கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1978.09.16

Page 1
Vol. 23 No. 12 - September 16,
 


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Page 3
Letter from Che Eòitor
OUR COVER PICTURE this week is a rare showpiece pix.
that a photographer has the luck to catch a pair of cheetahs frame of mind. We have used the picture to symbolise t of induced euphoria which has overtaken this country in the with all the tamashas Connected with the inauguration of t tution. We have had spectacular parades, displays, mara shows, mass swearing-in ceremonies, speeches, special number lavish advertisements-everything that propaganda and produce to overwhelm people with a feeling that all their be over with the inauguration of what must undoubtedly
Jayewardene Constitution to usher in the Jayewardene Era. for good or for bad, was inaugurated with a fanfare unequale contemporary history of the island. And this has been d aplomb that a sense of complacent well-being has begun country. Even the vociferous noise-makers on the Marxist raucous shouters of communal slogans have been subdued into The thirty percent vote-getters of the 1977 elections have ni objections to the New Constitution and New Era even to the ing black flags in their strongholds, although they were joining a one-day protest general strike on September 7 if t able to organise one to condemn "increased prices' and freedom'. The ULF which has damned the new Constitution fascist device, held a protest demonstration at the Old Town on September 7, but it did not seem to cause any headaches meat. The JVP welcomed the Constitution as an advanc Constitution and has sworn to fight the SLFP and ULF with whilst proclaiming that it will not take to arms again. Si leadership of the TULF made a fervent appeal to its "milit other pro-Eelam hot-heads not to trigger any protest demo might result in untoward repercussions. In sharp contrast and negative policies of the TULF, the CWC, (until recently of the now disintegrated TULF) has adopted positive and policies consistent with the best interests of the lndian Ta Very correctly the CWC opted to join the Governm Thondaman was invited to join the Cabinet. The Jayewarde been enthroned not only in rare tranquility but also in the foundations for national unity are being laid, though
this does not mean that the millenium has begun. On the
2"e many difficult problems, which if not solved quickly, w national conflagration. within a very short time. At this ti and pious hopes and happy resolutions it would be inapprc. the dangers that lurk in the background, foreground and t of Sri Lanka's current politics. Prices are steadily creepin and UNP punditry has attempted to explain that high pric are inevitable in growth and that this could be satisfactorily wages. At the moment, many families are only able to r meet on earnings fron the Middle East, Africa, UK, USA, C countries. But a larger number of people are being slowly b into respectable pauperdom. In the ultimate analysis, only duction can help to narrow the gap between prices and contain runaway inflation. But there are no signs as yet
increase in productivity or production in spite of fervent
President, Prime Minister and other Ministers. The writ
on this matter is not encouragling

It is not often in such a happy he atmosphere last two weeks e new Constihons, cultural s, supplements, he media can roubles would be called the The new era, di before in the orie with sue to pervade the fringe and the relativ A silence. bt carried their point of hoist| not averse to he CTUO was 'in roads into as a bourgeoisall in Colombo to the governe of the 1972 relentless fury gnificantly, the ant youth' and instrations that to the sterile an integral part orward-looking mil community. ent when Mr. ne Era has thus belief that the in stageS.- Bút contrary, there ill erupt into a me of jubilation priate to detail he underground g up every day, tes and inflation met with higher make both ends anada and other ut surely thrust increased prowages and also of a substantial appeals by the ing on the wall
T
IBUNE
Ceylon News Review
Founded in 954 A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs
Editor S. P. Amarasingam Every Saturday
September 16, 1978 vol. 23 No. 12
T R | BU N E.
43, DAWSON STREET, C O LO M. B O - 2.
CONTENTS
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK -Jayawardene Era Reshuffle P.
POLITICS OF THE WEEK -Rohana's JVP THE WORLD TODAY --India, Pakista R":- তই P. wHY IMPORT MEAT 藝 -Livestock Production p. 4 ACID BOMB EXPLOSION-4 -Revolt .. 6
:iين:'33يي؟ SRI LANKA CHRONICLE August 28-Sept. 6 p. 8. UNSUCCESSFUL "sociaLISM's
p.
-Abandoned p- 2 FOR THE RECORD —ULF Statement P. 24
BOOK REVIEW -Judges And The Law GRAMA SASTRA -Buttata
. 一、
LETTERS --From Our Readers
CONFIDENTIALLY -Elephant Houga

Page 4
EDITOR's NOTEBOOK
Jayawardene Era
Ç)N THE ASTROLOGICALLY VERY AUSPECIOUS DAY of September 7, and at a very auspicious time determined by astrologers, Mr. J. R. Jayewardene took his oaths as President under the new Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The Constitution had been promulgated at midnight of
September 6 by special Presidential decree.
After being sworn in, the President made a short speech in which he drew attention to the basic essentials in the new Constitution. His speech was as follows: 'You have solemnly declared and affirmed or sworn that you will uphold and defend the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. I am addressing you as the first elected President under this same Constitution. During the recent debate the genesis of the ideas now enshrined in the Constitution were mentioned and Honourable Members and the Pub lic are now fully aware of them. I wish to mention one or two matters which enlarge the democratic freedoms the people possess and thereby distinguishthis Constitution from the Constitutions than preceded it. When we departed from a monarchial form of government which prevailed in our country unbroken for 2,516 years from King Vijaya to Queen Elizabeth II, and adopted a Republican form of government in May 1972, we enshrined for the
first time in the Constitution, the se
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
Sovereignty of Constitution -w reignty to incl government, f and the franchi tion goes furth the term of off and the durat as the case may creased beyond approved by th ferendum. TF long and con government un of the Public by emergency r done away with now debate a resolution by w is invoked. Aft be passed by rity.
"The Judicial its independen Judges appointe titution and noʻ sed by Parliame of the individual protected in a c Fundamental righ justiciable. The ly protected agai lative discrimina provided remedi minent infringen by executive action. Certain for approval to ferendum and th sought on any q President thinks portance. Prov the establishmen Parliamentary C Administration investigate and fringement of f. and other injust rights are furthel advice and sugge: of Parliament and Opposition a Consultative Com

he people. In this extend that Soveide the process of undamental rights Se. The Constitur and en SUres that ce of the President on of Parliament, be, cannot be insix years unless e People at a Ree possibility of a inuous period of der the provisions Security Ordinance egulations has been Parliament must ld vote on every hich the Ordinance er 3 months it must a two-thirds maio
y is established, ce protected and d under the Const left to laws pasit. The freedom is enshrined and harter of libertieS. tS have been made citizen is not mereinst posssible legistion, but is even es against an imhent of his rights or administrative Bills are submitted the People by Reeir verdict is also uestion which the
is of national imision is made for t of the office of ommissioner for (Ombudsman) to report on the inndamental rights ces. Parliament's safeguarded. The
stions of Members
both Government re sought through mittees. Appoint
Ney Cermiştiftution
ments to high offices are investigated by similar committees. Parliament maintains its traditional rights of censuring the government and of voting on the annual and supplementary finance bills and resolutions.
"This Constitution also departs from the previous ones in that the people vote not for an individual but for the political parties that seek their support. Members are elected according to the proportion of the votes cast for the parties thereby ensuring fairer representation in the legislative strictly according to the votes cast for the parties. This Constitution ensures that every citizen, whether he belongs to a majority or minority, racial, religious or caste group enjoys equal and basic human rights and opportunities. Executive Power is vested in a President elected every six years by the whole nation. He is responsible to Parliament for the due execution and performance of his powers. The Cabinet of Ministers of which the President is the Head is colectively responsible and answerable to Parliament.
"Honourable Members, have attempted briefly to outline some of the basic features of the Con tution which comes into force today. It has elevated the People to the highest possible place in the governing of their country by permitting them by Referendum to participate directly in deciding some of the laws that govern them. No dictator-motivated individual or group of individuals can govern for more than six years without the People's permission granted at a Referendum.
"This Constitution takes its place among those of the developed nations of the free World, nay more, we set an example others may choose to follow. We have retained

Page 5
Jayawardeee Era
the fundamental democratic features of our political past. At the same time, we have introduced certain unique democratic innovations which ensure the Sovereignty of our people and the continuance of stable constitutional government." "As far as is possible in a Constitution the democratic freedoms mentioned earlier and the Rule
of law have been enshrined and
protected from erosion. All these however have to be implemented by these persons elected and selected to work this Constitution, the President, the Members of the legislature, including the Speaker, the Prime Minister, the Ministers and the Members of Parliament, the Judiciary and so many others, such as State Officers. As one who first conceived the ideas contained in this Constitution and steered the Constitution Bill until it was presented to this House, have pledged before you that i will to the best of my ability uphold and defend it. will also perform my duties and functions as President not only in accordance with this constitution, nay more will endeavour to expand and broaden the freedom it creates until my countrymen are assured that the ever-widening freedoms they enjoy where the mind is free and can express itself without fear can never again be taken away from them.'
After a simple ceremony to inaugurate the new Constitution, in the Parliament, twenty four Cabinet Ministers took their oaths at the Janadipathi Mandiraya. Mr. Vincent Perera, Minister of Parliamentary Affairs and Sports, who was away in Italy for the installation of the new Pope, was not present and took his oaths on his return on September 8 . . . . Mr. S. Thondaman and Wickremasinghe were
Mr. Ranil sworn in
3
as Cabinet Ministe Tissa de Alwis wh elected Speaker fo tion is likely to b Cabinet. Minister Broadcasting and T tember 4 (some had item it may be on A boxed it m elsewh sets out the new c allocation of depa different Ministers
An analysis of t departments and that the two most former Ministry of Lands, and that gation and Highway Highways have go Minister D. B. Wije in charge of inform: casting) whilst Gain in addition to his been given lands, ment and Mahavy el It cannot be saic Dissanayake has ". re-shuffle. In fact, til ment makes him su Development but of Power from irr problematic because the electricoty gen island is from hydr is intimately tied tion Projects.
The Minister wh micst is un doubted Senanayake. He is as the Minister Development and now has only the Agriculture, the the research units u1 Survey and Forest De He has lost land and ment. - He has amor lost Livestock, the and Oils & Fats Cor have gone to Mr. Minister of Rural li log ment (who has a ted the Tobacco C.

rs. Mr. Ananda to had been rer the inaugurae Sworn in as a (lnformation, ourism) on Sepsuggested earlier September 21). ere in this issue Cabinet and the rtments under
he re-shuffle of portfolios show affected are the Agriculture and of Power, irriS. Power and he to a new tunge (formerly ation and Broadini Dissanayake, irrigation has land Developi Development. that Gamini lost' much in he nexN arrangepreme in Land the separation igation can be e the bulk of erated in the o-power which up with irriga
o has suffered lly Mr. E. L. now described of Agricultural Research. He Department of farms it runs, nder it, and the partments, etc. Land Developng other things. 2 Milk Board poration which Thondaman as
ndustrial Deve
lso been allotorporation, in
dustrial Development Board, etc. etc.) The Paddy Marketing Board has been taken over from Mr. Senanayake by the President. Mrs. Wimala Kannangara who had been sworn in July 1977 as Minister of Tourism, Shipping and Aviation, lost Aviation to the President about eight months ago. Now Shipping has gone to Lalith Athulathmudali to strengthen his Ministry of Trade. Mrs. Kannangara is now Minister of Rural Development (a department which over the years has gravitated between Local Government and Home Affairs). Mr. Ranil Wickremasinghe has been placed in charge of Youth Affairs and Employment, and Mr. Anarda Tissa de Alw is will have a seithio'r rank as a Minister of State (and be in charge, among other matters as yet unspecified, of information, Broadcasting and Tourism).
In the new configuration of inner governmental power, one year after the UNP came to power, seven months after the presidential system was introduced and immediately after the inauguration of the new Constitution, it will be seen that the changes in the Cabinet will Strengthen the hands of the Presdent Mr. J. R. Jayewardene. Mr. Ananda Tissa de Alwis will be a tower of strength to the President in the Cabinet and the Parliament. And the two other new Ministers will also be strong JR adherents.
No senior minister or leader of the UNP is today in a position to challenge the und isputed supremacy of J. R. Jaye wardene, but if any Minister or a group of Parliamentarians become unrealistic enough as to challenge. him, he will find that JR has not only strengthened his position in the Cabinet in the appointing of new Cabinet Ministers, and the allocations of functions) but has constitutional powers to deal effec
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978,

Page 6
tively with dissidents and defectors inside and outside Parliament.
cannot expect ay serious challenge to tine President in Parliament even by the most powerful of Ministers cor even a combination of them, Such powers are the natural prerogatives and imperatives of a leader who has won the confidence of the majority of the people through the ballot box, but such powers in the way they are set out in our new Constitution can not lead to a dictatorship. This view was also expressed by Professor A. J. Wilson, a Sri Lankan, (a Jaffna Tamil and a son-in-law of the late Mr. S. J. V. Chelyanayakam), now Chairman, Department of Political Science, University of New Brunswick, Canada, in a speech recently at the Rotary Club of Colombo when he spoke on "The "(New) 1978 Constitution." Under the heading NEW SYSTEM SEEKS TO COMBINE BEST OF US, BRITISH AND FRENCH STRUCTURES, the Ceylon Daily News of September 8 reported as follows: “Our new Constitue tional system seeks to combine the best of the American, British and French governmental structures whilst avoiding their defects. We retain Parliamentary government. We provide for an executive President who is not totally isolated from the legislature as his French and American counter-parts are. Our system provides for a convenient division of labour betwesen the Chief Executive ard his Parliamentary Representatives- what might be called a Presidential cum , Parliamentary type of executive' power. Professor Wilson said that the Presidency was the pivot of the whole system set up under the new Constitution, 'What we have failed to take - note of in Gour own country is that since the great hartal of August 1953 we have
تقنية في 8 يونية في قمتين هيبوتيتين يتجه جية
been a nation librium, in a = p crisis. And we peace time, n. government dev to contain a ciri spilt over. The that is envisage Constitution, se remedy for our in a number of saici the Presi national leader solute majority voting. This w tion in which t no longer act i icin. He would better position nal, not secti national devel. Wilson said tha dent would not ture he would the burders of mentary majori manifold blessing fod i release, hé dent would be time and effort lopment, COs interfere in are needed attenti administration f. of speeeding Scoffed at the fel dential system a Bonapartist-t sible rule. A out the various in the Constitu of political expe ruled out that
The Presiden ment did well í to work' and t the theme of a September 7 w titution was -- ii purposely made emphasise the and to spread work places, e. government der

dangerous equiirmanent state of ave been utilising neteenth century, ces and StructureS is that has already Presidential system d uit der our neW sks to provide a crisis-laden Society ways, he said. He ent would be a elected by an ac
of the electors build create a situahe President could In a sectarian fashtherefore be in a to mobilise natioonal support, for pment. Professor t since the Presisit in the legislabe released from managing a Parliaty. There were gs from this manii said The Presifree to devote his to organise deveordiate policies,
on and gear the of the urgent taSK levelopment. He ars about the Presi= deteriorating into ype of non-responpart from pointing s safeguards in built tion, the long years rience of the voters possibility, he said.” t and the Governs to make 'dedication he dignity of labour the activities on hen the new Consaugurated. It was a working day to need for hard work he message in even
partments etc, Gov
ļegāgārdere Ērā
ernment spokesmen urged citizens
to engage in productive work, and the type of work done would depend on the place and area. In schools, teachers and pupils would clean and improve both the schools and the neighbourhood. In hoSpitals, doctors were expected to paint wards and improve conditions. In the rural areas agricultural work was scheduled besides cleaning of channels, desilting tanks etc. “What was important was that the day should be day of work. While the Education Department and Department of Rural Development had drawn up special pro grammes the government expected all departments and all govern
to others in observing Thursday as a day of work. Even in ancilliary activities the emphasis was on youth, physical activity and sports." Ai this is no doubt good but it is yet to be seen whether working people at all levels would take up the cry for more work and deny theselves the excessive number of holidays they now enjoy.
I But there is another aspect to this 'dedication to work's theme. It is one more step in the process of depoliticalisaton that the Jayswardene government initiated when it came to power. In 1972, Constitution was inaugurated with political rallies, meetings and tamashas. The United Front government had tried to strengthen sitself by mobilising its supporters or a political level and by seeking to weaken its opponents through political intimidation and worse,
The Jayewardene government has sought to de-politicalise Sri Lanka by downgrading political polemics and shifting the emphasis to cultural tamashas, religious revivalism, sports and last but not least, work. How far the Jayewardene regime will succeed in de-politicalising what is undoubtely
尋

