கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1978.09.30

Page 1
Vol. 23 No. 14 - September 30, 1
 
 


Page 2
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Page 3
es
Letter From CRe ETÒitor
THE PICTURE ON THE COVER reflects the peace and I prevails in this country at all times except when in pe I 'storm. In the second half of this century, Sri Lanka periods turmoil, unfortunately at increasingly frequent our purpose to recount the periods of civil commotion w this country since the Hartal of August 1953. Nor do we to the communal disturbances of May 1958 or August I great damage has been done to the economy of this coun resort to strikes especially in the years after 1956 economic demands but also to promote political ends ( to subserve personal pique). Whereas governments har one election to another on the crest of one tamasha te from one gimmick to another or from one gundu to an had sought to gather strength and punch by leapfroggi another. It was only when the United Front was in pc a serious attempt was made to prevent strikes by free demands (the LSSP's famous 21 demands went into perm and by seeking to eliminate political strikes under the sl 'reactionary conspiracies to topple a progressive ge United Front of the SLFP, LSSP and CP did succeed in re minimum, but when the Front disintegrated in 1975 s became the order of the day. The UNP Government of whilst granting the right to strike as a fundamental right has rightly pointed out that if the strike weapon was us especially for political ends like toppling elected govern time, it would retard economic growth. The Governm taken up the position that the token general strike sched 23 (this note is being written on 23/9 whilst the paper w stands on 3019) was a politically-motivated strike intend the Government. The Joint Trade Union A (led mainly by the LSSP's CFL) has been at pains to ass: economic strike for higher wages to meet the higher c. Government's answer is that it has already increased the of the people of lower income brackets in a number of w already undertaken to effect massive increases in wages will be tabled on November 5. Governmental spoke the Opposition groups want to take the credit for we Government has promised to introduce in the next Bud token strike. Whatever anyone may say, the token str
28 has come to be regarded as a political confrontation
(and its present allies) and the ULF and its forme The Jayewardene Government, which has shown a weakness f. to cope with such broblems of confrontation, has issued rind those who keeþ off from work on September 28 will ipso facto | would be immediately filled up from the ranks of the unemplo said than done. The Government has mobilised its entire : forces in a massive show of strength. The Government well to play a low-profile role after issuing its ultimatur lose your jobs whether in the public or private sector.
has mounted a propaganda onslaught of such over-kill m the JTUAC that has benefited by it-it has received allcould not have got otherwise. The ULF and the TUA. much as the Government (and the economy of the count ture and untimely strike on September 28 (which some adventurist). (POSTSCRIPT. The strike was cated of

calm that generally riods of strife and has witnessed such intervals. It is not hich have overtaken 2 want to hark back 1977. Besides these, try by the endless not only to secure (and at times even ye tried to go from } another tamasha, other, Left parties ng one strike over wer (1970-75) that zing the economic nament deep-freeze) Logan of liquidating byernment.' The ducing strikes to a strikes once again
J. R. Jayewardene in the Constitution ed indiscriminately, ments before their ment has therefore uled for September fill be on the newed to de-stabilise Action Committee ert that it was an Ost of living. The : purchasing power ays and that it has in the Budget that smen suggest that ge increases the get by staging this rike on September between the UNP r ally, the SLFP.
pr Ov erkil Strategy
my threats: that all lose their jobs which yed. This is sooner armed and security would have done m . . . . . . . . work or The Government agnitude that it is island publicity it C stand to lose as try) by the premaleftists have called ff on 25/978).
Ceylon News Review
founded in 954
A Journal of Ceylon and
World Affairs
Editor S. P. Amarasingam Every Saturday
September 30, 1978 Vol. 23 No. 4
TRIBU NE
43, DAWSON STREET, C O L O M B O - 2,
CONTENIS
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK -Strike That Never was p. 2 SRİ LANKA CHRONICLE
-Sept. 12-Sept. 16 p. 5 iNTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS -Camp David, China p. 9
THE WORLD TODAY --lndia Bangladesh
THE NEW CONSTITUTION -Dr. A. J. Wilson's Views p. 9
DIOGENES AGAIN
-In The Tub р. 22 ACID BOMB EXPLOSION-16
p. 22 HIGH COST OF LOVING-2
р, 26
p. 3
--Police Inquiries
-Suicide
AMERICAN FILM FETIVAL
-Review 27
LETTER - -From Our Readers p’ 28 conFIDENTIALLY. -Sugar Cafe i oains p. 32
事

