necessity to clear any unfavourable impression created in the minds of the public
8

Page 21
ܵ 3
The Two Russians
by such versions, so as to help the Campus to function normally again.
The UTA expresses its satisfaction that, from the time clashes occurred between the police and the public in Jaffna town on 16th August, the Campus authorities took all precautions to protect the Campus community. From about 9.30 a.m. that day the Campus gates were kept locked and all
students were advised to wait inside the premises. About 300 Sinhala students, Lecturers and
employees were among those who were gathered in the Thirunelvely premises 16th August till 4.20 p.m. on 7th August when a convoy of buses took the Sinhala members of the Campus community ζΟ Anuradhapura. During this period, the Campus authorities, academic staff and students, both Sinhala and Tamil, worked hard to provide the necessary protection and meals to those who were confined to the Campus premises. As tension mounted outside the Campus in consequence of incidents in the Jaffna town and of rumours about violence elsewhere in the country, several Tamil students, staff members and employees ventured out many times in the face of possible danger in order to provide security to the Sinhala community of the Campus. On the first day of the disturbances, the Acting President sent the Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and the Students Consellor (who is also the Secretary of the UTA) to meet the Government Agent and seek his help to protect the Campus. They conferred with the GA, the IGP, the Army Commander, the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence and the Leader of the Opposition and, as a consequence of this, an army unit was stationed in the Thirunelvely premises and an army patrol was provided for the Vaddukoddai premises, from 16th August till the Sinhala students left these premises the next day. At the Vaddukoddai premises, where students were unaware of the developments in Jaffna town and elsewhere, work went on as usual till buses were sent there to take the students home. The UTA expresses its appreciation of the manner in which the Acting President handled the situation with utmost circumspection and insight during the entire period of the crisis.
19
from the morning of
The UT A fincotes that no incident the Campus premi Thirunelvely or a in which even a student was atta harmed.
The UTA now forward to the Tho of the Campus a fullest co-operation rities to achieve th
o
FOR THE RECOF
Who Took For A Ride
'in the matter of trade unionists, th of Sri Lanka has co pas for which ver ments will be pardo ple of their count Batty Weerakoon, tary, Ceylon Feder: in a statement to Government ordere unionists, Enver K. tantin Tuzikoy, to visit here and leay on the basis of w Barron had written mir Vasilevich lgna" "KGB: The Secret Agents. The reaso Konstantin Tuzikow this country on an with this alleged that, the refore, Tuz here is not welcon an official of the Al Council of Trade Soviet Union and h city visited Sri La occasions and over years. An importan is his knowledge language. And in th it is very rarely t across a man with a foreign language. decessor Nikitin elsewhere it was T. variably accompani Secretaries and De of Soviet Trade un out any knowledg language, were v. Lanka on the invita organisations here.

with satisfaction occurred inside Ses, whether at st Vaddukoddai,
single Sinhala cked or bodily
eagerly looks mal functioning indi extendis its
to the authoES,
D
Govt.
2
the two Soviet he Government
mmitted a faux.
ty few governned by the peories,” said Mr. General Secretion of Labour the Press. The d the two trade apba and Konscurtail their re the country that one John about a Wadilov in his book A/ork of Soviet ning was that had come to earlier occasion (GB agent and ikov's presence le, Tuzikov is -Union Central Unions of the is in that capaaka on several a number of asset he has of the English e Soviet Union hat One Comes knowledge of After his preVas promoted Izikov who ind the various Duty Secretaries ons Who, withof a foreign sitors to Sri ion of fraternal
"But the fact is that Tuzikov never visited this 蠶 in the company of a Vasilievich ignatovthe name said to be mentioned in Barron's book. The Ignatov who had come here with Tuzikov bears a different patronymic viz. Nikitoviech." Mr. Weerakoon further stated: The question that would in these circumstances, natu
rally arise is whether any of the
authorities concerned had referred up Barron's book, or whether these persons, every one of them, collected the incorrect information on trust.
"The further question is whether these authorities pondered on the degree of credibility that should attach to Barron. The International Herald Tribune a top bourgeois paper, published with The New York Times and The Washington Post, carried in its issue of September 2nd, 1977 an article by The New York Times correspondent in Moscow, Christopher S. Wren, in which Barron's name is mentioned. The article is about the Soviet painter Ilya Glazunov who at the moment is having problems with Soviet authorities on his creative efforts. This article carries the following paragraph: “lin the book KGB: " The Secret Work of Soviet Agents,’ the author John Barron, charged that Glazunov had gained a plush apartment and travel privileges by informing on foreigners for the KGB. Glazunov who calls the allegation "contentious slander' sued in a West German court to clear his name and won. The reference, he said, was deleted in the next German edition of the book.'