Page 7
jelygyerậerie Ère
highly politicalised population is yet to be sean. On September 7, the only political demɔ instrations had come from the ULF and the TULF. Leaders of the ULF in addition to issuing vigorous statements condemning the new Cons titution as a bourgeois device to perpetuate the power of the rich, had held a protest meeting at the old Town Hall. Everything had
gone smoothly. But ac another place, another Ulf group had attempted to break the cur
rent law by leading a procession. The police naturally broke it up without any difficulty because the crowd that had mustered to protest was a little more than 500. Numbers do not matter when Principles are at issue, but the ULF protest meeting and demonstration were only damp squibs that did not attract any attention.
The official TULF leadership organised a negative-type protest by asking school children and others to boycott the functions in the same way TULF MPs boycotted the ceremonies in Parliament. In the Jaffna peninsula the TULF had some degree of support, but elsewhere the TULF call remained a dead letter. In the face of the CWC defection from the ULF, and the unexpected quitting from the TULF of the Tamil Congress, the TULF has come back to Square One as the Federal Party. Apologists for the TULF say that the TC led by young Kumar Ponnampalam (GG Jnr.) is a rump that represents no Tamils except a discredited fevy, but this is far from the truth. Kumar Ponnampalam has timed his moves well to sack the two MPs Sivasithamparams (Nallur and Vavuniya) and others from the TC and to pass a unanimous resolution in the old Working Committee at a time when di Sillusionment against the Jekyll and Hyde policies of the TULF have reached serious proportions.
葛下
The unofficial leadership was on in compelling the (especially the Parl to adopt negative indulging in feet Eelam rhetoric. militants were able bus in the Jaf tempt to throw Batticoloa, but all Whether these wi intimidate the incr Tamils who now c. TULF into silence the time of writing whether the boy Air Ceylon (AVRC malana shortly afte a scheduled load from Jaffna early morning was a coming as it qid of before the Preside and inaugurated titution it cast a proceedings that da
Leader of the O chief Amirthalinga the island on Se he could not resis to indulge in pre and boast about th separate state in a What he hoped to un realistica declar known. In Sri Lan will tend to re-op that were healing, sound comforting Tamil groups in build Eelam castl without any discon ves or exposing th danger of violent
Except for this TU new Constitution :
dene Era got start. The fact th joined the go
Thondaman being
portant Ministry i sion of strength the Jayewardene G

(miliitant) TULF ertly succeessful official leadership amentary group) postures whilst le and anae mic Covertly, TULF to burn a new a area and athandbombs ina to no purpoՏ3. plent tactics will easing number of isagree with the is doubtful. At ; it is not known ving up of the 2) plaine at Ratr it had brought of passengers on September 7 Tiger job. But he and half hours it took his caths :he New Conse glooms over the
Yε 壬 pposition, TULF in was out of ptember 7, but t the temptation -Eelam rhetoric he struggle for a BBC interview. achieve by such ations is not kathis interview en many wounds though it may to expatriate the UK who es in the air fort to themselemselves to any repercussions. ILF interlude, the ind the Jayewaroff to a good at the CWC has ernment with assigned an Ims a great acceso the UNP and overnment. The
CWC will bring great trade unié strength toe the si Goyernment, in the plantation sector, and this will certainly help the governament’s efforts to increase production.
Apart from this, the TULF has lost its most important partner. To obtain CWC support, the President had offered the Indian Tamils 'concessions" which rectify many discriminations the community has suffered for a long time. >
To the credit of the CWC it must be said that its leader Thondaman has with realistic and pragmetic logic seized opportunities that layewardene's re-appraisal of policies had offered and made it possible for his community to exercise rights they have long been denied - - ثین نجی زنجوs. The CWC has this time not missed the bus in the way the the TULF (FP) has done once again.
POLITICS OF THE WEEK BY NARADA * * * * * Rohanaʼs J. V. P.
Not much attention has been paid to the JVP or Rohana Wijeweera in recent months. Nor has the JVP made much of a noise about the new Constitution. Its Sinhala paper appears frequently, and its English periodical Red Power infrequently. Five or a six issues of the English paper have appeared but they carry little of interest on current events. Every issue of Red Power has so far only contained lengthy marxist declamations and hormilies ori a highly emotional and rhetorical planebut little or nothing in the way of analysis of current realities.
More can, however, be learnt of current JVP politics from occasional reports in the daily news
TRIBUNE September 6, 1978

Page 8
papers than from JVP publications. When Rohana Wijeweera went abroad at the end of June much was made of the fact that he was going to Russia and Cuba, though he seems to have spent more tine in certain countries in Western Europe.
The Weekend (Dowasti-Sun group) of July 2, 1978 had a front page piece, Ranil Wickremasinghe reporting from Berlin under the
heating "COME TO OUR PARLOUR: MOSCOW | NVITES ROHANA''' which read:
"... Sri Lanka has been threatened with expulsion from the NonAligned movement should the Janatha Viimukthi Peramuna (JVP) ever come into power. But on the other hand we have the assurance of immediate recognition from both Russia and Cuba," said JVP leader, Mr. Rohana Wijeweera, in an addresS to studentS and members of the German press at a conference at the Dauerwaldawege students hostel here. Moscow who earlier expelled me from their University and who then helped the Sirimavo Bandaranalike regime to suppress us with the supply of MiGs and arms, have now recognised the JVP rather than the tottering Communist Party as a growing power. They have invited me to Moscow and even suggested that I have my heart operation there,' said Mr. Wijeweera "I have accepted this offer, and will travel to Moscow before emplane for Cuba', he added He was to be joined on the second phase of the tour by two other key members of the group.
"Looking very much the same as he did, when he walked out of imprisonment, on an amnesty granted by the government, Mr. Wijeweera also claimed to have met representatives of nearly all the International Liberation groups, while on his tour of France, Italy
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978
and Spain. These ted, "have ident alongside us and
of their support.' E sed did not mea were preparing f frontation. On added, he was fir that “one could ni volution' and he that they would
in the usual de "We have learnt
and we will not r unless we are forc ted. This he emp had happened in
were compelled
selves and go on t the police and ar begun to arrest th members. Althou had been killed and imprisoned, the mc could not be wipe sive rail strike, w in splitting up th and the Strike at versity had been the JVP, he added mony to the powe whose heads wer prisor. "The st X o unger generaticí "are firmly behind their outcries, an several loyal sup United National P prisoned under the compelled the gov lease all of us,” he
"in the seven nic releases, the part made massive Strid meetings which e had admitted were in certain areas. space of 17 days May Day rally whic a capitalist Paper w the movement, had
the largest held or
JVP, which had en

È groups' he sta
ified themselves
have assured us But this he stresin that the JVP or amother conthe contrary he 'm in the belief ot import a re
was convinced Come to pover mocratic fashion. from our faults eSort to violence ed to it, he stahasised was what 1971, when they to arm themhe offensive after "med forces had ousands of their igh over 10,000 a further 26,000 yement, he said, cut. The masfhich culmiminated e United Front, Peradeniya Uniengineered by and bore trsfi= r of a movement a languished in idents and tie l, he claimed, us and it was the fact that porters of the 'arty were im2 CJC Act that
fernment to re
said.
bnths since their y he said iad les, naving held ven the police the largest held The JVP in the nad organis2d a ch even the Sin, hich was against admitted was that day. The barked on a Rs.
Rohanes J. V.P.
100,000 fund raising campaign, had
ended up with double the amount.
And with the aid of their nenbers based in London they were hoping to put up a three storey building,
and put out a daily newspaper.
"We have also formed cadres in the North and the East', he said and were now able to function in 22 districts. the political and economic policies of the last 30 years, Mr. Wijeweera Promised a radical change immediately he came into power. There will be no more begging he asserted and there would be no repayment of loans taken from the World Bank or the IMF.
"An absurd situation has arisen
he pointed out, as Sri Lanka which needed to borrow money merely in order to pay off their earlier 'oans were now allowing persons leaving the country sums up to 500 sterling merely because this was a condition stipulated by the IMF. While pointing out that countries were wary of investing in the
Free Trade Zone, Mr. Wiieweera was firm on the point that like Cuba, the JVP would nationalise
all multinational corporations without paying a cent in compensation.
As in Socialist countries like Soviet -
Russia and Cuba he also proposed to solve the un employment prob
leri, and assured all males above the age of 18 a job or a pay till
such time as they were employed. "While promising a democratic form of Government, Mr. Wijeweera however added that he would do away with Police and the armed services which were being used only to suppress the people. The Police and the Army he said would be replaced by a People's Army with every adult
being compelled to do two years'
service. The Air Force and the Navy were to be maintained with persons being trained on rotation basis. Sri Lankans he stated would
6
Strongly critical of

Page 9
s
Rohana's J.V.P.
also be free to fight as volunteers for any group waging war for liberation.’’
After this there was total silence about his doings abroad.
He returned to the island in the last week of August. His return was blacked out in the daily press except for a photograph in the Sun. (Why there was a blackout in the other papers is still a mystery, but there are suspicions that someone in the Establish ment had tipped the official and governmentcontrolled media to play Wijeweera down!) Anyway, Wijeweera's return had an interesting sequel so far as the Gunasena group of newspapers were concerned . Tne Weekend of August 27, 1978 had a front page box entitled SUPER SLEUTHS IN A SUPER SPOOF: THOUGHT JOURNALISTS WERE “GUERILLAS” which read: “Security at Colombo Airport in Katunayake is par excellence it seems. Last week the Police detectives nearly "caught' the Editor of Sun and Weekend and a sub-editor who they presumed were indulging in subversive activities. It happened like this. The Editor with his colleague was at the airport to greet a colleague who was returning to Sri Lanka after four years. The flight was from London to Colombo via Moscow, -- ln Moscow Rohana Wijeweera, the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) leader had boarded the same plane and was in fact the first to get down at Katunayake. He cleared Customs in double quick time declaring a plethora of documents and pamphlets for which, apparently no Customs duty was necessary. The Editor while waiting for his brother spotted Rohana and sensed a good story. So he greeted Rohan? and asked "How-what is new?" There were no others to meet Rohana and he asked a few questions himself. A two-minute tete
7
a-tete followed.
ween the Editor am than both being the CC once upon sport beards: revo in the meantime, grapher at the air ture but of Rohan fact did pose, an on Thursday, 25/8. elusive pix.
“But little did t lise that the pryi super sleuths were This was known of grapher Hubert to our office the the rest of the Sto tives had made a his house wanting They had also told not to publish the papers. But our n liige. After all, th to be no press c as in the bad old da investigations by C reporters revealed Bonds had develo suspicion of the looking guys' wh Rohana W. So they call to Ha in Color moment and they to continue their though they were the identity they pursue the connect midnight oil. Th why they made th on our camera man.
"A sixty - fourquestion is, why sleuths create such acting in a naive W. was released prisonment by Pres wardene and was a abroad without an ing asked. But v meets him the turbed. Either

There were of
similarities betld Rohana, other
haulled before a time. They lutionary ones. the Sun photor bort took a pica only. He, in di Sun readers 78, got an ex
he quartet rea
ng eyes of our watching them. nly after photoFernando came next day witn ry. The detecmidnight call at
'more details'. the camera man pictures in the han did not cibere is suppoS2d ensorship today ays. Subsequent bur own Police that the James ped an instant
two “gues illato approached made an urgent mbo at the very were ordered surveillance. Alable to establish still wanted to ion by burning hat is probably at midnight call
thousand- rupee do these super a faux pas by manner. Rohana from life imident J. R. Jayellowed to tfav, el y questions bewhen a journalist sleuths are Perthey are com
pletely daft or they want to harass the press. The Police are a smart lot, we admit. But then there are
the clumsy ones too."
Sri Lanka's Political intelli= gence stil I seem to be chasing shadows if we are to judge by what happened čo the AVRO at Ramalaria on September 7 and on the rail tracks on that date. This is a matter that must be examined separately. Intelli. gent anticipatic n is something our cops do not seem to possess.
But before Rohana returned, the JVP had held a Rally on August 5, 1978 at Hyde Park. The Sun of 17.8.78 reported the meeting under the heading JVP SEES NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN J R AND SRIMA.
“The General Sacretary of the Janatha Vimu kthi Peramurta, ኵ† r. Upatissa Gamanayake said on Tuesday that he saw no difference at all between the Government of President J. R. Jayeði ardene and the last government of Mrs. Si rimavio Bandaranaike. The only difference we could make out is that JR is a male and Sirima is female,' Mr. Gamanayake quipped at a public rally at Hyde Park. The JVP leader pointed out that the people had been deprived of their rice ration, sugar was taken off the ration and bus fares were increased. What were their election pledges, he asked, "to bring down the cost of living or to raise it?” Mr. Gamanayake recalled that when the last government increased the bus fares, the present President and the Prime Minister went in bullock carts to Parliament. But today we will have to walk, he told the gathering. He also referred to the powers of the President. Mr. Gamanayake promised that when the JVP came to Power, it would protect every
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978

Page 10
right of the people and see that all had equal freedom in this country?'
On Thursday, August 31, 1978, a week after his return, Rohana Wijeweera held a press conference. The sun of September 2, 1978 (Anton de Silva reporting) under the heading JVP PLEDGES TO KEEP SLFP OUT OF POWER: WE will NEVER, TAKE UP ARMS AGAN-VVEVVEERA, stated: "The revolutionary leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) Rohana Wieweera, has -ledged that while his party peacefully campaigned to come to power at the next general election, it would also ensure that Sri Lanka Freedom Party did not come back to power. Stressing this point to 2 at a Press briefing on ening, Wijeweera sald that his party had backed the Uni. .ted Front in the May 1970 elections, where it gained a comforta. ble two-third majoity. But within a year after coming to power the SLFP, LSSP and CP who rode to he shoulders of the JVP h, realised the growing strenist youth movement
リ三る ed, thousands of its members were put in jail and many led, he pointed out. o the last elections, id that the SLFP by ts had destroyed
the SLFP's misdoings it
alised that there were
nరి. sts and completely
wiped out the LSSP and the CP, . he sai ー
sts, at the time of the last polls were behind bars and therefore the UNP swept the board.
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
Because the people were
to eight seats. The
ra claimed that
Looking back
scene since ind the bespectacle der said that
SLFP had alte country. The |not bring the S but instead the change the p this country by said. The UNP be the JVP, he lieve this end, h launched its ca
"Referring to east, Wijeweer
* Preside |- mentat * Mr. R. . Constr as Major
tion an Mr. M. Mr. As Mr. E. Mr. M. Mr. E. and Re Mrs. v
Mr. Ga Mr. Sh: Mr. W Mr. A Mr. K.
S
CN
D
X
훗
Mr. Mr. Mr. D. Mr. Re N1 r. G2 and M. Mr. La * Mr. Ni Educati * Mr. Fes * ተላr. S. * Mr. Ra Employi
*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

on the political pendeace in 1947, , bearded JVP leathe UNP and the rnately ruled this ext elections would LFP back to Power, true leftists woulk olitical history of gaining power, he s na in threat would ||eclared, and to achis party had already mpaign
match.
Řehčáře v
the TULF had so far not had its He assured that every seat in these two areas would be challenged by the VP at the next polls. This month alone they were billed to hold five meetings in the north and east. He was of the view that the Tamils should be given equal rights in Sri Lanka, but there was no question about an Eelam. Should the JVP corre to power, there would bè no official language but only national status for all languages, Wijeweera
said. Asked whether they would, if necessary again resort to apa armed struggle. Wijeweera assured
NEW CABINET
nt J. R. Jayewardene, Minister of Defence and Plan implei OA
Premadasa, Prime Minister and Minister of Housing, uction and local Government. Montague Jayawickreme, Minister of Public Administraa Home Affairs
D. H. Jayawardene, Minister of Plantation industries soka Karuraratne, Minister of Social Services
L. B. Hurulle, Minister of Cultural affairs
H. Mohamed, Minister of Transport L. Senanayake, Minister of Agricultural Development search Vimala Kannangara, Minister of Rural Development C. P. J. Seneviratne, Minister of Labour amini Jayasuriya, Minister of Health alton Jayasirghe, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications "ijepala Mendis, Minister of Textile industries C. S. Hameed, Minister of Foreign Affairs W. Davanayagam, Minister of Justice B. Herath, Minister of Food and Co-operatives ril Mathew, Minister of industries and Scientific Affairs
B. Wijetunge, Minister of Power and Highways innie de Mel, Minister of Fijiance and Planting limini Dissanayake, Minister of Lands, Land Development haweli Development lith Athulathmudali, Minister of Trade and Shipping issanka Wijeratne, Minister of Education and Higher On. tus Perera, Minister of Fisheries - Thondaman, Minister of Rural industrial Development nil Wickremasinghe, Minister of Youth Affairs and ment.
the north and the a pointed out that
se
qSiS SeSeSMMTeA S yyMMMMS Ah SzSMASA M AqY uYJAAA AAA