Page 4
EDTOR'S NOTEBOOK
The Strike That Never Was
THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE of this column last week was 'the argument of the CFL is defensive and apologetic, quibbling that the September 28th token strike was not political but economic.' The CFL statement was cited by us in full. It was in reply to the Government charge that the strike was politically-motivated and that it was intended to be the first of a series of extra-parliamentary steps by the ULF and some trade unions to topple the Government which had been duly elected.
Instead of arguing that the right to strike was absolute, whether it be a political or economic strike, the CFL statement was an anaemic and circumlocutory one to say that the 28th September strike was only in support of the economic demands of the workers. This (CF.’s) argument does not seem to have carried weight even with many of the trade unions which the Joint Trade Unions Action Committee (ITUAC) claimed to represent.
in the course of last week, Union after Union issued statements disassociating themselves from the proposed strike. This may have been in some measure due to big stick and powerful i overkill measures and propaganca the Government had launched no sooner the JTUAC had announced the proposed strike, but there is also no doubt that the workers in the organised trade unions even under the control of the Oppesition Parties and groups-the SLFP, LSSP, CP, CMU and splinter Left groups like Shanmugathasan's, Vasudeva's and DharmasekèFas S were nöt för
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1979.
a strike tat opolitical". El faction and gr plenty-they w when the UF and CP were
970 and 1977is such that the workers are not
ing to start a ba ernment at this has already in key sectors, hac dole to unemplo hold eut premis ment and yet hi; Moreoyer, the and CP which in calling this not seem to-as ---command muc entire spectrum Even the SLFP hearted with o the SLFP leader, (remember Mrs. ment “i will ne betrayed that s behind the prof: -she cannot be efithusiastic aboຢູ່ LSSP and CP le her at every me statement). Ex Nanayakkara a leftist extremist Wfm that all othe tion groups outs opposed to the had come out st strike, and this with the ULF bitter codi yari (which the ULF Seerms to reațSė residuary support ger elements dis establishêd politic from the Right EWC of left-le: a statement that pose to to in the and NUW in the also totally oppo

was un doubtedly sonomie dissâtisevances exist in ere also there if the SLFP, LSSP in power between but the situation bulk of organised yet ready and willLittle with the Goya juncture when it creased wages in begun to pay a yed youth and also As of more employgher wages soon.
ULF of the LSSP took the initiative token strike does events have shown h support in the of trade unions. Unions were helfnly a section of ship for the strike B's quip in Parliait strike...' which he was not fully losed token strike : expected to be it the strike with saders sniping at eting and in every cert for Vasudeva ind a few other ardliners, it is knor Left and Opposiide the UlR were strike. The VP ironly against the is understandable leaders waging a against the JVP leaders do not enjoys a large t from all younillusioned with a zal parties, ranging to the Left). The ning Aziz issued it did not prostrike. The CWC 2 plantations were sed to the strike,
September 28 Strike
It is unnecessary to compile a list of trade unions which opposed the strike, but it is clear that the JTUAC had issued the cal for a token strike (which was political but under the smokescreen of economic demands) without obtaining the prior grass-roots support of the trade unions that made up the federations which were in the JTUAC. Many trade unio
nists have privately made the point
that the call for a token strike had come from the top and in the past when such adventurist calls for strikes were given trade unions and members had not wanted to let down their leaders and had come out on strike. But this time the maiority of workers in the trade unions under nominal ULF leadership did not seem willing to risk venturing on a strike which did not have adequate support.
The array of trade unions on the side of the Government, totally and vehemently opposed to the strike, was also considerable. On the strength of its own trade union support, the Government met the threat from the ULF with all the powers and authority that a Government can mobilise, it called the strike "political". lt was not moreover difficult to persuade people that it was political because there was no doubt it was. And the line between a political and economic strike is very thin. Next, the government brought on an over-doze of over-kill propagandaintimidatory, conciliatory and coupled with a bagful of promisesto stampede the public into an alarmist mood to oppose the strike. THE ULF CFL, and other prostrike units grumbled that the government was using the newspaper media and the state radio to damn the strike, but the LSSP, SLFP and CP are the last who can cemian about this considering what they had done in the years they were in power in the coali
慧
ག་ །