'Well, so much for Barron'
"In the light of all this, Mr. Weerakoon asked, "how was it that the Government rushed to its conclusions? Whose task was it in Sri Lanka to inform on the Ignatows and the Tuzikovs2 is it that our authorities readily lap up what other foreign agencies serve as tip-off, or, if they did their home work on their own, how was it that they came to commit this grievous error? Should not the public be fully briefed on this matter? This becomes even more necessary now that the Prime Minister has, according to the daily press, reviewed his order that the guests should quit before 5th September which was the scheduled date for departure.”
-Socialist Nation, 9 September 1977
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 22
IN CANADA
The Language issue
- Canadian Federal
Government Statement -
The following eχεerpts from the Canadian Federal Government's A National Understanding deal with the two official languages and the Provinces:
"In reviewing its experience with the official languages policy to date, it is evident to the Federal Government that it cannot by itself ensure that the policy succeeds. The policy must also have the active support of the provincial governments if it is to make its fullest impact on our country. To say this is not to attempt to tell the provincial governments what they should do. It is simply stating one of the major facts evident in the experience with the policy thus far.
"In perhaps the most significant area of all, that of education, the provinces have exclusive jurisdiction under the Canadian constitution. In many other areas that have a very important impact on peoples' lives and on the language they speak, such as the courts, social and health services and culture, the provinces have as much and sometimes more authority and influence than the Federal Government. Moreover, the provinces have the authority to determine the language of public administration at the provincial e and municipal levels and, except for the province of Quebec, in the debates of their provincial legislatures and their records and journals. ndeed, even in connection with the education of Canadians who may some day wish to enter the federal public service, action by the provinces is of prime importance.
"Many people, including the Com
missioner of Official Languages, have recommended that, as a country, we should emphasise the teaching of the official languages to Canadians in general and to youth in particular, rather than maintaining a large federal establishment for teaching languages to Public serVantS. -
"Implementing such measures would place greater emphasis on the role of the provinces and make more obvious that the Federal
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
Government cann effective in rega tional, cultural : of Canada's two groups. It has, established progr encourage the p initiatives in thes ever, strong inder by the provincial crucial, particularly groups are to be to preserve and identities.
'lf commitment of a Canada uni duality and cultu shared by the pli ments, the Fede believes they will as a condition of istence of Canada to recognise the English and Fren the official langua have equality of Country.
"It is not poss to French-speaking Canada is their co to coast and fro border to the Arct principle is accept principle, there wi of situation from vince, but in those the majority is the basic rights o Canadians must b in the same way, of Quebec, whe is French speaking of English-speaking be respected. If equality is not a and in practise act there can be no el nity of our two pe be rather two sepa lead ultimately to flection of that fai
"The Federal G ready providing province to give right to have the ted in the official choice. It is pre with each of the in which it can realization of this cularly with reg situations where tion as to whet numbers warrant necessary facilitie cise of this right.

pt alone be fully d to the educand other rights official language over the years, ams designed to 'ovinces to take matters. Howendent initiatives governments are
if these minority given the means strengthen their
to the concept zed in linguistic ral diversity is 'ovincial governral Government
also be willing, he continuing ex
as one Country, rinciple that the h languages are ges of Canada and status in the
Bible to propose Canadians that untry from coast m the American ic seas unless that ted. Within that ll be differences province to proprovinces where English speaking, f French-speaking e respected. And
in the province e the majority , the basic rights g Canadians must that principle of ccepted in spirit ross the country, nduring commuBoples. There will ratisms that must
the political rect.
overnment is alassistance to the Canadians the r children educalanguage of their pared to discuss : provinces ways assist in the full objective, partiard to marginal there is a quesher the actual the provision of s for the exer.
Unity And Linguistic Duality
"it may be that arrangements for federal participation in such circumstances could be crystalized through experience into new constitutional provisions designed to enable the Federal Government to assume a direct constitutional responsibility if that seems to be desirable.