Page 11
Rohana's J. V.P.
that never again would they do that.
"Even if the present government wanned to suppress the movement through the khakied gentry and weapons, they would not take to arms he pledged. Wijew cera also told newsmen that the other leftists were now beginning to realise the potential of the party's following and many Marxists grcups had tried to join them. This included a breakaway group of
the LSSP led by another young
radical. In conclusion, the JVP leader said his party had no bindings either with Moscow, Peking or Havana, and that it was quite independent with its ideology based on the precepts of Marx and Lenin.'
The Sun on the same day (2|7|78) had a box item Wii EWEERA TO TESTIFY BEFORE COMMISSION: “The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna leadership has announced that its members will give evidence before the Special Presidential Commission now holding public inquiries in Colombo on the alleged misdeeds and maladministration by the previous Government. VP frontliners Lionel Bopage and Vas Gunawardene who were associated with Rohana Wijeweera at a JVP press briefing last Thursday, said that they were now compiling statistics on how many of their party members lost their lives during the 1971 incidents. They said the figures were being con
piled on a district basis. The JVP
leaders claimed that although the official Government figures put the death toll at 1,200, the JVP have already counted 9,500 Persons who lost their lives during that period'.
The Ceylon Daily News report (on 2.9.78) of the same conference
was under the heading BARBARIC
ACTS OF SRIMA BE EXPOSED-W read: "On March I the 1971 April in Sirima Bandaranaik issued a special the Police and the to dispose of the youths without holic mortem examination and other acts of to ted by the Sirima be revealed before t Commission by the So said the leader o Roahana Wieweera, Conference held at Road, Colombo on JVP had written dential Commission f to a papear before it barbaric acts of the daranaike governmen in detail then. M Said he was also aw an Wikramanayake destroy him during the insurrection. The Tot even allowed to Conference. Mr. Felix naike on his part wa VP youth jailled for li: was today Mr. Felix men were in trouble the JVP had been se Wijeweera said the Constitution drafted t Front Government w heap of socialist jargon text the Constitution mocratic Soci21ist Sri Lanka drawn up Sent Government w; better. Referring J. R. Jayewardene's r that the Governments all its forces to crush to disrupt national activities, Mr. Wijew too agreed with this that issue. He said th the JWP were not copi country but based on

GOVT. WILL JEWEERA and 6 (1971) during Surrection the e Government order allowing Armed Services lead bodies of ding any posts on them. This rture commitRegime would he Presidental JVP shortly. if the JVP Mr. at a Press Bloemendhal Thursday. The to the Presior perilission E and all the Sirima Bant be revealed r. Wijeweera are that Mr.
was out to
the time of 2n, they were hold a Press Dias Bandarainted to keep fe. The irony Dias and his and they in it free. Mr. Republican by the United 'as merely a ... lin this Conof the DeRepublic of by the preas some what to President ecent remark hould muster any attempt development eera said he President on le policies of ied from any pure Mars
ist-Leninism. The JVP had a planned economic policy of its own. Mr. Wijeweera said the JVP would soon launch a trade union for workers named the Socialist Labour Union.
"if the JVP comes to power it will raise all three languages, Sinhala, English and Tamil to the Status of national languages. - dit would never give into the call for Eelam because division of our Country would only help to aggravate our problems. He said the JVP would never come to terms with either, the SLFP, CP or the LSSP and it would never have anything to do with people like Mr. Mahinda Wijesekera. He said people like Vasudeva Nanayakkara w no spread rumours against the JVP saying it would kill all persons above 40. years of age were now clamouring to join hands with the JVP, and he wished to know what their actual aim was. Mr. Wijeweera also said the JVP proposed to contest all seats at the next general election. Mr. Lionel Bopage and Mr. Vas Tillekaratne also spoke'.
Rohana Wijeweera has consistently attacked the LSSP and CP. This is understandable because these : Parties have been totally opposed to the VP from its very inception. But Rohana has now turned his guns even on Mr. Vasudeva Nana. y?kkara who had been suspected of JVP leanings and had been dėl - tained and who has also Sought to bring the JVP into a United Left Front, Wijeweera novi has ne use for his old comrades Wiesekera, Dharmasekera and other ex-JVPers who have splintered from Rohana's JVP.
it will be an interesting exercise to enamine what some of the leftist critics of Rohana (and his JVP) have to say of them. - - -
-- --
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978,

Page 12
THE WORLD TODAY
SOUTH ASA
e India e Pakistan
INDIA; Ready To Drop China Border Claim
Prime Minister Morarji R. Desai of India indicated in an interview broadcast today that his Government was prepared to accept China's seizure of 14,000 square miles o í disputed territory between 1957 and 1962 and to acknowledge the present boundary formally at some point in the future. He said that india's condition for according formal recognition to the present frontier would be restoration of friendly relations between the two countries, which fought a frontier war in 1962. Questioned on NBC-TV's 'Meet The Press' program, Mr. Desai said of the boundary dispute: "All depends on China. But we are determined not to go to war on that issue. We don't want to take back the area which we say they have taken from us by force. We don't take by war. We have suffcient patience to see what friendships, if they mean it, is restored so that this question is favourably solved." When questioned further as to whether this could be interpreted to mean formal recognition of the present boundary if friendly relations were restored, he replied: "I think that when the question is solved then that will happen and I think they are also willing to discuss the question now.' State Department specialist on India remarked that Mr. Desai's comment appeared to break new ground in the border dispute. However, others familiar with the history of the border dispute and with tradia’s long-troubled rela
of Rigij NIE, September 15, 197s
tions with Ch Peking Governn active recently improve relatio, Mr. Desai, w Minister last y su ing a policy *genuine non he defined on gram as being and enemy to ni to improve relat bouring countr Bangladesh and the inclinations + n dira Gandhi, closer to the bit farther avsiya Union. This impression on are hostile to in Indian affairs they pointed o cf rapproachme initiated by Mrs. ago. China a that Indian sh Chinese ports f 14 years and level Chinese di Spent a week cussing outsta ween the two delegation was Ping-man, who w Minister in the special envoy. clash on the between the ty place in Octob Indian soldiers Chinese patrol.
David Binder ir
On his return denjed that he was willing to territory ccc tibie 1957 and 1962. denial from Mr. said in the U. yisit—Fd.

na said that the ent had been more in attempting to s than the Indians. to became Prime iar, has been pur
he describes as lignment', which the television pro“friends with all
ions with the neighes of Fakistan and
in contrast to of his predecessor, has moved a bit Jnited States and a y from the Soviet has made a good
Moscow, specialists noted. However, ut that the process nt with China was Gandhi two years onounced last June ips could call at or the first time in last March a highiplomatic delegation in New Delfi disinding issues betcountries. That led by Wang Pin tas a Deputy Foreign 1960s and is row a The last reported 1,500 mile border No countries took af 1975, vher four were killed by a
New York Times fune 2, 1978 to India, Mr. De Fai had Sajid tihgt lindia concede the disputed d by China between This is not the only Desai about what he SA during his June
from the World Fress: in did
i NDIA: Like Sons?
Has India produced a second Sanjay Gandhi in the person of the present prime minister's son, Mr. Kantibhali (“Kanti”) Desai ? This question, raised by Mr. Morarji Desai's archrival within the ruling party, the ex-home minister, Charan Singh, has created the latest in a series of Janata party storms. Mr. Singh, who reached the semblance of a truce with Mr. Desai last month, has refused to withdraw his demand for an official inquiry into Kanti's business affairs. The Opposition parties, led by Mrs. Gandhi's Congress, have leapt into the act and are demanding that the letters about Kanti between Mr. Singh and Mr. Desai be made public and an inquiry held....The Prime minister has always staunchly defended his son against allegations which have accumulated over the past 20 years. Kanti Desai started life in Airlndia, earning just 84 rupees (then less than £a) a month, but soon switched to business and rapidly (some say too rapidly) became very rich. One of his lines was selling insurance; he got so much business from certain industrialists that tongues began to wag. He also became a highly paid consultant for Desai, a company specialising in pipeline laying although he had re real qualification for the job, and continued to get what he called terminal benefits from the company even after he decided in 1964 to sever his business connections in the interest of his father's political future. His detractors have nicknamed him Sanjay Desai, and recalled that selling insurance was also a line adopted by Mrs. Gandhi's daughter-in-law Sonia. In spite of the lack of any firm evidence against him, he has become an embarrassment to the ruling party. Safeguarding Kanti's reputation is not a cause which pleases anybody but the Prime Minister, and the mid-singing is
1ዕ

Page 13
Foirn; The World Press; india
not only tarnishing him but weakening the loyalty of his supporters in the party. '
Some Janata leaders feel it would be wise for Kanti to retire discreetly to Bombay but so far the Prime Minister has insisted on keeping his son in Delhi to look after his personal affairs. Peacemakers in the party arranged a second meeting between Morarji and Charan Singh last week, but with little result. Charan Singh refused to withdraw his demand for an inquiry into the charges against Kanti, and Morarii made no commitments on taking Charan Singh and his followers back into the cabinet. Some of charan Singh's supporters have again called for the holding of a mass rally in his support which would split the party in two. But Charan Singh is restraining these enthusiasts, because the balance of power in the party has swung away from Morarii, thanks to the Kanti affair... - Still, factional bitterness remains so great that the parliamentary party's election of its leaders has had to be postponed for nine months lest it should make matters worse. The party's other internal elections, postponed from May to October, are likely to be delayed still further. The result is that a party returned on a platform of democracy now finds itself unable to get its own house democratically in order.
-The Economist, London, 5/8/78
IN DA: The Mizoram Story in commencing on the insurgency in Mizoram, it would be both premature and over-optimistic to say that it is all over bar the shouting. It is yet too early to predict now the hard core of the insurgents, large numbers of whom still lurk is the undergrowth beyond the Government's writ, will react to the new developments. It was 12 years ago that the Mizo movement suddenly
erupted into lai By March 1966,
Rifles posts at Lun had been over ru had gained virtu Mizo Hills region stage that the li to be inducted, its reopen the road Aijal and to keep
Political strategy r ing of villages to a base for supplie This step, couple intensified operati ed effect. Althoug National Front h. Underground grot training and re. operate from saj Pakistan, by early vity had considera the Government
an amnesty in Aug ration of Banglac di Stromfature of N laldenga (self-st moved out to the In December 1972 of Mizoram annol to lift the curfew tions on mover population. Some v illages dispersed, mained in their re. reluctant to give of the infrastructus dispensaries-that process had prov is
The Mizo Nati embarked on a so to broaden its r: the loyalty of gove and, in effect, to government. By had again begun to of insecurity amoj was at this stage incident of the senior police off consequent upon operations were i many of the host

ge-scale violence. the main Assam glen and Champihai agad the hostiles control of the it was at this dian army began first task being to from Silchar to t clear cf hostiles. squired the groupdeny the hostiles and information. i with a period of bins, had the desirh by then the Mizo ld begun to send ps to China for arming, and to nctuaries in East 1968 h CStile actibly decreased; and promptly declared ust 1968. THe libgesh added to the NF leaders; and yled President) Arakins in Burma. the Government inced its decision aid the restricent of the civil of the "grouped' but others regrouped locations, Jip all the benefits re-roads, schools, the government ded,
onal Front then cio-political phase aSS base, subvert rnment employees stablish a parallel 75 tese reasures * generate a Serse ng the pople. It that the infamous murder of three icers took place,
which military intensified, forcing illes to cross over
the border. Military measures succeeded in dispersing the undergrounds' forces, many of whom escaped to Bangladesh but many others sued for peace. Accordingly, the operations were suspended in November 1975. Talks were held between MNF representatives and New Delhi and in July 1976 a peace agreement was announced. While the agreer ment was welcormed in Mizoram, Mr. Laldenga proved intransigent and again launched a clandestine phase of "parallel government' activities. Thể result was that instead of Surrender of arms, under
ground hostiles began to be reor
gainsed and activated. It was then that a judicious combination of military force and political negotiations was enforced. The army played its part well-minimum force leading to political settlement. After the formation of the Janata Party Government in Delhi, Brigadier Sailo (President of the PCP) persuaded Laldenga to resume peace parleys with the Government. However, the latter's opposition to the holding of elections and his subsequent demand that he be asked to form an interim government in Mizoram led to bitter feuding between MNF leaders. Blackhengo, self-styled Chief of Staff, "deposed' laldenga, while the more radical Biakvelu (self-styled adjutant general who had taken a party to China) was all for carrying on the insurgency with, as he hoped, help from China.
Maj-Gen. D. K. Palit in The Overseas Hindistan Times, New Delhi, 13.07.73。
INDIA: Burmese insurgents On Border
The reported presence of Burmese insurgents in the border areas of Manipur has been causing concern to the authorities in the context of Naga rehels regroup ing on the Nagaland-Burma border. The reports so far received said the Naga
TRIBUNE September 16, 1978

Page 14
rebels were still getting sufficient arms and ammunition from foreign sources and that they had also been able to procure a number of new recruits to swell their ranks. According to reliable re-orts, the "general headquarters' of these underground Nagas at Sahpao in northern Burma are humming with increased activities which have received fillip from large-scale recruitment of the Burmese Nagas to their rebel army. Reports emanating from across the border, say that the Chinese authorities were helping the underground Naga movement and that the Burmese insurgents from Arakan Hills numbering about 50, were some days ago spotted at a place opposite east district of Manipur, bordering Burma. This area has often been a rendezvous of the rebel elements from Nagaland, Mizoram and Burma. It was from this area again that “Col” Biakvela, once the righthand man of the Mizo National Front leader, Mr. Laldenga, slipped away with his men during the emergency though security forces were guarding the border. How he escaped with all his men still remains a "mystery'. Of late he fell out with Mr. laldenga. He was arrested by the Burmese security forces and was handed over to India on Sunday at Moreh, a border town of Manipur.
Northern Burma is infected with Kachin and Karen rebels. For years Naga rebels have been known to have had close liason with the Kachin independence army (KIA) whose leaders have always been given military training in Yunan and huge quantities of arms by China. Kachin rebels also obtained numerous assorted US arms captured in Vietnam or sold in Thailand. A few years ago there was a plan hatched by the joint command of KIA, the Karen National Defence Organisation, the rebels from India and other insurgent elements on the Burmese soil with the objective of promoting and bringing to fruition secessionist
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978
ambitions of all th Karens, Kachins an for the secession h thousands of men i government forces known, currently ei fighting with uni Communist Party actively supportec facet that adds omi to the Communis Burma. With the pushing "Rohinga' Bangladesh, the independence revic it is apprehended, its activities and fold elements who confrontation with r ment forces. One captured last year a Burmese Muslim Mizo problems are do not seem to be
The Times of indi
PAKSTAN: The Gap The Pakistan milita for a 'national gove four months ago ca week when the C Administrator Ger Zia ul-Haq annour 22-member Federal ing of "politician Gen. Zia ul-Haq sai associating politicia the gap between and the people. T task would be to administration unti the polls-which ar held as soon a meanwhile, to help rule, improve na promote national enhance the count ternally. Among th it is the Muslim Le has come into the about nine ministr others, the stiqlal

ese rebel forces. d Shans fighting |aw e under therm arms. Burmese are, as is well hgaged in a bitter ts of Burmese which is being by China, a nous dimensions it movement in Burmese troops '' Muslims into Rohinga Muslim olutionary force, may also step up bring within its are spoiling for espective governof the insurgents in Manipur was The Naga and 2 still there and nearing solution.
ti, Eombay 6/7/78
to Bridge
ry regime's quest rnment' launched me to a halt last hief Martial Law, neral Muhammed iced on 5 July a Cabinet consists and experts'. d his basic aim in ins was to bridge the Government he new cabinet's un the country’s il the holding of 'e promised to be s possible-and, establish lslamic tional economy,
solidarity and ry's prestige exe political parties ague alone which Cabinet and given ries. As regards | Party was not
From The World Press, Paki ştan
willing to join from the very beginning. The Jamiatul Ulame-e-Pakistan which has since quit the PNA (Pakistan National Alliance)-was neither willing nor invited seriously. The inclusion of the PPP (Pakistan People's Party) group led by "Chairman Niazi' had become contentious. The PNA was willing but seemed unsure. It said it was ready to assist in the holding of the polls and to help remove the developing chasm between the administration and the people proviced such a cabinet was invested with effective authority (for instance to expedite the cleansing of public life and to call for the polls) and that it did not include elements with tainted image. In theory there was nothing exceptionable in these conditions but the problem seemed to be lack of sufficient trust between the regime and the Alliance. In the regime's view the Alliance had not shown much helpfulness. The PNA, on its part, had not been quite sure whether, given the existing structure it could really help. However by "seducing one of the PNA components, the Muslim League, to join the cabinet, but keeping the doors open for others, the regime appears
to have put the Alliance 'hardliners'
in a difficult position. Nevertheless as the PNA remains committed to support the broad objectives of the regime-Islam, cleansing of public life and elections-there is no threat of any immediate crisis, but the politics of Alliance itself seems in för change. A parallel development in this context is the decision by the Istiqlal Party to act as an "opposition' party, whatever it may mean. With the choices so limited, inevitably, the new cabinet is a team of mixed ability. . . .
-impact international London, - Vol. 8; 3.
ܠ ܐ .
翡