Page 5
དེ་
Strike "Dafarred"
tion from 1970. Even the main Opposition Party in Parliament now, the TULF, with many grievances against the Government opposed the strike on the ground that in the CFL and JTUAC list of demands did not in cludecertain disguised pro-Eelam demands.
in this situation, towards the end of last week it was whispered among knowledgeable political circles in the Left that there were moves afoot to call off the strike and that what was difficult was the effort to devise a face-saving formula before beating what was termed a strategic retreat to be able to fight better at a future date. The formula that seemed to have much support was that the strike should be "postponed' till after the Budget in which the Government had promised pay increases and other measures to provide relief to the workers in the lower income groups. But there seems to have been opposition to any "postponement' to a particular time or date-no doubt because it was felt it was not possible to fix a time for a strike of this nature. Unless the government blunders in a big way, Sri Lanka will not see a general strike (even a token one for a day) for a long long time to come.
After protracted discussions at different levels during the last weekend and a final meeting of the JTUAC in the morning on Monday, September 25, the announcement about the deferring of the strike was made at a rally at Hyde Park in the evening. The Ceylon Daily News in a frontpage spread UNIONS CALL OFF TOKEN STREKE: DECISION FOLLOWS FIRM WARNING BY GOVT. (Premil Ratnayake reporting) reported:
"The Joint Action Committee of Trade Unions yesterday decided to "defer the 24-hour token strike planned för Thursday, after a
3.
five-hour discuss The decision w spokesman for t organisations (a outfit than the has remained di the split betwee LSSP and CP Comii, ittee wou union action at man said that v Committee to d orary cancellatic stoppage on Sept 'direct illegal th the government. "The governm warned workers and private secto be considered to posts if they fail duty on Sestem trade unions had days pledged supp ment and annou not participate in Most trade unior ced the strike sa sociating themse union action beca wish to underm me, it's developme previous threat c tion drevy as muc as the one vợ hic by trade upsions
The fu tekt as follows: "The Action Committe considered all asp ation that has aris the teken Gene for 28th Septemb JTUAC, on the endorsed by th Delegates of the nisations represent on 17th Septembe of dealing with t reasonable manne ment has resorte cedented effort t vent the organise from demonstratຫຼື

ion at Malay Street.
as unanimous. A the 7 trade union larger trade union cd JCTUO which ormant ever since in the SLFP and its partners) said the ild reviey trade er. The spokeswhat led the Joint ecide on a tempbn of the work ember 28 Was the reat" held out by
lent fiad earli er in the public rs that they would haye vacated their ed to turn up for ber 28. Several in the last few ort to the governinced they would
the token strike, is which denounid they were dise lves from trade use they did not fine the gover主言t三eforts。三No if trade union ac
h public attention
n = yyaś *deferred” yesterday.' 3f tha JTUAC iS cirit i rade Union se {UTUAC) nas rects of the situ5en in relation te ral Strike, called per 1978, by the the five deman s e Conference of Severteen orga= ted in the TUAC, er 1978. Instead he demands in a :r, the Governd to an unpreo deter or preed workirg cass g its support for
the demands by participation in the token strike on 28th, September. "The JTUAC condemns, in par
ticular, the undemocratic and tars
lawful action of the Government In its efforts. (I) to deter em. ployees in the public services and state corporations frem participating in the token strike by the threat to deprive them of their jobs, if they do so. (2) to prevent the trade unions in the state sector from holding meetings in werkplaces or even in their vicinity, in Pursuance of the strike call, and to prevent unien officials and activists from actirg in pursuance of the token strike, by trarsferring them arbitrarily from their workplaces, or interdicting them. (3) to deter employees in the private sector from particirating in the token strike, by calling upon their employers to act in the sarre urlawful manner as the Government has done in relition to its employees in the state sector, arid to resort to 'special legislation through Parliament" or even to enact ‘emergency regulations, if neressary' to enable or give cover to such action by private employers.
"The JTUAC also condemns this gross abuse of the Government's control of the radio and major newspapers to build up a trement dous barrage of false propaganda in relation to the teken strike. This has culminated in the publicatten of a statement of the President himself on 24th Sertember, to the effect that the token strike is not merely on demands that refer to political matters', as the Government first declared on Ith September 1978, but is a beginning of an attempt to overthrow illegally, a democratically elected government'. The JTUAC rejects this allegation as being utterly unfounded and absurd. the situation that has arisen, the TUAC appreciates that the free participation of substantial sečtions
TREUNE, september 30, 1978