"The Federal Government is very much aware of the fact that, outside the province of Quebec, actual freedom of choice is possible only in certain parts of the country. This de facto situation has, in addition to other factors, created among French-speaking Canadians a considerable feeling of insecurity concerning the future of the French language in the province of Quebec as well as in Canada generally.
"The Federal Government, as a matter of principle, strongly favours a policy that gives to English-speaking Canadians the choice, whereever in Canada it is reasonably feasible, to send their children either to an English-language school or to a French-language school. Similarly, French speaking Canadians
should have the choice, wherever
in Canada it is reasonably feasible, to send their children to a Frenchlanguage school or to an Englishlanguage school.
"It is unacceptable in Canada that Canadian citizens should be deprived, either by the failure to provide facilities, or by force of law of the right to send their children to the public or separate school of their choice, or at least to a school of the official language group to which they belong. Measures in Quebec designed to force parents of French-language background to send their children to French-language schools only would have the paradoxical effect of permitting less choice to French-speaking parents than to English-speaking parents in the province.
"It is incompatible with the unity of Canada that Canadian citizens should not be able, when they move from province to province, to send their children to school
I where they are taught in their own
language. The Government believes that necessary facilities should be provided, wherever they do not now exist, for people moving from the province of Quebec to other provinces, and that they should continue to be provided for people moving from other provinces to the province of Quebec. In both
20
ܐܵܝܡ ܼ
 ̄ ܐ

Page 23
Granasastrology
cases, there will be particuar situations where this will not be feasible. But the principle remains.
"If the province of Quebec is to remain a predominantly Frenchlanguage province, as the Federal Government believes it should, it is only natural to expect that people from other countries who immigrate to that part of Canada should participate in the Frenchlanguage community. However, it is by far preferable that immigrants should be attracted to the French-language education system for reasons that do not include coercion. By the same token, it would also be preferable if immigrants to the English-speaking province enjoyed a similar choice.
'While these difficult matters are being discussed, and while Canadians are genuinely attempting to create or improve the institutions, educational and otherwise, that will ensure equal rights and dignity for the English-and Frenchlanguage communities in the country, the Federal Government accepts that circumstances may make necessary a diferment of the application of this important principle.
"In this connection, it should be recognized that the educational rights of the English-speaking minority in Quebec have been, and still are, better respected and served than the rights of French-speaking minorities of comparable importance in the other provinces of Canada.
'However, New Brunswick, through the adoption of an Official Languages Act that will come fully into force this year, has established the equality of the two official languages in the legislatures and the courts, in the provincial public Service and in its educational system. The province also offers an extensive range of programs to develop and maintain minority language education and to promote a knowledge of the two official languages in the public service and in the schools. Ontario and Manitoba, while choosing not to establish the equality of the
two official languages through legis
lation, have nevertheless also made progress in the provision of educational facilities for their Frenchlanguage minority groups
"Acceptance of the principle that knowledge of English and French by Canadians who choose to learn them is desirable entails that the provinces be willing to assume
2.
the obligation
versity levels of by the time eac has completed or she will have to obtain a b. the second offic
“The cultura country, public ing particularly t casting Corpc a more significal young Canadian try with addit for learning th language. . . . . . .
(irali
Scribbling o
From Ell; Wellawa
by Gamiya
No, let's no trology because dundant. Grama of the village, W of the Ella-We dips down from darawela and t enters the M plain: imagine bends and 3 L-E down at 6.30 makes you reci day at Wellawa down carrying v from various s lin fact it was c splendid bit of peasantry who their produce. understand wh: nent raved ab “unbeatable bio the world' w to the Ella ga 50 minutes, on 3500 to 600 - fe of the benign or Ravanella f says Sita stopp Ravanna, king yore. Ravanna's hid Sita is also waya. Bunches

to offer the uniSchooling so that h Canadian student such schooling, he ad the opportunity asic knowledge of cial language.