Page 15
ూ
from The World Press; Pakistan
PAKSTAN: On Trial?
THE anti-Pakistan malice of the Western media has done its worst to turn the trial of Mr. Bhutto into a trial of Pakistan. It has shown no regard for fairplay in reporting and comment and while it openly impugned the integrity of the Punjab High Court, it made no effort to hide its bias against the Supreme Court. ... But however prejudiced the Western attitude may be, there can be no gainsaying the fact that occasions for its blatant display are invariably provided by us.... Take the current situation , for instance. The PNA successfully conducted a protest campaign against the rigging of elections. But it did not produce the expected positive results which would have ensured national integrity as well as streng
thened the forces of democracy
in the country....The CMLA was keen that public opinion should be associated with the administration and the PNA leaders were therefore approached and talks were held with a view to forming what might be called a national or civilian government. The term "national was a misnomer in that context because it could apply only to such representatives as "had received a prior mandate through elections and who could between themselves bring in the various political parties'. The only alternative, therefore, was a civilian government. The PNA leaders reacted” to the idea favourably. They appeared willing and ready to participate in the formation of a civilian government. And it was only in the fitness of things to make that gesture because the motivation which inspired their movement against the PFP regime called for the strengthening of General Zia ul-Haq's hand in order to enable him to meet the dangers which loomed over the country's horizon. There was foreign pressure to be withstood and there was internal
3.
sabotage to be
and the militar common cause t matter did not and the CMLA f up the effort. . . .
The PNA's ir equally the resul mode of politics. has no doubt be correct patriotic the Government. ency called for c all-out collective move has been dissension S and c in its wake which a united front br worthy cause. N have happened if changed its origin incorporated the place of the unani On the contrary, ty principle had r the front could h even in the face of no one would provoked disinteg the viewpoint of : would have alway sion to evolve an for common obser JUP had veheme majority rule, th had enthusiastica And yet, ironically went out of the for rejecting the latter defied its d ment entity despi that rule... The more regrettable for the NDP whic pation in the Go repudiating suppc Law regime, the difference betwe League and the r in the PNA, B League has been against the dictat rule, others may

curbed. The PNA y regime had a o defend, yet the
process smoothly
elt obliged to give
ternal crisis was t of an unrealistic The Muslim League een inspired by a sense in joining National emergooperation and an effort. But the vitiated by the onfusion it has felt threaten to erode ought about for a ow, this need not the PNA had not all constitution and majority rule in mity principle. - - if the old unanimiemained operative, ave held together differences because have deliberately ration by ignoring any part and there rs been a compulacceptable formula varice. While the ntly opposed the e Muslim League illy endorsed it. , while the former PNA on principle majority rule, the ecision on governte having accepted episode is all the ! because except ch opposes particivernment without bort to the Martial re is no essential een the Muslim rest of the parties ut if the Musliini
obliged to revolt es of the majority also follow suit.
The Jamaat-i-Islami has already indicated as much. There may is owever, be some who may baulk at the idea for fear of losing face. . . . Had it (Muslim League) put the concept of Muslim nationhood, on the basis of which Pakistan came into existence, in an iron framework of colistitution at the very beginning, no room would have been left for regionalism which ruptured the bonds with East Pakistan and threatens the remnant country. As a consequence, nationhood has become our most acute problem. Foreigners are inclined to speculate about the future of Pakistan primarily because they think we are not bound in times of nationhood to hold us together. There is, therefore, the utmost need to hark back to the genesis of our emergence.
Z. A. Zulen in Pakistan Times 5.07.78.
PAKSTAN: Voluminous indictment Of Bhutto Use Of Funds
The Pakistan Government today released a 405-page. White Paper along with 1044 pages of supporting appendices to expose a whole range of alleged manipulation of government resources by Mr. Bhutto, the former Prime Minister, in securing his landslide victory in the general election of March last year. Mr. Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party won all but 37 of the 200 National Assembly seats in that poll. The White Paper claims that three days before the National Assembly polls a joint assessment by the Intelligence Bureau and the Interservices intelligence Directorate gave the People's Party a maximum of 22 seats. However, some other documents said to have been recovered from the former Prime Minister's Secretariat, estimated the erstwhile ruling party could not win more than 95 seats, and thus be
TRIBUNE September 6, 1978

Page 16
unable to even maintain its majority in the House. The White Paper, which is said to have been prepared by a four-member committee headed by Brigadier Mir Abdul Nayeem, set up last November, is based on evidence obtained from 900 witness Ses, lit asserts chat the Prime Minister's Secretariat, run by government officials paid out of public funds, was truly involved in planning for perpetuation of Mr. Bhutto's rule through election management. It sought to prove that Mr. Bhutto's government had decided to keep the Election Commission under check as early as November, 1974, and Secret Service funds of the government were liberally diverted to election purposes of the People's Party. The entire administrative machinery was utilized at all levels to ensure the success of the party, the White Paper claims, ...
Abusing official facilities and in violation of election rules, the White Paper says, Mr. Bhutto and his senior party colleagues used for electioneering not only government transport and other facilities but also Air Force aircraft and Army helicopters. Mr. Bhutto's so-called image-makers and publicity plans for his party on the eve of the election, according to the White Paper, drew heavily on government funds. For the party and Mr. Bhutto's publicity, the Pakistan National Centre, the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, Pakistan Television and
the Associate Press of Pakistan
were given additional government funds totalling 90m rupees (£4.7m). While no evidence was available either foreign funds or foreign support being available to the opposition during elections, as alleged by Mr. Bhutto in his postelection speeches, the White Paper says the inquiry committee discovered large funds through known and unknown sources by Mr. Bhutto's party and a diversion of massive
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
Government alloca
i and other official
purposes. In one
fund at one bank than 900,000 rupee But most of this,
says, remained in tions. One Pron alleged to have s Mr. Bhutto’s electi foreign sources ar to 30m rupees, inc donation from a
state. In additic rupees are said to h to the party camp government funds. Hasan Akbar in TË
PAKSTAN: niment Underta
The Secretary-Gen tan National Allian
- Ahmed, has annot
ment has been r Chief Martial La, General Mohamma all basic matters participation of the ment. . . . The Ip Government wou and purposefu3, ha objectives: first,
as soon as feasible the people's proble contact; and, t the islamic system From the point c national interestS, t is most welcome. , objectives of this also of an extra-ord With the announce of elections, the sta tion” between th Government on t also come to an the efforts initiated Haq with the coope parties, to run th have proved succes
 
 

tions from secret funds for election month the party Swelled from less is to 5.5m rupees. the White Paper tact during elecninent banker is ecured funds for on campaign from mounting to 20m luding a generous foreign head of in about 20m aye been diverted aign from Secret
e Times, London, 15.07.78.
PNA-Governaking
eral of the Pakisce, Prof. Ghafoor Inced that agreeeached with the A Administrator, ld Zia-ul-Haq, on bertaining to the a PNA in Governroposed) new ld be powerful aving three basic holding elections ; second, solving aims through mass hird, establishing in the country. if view of wider his understanding ...he three basic inderstanding are inary importance. ment of the dates ate of 'confrontae PNA and the his issue would e-d....After ali, by Gen. Zia-ul
iration of political
e administration sful and fruitful;
I from the world Press: Pakistan
and the PNA has demonstrated a positive attitude in this regard.
-Marshriq, Urdu Daily, Karachi, 09.08.78.
WHY im PORT MEAT 2.
Government Must Take Meaningful Steps To Rectify Situation
After the disclosures made in the Tribune on the import of meat and the prices, the consumer is called upon to pay for the imported meat, the Gover ment should take meaningful steps to correct or rectify the situation. This does not mean that the imports should be stopped. imports may be necessary to reduce the number of people competing for the locally produced stuff. But at the same time, action should be
taken to increase the local supply of
meat and eggs. These are the cheapest sources of protein to the common man too-as important as rice to the people. How could this be done within the shortest possible time 2 We are aware that the Government has set up various Boards to manage the different aspects of animal husbandry. They are good but they are long term plans. Such plans take a long time to bear fruit. We must realise that from the day a bull is put to the cow, it will be another twelve months to harvest the benefit, that too if all goes well according to schedule. By that time our time is out-as one would say “Maten is over'. What we want now is a very short term plan for immediate action.
蘭《

Page 17
#ಣ್ಯೀಷ್ತ್ರೀಕ್ಷೆ, ಸಿ# စီဒွgs
The way think, a Government alone cannot raise pigs, poultry, cattle etc. A government can only pave the way and give all the encouragement, facilities and opportunities for the people to get involved in the industry. This is where the Government can take fruitful steps to get the people, who can do it, involved in it. "Throw the ball to their court'. But how Here is a suggestion.
Livestock breeding, management etc., comes within the portfolio of Minister for Agriculture and Lands. This is one of the most vital subjects in the Ministry. Therefore the initiative must come from the Minister. He should summon a conference of all the people who are commercially involved in breeding and production of livestock. In other words those who are producing these items for the market. Let the Hon. Minister and his officials discuss freely the problems facing the people involved in the industry and let them give the benefit of their views to the Ministry-I am making this approach to the problem in preference to the classical approach of circulars, questionnaires etc., for two reasons. One, I am an old “Government servant' and I know the outcome of such circulars, the other is we have no time to circulate through the various sieves ○f officialdom. What is needed is direct action now and that is why I have suggested a top level contact with the people. It has authority and responsibility to produce results.
At this first meeting, the representatives attending it should group themselves into working committees, each committee to be composed of individuals interested in (1) Poultry, meat and eggs, (2) Dairy cattle, (3) Meat cattle, (4) Pigs, (5) Sheep and (6) Goats. I am aware that there are no such hard and fast rules to classify the ventures. in some cases, there are, but such classifica
5
tioris are necessa problems of each not the Sarne, Sk have an opportu their respective in collaboration vi officials, solutions can be found. , when the people the problem is be too will be drawn This is how pf increased and pl the consumer.
The problems may be lack of qi feed, implements land and capital r stock, veterinary í and pricing for th port, trained pi diffinite governme mentation of p level, lack of comi groups, officials, such short-comii against progreSS they are the c removed by th action suggestei.
Each committe own action grou industry represen mittee. If it is da action group will to maintain and ties of their men the business of cattle to other 2. who may be inte action group wil the committee ministry to enSt are solved as til assist the indust improve.
Once Steps are the industry fro with the people attempt to make stock industry an government Supt directly, we ma

y to evaluate the
group. They are each group will nity to spot-light problems so that, ith the government to their problems And, most of all, came to know howy ing solved, others into the industry. 'oduction can be rices stabilized to
of the industry Jality feed, cost of 3 and equi primerit, esources, breeding acilities, marketing he producer, transersonnel, lack of int policies, imple olicies at officia munication between and so on. Ail ngs have worked in the past. And bstructions to be e progra Finne of
e vwili set tip its p to build up the ited by their corniry cattle, then the take the initiative improve the activibers. Also expand dairying and dairy reas and individuals rested in it. This 1 be the link with and between the ure that problems ney come up and ry to expand and
taken to energize m the bottom i.e., who are making an good in the lived with the necessary port, more or less y be able to give
the whole operation of the industry a face lift and place it on a strong footing. Result will be employment, and stoppage of import of somethings the country can produce and produce within the means of the average consumer. Our target is to give a reasonable price to the producer and a fair price to the consumer.
With cut group action and making representation to the government collectively, it is very difficult for a
government to understand the
problem, except through the official
channels and often such channels dry up before they begin to flow.
Let the people get together and speak up collectively. For this reason, am suggesting that the initiative should come from the Ministry to establish that element of rapport between the breeders and the minister to build up the confidence that what is being done are in the interest of the people. with the blessing of the Minister for the first General Conference, a working committee for each group of live stock and an action committee for each group to maintain liaison and action committee for each grouք to maintain liaison and action with the working committee and the Ministry we will be able to make good progress.
We anticipate several problems in getting the interested parties to gether, having got them together to group them together and volunteers to work in working and action committees and keep on working without remuneration etc. Mary of these will disappear once the results of group action reach te individual and we must start on the project because it is difficult.
I hope this brief note will catch the eye of the administration and some action will be taken as a counter measure to the import of meat, eggs etc. Montreal, 25.08.78.
TRIBUNE September 16, 1978

Page 18
ACID BOMB EXPLOSION - 14
Chapter Fourteen
Revolt 2
By James Goonewardene
For a while Deva stayed around in his room after work. Things had started to move on a more even keel; nothing of any importance happened that could give him cause for worry or a lift to his spirit. It just went on this even keel-all very calm. He would, sometimes, take a stroll along the main highway a couple of miles, the empty beach on one side and the bare coconut plantation on the other. For the rest of the time he stayed in his room trying to catch up on his correspondence and his reading. Once he made one of his rare trips into Colombo-to the libraries and bookshops-and had come back with a pile of books. He had to get through all that.
Life seemed easier. He had got into a routine at school, kept out of the way of his colleagues and returned to the quiet of his room. He had discovered a way of coexistence. He had a feeling, however that he had only established a temporary truce at school and generally. One day, then, he had a letter from his brother. He had written to tell him of some hotel projects he was involved in-he was to b; the architect of these hotels, and one of the hotels was to come up where Ariya's resthouse now stood ; an old landmark was to go and a modern three star hotel was to come in its place. This was not to come up for some time more, but eventually Ariya's resthouse would have to go. Wherever there was a quiet spot the industrialists would move in and build their hotels-an elusive dream of prosperity with which to obscure the destruction they are
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
unleashing around gressively there w fewer places left go to and liv e in had already beco its population-tr tures would con and enclose man Octopus.
For the mome Secret from Ariy. was waiting for t getting further his brother. T still in a vaguely the moment. ln difficulties of a had come up.
The evening of came round. Tine from his earlier thrown himself it zest. Deva felt th borne fruit. He rouse the boy's was something he if he could turn th of some corseque been worth his wh these backwoods. boy this evening; was usually in fo this evening he late. Deva unable tion to anything pace the floor. evening the last t do was to stay in the floor. Guanpa a lesson so far, i. to him and apolo, ness that morning tiimse a few minu all: in the end his appointment. It was well pas Gunapala eventu When Deva ope him he stood in the his hair lishevelle and tense. Deva moment, and then away and let the la

d them, and proould be fewer and where one could peace. The island me too small for
le con Crete Structinue to surround like an enormous
2nt he kept the a. In any case he he opportunity of clarification from he projects were planned stage at the meanwhile,
different nature
Gunapala's lesson lad had recovered mood and had to his work with at his patience had had been able to interest, and that felt thankful for; e boy into a painter nce it would have ile con ing out into He waited for the by four thirty he }r his lesson, but had begun to get to turn his attenelse started to On a fine, clear hing he wanted to his room and pace la had not missed lot since he came ised for his rude. He was sometime tes late, that was he would keep
t five thirty when ally turned up. ned the door to e doorway panting, 2d, his face drawn stared at him a silently he turned id come in and sit.
A Novel About 97
He pottered around awhile, giving the boy time to recover. He looked for the drawing paper and pencils ne had bought for him while he was in the city. Along with then he fetched out a book of Van Gogh sketches he had had in his box. He was going to let Gunapala borrow the book. He brought all thesa together and turned round, and suddenly he stood still, as if something had struck him and stared at the boy ; the expression of weariless that had come over the facie of the young man gave him a shock. It was the sort of weariness an adult would have when he had come to the end of his tether; had decided he had enough-it was not just a physical exhaustion, the kind of weariness one would expect from a young man. Gunapala tried to stir himself awake when caught in this mood. Deva turned awa, quickly. -
"Take a look at that book while try to get some tea going for both of us.'
Deva vas taken aback at the brusqueness with which Gunapala refused the tea.
"I don't want any tea. I have already had my tea," he said.
“lts all right-another cup of tea will do no harm.'
"I don't want any tea." he said, "I have had tea.'
Deva paused and turned round to look at Gunapala. He felt an annoyance suddenly rise within him.
"I'll make the tea for myself then," he said as he turned round to fill the kettle with water from a clay goblet lying under the table. He placed it on the lighted kerosene cooker. Next he spooned out the tea leaves into a porcelain jug. He set two cups and measured out two spoonfuls of sugar and milk, but the boy's insolence continued to trouble him. It was not like

Page 19
anything he had had from him before; he wondered what it was leading towas this his last lesson-wasn't he going to come after this 2
"You are making two cups of tea-l don't want any tea.' cried the boy, his impatience clearly ringing in his voice. He was looking for a quarrel-that became clear enough now, and that was his object, and Deva was not going to give him one.
"You are not going to get any tea, I'll make the two cups of tea for myself, if I want to.'
Deva had once turned round to stare at Gunapala who was suddenly breathing hard and struggling with the tension he appeared to be labouring under. Somehow Deva felt he had got the situation under control, and he was glad he was able to keep his annoyance too under control. He decided he'll ignore his impertinence and continue to instruct him.
"You'll find that you can learn from those sketches. Good painters kept such sketch books. They did these sketches, sometimes, as models which they copied into their paintings, and sometimes, they did them just for practise. You'll see-those sketches-they were of the human body-of hands, various types of hands, in various positions-the bodies too, they are bent in various ways while their owners just sat or worked or moved around-it was good practice.'
Gunapala started to turn the pages over with a new interest, but the battle in his mind, it was apparent, still continued to take place. It was as if one part of his mind asked him to reject all this and another part of him said he must get a hold of himself. Suddenly he snapped the book shut.
"I cannot work today,' he said.
He sat up in his chair and stared at Deva with his intense, insolent eyes.
7
"Why can't you "I am tired. I ca "Why are you Gunapala hesitat "I went on a trip and returned or "A trip-you m a picnic.' "No '' 'What then 2'' The boy gave n The water cam Deva turned rout to make the tea cups of tea and Gumapala. He lea; the cup to him. looked up at nothing. He just at hirm. There vas like a long wait a his mind that in ti he must win.
'Take it,' he or
Another long m Then Gunapala fi accepted the cup. that it did not t more unpleasant t until the young ma
"If you feel be we will proceed t he said. For a lo pala did not show insistence on wo there ard Stared Then suddenly he replaced the boc sketches on the something had me interest in his w not going to be an what bothered D ponsibility to Piya him interested in against his better felt now that he ov to tell him of before he comm anything on the must be warned c.