Page 6
of the organised working class, particularly in the state sector, is not possible on 28th September, and that it is difficult for the organisations representing the employees in that sector, especially, to mobilise their members effectively to resist victimisation by way of lockouts or mass dismissals, if they participate in the token strike on that date.
“The JTUAC has accordingly decided to defer the implementation of the decision for a Token General Strike on 28th September, and to prepare the organised working class to meet the threat held out by the Government to the exercise of the fundamental right of workers to strike, in pursuance of demands relating directly to the basic economic needs of the working people i and to their democratic and trade
union rights.' .
The TUAC statement is a further confirmation of the weakness on the part of the ULF which had taken the initiative for the token strike of September 28, it would have been better to have announs d the 'deferment' of the strike without setting out the reasons listed in the statement. It would have been enough if the statement has simply said that the JTUAC had decided to defer the strike to a more appropriate time. But the excuses given in the form of criticism against the Government makes it amply clear that the JTU AC I cannot for a very long time to come think of a general strikea political or even an economic strike-because the statement is an admission that the Governinent has been able to employ its political strength and powers リ○ pressurise the trade
unions not to back the JTUAC.
The ULF had called a political
strike and the Government had used political weapons to outflank the ULF and JTUAC
F33 la September o lo?
and compel i His retre eriment ens as & ឆogpag リ 電○ @cリ actieay Sagis šrifte hava known 『歪é 誌ーリ aリ škfiovÁy: vy: af
haying i ndug
ឆ្កែន ”ជានទ្រចះជ្ញ years after
- afe atica
pace betrays the paré of : 闘リ をリ● リ
Gaaf, e seg is: ៗ sos a អ្នកខ្ចា ឆ្នា ខ្ញុំ
. . 靈賽 e籌臺irés@全輯
*}ត្តថ្មី . . 25་བློ་རྟག་ཏུ་བྷི༔སྤྱི་ gggg్వస్టోక్రాప్తికై క్లి #"Staa. te neYy p tegies and S OF te iriage re-ed fo” a fierAv , p is faitiële snip ezzanaike, c. \fese , ឡៃ sce diring the TT ting the Ti expect the enlightened a: left asid Op. ు టైక్లిళ్ల ఫ్రీ శ్రీ
A groups an Cpposition (or the Opposition Uíře P) seen to in trying to dis thi: it ein dearyotr ! joint political a policies of the which they disag for ever bashing CP and the SLF satisfied only v. away at everybo versal because in