agencies of the and private, includ:he Canadian Broadration, could play nt role in providing Ls across the couns ional opportunities heir Second official
| Sastra
in Uva Villages
a Down To
ya
t call it Gramasasthat would be reSa5tra, the science would do. Let's talk lawaya road which Ella, close to Banakes 52 bends and oneragala-Wellawaya that 44s-bends, 5-U pends in all. Going a.m. on a Friday all that it is pola ya: 38 traders went egetables, and fruits pots on the way. ut before 1970 as a service done to the have an outlet for One could well y Emerson Tenout this exclusive, t of landscape in then he referred p (ella kapola). En e goes down from et in the shadow majestic Ella fals alls where legend ped with the King of a decapolis of cave in which he en route to Wellaof plantains, sugar
cane, paddy, firewood, moda gal (mud-bricks), red-bricks, papaws are all stacked by the roadside for immediate sale or for being spirited away by Mudalali's lorries, away to the hil-town of Bandarawella or the plain-town of Welliawaya. Eggs, for example, are sold by peasants to the town shops of Wellawaya at 60-65 cts, but they are sold to the customer at 1.00. Expert drivers give you a pleasant ride down, and you pass Ravanella, Gaalgoda, Karandagolla (with an enterprise of friendly uplift of people, called Guş mudun tree-tops), Kiriyagolla, Kande vihara of the time of Valagamba (Vatta gamini) with its cave and a superb gamsabha road with arched-packing in redbrick, Randeniya Where Constantine de Saa and three other Portuguese generals met their Waterloo ( know the anachronism, but let it pass) Kurugama (supposed to have been corrupted from Kirigama, place where the great King Parakramabahu was wetnursed), Veliara, Dimbulamure and Wellawaya.
Over- use can become abuse, especially if great care is not taken towards the upkeep of this precious road, boon to the peasantry. counted fifty trees burnt, the
surrounding brushwood parched;
erosion had already set in. Large boulders are known to detach themselves from parent-rocks of this rift. True, a 1000 tomatoes got in on a man's head as he was taking them down to W'waya; true, that fifteen uniformed schoolchildren, some shod, others unshod, got in as a full load from Randeniya to a school at Wellawaya (or close to the terminus), but it is also true that there does not seem to have been much input to maintain this superb roadway, which some say has been hurriedly done. Of that I am not so sure, but conservation is important. After the 8th mile, it is all sporadic erosion. Large-scale de-rocking operations make the top-soil of even nearbly areas, slip down: a senseless, selfish operation, if ever there was one. Parched stretches alternate with green, hopeful ones; on either side of the road, steadilyearning farmers have changed their
local tiles for calicut ones, their
zinc-sheets for local or calicut. The untended road, untended at many spots, cried for attention; the only sore spot at the Wella.
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 24
Waya approach was the cluster of aged line-rooms of the rubbertapping people, "shell-holed' (for that was what it looked like) and
drab. There has been much thought
fulness for the peasant-people using the road, but perhaps not much consideration for the road used by the people, which is also another way of forgetting people, since the road is for the people.
THE SECOND AMENDMENT
Parliamentary Bodies For All Ministries
—PM ensures active partici
pation of MPs
The Government has approved a recommendation of the Prime Minister, Mr. J. R. Jayawardene, to appoint Parliamentary Consultative Committees to every ministry. Provision for this purpose is to be made in the Standing Orders of the National State Assembly. A Select Committee of the National State Assembly appointed to consider and report on the Standing Orders is expected to study this matter in detail. The Parliamentary Consultative Committee will comprise MPs of both the Government and the Opposition political parties. They are expected to hold meetings periodically (presided over by the Minister concerned) and are intended to ensure the active participation of all MPs in the working of the ministries. According to authoritative Government sources the Parliamentary Consultative Committees are expected to commence functioning soon after certain Cabinet changes are effected with the passage of the Second Amendment to the Constitution.
The Second Amendment to the Constitution-Bill to Amend the Constitution, was presented in the National State Assembly yesterday by the Prime Minister, Mr. J. R. Jayawardene. Mr. Jayawardene told the Assembly that he would consult party leaders both in the House and outside on the proposed amendments. He said he would make a detailed statement on the amendments when the National State
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977
Assembly meets National Party sou day that the Prime hold talks next w of the Lanka Sam the Communist Pa political parties presently represent This stems from th keenness to ensure ments receive the discussion before s hrined in the Col sources disclosed ments would be next sessions of begins on October pected to be pass Sessions.
The Second Ame Constitution which Lanka to a Presi Government is e come effective fron last week of Octot In terms of the Bill, come into opera date as the Prim appoint by i Orde the Gazette.