1 work today 2" linnot concentrate'
tired 2
ted.
with some friends nly this morning.'
lean you went on
O af SWer.
he to a boil and nd and proceeded l. He made two offered one to ned over and held Gunapala merely Deva and did squinted his eyes then what seemed nd Deva made up this tussle of wills
dered firmly.
cment went by. nally gave in and Deva vas relieved urm into anything han just that wait in became Seri Sible,
Etter after the tea o do some work,' ng moment Gunaa reaction to this rk. He just sat across the room. bent forward and »k of Van Gogh table. Clearly lde Gunapala lose fork ; there was y more of it; but eva was his resratne. He had got the boy's work judgement. He ved it to Piyaratne this development itted himself to boy's behalf. He f the dangers. It
A Novel About 1977
was no longer a simple attempt to help a lad who needed help. There Was much more to it than was visible to the eye.
"Have you done any work at home as asked you ?'
"Yes, I brought the drawings with me.’’
He proceeded to unroll them. Deva took them from him and began to examine them. Sometimes he paused a little longer over one than over another. The lad had done everything he had been asked to do. They were studies of the human body, and they were good. There was just this hesitancy of line and drawing a certain unsureness. The lines were sometimes thick and smudgy but always there was the accuracy of shape and proportion, and this natural gift he had for showing the mood of a face. He still had to learn to do this with Swiftness and agility, and that way he must learn to master the fundamentals of his craft consciously which he now knew only by some hidden instinct; but he was trapped in his environment, a stale, empty, umproductive environment.
He handed the sketches back and he looked up at Gunapala. "Do you think you want to go on with your work 2' he asked.
"Go on with my work now 2' 'Now and afterwards.' "Now I want to go back home.' "What about later ?" 'I want to think about it.' "What have you to think about 2' 'I am tired now and can't think about anything.'
"But can you tell me whether you want to go on with your studies or not 2'
"I am tired now and want to go home." ... "
"All right then you can go. Let me know when you have made up your mind." -
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978

Page 20
"Made up my mind?" "Yes, when you have made up your mind."
The boy said nothing. He rose and stood indecisively in the centre of the room. He was there a long moment, and for a quick, brief moment he looked up at Deva ; then he turned and went out of the
When Guna pala vas gore Deva it a cigar and lay back on his bed to think. Someone had said somewhere that it was when man's survival was most threatened that nis faculties came most alive. Everything was being threatened now but where was the proof that anything was coming alive-things were rather dying and disintegrating.
Night had crept in while he lay there-slowly at first, the greyness deepening within the room and suddenly it was dark and Deva had not noticed it. He continued to lie there motionless-even his thoughts had dried up in his head. He made no attempt to rise and light the
lamps. He just lay there in the darkness.
Copyright Reserved
鑒 豪
SNIPPETS
A fran's friendship's are, like his will, invalidated by marriage - but they are also no less invalidated by
the marriage of his friends
Samuel Butler.
Now hatred is by far the longest
pleasure Men love in haste but they detest at leisure-Lord Byron.
There is no greater sorrow than
to recall a time of happiness when in misery.
Alighieri Dante
RIBUNE, Septaż-żraber 36, 973
Aug. 28
DIARY OF EVEN AND THE WORLD DALY NEWSPAPE
COLC
SRİ LANKA CHR
CDN-Ceylon Da Ceylon Daily M Observer; ST-Su Dinamina; LD-La kesari; ATH-Ath SLD-Sri Lankad DP-Dinapathi;
Chintamani; WK Riviresa; ENinformation De DK-Dinakara;
MONDAY, A dresing a meeti ceremonial openi, Matara yesterday that students are to the university create trouble ; handful who com to create troubl open for that typ away; the gov tolerate trouble university. The provided for 20, far in response t by the President forces at least by of Finance said t government Wa: “cream of talent i. public services. yesterday inform Court judges out teen now sitting reappointed as newly constitute and the new Cou The President sp ing of the Ruhun in the next budg taken to increa. government Servi

ÖNCLE
- Sept. 6
TS IN SRI LANKA COMPLED FROM ERS PUBLISHED IN DAMBO.
ily News; CDMirror; CO-Ceylon nday Times; DMinkadipa; WK-Viratha; SM-Silumina; ipa; JD-Janadina; SU-Sun; CM-Weekend; RREelamadu; lDPRbt. Press Release; DW-Davasa.
UGUST 28:Ading following the ng of the campus at the President said expected to come to learn and not to there are always a e to the university e; the doors are pe of student to go ernment will not makers in the private sector has 000 more jobs so to the request made : to increase Work 10%. The Minister hat the aim of the s to recruit the in the land' into the The government ed twelve Supreme of a total of ninethat they have been members of the d Supreme Court rt of Appeal—CDN. eaking at the openu Campus said that get steps would be se the salaries of ants. About 6,000
} Lanka ChFealcis
Students from all educational diş tricts will participate in the celebrations on Sept. 7 when the new constitution is promulgated-CDM.
Indian entrepreneurs will Soon make
prospective inroads into the FTZ and invest in a number of Small and medium scale units with maximulin utilisation of Lankan manpoYvesSU. The Parliamentary Committee of the TULF has decided not to attend any of the functions connected with the new constitution : they further decided that Tamils should boycott all these functions, childrer should keep away from school and that all Tanils should dedicate that day for the 'liberation of the race'- VK. Tobacco growers have decided not to grow more tobacco until the Tobacco Company gives them better prices for their produceID. The Petroleum Corporation has signed an agreement with a Norwegian firm for oil exploration-JD. Pope John Paul I told the world today that he would continue the moderate polices of his predecessors. Violence spread from Northern Lebanon to the South last night after a day of fighting North of Beirut in which at least 65 people wer killed-CDN. The President of the Iranian Senate Sharif Emami has been charged with forming a new government in ran following the resignation of Premier AmouzegarՏՍ.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 29 : First witness Mr. Deheragoda testifying before the Presidential Commissier. on inquiry said that he was threatened over the phone by Mr. Kobber
kaduwa. The question of the relation
ship of the TULF and the CWC when it came for discussion at the meeting of the TULF Working Committee was strongly disputed; the diehard youths insisted that the TULF should sever all connections with the CWC. The wholesale prices of food and consumer goods have shown a marked decline in May this
8

Page 21
year as compared to the prices fetched in April-CDN. The CWE, the PMB and other institutions that supply goods to the co-operative
department should come under the
purview of the Food Ministry according to a recommendation by the sub - Committee-CDA. Traders big and small, who violate the provisions of the Consumer Protection Law will forfeit all their properties both moveable and immovable; this will be one of the penal provisons that will be incoporated in the Consumer Frotection Law. The Central Bank of Ceylon will issue a new Rs. 100 note -SU. Mr. Kumar Pennambalam speaking at a meeting said that though the TULF had decided to boycott the corstitution day func
tions, they had secret talks with the
government asking for 5 ministerial
posts, but they were told they could
have only three-DP. On a re
commendation made by a Regional
Conference on Co-operation held in Indonesia recently the International Co-operative Alliance will set up a Co-operative Teacher Training institute in Sri Lanka shortlyIDPR No. 55. Arrangements have been made to conduct a massive shramadana campaign with about 10,000 volunteers in the Borella electorate on friday Sept. 8 under the auspices of the Minister of Transport-IDPR No. 52. The United Working Committee of Trade Unions will meet on Sept 17 to discuss the steps that have to be taken to make the island wide strike on Sept. 28 a success-ATH. A large number of files pertaining to bribery charges which were handed over to the Bribery Commission for investigation have disappeared and the CID is investigating-DV. Nicaragua's business leaders met yesterday to discuss whether to support a national strike aimed at ousting President Somoza-CDM. Chinese leader Hua Kua-feng holds
༔ 9
historic tyd vựeek which Moscow ha more to split the C ment. The inaugur Pope and the funer cesSGr Will CGSt the church about 8 billic dolars). lndia’s ru government suffer today when it h an anti-defection bil ment because of pri members.--St.
WEDNESDAY,
A cosortium of construction and c. organised by the cef Cefni herce ha
by the Mahaweli De
to undertake a 1 work in connection weli project. The has been told that storage of the g no longer be ava fish as it is requi
of co-operation E ment departments institutions is the of wastage in the it was hampering the nation said t at Hambantota. gest prison at W. be converted in a remand jail. A consultants are dute: line the Colombo cording to a study that foreign eng tants are being pa RS. 80,000 a moi case Ris. S0,000. in foreign cachar project aid givin govern ent is now possibility of get neers with the qualifications-CDM culation regarding stand of the first M Mr. S. Rajadurai.
 

trip to Eurepe
ommunist moveation of the new al for his predeRoman catholic bn Zire (93 million iling anta Party ed a set back lastily withdrew 1 tabled in Parliaotests from party
AGS 33. private Sector osultancy firns Ceylon Chamber s been invited velopment Board arge volume of with the Mahaprivate fish trade t the cold room government will ilable to freeze red to Stock impoultry. lack between governand other public principle cause public sector and the progress of he PM speaking Sri Lanka’s bigelikada will soon its entirety into team of Japanese e Soon to Stream
it has been found ineering consulid Rs. 50,000 to hth and in one they are paid ge ot of the to Sri Lanka; considering the ting local engisame or better 1. There is speg the political P. for Batticaloa
The Teachers
preparing fora one day token strike to protes against victima isätion, the high coso of living and repressive laws-VK The Minister oi Trade who has returned from New Delhi said that the ladian FM had told hin, personally that their country and government was totally opposed to the TULF's plea for Tamil Eelam -DP. The Australian government has expressed its willingness ta join the Sri Lanka Aid Group as a full member-DPR No. 59. Foreign reserves of the country have increased by Rs. 4744 million in the year which ended in May-DM. Central Bank investigations hawe shown that in any warehouses which could be used for storage after minor repairs. are being left to idle while there is an actite shortage of storage facilities-iD. The Nicaraguan goveriment has survived an attempted coup by Soldiers and civilians but faceti 2 national strike and outbreak of violence in several towns. Hua Kua Feng arrived today for a three day visit to Iran, the first Chinese CP Chairman to set foot in a n cincommunist country-CDM. China says that Vietnamese troops have been digging on a piece of territory they occupied on Friday and hinted that action would be taken to expel them-CDM. The body of Kenya’s Jomo Kenyata will go on permenant display in a specially built masoleum in the centre of Nairobi after his state funeral. Rhodesia's most wanted guerilla was killed in an African township outside Salisbury-SU.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 3: The Central Bank of Ceylon has launched a country wide data ccilecting scheme to work out a reas listic cost of living index and also keep the government appraised of supply conditions and transport in rural areas. The Minister of Agriculture has decided to hand
: R. B.:Nğı Segefermeyer il &, ;

Page 22
over to the private sector the management of all state farms now running at a loss. The sea around Sri Lanka had unlimited fishery resources and if properly tapped these could greatly contribute to the economic develop - ment of the country said the Director, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway-CDN. The second budge of the present government will be introduced by the Minister of Finance and Planning on November 15. The Minister of Fisherius in consultation with the National Youth Service Council has drawn up a scheme to make fish available to Colombo residents at reasonable prices-CDM. Consumers will soon be able to get bread with 20% rice flour and 80%, wheat flour -DP. The deputy Minister of Food said yesterday that the import of chillies and onions will be curbed to protect producers and they will be imported only in times of shortage-EN. The Minister of Fisheries has formulated a plan ensuring the supply of out board fisheing vessls to the needy fishermen on a subsidy scheme-IDPR No. 64. The government has decided that in connection with the promulgation of the new constitution there should be a ban of slaughter of cattle throughout the island as well as closure of all liquor bars on 7.9."78-IDPR No. 68. Agricultural officers have been prohibited from going abroad on scholarships because the Minister thinks that officials who went before have not gained any extra knowledge on agricultural methods-DV. An East German couple hijacked a Polish Airliner with about 70 people aboard to West Berlin. Several hundred farmers were shouting slogans against lndian PM Moraji Desai outside Parliament. Israel warned the US and the UN that Syria might try to foil the Camp David Summit by increased
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
attacks against tians-SU. FRIDAY, SEP budgetary posit is more Satisfac in the last 5 ye. the government close the financ factory note sa Finance yesterd of Textile indus tain curbs will on the import affect our hand Lanka nationals eligible for th permit facility p by air and have selves of the preceding six m will enforce a travel from nex the interests of to make reaso survive rather scionable profit the Minister of F Commissioner Municipality wi the Municipal by householders w on public roads. project to com so far is the RS Glass Manufact People who cc fences under the will in future ment. The hopes to solve vandalism in p the country by Seats in buses ar graph and telep will be raised fr VK. The Minist operatives has available rice at in all districts w DP. The Ja has entered intC Sri Lanka to pli hundred millior

the Lebanese chris
TEM BER I: The ion of the country tory this year than ArS and after decades t will be able to ial year on a satisid the Minister of ay. The Minister tries said that cerhave to be placed of textiles which loom industry. Sri visiting india are e 30 day landing rovided they travel : not availed thenfacility during the Ionths. The police ban on footboard t Monday. It is in the private sector nable profits and than make un conS and perish said inance. The Special of the Colombo ill shortly amend -laws to prosecute ho dump garbage The biggest single e up in the FTZ 42 million French
uring Firm-CDM.
mmit criminal of
influence of liquor ace severe punishtransport Minister the problem of ublic transport in nstalling aluminium d trains-SU. Telehone rates to India om September 151r of Food and Cobromised to make Rs. 2.90 a measure thin a short time
anese government an agreement with ovide a grant of 8 yen (64.4 million
Sri Lankan Chronicles
Rs) for constructing and equipping Phase II of the Teaching Hospital at the University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya Campus. The Minister of Education has decided to change all school syllabuses from Grade 6 upwards next year-LD. The TULF has decided to boycott all celebrations on the 7 and 8-JD. Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko issued a thinly disguised warning to the US against embarking on any new military involvement in the Middle East-CDN. President Elias Sarkis pledged a thorough investigation into the deaths of civilians during a Syrian peace keeping operation in Eritrean areas of Northern Lebanon this week-CDM. Britain’s Commonwealth and Pakistani population is now close to 2 million according to the latest figures. Indian External Affairs Minister Vajpayee was hit by a Stone thrown at him when he attempted to pacify angry students protesting over the murder of two teenagers in New Delhi last weekend-SU.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 2: The President addressing all ranks of the Sri Lanka army on his first official visit to the Army Cantonement at Panagoda called upon the armed services to help the people to protect their sovereignty. The Minister of Food and Co-operatives has placed on the alert some 10,000 co-operative outlets under his charge against possible manipulation to create artificial shortages
in rice in certain areas. The Minis
ter of Finance will set out an aid mission to four countries on September 10 to discuss Sri Lanka's Aid Programme for 1979-CDN. The 'chit' system of admitting patients to the Colombo General Hospital has been abolished. Tea producing and exporting countries which concluded a four day seminar in Colombo recorded their concern over the continuing fall in
20