t into an ignoa霊。 É$ie Goyoyed every resida a iés comá奪e リa釜 を kmas a J. R. JAC sy'n golygig Awhat to expect. €? Sãsolid also to G. after ed in sore e ef i n&midation tion the Uë had į jie fed go F : 2 鹭。 རྒྱ: ; རྒྱ་ ຂຶ . .
in fast Eisen on 長> リ。
評es羽毒金 S. tha :: the U.F., emps t3 をes: i額s rength, has lost e first rotati, biti 25 cf Freisim însry
heir earts ang εξο e είiey for
s Revy alignments 323 is of a fea ca 4:e Éheisse vyes
■i.icá リé。開。 Fg ač ors. BaFarnining Rehana 'c's sing the CWC,
F aリ the子ea警、e* antire range of :d unera lightered position opinion
議き窪亀。
a をリ
i parties in the ven those tot if but not with the spend more the redit each other o find a basis fer tion against the Government with ree, The JVP i S away at the LSSP, . The LF is hen it harmmerS y and this is uniother party or
| squabbles,
| whether
Šeback For UEF
group has taken kindly to Eelam. The UNP alone is so far spared of inner factionalism which can damage its position-differences may exist but unless such differences boil over into becoming open factional a political party has nothing to worry about.
The Government of J. R. Jayewardene has won a major baté. E e against: the left: aEnd Left= Fed trade unions without firing a shot or facing battle across picket lines. All that it used was inti midatery propaganda which every government, Right or left, uses if it should be confronted with a general strike, even if it was only a token one-day strike. The Government did to % të se any of the punitive powers it could have exercised. It is significant that the finere threa: to ussa thern had the rest its desired by the Government.
The ULF and the left assor eeSSuS Su SsLLt S iSYYJS SYYSALL LLSLS LLSLLLS K LLLLttuiJS red a major defeat. By the premnature action in cal ing for an island-wide general strike it has set: :he tigra głe US Natio9n movement it heads and soulight to Bead back sy rmany years. This has political implications of farreaching consequences.
WHLST THE GOVERNMENT has much to crow about in breaking the token generał strike even before the strike began, there is much for the Government to worry about about the affairs of the country. Although the new Constitution was inaugurated og September 7 and a new Cabinet of Ministers was sworn in on the same day (with an additional list of Ministers and Deputy Ministers sworn in on September 14), there Seems to be un told confusion about the allocation of departments. and functions as between the different Ministries. Up to the time of writ

Page 7
= ९
Lanka
ing, (September 26), there been no Gazette setting out the allocation of departments and functions
-with the result that chaos Seeins
to prevail in certain key ministries and departments. .
There appear to be many bones
of contention, but to mention one,
origins
the Forest Dept. It was ally under the Ministry of Agriculcure and lands, under E. L. Senanayake. But with E. L. being deprived of all the prestigious departments and corporations previously under him, there is confusion about the future of the Forest Department. Minister E. L. is said to be issuing orders on the footing that this Department is still under hiria, but the bureaucratic firmament around the powerful Ministry of irrigation lands and Mahaweli is convinced that Forestry must come under Lads and hahaveli. It is also not clear where the new department of Environment will ultimately go, and though there was a preliminary attempt to tag it on to irrigation, Lands and Mahaweli, Prime Minister Premadasa, according to the Lanka diba, seems to have made a bid for this department (it is said he had claimed it from a time even before the last general election). It seems to be his contertion that Environment should rightly belong to Local Government, Housing and Construction. Environment is a new baby which can wait before its final adoption by a particular ministry, but Forestry is a subject which needs immediate and comprehensive action. At least for the time being, the best thing may be for the President to take it over
and get the department to funct
tion as it should-this, it has not done for over two decades.
This confusion about the alloca
tion of functions and departments
only adds to the slow take-off of the UNP government into constructive action in many key sec
tors, it is for the Government matter and devis to get work goi unlike sometime officers in gover report for dut: time, it ut thers that they si a: do the work ti even two hou holir day. Á te that a large num long before ci one excuse or :
in Colombo, t enough, but in towns, in kachc mental offices th Wo:S Cfficia O 3ye-Frenc Most officials : about lobbying VIPs for promo better jobs. Se cerned with get close relations. the Extension S. partment of A have a great de: production, offic sed to visit fairn Farms of VIPs a
canvaSS Owners promotions or officers have no have no interes: tion. the matters had be in the E. L. S they had gone fro El continue:S to | there seems t for the future.
5
e
It is the samt number cf oth other finistries seem to thirak right” if some them or they
into the newsp. if possible) ás: han ghramadan a work