Among others m'
* provides for t ter to appoint a dat Amendment of ti to come into effec
* amends section titution by provi Sovereignty of the cised through the Asssembly and the
* repeals the ex of the Constitutio new section 5 whe nal State Assembly dent are the supr of State power, an
(a) the National exercises the le directly and the through courts
created by law; a
(b) the Presiden executive power defence of Sri Lan
* amends section titution by providi sident shall be the cutive as well as Government;
* amends section titution by providin sident shall have p Ministers who wou bers of the Cabine at meetings of t Ministers;
ܬܐ,

today. United rces said yester
Minister would aek with leaders a Samaja Party, rty-two leading which are not ed in the NSA. e Government's that the amendwidest possible
they are enstitution. These hat the amenddebated at the the NSA which 4. They are exed during these
2ndment to the
will subject Sri dential form of xpected to bein a date in the ber, it is learnt. the amendments tion 'on such 2 Minister may r published in
atters, the Billhe Prime Ministe for the Second he Constitution t.
4 of the Considing that the People is exerNational State
President; cisting section 5 n, and inserts a reby the Natioand the Presieme instruments
d
State Assembly !gislative power judicial power and institutions ld
it exercises the , including the ka;
20 of the Consing that the PreHead of the Exethe Head of the
2 of the Consg that the Preower to appoint ild not be memet and to preside he Cabinet of
For The Record
* makes a consequential amend
ment to section 22 of the Constitution necessitated by the repeal of section 27 of the Constitution;
* amends section 23 of the Cons
titution by enabling the President
to waive his immunity from suit; * amends section 25 of the Constitution by providing for the Oath of Office to be taken by the President and for the President to have a right of audience in the National State Assembly;
* amends section 26 of the Constitution:-
(a) by providing for the President to be elected by the people for a period of six years; (b) by setting out that any elector over thirty years of age and nominated by a recognized political party may stand for election as President.
(c) by providing for the National State Assembly to make laws relating to the election of the President; (d) by providing that the President may resign his office by letter addressed to the Speaker; and (e) by deleting paragraphs (c) and (d) of subsection (2) of that section;
* repeals the existing sections 27 and 28 of the Constitution and inserts the following sections:-
(a) section 27 which provides that where the President is temporarily unable to perform his duties the Prime Minister shall act for him and that the President may appoint another Cabinet Minister to act as Prime Minister during that period;
(b) section 28 which provides for the election by the National State Assembly from among its Members of a 臀 President where the President vacates office and that such succeeding President shall hold office for the balance period;
(c) section 28A which provides for the President to appoint any officers and advisers he deems necessary to his staff and to have the power of dismissal and disciplinary control over them; and (d) section 28B which provides for the present Prime Minister to assume duties as the First President on the appointed date. * makes a consequential amendment in section 40 (2) necessitated
22
醬

Page 25
| ენ
ܒܪ .
Letters
by the repeal of subsection (2) of section 34 of the Constitution;
* amends section 87 (2) of the Constitution by providing that the consent of the President shall be necessary for authorising advances from the Contingencies Fund;
* amends section 92 of the Constitution by providing that the President shall be the Head of the Cabinet;
* amends section 94 of the Constitution by providing that the President may determine the assignment of subjects and functions to the Prime Minister and the Ministers of the Cabinet of Ministers and may likewise make alterations in such subjects and functions. It further provides for the assignment of subjects and functions to himself and that he shall remain in charge of any subjects and functions not assigned, and any Ministry to which a Minister is not appointed;
* inserts a new section 94A in the Constitution providing for the
President to appoint Ministers who
would not be members of the Cabinet of Ministers and to assign subjects and functions to such Ministers, and to make alterations in such subjects and functions;
* amends section 96 of the Constitution by providing for the tenure of office of the Ministers who are not in the Cabinet of Ministers;
* amends section 97 of the Constitution by providing that Ministers of the Cabinet of Ministers and other Ministers shall continue to function between dissolution of the Assembly and the conclusion of the General Election;
* amends section 102 of the Constitution by providing that the Secretary to the Cabinet shall function subject to the directions of the President;
* make amendments consequential to the Section giving the President the power to appoint officers and advisers to his staff;
* amends section 134 of the Constitution by deleting sub-section (2) thereof;
* inserts a new section 35 in the Constitution providing that all laws enacted up to the date of assumption of office by the First President shall be construed as if for the words "Prime Minister' there has been substituted the word “President”.