Page 23
*
ܬ .
Sri Lanka Chronicle
world tea prices. Nearly Rs. 200,000 worth of luxury goods brought in commercial quantities by a plane load. of Sri Lankans returning after a two day shopping spree in the Maldives were detained by the Customs on Thursday-CDM. Thegovernment has decided to establish a multi-million rupee welfare fund for the benefit of more than 1.5 milion plaritation sector employees. The leader of the JVP, Mr. Rohana Wijeweera has pledged that while his Party peacefully campaigned to come to power at the next general elections it would also ensure that SLFP did not come back to power. TV can be viewed in Sri Lanka from January next
year; these broadcasts will be initially.
restricted to residents in the Colombo district-SU. The JVP leader stated that though they were for district autonomy they were totally opposed to the call for Tamil Eelam; if they came to power they would grant all privileges enjoyed by the Sinhalese language to the Tamil language as well-DP. The leader of the SLFP, Mrs. Bandaranaike has said that her party was ready to unite with the left parties to fight the UNP-DK. Israel PM Begin said last night that he would not agree to the stationing of American or UN troops in Israel as part of a Middle East Peace agreement-CDN. Pope John Paul in his first address to the diplomatic corps said he would try to develop respect for the life and dignity of mankind-CDM. The two major black nationalist Parties in Rhodesia's transitional government declared that PM tan Smith has held a secret meeting in Zambia aimed at putting Patriotic Front guerilla leader Joshua Nkomo in charge of the transition to black rule-SU.
SEPTEMBER 3: interest in
SUNDAY, There is widespread
2.
political circles abot reshuffle which wi with the promulgati constitution next
Cabinet is also likely with three new religious, world ot in every city, town the country will ma gation of the new September 7. Sri stucture will be co hauled from tine cc simplifying aeclarati tion procedures-SC Ministers, Mr. S. T Mr. Rani Wickreme pected to be in the e of twenty six when titution is promulgat ter of Education and tion has decided to port of parents of who are to be ad university this year their children devc to studies and extra sity activities. Sri national Airlin ESnational carrier-is start flight operatic ber 1979. A Fund cal Mendis Memorial Ft. inaugurated to as scholars engagea it Sri Lanka history-S Resident Scheme w foreigners to settle Lanka and which w suspended since A now been given th the government.
appointed a six mer mittee to monitor ment and managemej tation industry in The National Assoc Prevention of Crim quency which was fa has begun a drive to organisations throug try-WK. The Min said that the gove

ut the Cabinet ill take place ion of the new Thursday; the to be expanded faces. Special fering services and village of rk the prom"; ulconstitution om
Lanka's tax impletely overming tax year on and collec). Two new hondaman ard singhe are exinlarged Cabinet the new consed. The MinisHigher Educaenlist the sup4900 students mitted to the
to ensure that
te their time - mural univerLanka interthe proposed expected to rs from Octoled “Dr. G. C. und has been ssist deserving research in T. The Guest thich enables down in Sri as temporarily pril 1977 has e go-ahead by President has
mber Sub com
the developnt of the plan
the country. iation for the he and Delinormed recently ) set up branch hout the coun
lister of Trade .
}rnment would
under no condition stop the im“ port of meat-CM. A new ministry for Employment opportunities as well as for youth affairs will be set up with the new constitution. The ULF has said that Sept. 7 should be utilised for protesting against the cost of living, democratic rights denied by the UNP government etc.-W.K. The government has decided to give more powers to GA's and AGa's-SLDP. The Minister of Agriculture has found out that 90% of state owned farms are running at a loss-RR. leaders of black Africa's influential frontline states flew to Lusaka yesterday for a major neeting apparently aimed at accelerating moves towards an all-Party Rhodesia Peace Conference-ST. Pakistan's Chief Martial Law Administrator Zia UlHaq held "good, profitable and friendly' talks with Indian PM Morarji Desai in Nairobi he said in Rawalpindi-WK. Egyptian PM Mamdounh Saleem will resign after President Sadat's Summit this month with Israel’s PM Begin-SO.
MONDAY SEPTEMBER 4: The Customs have clamped down on the import of commercial quantities of textiles brought into the country by Sri Lankans returning from abroad. Teachers will be appointed to schools on a district basis next year; the Ministry of Education has decided this in the interests of teachers and students. The Rabitat Al Alam Al Islam of Mecca has financed the entire printing cost of the translation of the Holy Quaran in Tamil for free distribution, at the request of the Minister of Transport. Transporters of cattle or buffaloes without a valid permit will be prosecutedCDN. One hundred thousand tons of rice purchased by the Food Department from Pakistan in May this year are still lying in that country as government's efforts to sell
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978

Page 24
it have not been Successful. The since prestigious headmaster's and headmistress' Conference will be
revived so that it can make a mean
iingful contribution towards the growth and development of education. Recognised political parties are finalising their lists of respective candidates and mayoral candidates for the forthcoming elections to the Colombo Municipal CouncilCDM, Several members of the CWC are expected to call on their Presiderit to sever coniections with the TUlf when they meet tomorrow. Mr. M. Sivasithamparam, President of the All Ceylon Tamil Congress and the President of the
TULF and Mr. T. Sivasithamparain
present Secretary of the ACTC were yesterday unanimously expelled by the ACTC from its working committee. High Court Judges, District Judges and Magistrates will wear a black gown with lapels of different colours to distinguish them while on the bench in terms of the new constitutionSU. The Eastern Province which reinains a completely agricultural
area, will soon have many indus
tries on the orders of the Minister of industries-DiP. The President has told the members of the Hill country United Youth League to promote the cause of creating citizens of Ceylon of indian origin into a seperate national minorityVK. The USSR Government has appointed Mr. A. S. Pasiutine as Åmbassador to Sri Lanka-DPR No. 165778. The GP is taking steps to recruit 000 persons to the police force every year for the next five years in order to strengthen the force-DV. The leader of the JVP Rohana Wijeweera said リe heW constituition WaS better than the previous one-DK. Kings, Dukes, Presidents and Chiefs joined tens of thousands of pilgrims at St. Peter's Square for a simple but majestic mass to inau
Rist NE, September 16, 1978
that -
gurate the reign At least 80 pers hundreds report floods sweeping tern India ra toll in recent w Rhodesian PM I confirmed he ha meeting in Za denied that he Over power to t CDN. Ugandan angrily attacked for reporting th by Prince Cha funeral of Jor Austrian Chance was quoted in F Israeli PM Beg grocer aid sr. state with a S apartheid syste subjects-SU. UESDAY, "Dedication to theme of the ac when the con St. gated; no leave employees of an
ent, or Corporat ly assential; Sept holiday. Over 4 most of whom from urbån scho a unique opթC out Mahaweli St first time at the ject this north will be elevate under a sepera orice the rev. Ur into force by th this year said the tion-CDN. The of Local Govt, if crease the imax housing loans gr partment of hous to Rs. 50,000 high cost of b Admissions to t Sri Lanka from ne be on a district

of Pope Jchin Paul. ons were killed and ted missing in severe Northern and Easaising the death reeks to nearly 900. an Smith last night di attended a Secret mbia but strongly had agreed to hand he Patriotic FrontPresident Idi Amin the British press at he was Snubbed rles at the State mo Kenyata-CDM. llor Bruno Kresiky Hague as describing in as a political ael as a political outh African style m for its Arab
露露譯°藍M醫醫R 5; work will be the tivites on Thursday itution is promulwill be granted to
у ministry, depart
tiel unies5 absolute8 will be a public 100 undergraduates, will be freshers ols are being given rtunity to carry tramadana for the Maduru Oya Pro1. All campuses d to universities te vice chancellor liversity law comes he end of October Minister of EducaPM and Minister Housing etc. will imum limit of the "anted by the deing from Rs. 40,000 in view of the uilding materials. he universities ir !xt year will stricty basis except for
Ŝri tian kaj Chreinicie
medical and engineering student
said the Minister of Education
CDM. Even students who are unable to pass the GCE 'O' level examination will in future get an opportunity of sitting the GCE 'A' level which is also the university entrance qualifying test. The government has given the greenlight for the French-based Bank of indoChina and -- Suez and the Britis
Bank of Credit and Commerce.
to open branches in Sri Lanka. Hulsdorf-the traditional seat of the judiciary in Colombo-is to be restructured with aid from UNDPSU. Children of plantation verkers, both males and females will be given first preference for jobs on the plantations according to a decision by the Ministry of Plantation industries-DP. The Ministry of Health is thinking of Sending the 700 odd doctors now working in the administrative section back to the wards-DM. The Minister of Trade has decided to start a mobile tractor repairing unit to effect repairs to tracters in the fields itself-DV. About 1,50,000 people
were feared swept away in West
Bengal and standing crops worth Rs. 100 million destroyed. Nicaragua’s cities viverse tense but quiet as a national strike designed to oust President. Somoza. A maintained its grip on the countryCDN. Tanzanian President Nyerere said that nothing was achieved at a second meeting last month between Rhodesian white minority leader lan. Smith and Patriotic Frofit co-leader Joshua Nkomo-SU.
WEPNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6: The Ceylon Cement Corporation
will meet the entire requirements
of cement for the Mahaweli Pro
ject, FTZ and the 100,000 housing
program of the government; this assurance was given by the Minister of industries who said that the
corporation had contracted with the Cement Research instituta of
23.

Page 25
Sri įtako 5 **Socialisif”*
India to expand its production program. The lindian High Commissioner visited some estates in the hill country and spoke to superintendents as well as repatriates and ascertained the various problems confronting them on the question of their leaving the country. The tradition prevailing in
- Sri Lanka of keeping sensitive state
decisions permanently secret is to be changed; a presidential Archives depository will be soon be set up on the lines of the Presidential Archives in America-CDN. The IMF has placed Sri Lanka-for the first time-in the category of countries that are worthy of consideration of Extended Fund Facility; this is a loan facility of further quotas of loans over the standby loans given to countries which have shown positive progress and development. The World Bank will finance the setting up of a 5,000 acre estate in the Moneragala district for growing sugar cane. The Executive Council of the CWC unanimously authorised its President Mr. S. Thondaman to accept the invitation extended to him by the President to join the CabinetCDM. There is much speculation of an Opposition member of the SLFP crossing over to join the government benches today-SU. The leader of the CWC is expected to take oaths as a Minister at 10 am today. Mr. S. Thondaman said that though he had joined the government there will be no change in his relationship with the TULF and that he was joining the government to work for the Tamils as well as the good of the people-VK. The Education Minister is taking steps to open 10 schools in Colombo and the suburbs before the end of next year-DM, The Customs have discovered a racket whereby millions of Rs. worth of foreign exchange is being sent out of the island through foreigners-LD. India's worst floods in recent years
25
have left hundr and upto 2 milli W. Bengal and pos to the national away. The Nicara has arrested businessmen and an attempt to national strike a President. Somoza. police officer wa Damascus in the of assassinations fear through the munity wielding | CDN. China which successful resista has ledged its c for Phnom PenhLeader Nkomo sai brought down a with 56 people ared Smith has lsrael radio repo office has got a Japanese group lsrael-Egypt US Sur Israeli airport unl nese guerilla Was seven deaths fest between police tors in various pa
--
SRI LANKA ABJ
Its Unsuc
Socialism
Sri Lanka (or Cey ! called) has put c mat for foreign
since the early 95 anything like it
developed countri trade zone has t manufactuers, eitt owned subsidiari Lankan partners.
five-year tax hol are allocated for initial downpayme

eds feared dead on homeless in sed a major threat capital 800 miles gual government 60 prominent politicians in crush a growing imed at ousting A high ranking s shot dead in latest of a string which haye Sent minority conipower in Syriahailed Cambodia's nce to Vietnam ontinued support -CDM. Guerilla ld his forces had Rhodesian airiner aboard and decgot to surrender. rted that PM's threat from a to sabotage the mmit and attack an ess a jailed Japafreed. At least ited from clashes aid demonstrarts of trail-SU.
--
ANDONS
cessful
on as it orice was but the welconie investors. Not 50s has there been among the lesses (LDCs). A free been set up for her 100% wholly es or with Sri They will get a iday. Plant sites 99 years for an int and 2 nominal
annual rent. Foreign banks are given carte blanche, including offshore facilities. But this is only the foreign face of a sweeping revolution in economic and political philosophy instituted by Sri Lanka's new President, Junius Richard Jayawardene.
Jayawarden2 has set out to reverse the direction of postwar Sri Lankan policy that turned his country from one of almost limitless possibilities on the eve of independence to a hotbed of social and political conflict. He is up against formidable obstacles. But he came into office less than a year ago with an overwhelming mandace-140 of the 168 seats in Parliament. He has style, 20 years of experience in party politics, and a group of eager and compete it young lieutenants.
Slowly, the World Bank and other international lenders have conne around to backing his effort to put his people to work. It is going to be one of the most interesting developments in the Third World over the next few years. And, despite Sri Lanka's particular circumstances, it could be an important model for other LDCs. Sri Lanka is one of the lowliest and most richly endowed countries. It seemed to have everything when independence came in 1948. Its principal crops and export earners were tea, copra, and timber, and they appeared to have promising long-term, if volatile, markets. Traditional Asian poverty had been ameliorated with welfare measures during World War I. Subsidized rice assured cheap food, Universal education up to 14 years was already on the statute book. There were virtually free medical services. Fair and open local elections had been held by the British since 1931, providing a basis for a democratic system.
But successive independent governments were imbued with a strange mixture of fabian Socialism, elitist
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1976

Page 26
claims to power, and racism. The nation also gave birth to the world's only successful Trotskyite party. By 1971, despite a massive left-wing electoral victory, 50,000 young men were imprisoned in a brief but bloody attempt to overthrow the government. A secessionist movement of the Tamil (South Indian)
population had grown up in the
north-eastern third of the island. And Sri Lanka's economy was a shambles, incapable of handling a doubling of the population by 1976 to 4 million.
The rice ration. Jayawardene's first move was to establish a presidential system, modeled on the U.S. and France. He felt that was necessary to get some unpopular measures past a Parliament that would otherwise knuckle under to pressure and consume time. Although the opposition leaders called this dictatorial, the fact is even they welcomed it for the same reasons. He withdrew the rice ration from families above a certain income level, which means half the country no longer gets subsidized food. For 20 years the very threat to do this had overthrown governments. Not it permits the government to turn 400 million rupees toward economic development. The sugar subsidy was also suspended. Jayawardene has had to concede periodic wage rises in both the public and private sector. And while prices have risen, shortages of essentials have disappeared. He has clamped down on luxury imports, and in some cases, prices for imported necessities have actually faller.
Jayawardene's policies have finally
brought a ground swell of support from international leading agencies
and foreign governments, with the possibility of bringing 900,000 virgin
acres under cultivation by irrigation and generating more than 2 billion kilowatt hours of electricity. World Bank is under pressure to
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978
been
The
telescope one of t year plan, into si opinion considers
but Jayawardene
countries ravaged Could rebuild qui can build quickly
of messianism has r public support. to placate the yo Colombo, for ext for parking meter
get 25% of the
signs with the nan capitals (garbage r his young constit their work. But million un employec force. He has pri break for the Tamils, of discrimination. the young rebels of them and a millic jobs.
Having gambledo both private and fr. ment banks--Jayayá, a race against him response viwill be er
FOR THE RECORD
U. L. F.
The following si issued by Left Front:
life under the U has become intole common man. Al that the UNP gave tions to make thi the people have bee action now I can di government from menting its anti-p

he schemes, a 30 x years. Expert this impossible, argues that if by World War II ickly, Sri Lanka
eceived enormous He has managed uth so far. In ample, uniforms attendants (who take) and street res of city block ren) have given Juents pride in there are 1.5 i, half the work omised an ever, who complained He has pardoned 1971, promising on other youths
f foreign support om the developardene running !. The foreign uciał.
Business Week
May 15, 1578.
+
Ea tennent - has the United
NP government Brable for the the promises in general elecngs better for n broken. Only eter the UNP further impleeople policies.
Sri Lanka’s “Socialism”
The prices of essential goods have reached an all-time high point -and continue to rise. Devaluation and the abolition of price control have made things even worse. The removal of rice ration books on the orders of the World Bank and the IMF and the increase in the prices of flour, sugar, medicines, exercise books, tinned and
powdered milk, dried fish and other items of mass consumption:
as well as the increased bus fares, have hit the poor and the middle class hard.
All these things have made a big out in the real wages and salaries of the employed. At the same time the shops are full of imported luxuries that only the rich can buy.
Now the UNP government plans new attacks on the ordinary Aman. it has promised the World Bank to remove consumer subsidies altogether within the next two years-and is doing so steadily. step by step. At the same time, it is attacking the democratic rights of the workers and the mass of the people by a number of dictatorial laws and by its ne av Constitution. it has resorted to mass dismissals, retrenchment and victimisation of employees in government depart
ments, corporations, and co-opera- tives.
To remain idle in such a situation
is fatal. Opposition can no longer
be expressed in public meetings and
private conversation alone. The United left Front calls on the peo
ple to demonstrate their active protest starting on 7th September 1978 when the new UNP Constitution comes into force. We call on the people to observe 7th September 1978 as a Day of Protest against the UNP government's attacks on the living standards and democratic rights of the people.
We invite them to assemble at
the Old Town Hall ground Colom
24

Page 27
“independence" of judges
"tb0 from i i.00 - am on "September 7th to manifest this protest.
Let us unitedly demand that the Government:-
(1) Gives everyone 4 lbs of rice each Week at Rs. per ib; (2) Guarantees every one a obasket of essential commodities at prices everyone can afford; (3) Provides the 'dole' to all unemployed, without discrimination; (4) Stops its attacks on trade union and democratic rights and withdraws undemocratic laws; and (5) increases wages and salaries by Rs. 50 a month to compensate for the cut a wages caused by devaluation and inflation.
The ULF appeals to all who want to see prices reduced and democratic rights restored to join us in this protest and in the other protest actions to follow.
Bernard Soysa General Secretary, LSSP. Pieter Ketu nenan General Secretary Communist Party of Sri Lanka. ist September, iz78
o o o o
BOOK REVIEW
Judges And The Law
THE POLITICS OF THE JUDICARY, BY J. A. G. GRIFFITHS (LONDONifoNTANA, 1978) 224 pp.
婆韋、25 PA評誓。
AM AND THE RISE o CAPITALSM. BY MICHAEL STIGAR AND MAĐELEINE sEVY NEW YORK AND LONDON, MONTHLY REVIEW PRESS, 1977). 320 PP. 蠱9.75。
in 1900 a newspaper editor published an article about a High
Court judge whi mitted was "intemp ungentlemanly, an due to his Lords office." Only a most senior judges they were 'satisf public opinion attac derogatory of the Sf. Aubyn 899 AC this policy was r editor/writer was the courts for cor heavily fined (R. 2 QB 36) and it wa the same thing v anyone else who were not imparti.
Twenty-six years of the New State same charge-cont published an articl Stopes and the bir paigners that with Justice Avory arol aire : so : many Avo not expect a fair was found guilty pay the -total costs ings (828 44 TLR According a to theory judges are impartial, to act Idently of govern able to exclude f sione making their racial and other pe prejudices. This t of judges must b all costs. If it goes cording ito one o is that it "excites of the people a faction with all juc tions and indispos to obeys them' (R. Wilmot's Opinions the law, therefore, question of se conse what is right; mc gical imperatives obeys or not is a tics and power, if

*h he リeP リ= berate, impreper, i void of respect hip's person and year before the S had stated that ied to leave te cks, or comments, em" (Meleod v. 541,55). Now eversed and the brought before tempt. He was V. Gray 1900 S-made clear that would happen to
al.
later the editor sman faced the empts He had e warning Marie th control came judges like Mr. and (and there rys') they could hearing. He and ordered to of the proceed307). the traditional supposed to be quite indepenment, and å be rom their decisocial, -political, Senal biases and heory and image e maintained - at , the is effect, acld Chief Justice, s in the minds general dissatisicial determinaes their minds v. Almon - 765 243). Obeying is no longer a ience or doing rals and ideolodisappear. To 1uestion of poliyou are strong
you get away with it; if you are weak you get annihilated. -
Today judges cannot defend their "independence' by resort to their contempt powers. Their position
is much more vulnerable and at
tacks on their impartiality much more common. Last year 2 group of women invaded the Criminal Court of Appeal protesting vigorously at that court's freeing of a soldier rapist. The bewildered judges retreated quickly. In the old days you could be locked up for suggesting they were biased, prejudiced and unfair. Those days have clearly gone. is
Professor Griffith's book is devoted to showing, from a detailed examination of a large nur“ ber of judge's decisions, that they are not impartial. its great merit is its clear-cut rejection of the traditional theory in a manner which will make it difficult for his opponents to refute. The author, who teaches at the London School of Economics has clearly spent a large part of his teaching career reading and discussing the decisions of English High Court judges over a very wide area. Essentially what he has done is to arrange these into different topics-industrial relations, police powers, race relations and immigration, contempt of court, secrecy, property rights and Squatting, and the attitudes of the judges to moral behaviour, demonstraticns, students and trade unionists. His conclusions are the honest, sober and courageous assessments of someone steeped in the legal tradition. He suggests that it is the function of a judge, whatever the economic system, to ur cerrin the Stability of that syste m and to protect it from attack by resisting attempts to change it. have a lot of criticisms of what he writes, particularly of the sections on race and immigration, which could be far more damning.
TRSUF E, September 16, 4978

Page 28
There are also some enormous gaps-nothing on women and no assessment of the judges' role in criminal trials. The case by case method, too, has some un satisfying features, in that it tends to remove decisions from their social and historical setting, it is, for example, unsatisfactory to deal with judges and the police withOut discussing the function of the police in a capitalist country and the particular history of the British state. But when he finally tries to place his conclusions in a coherent theoretical framework he gets seriously bogged down. He says he cannot accept a Marxist analysis, because in Russia judges are subservient to the state and perform essentially the same functions as western judges, albeit more open, and more authoritarian. It follows, therefore, that such a function is not peculiar to capitalism and hence cannot be explained by Marxist theory. This is the old mistake of equating Marxism with what has happened in Russia. Arguing from such a fallacy does not, however, prevent Professor Griffiths reaching the conclusion that all the judges that we know of in the world today are state functionaries. But it does stop him understanding why in some countries, like the USA or Britian, judges find it so necessary to emphasize their impartiality and say they are working for the good of the whole community. This has nothing to do with judicial goodwill or the British charac. ter, as some would have it, or the peculiarities of the rule of law, but has been forced on judges by a powerful working-class movement whose interests cannot be ignored in buying their general acceptance of the legal system. A failure to recognize that, it seems to me, leaves us in the realms of wishful thinking; either judges ought to be more impartial than they are and then the world would be a
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
better place; or Stars that we liv US rather than c totalitarian couri
Nevertheless, shortcomings, th tion is a treme ready it has set the judicial p defenders. it ha the threatened lawyers of Judge at the Old Bailt dibly biased sum case on inciteme And in the Daily ary 1978) it has
"Bible for the bour's new bact and called “dar dious".
it is not alt that a book of appear at this People like Pro not voice such they are informe currents that w say is what lar, population are are receptive to a SeriouS attack which underpins a time when th openly attacked rent sections of in Britain today. of the century for the first ti cessions to gro'
power. The sta afford to h did not disgu
class biases. Bu ing things up. had to be revet lation e.g. Tra
1906).
The difficultie. dealing with t ments of their o up by a senior is very difficult

we thank our lucky e in Britain or the one of those ghastly tries, etc.
despite these ne book’s publicaen dous event. Al... the cat amongst igeons and their s been linked with boycott by black McKinnon's Court ey after his in Creming up in a recent int to racial hatred. Expres 5 (15 Februbeen likened to a members of Lakbench inquisition gerous' and 'insi
ogether surprising this kind should particular time. fessor Griffiths do conclusions unless d by existing social that they have to ge sections of the already saying or He is producing on the ideology judicial power at at power is being by widely diffethe working class At the beginning udges were forced me to make conwing working-class te could no longer lave judges Who. ise their rulingt they kept botchDecisions they made “sed by new legis
lde Disputes Act
s judges had in he new require
ffice were summed judge in 1920: "it sometimes to be
"independence' of Judges
sure that you have put yourself into a thoroughly impartial posi
tion between two disputants, one of your own class and one not of your class' (Scrutton L. J. to Cambridge University Law Society, 8 November 1920). In the end the judges and enhance their reputation by a general withdrawal from any kind of judicial activism, especially in industrial relations, and from any kind of open political alignment.
This was fine while workingclass power was largely channelled through trade unions in the factory and the Labour Party in the community. But it did not satisfy businessmen who disliked an outof-touch judiciary. They wanted, and from about 1955 got, a judiciary which was more responsive to their needs. At the same time, as the working class broke away increasingly from the grip of the union leadership and the Labour Party in the late 1950s and 1960s, the aid of the judges was increasingly sought to curb the new activity and to define the frontiers of the new social truces being enacted by Parliament or negotiated by the unions. Time and again the judges' ideas of how much the state is willing to concede have failed to come up to the expectations of one or another section of the population. The result
has been an increasing crescendo
of criticism and abuse. Whole sets of laws were openly defied in the early 1970's (industrial and housing) and some attempt was made in Parliament to remove from office one of the judges principally involved. Shortly before, the partiality of judges in criminal
trials had been exposed-and new
levels of defiance of judicial authority reached-in the Mangrove trial. More recently there has been the
invasion already referred to of the
Criminal Appeal Court by Women
26
managed to preserve
59ܢ

Page 29
against Rape. Undoubtedly Professor Griffith's book provides ammunition for these Struggles, just as they have put him in a position
where he can safely put his con
clusions on public view.
Michael Tigar and Madeleine Levy's Law and the Rise of Capitalism is a different kind of book. Within its 320 pages the author attempts to do many things. For example, they have tackled the question of how law can be used to effect social change-what they call the development of a "jurisprudence of insurgency', which roughly translated means that lawyers will lead the revolution, because they will be able to tell the rest of us that bourgeois law cannot satisfy our needs. They have tried to solve the problems of the individual lawyer committed to social change. Basically this means battling as a lawyer to see that people are not deprived of the civil liberties guaranteed in the US constitution and pointing out how raedily the bourgeoisie depart from their own ideology. And they describe the need for "a group challenging the old order to formulate its own jurisprudence against that of the old order. The underlying assumption here is that the new postrevolutionary society towards which we are heading will still be dependent on law as a vital means of social control, and will still need a coercive state apparatus, headed no doubt by the radical lawyers, to keep us in control, but also to defend whatever civil liberties we may retain under the new System.
This theoretical mish-mash apart, the substance of the book traces how the ideas of bourgeois law grew within feudalism, competed with it and finally overcame it. This is its most valuable section, based on serious historical research.
27
Here Tigar and Lo with a wealth of feudal law was qu from the bourgeois replaced it—and si bourgeois state. T the development of in the emergence of tions of production cular, they link cor the development of t modity production. li they lay the basis fic of the fundamental of bourgeois law te seeing what it is that in the new society. not carry out th
What they pick light from the bour, against feudalism are liberties—the right te process etc. Becaus they are basically people, they fasten c pect of emergent bout and say that these g of value today and
fended. Quite right say nothing of the impact of working
on civil liberties. Sot ties, such as the rig and the right to due be directly traced feudal conflicts, but rights of assembly, r rent and security of to organize etc., are creation of workingand power-our triumphs if you like.
Secondly, the authc ing to say about thc lationships and forms trol which were not were taken over an impetus by capitalism particular to those maintained the subc tion of women in m and the home and pen

avy illustrate,
material, that lite different
law which milarly the ney also root
bourgeois law
capitalist relaand, in partitract law to rade and comother words, or an analysis characteristic oday and for will disappear But they do is analysis.
bn and high
geois struggle the new civil 5 silence, due Se, li suspect, civil liberties bf to thiS asgeois Society, gains are still
But they 2 subsequent -class power me civil liberht to silence proceSS, can o bourgeois/ others, like ght to a fair tenure, right entirely the class struggle transitional
rs have nothse feudal reof legal conrejected but given new refer in laws which rdinate posirriage, family
lized through
"Independence" of Judges
rape, prostitution and illegitimacy laws any atempts to escape from the imposed female role. We cannot speak of law and the rise of capitalism without giving these a central place; yet they are not even mentioned.
Thirdly, having said much about the development contractual relations, Tigar and Levy miss entirely their crucial impact. These did not just regulate the relations of merchants involved in commodity exchange. They also became the formal expression of the key relationship between the emergent male working class and their Capitalist masters. These contracts had four characteristics: (1) they were made between people who contracted on a basis of equality; (2) both were free, not serfs or slaves, though in the case of the
working class they were also "free"
from any means of producing or of subsisting outside of this "freely' entered relationship; (3) both were exchanging property-the workers' bodies or minds for the capitlists' wage, and (4) the exchange was to the mutual advantage of each. From this contractual base stems the idea of the social contract, the system of parliamentary democracy which builds on it and the notion that the state represents the will and free consent of the whole population.
And why is this contractual development so important? First, because it is one of the pivots of the whole legal system, as I have briefly outlined. Secondly, because, as Marx carefully explained in Capitall, it is the form which masks the source of profit or Surplus value and thus the exploitation of the working class. Why? Because at any given standard of living the working class create more value through their work than they need to live on through their wage or lack of it. Class struggle is the
TRIBUNE September 9, 1978

Page 30
struggle to alter the terms of this relationship. It is the function of all law, including that which deals with civil liberties, to maintain the conditions in which the con tinued exploitation of the class can go on under the guise of freelyentered, mutually - advantageous contracts, supervised by a democfatically - elected government which looks after all our interests. From this short account hope I make my position clear. see no fundamental change in the way we relate to our fellow human beings, which does not involve the abolition of all law as we know it. Let me approach the same question in a different way. In a famous passage in his Preface to a Critique of Political Economy, Marx says: "No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed. (Tigar and Levy demonstrate this very concretely in their historical section dealing with feudalism), and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions of their existence have matured with in the framework of the old society.'
So it is undoubtedly true that new legal forms which would predominate in bourgeois society appear during the existence of feudal society and eventually replace them. That is really the thesis of Tigar and Levy's book. But the new bourgeois society is still a class society which needs laws and a repressive state apparatus to maintain the dominance of the new ruling class. What is valid for the transition from feudalism to capitalism is then crudely transplanted by our authors into present-day conditions. Because bourgeois lawyers had a big role to paly in the tansition from feudal law to bourgeois law, the authors presuppose an equally big role in the transie
TRIBUNE, September 6, 1978
tien ties a mi Behind all that an assumption We shall still of production gonistic form, i. of a dominant by a state a Obviously in shall still mee laws and lawye is the position bourgeois forn the last antag social process last class Societ not to develop dence against t but to identify the class again
The Temple, London.
Scribb ings
Buttala 01
In the 3rd ce a junction tow the South and north, called Buttala. But on bad days, so might say that good". Depen look at it. A me and said th of koliküttü plaj very morning town, but 't for Rs. 81-' T the boy wasp and was told küttu'. --
W-cafe a people în vit
 
 
 
 
 

-capitalist society. they write there is hat after capitalism Ive a social process hich takes an antas which the interests lass are maintained d legal apparatus. uch a society we
our civil liberty.
s. Against that view of Marx that the of production is inistic form of the of production, the . The task then is our own jurispruat of the old order the human needs of it all jurisprudence. lan Macdonald Courtesy; Race
Sastra-14
On Uva Villages
tury BC, there was in between Tissa in Anuradhapura in the guttahalaka, today's Buttala has fallen me might say, others it never "had it so ds on which way you poor peasant boy met
to a boutique in the hat they sell a comb hat same afternoon, resved true. If inquired Rs. 8j- "honda koli
این به بیانجی: (چخی
nd Hotel d A-drew h their baring 46ud
(drg 3.
speakers which seemed earners. So was the roaring trade done by two unassuming, matter-offact sellers of Kurumba at 75 cts a nut and thambili, kingcoconut at 1/75 a nut. The empty shells were rolled on over to a side. All the 'nuts' that looked up to the heavens, mean the “polkombe” or the empty shell, had collected water and the inevitable mosquite larvae in them. Then might come the DDT man or the Malathion man. In fact flies were having a gay time
on that stinking garbage dump
then someone wonders why so many poor peasants and villagers have bad stomachs and why they constantly make the trek to doctorless hospitals and drugless dispent saries. The garbage area in this 3rd century BC town under review, was 15ft by 12ft, which is sizeable, but it was right in the middle of the busstand. The seat for waiting passengers was a fallen down Mara tree which had no "sittable' seat on its trunk. Every bus had to send its four tyres into a twenty-foot long rut which divided the road from the stand, and the passengers always get bent in three or four at th. un-solemn moment, as if they have forgotten to take gripe water or are having the cramps That ruit did not feel too lonely. it had a companion which collected water, and muid and cow duing, 8ft by 10ft, a gaping hole which Somhow the area leaders had missed.
To cap it all, I met another little lad, let's call him Chandradasa, who
said his school had Îl teachers and - ܕ ܪܝ . at he sold a bunch ntains for Rs. 8|- that
2 classes, but that the "arithmetic was difficult and the English inadequate and not liked by him." Then, on his own, he went on : "I would prefer if they told us the different kinds of rice and what to use for them. I do not like to use urea for my plants, because it is Rs. 40/- per sack. I am going to stop "Demexin”, for I saw ugly stories
28
વૃદિk .
ܠ ܐ