-SUN, 23|9
23
LETTERS
O Comm
Sir,
How instructi in your issue o soned and un by Mr. R. Kahan de Silva that go the way to a nation. But hon T. Balasuriya's : say, "Confidentia friend of the Tam do not need ar. attempt to pro is an illusion, (t TULF won 8 se ing || opposition || he has put toget except the numb who did not vot
May I ask daram one quest after Aug. 7 v. UN Pers who ha after the electi announced by 1 inciters and no functioning) SLF who was respon
44, Galpotta Roac Colombo 3. 27, Sept. 1977
o Can
Hope Well?
Sir,
As a man who 77 years of age ced enough to k articulate as to V don't think we have been
We grudged t ploiting us to til without the ex kind, we as Sri at each other's everything-neith other benefiting comes to Powe faces and when to power, com

ent
'e it was to read
24.9.77 the rearejudiced articles vita and Dr. C. R. a long way to pave
etter and united y different is Fr. rticle. If, as you
lly”, he is a great ils, then the Tamils y enemies. In his re that the TULF he fact is that the its and is the leadarty in the NSA) her a lot of figures er of unborn voters e for the TULF
ayantha Somasunion? If the violence as not caused by d spent their fury on results were then, or by SLFP n-violent (and non P policemen, then sible?
A. C. Joseph l,
We Even To Do
has just completed and one experiennow things and so arify what is what, can do well as we
he Westerners exeir benefits. Now ploitation of that Lankans have been throat destroying er i We nor any When the SLFP ", insurgency surthe UNP come s nunal uprisings
As busy as you are, I cannot hope for your undivided attention to what I write, but might request your goodself to direct one, who can visit this area, hear some of us. cultivators, and ventilate all shortcomings, so that the governments
might open their eyes and do something to alleviate our sufferings. Even the political inter
ferences during the term of the last government that led to the utter ruin of the country are violent.
Our Scheme started in 1954 by the GODB during UNP's time has been in a parlous state due mainly to political interferences, causing bureaucratic lapses. From the lowest to the highest, I had ventilated our grievances. Result: pique and Vengeance.
I have been in the list of your regular subscribers for a long time and had complained to you of nondelivery of certain copies of the Tribune earlier. Now again, after Volume 22 No. 1-September 3, 1977, no paper had reached me. Even volume 2, No. 51, June II, 1977 and Vol. 22 No. 2-July 2, 1977 and Vol. 22, No. 3-July 9, 1977 had not reached me.
To know the seriousness, attach herewith copies of memos written to the Divisional Supdt. of Post Offices, Eastern Region, Batticaloa. It is understood that last time when this Postman was to be dealt with adequately, political interference caused the man to escape to do us and the country, the maximum harm.
If you might be pleased, you can with your admirable ingenuity comment on these in your valuable paper so as for the authorities to open their eyes and act so that all might be saved. If you and I do not do, who else could and would help others who are not so articulate,
T. Arulananthan
Middleclass Allotment 2,
Bakiella.
99.77
O. O.
TRIBUNE, October 8, 1977

Page 26
Confidentially
ls Eelam Viable?–4
IS IT NOT INTERESTING to refer to letters and articles sent to Tribune regarding the viability of Eelam? That we quote below further extracts from the article referred to in this column last week? “When late Mr. S. J. V. Chelvanayakam, the leader of TULF (a 'conservative and moderate' in your terminology), put forward the Tamil Eelam proposal, to safeguard the community he represented, from the onslaught of ultraSinhala Buddhist chauvinism of Mrs. B's Govt. two years ago, there were many (included are the socalled "Colombo Tamils"), who ridiculed his move as suicidal, that his proposed Eelam Could not stand on its feet economically. Let me cite some reports in the press and in journals, within recent times, showing the prosperity of the regions of Tamil Eelam, FISHING-the boundaries of the two Tamil provinces provide ample marine area, ranging from Mannar on one side, to Pottuvil on the other, for exploitation by fishermen. (Ref. Model Net Fishing in Trinco, Daily News, Sept. 4, 1976: Fan Mussel: Now A Money Spinner Daily News Sept. 7, 1976); CEMENTone of the two established factories in the North, the KKS Cement factory, at full capacity can produce, 850 tons a day approximately. (Daily News, July 3, 1977); SALTERNS-The opponents of the “economically prosperous Eelam” theory are invited to peruse the research article by George Thambyapillay on The Salt Industry of Ceylon: A Geographical Appraisal' (Ceylon Journal of Historical and šocía Studie5, Jan-June 1964, PP. 73-87): he had listed the basic requisites for successful solar ewaporation of salt. They are: (1) а hot, dry climate; (2) accessibility to the sea; (3) clayey soil for the salt pans, preferably with bare rack exposure on the windward scale. All these three requi sites are ideally supplied in both Northern and Eastern Provinces: ToURISM When Mrs. B's. Govt. developed the tourist industry on a large scale during the last seven