Page 31
about it in the paper. I read at least one paper at the kade". A fifteenyear old kad and rather spirited. His father had a few "liyadde" (plots of paddy) but he and nis father worked on another's forty liyadi.
Go and see Buttala some day, if you have the time. Old glory must surely have belonged to it (I don't mean the flag of a certain country) in its halcyon days when elephants walked and made tracks which were dead-straight (since elephants dislike the zig-zag). Those became cart-tracks and then gamsabha roads, then tarred roads, and now, in the twentieth century the road is so badly made that no buses go that way to Kataragama, they say.
O O O
LETTERS
Pledges
Sir, . . .
With reference to the above published in your journal dated June 10, 1978 the fifth pledge reads: "I will treat every citizen of Sri Lanka alike and give him or her equal opportunities to progress", and the sixth pledge reads:-" will offer to the minority, specially to the Tamil-speaking people, who are citizens an equal place in every sphere of life."
in view of this one may ask whe was responsible for not complying with these pledges, when quite recently a new inspector-General of Police was appointed, ignoring the claims of a Tamil officer, who was senior to him.
J. Van Sanden
4, Westdale court, Victoria .3087, Australia. July 22, 1978.
Tea Produce Workers Da
Slir,
A great deal has press during the p the demand for Sri at its peak, that pri ing all records a earnings from tea 47 per cent of th earnings during months of this ye. true but the teap danger of being tax tence and the tea ple face oss of full er
... On the 6th of la Mr. Ananda Dassa for Kotmale and N Sally, the MP for ferred in the Natio bly on the 4th Jul in which small tea wrote to the pr ject giving facts . prove the dire stra tea producers were controlled press at press did not pul although His Excel sident, and the
Minister have oft they would welco criticism. . Matter, worse since then holders as also, for kers who are bei days work by esta keep down costs which is unfair be majority of estate their ration books were estimated, number of day's y red to them. A l rural folk who o of acres of even also lost their ra cause the Govern mated that one acı bring them aa inco
 

s And nger
appeared in the ast week about Lanka tea being ces were breakld that export alone reached he total export the first four ar. All this is roducers are in ked out of exisbntation workers implöyment.
ist month, after nayake, the MP 1. M. S. Aboo Balangoda renal State Assemy to the plight holders were, ess of the suband figures, to its in which the 2 but the stateld the liberated blish my letter lency, the PreHon’ble Prime en stated that me constructive s have become for small tea tea eState Wor= ng offered less tes in order to of production :cause the great a workers lost as their wages on a calculated fork being offelarge number of wned a couple indifferent tea tion books bemenat them estire of tea would me of Rs. 1,800
per acre which they do not get row.
As Mr. Aboo Sally pointed out, the large Agency Houses no longer exist to agitate and ask for rebates etc., and all large estates are now Government-owned.
if Government owned estates make losses it will only be a book entry and the taxpayers will have to keep those estates going it is not so with the small tea holders and other private owners who will be ruined financially if the flat rate of Export Duty of Rs. 1620 per kg. of tea and the ad valorem tax of 50%, which operates when the price of tea is in excess of Rs. 10 15 per kilo which, after the last budget is about the cost of production of | a kilo of tea now, are continued
with.
The Minister of Finance, Mr. Ronnie de ኮ1e1 has stated that he imposed the high rate of Export Duty to siphon off the windfall profits tea exporters would have earned on forward contracts entered into prior to the last budget when the unification of exchange rates came into force. Over nine months have now passed since the last budget. Does this reason still exist for continuing the ex| tortionate Export Duty of Rs. 16/20 per kilo of tea irrespective of the Price fetched by tea, which alone works out to RS. I/63 per pourd of green leaf? lf, as the Minister states unscrupulous exporters måde vindall prisfits totalling over Rs. 80,000,000- surely the government is powerful enough to bring them to book without penalising producers? I do not hold a brief for tea exporters and leeches of the Tea lindustry but I am concerned about the fate of the producers on whom all coocerned must depend for the goods to be produced, as also the workers who participate in production to earn a living.
TRIBUAE, September 6, 1978

Page 32
Although I am only a jungle wallah with 39 years' tea planting experience which cannot be coni" pared with the academical and other qualifications of the young, bright and enthusiastic Minister of Finance, I do not agree with the reasons adduced by him for the "decline in demand' for medium grown teas which amount to nearly 35 per cent of the total production of tea and all of which, except the quantity consumed locally, is exported attracting an export duty alone of Rs. 16120 per kilo apart from other taxes. I shall quicole figures to illustrate the point at issue. From Ist January to 9th August 1977 i.e. before the high export duty of Rs, 16/20 was imposed in November 1977, the gross High Grown average price of tea was Rs. 18/04 per kilo and the nett price i.e. after payment of the ad valorem tax was Rs. 5101 per kilo. Medium Growns fetched Rs. 16/18 gross and Rs. 13/27 nett per kilo for the same period-not much of a difference between the price of High and Medium Grown teas. The figures for the period 1st January to 8th August this year after the imposition of the Export Duty were; High Grown Gross Average–Rs. 13/03, nett average– Rs. 110. The Medium Grown averages for the same period were; Gross Average Rs. 10148 and Nett Average Rs. 9/48. It will be seen from the above figures that the difference between the High Grown Nett Average and the Medium Grown Nett Average was
only RS ||53 per kilo which was
not much of a difference in these days of inflation. The fact is that
up to 8th August this year, the
producers of medium grown teas have so far received only Rs. 9/48 per kilo of tea which is below the cost of production but medium grown teas have been sold and exported at Rt. 26/66 per kilo
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978.
i.
(Rs. I 0/48 gro 16/20 export di the Governm 17/18 per kile tea at Source a ducers to have kilo and suffer out a normal
The produce rious situation the Governmen fait rate of E 16/20 per kile teas selling at paid by an oil party, as well portable teas per kilo, should diately to that and, in view C cost of produ which the ad becomes payab to about Rs.
To make mai the prices of tures i were jac. 100 per cent : last month (Jul of Tea Chests 35 per cent sir My supplier wr that, as there v traders could any price they supplier also st of tea chest was Rs. 5/84 fo for halves but at that price Trading (Gener Selling linings 2 And I had no o higher price. Ils by liberalisatio Return to the the Governmen There is s among small private Tea Fac apprised the and the Chairm about the latte

SS average plus RS.
uty). In other words
ent has taken Rs. D of medium grown ind allowed the pro2 only Rs. 9/48 per losses if they carried programme of work. rs are facing a sebrought about by it's fiscal policy. The xport Duty of Rs. b which applies to Rs. 850/- per kilo rich Sheik for a tea as off-grade but exselling at Rs. 37d be altered immeof a sliding scale of the present high ction, the price at valorum Sales Tax le, should be raised | 5/50 per kilo. tters more difficult, Tea Fertiliser Mix sked up by almost as from the 1st of y). And the price have gone up by ce the last budget. ote me this month was no price control sell tea chests at wished. And the ated that the price inings on 718, 1978
r fulls and Rs. 4/84
were not available and that the State al) Corporation was t Rs. 10/- per set tion but to pay the
this what is meant of Trade and a Open Market, I ask
2 יי פי
eething ea producers and Iory owners- have Tea Commissioner in of the Tea Board r-and I think the
discontenti
Our Readers
time is now ripe for the Executive President to give orders for remedial action to be taken as the voters placed their confidence in him and look up to him for justice and fair play.
| regret to end this letter on the dismal note that, in my opinion the Island's production of tea this
year will fall below that of last
year for which the last regime of which was no supporter, should not be blamed, which all politicians of all sides normally do, and the people are now tired of hearing such talk-they want action and not words and lame excuses.
Robert are Monte Cristo Estate, Nawalapitiya. 25th August 1978
O 0. o
On Sin
Sir,
keep thinking could lose my
soul. See, I am fairly comfortably off and all the goodies they keep importing - Mars Bars - I can buy, I can enjoy. It tempts me to let my conscience go to sleepAfter all, why should protestI who have it so good. But A keep thinking and thats dangerous for my physical well-being, for when think of this isle of ours-then grow dismayed. for, whilst and some few others too besides, are well-fair well-do well-there's
plenty around to disturb my peace.
Fisrt, look at all the poor folksmasses of them-poorly fedpoorly clothed-hardly afford one good meal a day-so thin and poorly nourished. Next, when I stop in my 7 Sri car, large numbers of children-ages 4 to 14 years-touch it, push it, and feel their veiled threats to my security. They tell me there are plans to take the Beggars off the streets.
30.
able to
- استفا

Page 33
From Our Readers
With the approach to Children's Year I wish we had more resolute plans before they drift into a life of crime and dissipation! So many of them lounging around on so many streets.
Aeons back, when the SLFP was in power, commented that among the folks under suspicion for Bribery and Corruption-no members of the Government Ruling Party had been involved. suggested that perhaps they had all been "immaculately conceived". It still remains true of the present Party in Power. All apparently immaculately conceived whilst alas, their immediate predecessors in office, it is now reported, did know sin like the rest of us
Reminds me of something read from C. S. Lewis's “Screwtape Letters'. Wormwood calls Satanic Headquarters-his Ward has become a Christian-"No problem, if you handle him properly, he is still ours' -Headquarter's reply 'When next in Church tempt him to look around and ask' is that rogue a Christian, that Butcher who sells underweight, a member of the faithful etc-how can this bunch of Sinners dare to claim membership in Christ's Church-You will ask won't he ask of himself also the same question'? "My friend, 'Satan replies, 'if you handle him correctly such a thought will never enter his head'-Screwtape letters ought to be required reading for all MPs, and folks in authority.
Dr. Bryan de Kretser
Hendala. 25.7.78
3, .
Sir,
Rice An
Writing on Rice CDN Editor on 2. up with two su below are his ow "it is surprising its use has become monplace it is to man's staple diet village boutique ir It is even more su how ready we a bread often made poor quality, stale fr of shipment acros; miles, of lying in in various stores ar try.'
have to eat bread inspite of it being ". Staple diet" or inst "made from flour stale from long m ment across thousa simply because of
would certainly pre String-hoppers turn rice flour. How eat a well baked morning, instead of Stale flour
Looking at the pli government that ha hand to subsidise to while on the other
massive developm like the acceler: Scheme, undertake
fore in the history c We must make a 5 like changing our f
This kind of attit could be made easie media of this coun people to their c speak the truth quite out writing nonesen
V. 4 Panadura.
(D

d Four
and Flour, the
8.1978 has come rprises Quoted
words.
how universal and how comfind the white in the remotes this country. Arprising to sea e to consume from four of om long months S thousands of ..he harbour, or ound the coun
in the morning the white man's pite of it being of poor quality Ionths of shipnds of milles" tS convenience. sfer to eat some ed out of local would relish to hopper in the
bread made of
redicament of a S on the one
feed its nation hand undertake
ent projects ated Mahayeli never be
of this country, imple sacrifice bod habits. udinal changes *r if the mass try takes the onfidence and 2 frankly withSe.
K• Wijeratina
P. O. E. M.
Oh to be a buffalo
Man is a mere cypher in the vastness of the universe. Yet he rushes about, strives, fights, grabs, kills, rapes, plunders, accumulate5, and ultimately dies. When he does, notýring remains
neither his body vir hii; scu, Grid win the leaves be: ind- worldly gains-ma.ely cause the ones he leaves beiind to fight. Why does a man struggle so without a purpose? Why is he cruel and callous when ther is
70 resi 50f to be? I do not understand. Give me a calm life, a peaceful life, where there is
no reason to run, to strive, to hoard.
would much rather be a buffalo. Ohl to be
able to close my eyes and wallow in water and feel neither rain nor sun nor storm. To remain forever in peaceful tranquility where the strifes of men will not reach me
nor penetrate my thick hide To think of nothing gave perhaps the way to win a lady
buffalo's heart
Casava
TRIBUNE, September 16, 1978.

Page 34
Confidentially
is T NOT A FACT that Elephana: House (EH) has notified at least one large local producer of broiler chicken that in view of the glut of chicken meat-both imported and local-that EH will y ay fifty cents (50 cts) less per pound and that the decreased price would be effective from a date six or seven weeks earlier than the date of the letter? That EH being one of the biggest buyers and retailers is in a position to dictate the price to the local producers? That it is now in a position to do this more effectively than before because of the unlimited imports of meat that government has allowed? That what is significant is that in i spite of paying iess to the producer (frem a backdated point of time), the price has not been decreased for the consumer that the government's free import policies only enables big giant firms like EH to make profits at the expense of the producer as well as the consuer that Tribune had predicted that this would happen? That in our issue of August 9, 1978 (Vol. 23 No. 8), the piece on THE 臀4= poRTED MEAT RACKET concluded thus: “... that there is a sus picion in knowledgeable circles that EH will drop their prices to local producers in order to preserye and en large imports? lihat ຍຸກໂeSS the government steps in with moře realistic import policies in the matter of frozen produce, Tribute forecasts a gloony future for the local producers..."? That the time has come for the government to take firm and immediate action to end this racket where foreign livestock farmers are being made richer by being paid fabulous prices by local importers (may be eysi, gja inflated invoices), a* pri
ຂຶ78
උes which are ඒe ducers. That in t siis it is the loo pays moře becau products will at least about doubl That now that a
been created-wi son like Thondar
to look after all tock and allied s roof, there will to step up liv in a big way? Th production will ments, incentive portunities with That vyf here3S ñall duction will tak come up to SC eggs will come double quick ti (with higher n for importerS YN mutton, lamb
will act as a m2 local productior of meat, includ to have been time when the had already tak the demand 2 only helped to by 40% to 50
S T ALSO N government hi ha Second thought lised'import now is seems to lusionment ab ports? That vyhigh We scai (there are a 1ar matters on whi relates to the
and chillies T. Trade influence a neo-comprad upon a time, lon consumers had
pay Rs. 40 for and Rs. 5 for
and that for
should be imp

nijed to local prohe ultimate analya copasumer vi ho se imported meat all times be at le the local price? new Ministry has th a capable perman at the hekhi
aspects of lives ubjects under one be no difficulty estock production at broiler and egg espond to induce s, inputs and opin a short time eat and milik proe a few years to atch, broilers and on the market in me? That imports nargins of profits ho retail) of beef, and chicken meat jor impediment to 2 That imports ing i broillers, SeeM fiberalised' at a poultry industry ten steps to riseet that imports have push up local prices %? of . A FACT that is begun to have s about its liberaolicies? That there be growing disilbut the free inanother matter oil Say “we-Said-So' ge number of other ich we can Say this) imports of oitions
hat the Ministry of
2d by the logic of bre class that once, g, longago, Colombo
been compelled to a pound of chillies a pound of se onions
this reason there orts of both items
愛reise浮。●。リ。
to check the greed of producers (and only incidentally the middlemen)? That chillies, onions and potatoes were imported in such large quantities that mot only prices were forced down but producers were also compelled to stop growing these items? That Tribne had for months uttered warnings that local farmers (of onions and chillies) vill go ott of production, but pundits in 電醬委 government furnished semi-bogus out-of-date statistics 莺hat 建鞘会 cost of production of a pound of chillies was Rs. 4,50 and that Rs. 6- was an adequate return fer the producer (though the producer never got this price) That it was therefore necessary to import about 1000 tons of dried chillies as a buffer stock to make farmers behave themselves. That instead of a minimal 000 tons, Tribune is aware that over 5500 tons of dried chillies have already been imported so far this year? That most of the imports were of a poor third grade quality and were sold at the same price as for the selected grade ene local chillies? That the anti-climax to the chillies and onions melodrama came recently when Deputy Trade Minister Amarasiri went in sack clothes and ashes to the growers of and chillies in the North to assure them that there would be no tiere imports? That this reversal of policy in the imports of foodstuffs is an admission of the total failure లి the initial policies of the Ministry That this comes too late to make
amends this year? That there is the
danger, however, that importer
mudalalis vill stampede politicians
and bureaucrats into importing chillies and onions to meet possible wet season shortages
That if this should happen-as it well can-then the country will have to depend on imported chillies and onions (and other foods tuffs also) for the rest of time
萎

Page 35
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