TRIBUNE...October 8, 1977
* ces. Some
years, Northern an vinces were compar (may be purposel reasons or otherwi ing tourists were inc ample data regard vinces and they persuaded to limit to the other se Only those, who interest to have a le areas, were let ol many precautions Sufficient coverage regarding the touri the Northern and
may tourist attractions the Dry Peninsula are invited to glar item Jaffna, Top 1 (Daily News, Sept. citations are - Wor picturesque isolatio beach would be o terest to French to a member of the stretches of Sandy Pedro known as AM jungle), they said typical picture of to both local and who had never See article which app Ceylon Observer ( on The Land of ends as follows: " ing melody of the fish dwelling in til of the adjoining doubt continue tc for ages to come.'' to quote a para booklet Human Ri. by Nihal Jayawick 53 to press my pc ther: “lin the ger of economic de Northern and E. play as vital a rc province of the ce. ernment has estat of major industri including a cem Kan kesanthurai, a at Paranthan, the phant Pass and P. factory at Valaich 77 private sector
located in the di
Vavuniya, Mannar, Batticaloa, with Tamil population people, had a pr Rs. 302 million total production V country. Finally (March 1977), also story on The

d Eastern proatively neglected y for political se). The incompt provided with ing these prowere tactfully t their sojourn ven provinces. had the abiding ook at the Tamil ut but with so and restrictions. were not given ist attactions in Eastern Provinponder, "What are there! in 2. These cynics lce at the news ourist Attraction' 10, 1974). Some th giving. "The n of the casuarina f captivating inurists, remarked party. The vast tracts at Point annelkaddu (sand would give a a real desert foreign tourists *n one.' Another
feared in the Sept. 28, 1975) the Singing Fish
... and the Sooth| famous singi ng ne placid waters Lagoon will no attract visitors I would also like graph from the ghts in Sri Lanka rema (1976), pp bint of view fureral programme velopment, the lstern Provinces le as any other untry. The Govlished a number es in this area, ent factory at chemical industry
Saltern at Elelali and a paper henai. In 1974,
industrial units stricts of Jafna, Trincomalee and a predominantly
of 1.4 million duction value of or 7.4% of the lue of the Whole Economic Review
contains a boxNorthern Region,
Viability A Myth
Ground Water and Lift Irrigation. Certain relevant passages from it, are worthy of recording. "...Ground water is tapped for irrigation of subsidiary crops including chillies, onions and potatoes, from a number of irrigation wells. A long term proposal for converting three lagoons into fresh water reservoirs is also being implemented. These are the Elephant Pass Lagoon, to the east of the Elephant Pass; the Vadamarachchi Lagoon extending in a north-westernly direction along the peninsula with a sea out-fall about 3 miles north of Jaffna; and the South Lagoon with a sea outfall about 4 miles south-east of Jaffna..There are also several natural wells or kerni in the peninsula region which hold freshwater. By far, the best known of these is the so-called tidal well, Puttur, usually known as Nilawarni. This well has been found to be 64 ft. 6 in. deep. It has a surface area of about 50 ft. by 40 ft. and contains freshwater of the highest portable quality to a depth of 50 ft. Pumping tests were carried out in 1946 to determine the potential for irrigation from this well, and a project for cultivation of subsidiary food crops of 250 acres has been func
tioning since 19502 can go on
like this...’’
That this is one of the most laboured studies On
the viability of Eelam that has reached us? That the arguments advanced speak for themselves? That even if these resources referred to are developed after giant-size dozes of capital investment over a number of years, the territory covering the Northern and Eastern Provinces cannot ñanake Eelam become a viable states
The Tribune does not propose to labour the question of the viability of Eelam any more? That whilst leaving the columms of this paper open to anyone who wishes to argue (on a reasoned and factual bar siis only) about the viability of Eelam, Tribune will in future go on the footing that the viability of Eelam is as much a myth as Eelam itself? That the country, and the Tamils in particular, have paid a heavy price because of myths like Fiftyfifty and Ealam and the sooner these myths are forgotten the better?
Concluded
24

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