the President and : to look into this 3e ways and means Ing. It is true that 2 in the past, all niment deFartMEntS y at the correct } is iro guarantee t their desks and hey have to do for is of their eight :st check vĩ11 sh GoẢỷ liber have departed osing time under another.
he Situation is bai many outstation heries and departe situation is much ls are perpetually h and otherwise. are only "busy.' MPs and other tions, transfers, or Dme are only canting jobs for their For example in ervices of the Degriculture, which 31 to do with food ters have long ceas or tender advice. tre orally visited to and others for transfers. The seed material and t in feod producKobbe kaduwa era Cofime 3d, bt it en anayake regime rh had to worse, if handle this function Io be iittle hope
a story in a large Sr departmets in as well. Officers that they are "allUNP WP backs succeed in getting regular intervals apers (with pictures #ing, carganised somè
The Government will be foolish if it thinks that euphoric stories of great deeds reported in the government sponsored papers-of the Lake Hic use and Times organisations-are an indication that constructive and development work has got of the ground. It will be self-delusion to think that everything is fine and hunky-dory (as the cowboys once said) in the ga}- fen only beause it is the picture drawn by government newspaper media and the SLBC.
+ + +
SRİ LANKA CHRONICLE
Sept. 12-Sept. 16
DARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD COMPLED FROM DAY NIE A/SPAPERS PUBLISHED IN
- COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDMCeylon Daily Mirror; CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DMDinamina; LD-Lankadipa; WK-Virakesari; AT--Aththa; SM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; DP-Dinapathi; SU-Sun; C/M- Chintamani; WK-Weekend; RR-s Rivi resa; EN-Eelanadu; DPRinformation Dept. Press Release; DK-Dinakara; DW-Davasa.
"UESDAY, SEPTEM BER 2: At the ceremonial sitting of the newly created Supreme Court the Chif justice Mr. Neville Samara koon said that there will be justice to all and injustice to none and they had a sacred trust which was not to be trified with. An Evaluatic n team which studied the furictions of state organisations involved in agricultural activity has drawn attention to the disctinct possibility of wasteful duplication and danger of breakdown in the agria cultural program as a result of the responsibilities of implementing
TRIBUNE September 30, 1978

Page 8
agencies not being clearly defined. The first er er H2 m2 S:iance C2lege in Sri Lanka has been sited at the Polytechnic institute, Daniwala. According to the latest proposal of the Ministry of Eiuca tion to malka t'he school the centra for village defelopment, Parent Teacher Associations will be replaced by Development Societies. After completion of the preliminary investigation of the CD into the Avro disaster it has been found that the time bomb had baen actitated to explode when the aircraft was oyer Colombo or its ferry flight from Ratmalana to Katunayake and if not for a catering datay there would have been a mill air disaster involving the crew -TN. The Minister of Education addressing parents of fresher students said that any student who harassed or humiliated another student would be expelled from the university-CDM. A massive Rs. 900 million Sugar Development Projeet-the Seveningala Project is to be launched bafore the end of the y-ar with Asian Development Bank assistance. President Jayewardene is expected to visit India next month for talks with PM Morarii Desai and other Indfan government leadiers. F1 r. M. Sivasithamaram, President of the TULF and Acting leader of the Opposition in a statement aspealed to Tamil youths in the north to restrain themselves and bishaye in accordance with the advice given to them by their leaders, The armed services togather with special experts on balistics are still baffled as to the origin of three bullets, similar to 393 riffe bullets, which wera picked out of the debris of the Ayro wreck; the Assistant Director Department of Civil Aviation was definite that the bomb.
was a local product and that its
make was the job of an amateure SU. lt has been decided that 600.
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
people will be each electorate in the accelerated -DP. The polic of the other arme steps to curb the lence in the nort province. It has the government cult to fill the by many experts departments resi abroad and it-\\ to find people to that are being ei government of Ne Nr. Vedarand Jh. to Sri Lanka vily New Delhi-DPR Union leaders of CP have asked t the public secto in the general str DAWA. PM Morarji that-RS 6-mi drawn from the India in 97 bel PM Indra Gandh people have been fighting between and insurgents throwy President ! gua-CDN. The C mit appeared to t tical phase in efc impasse in M.E.p Rhonesia said tha Zambia had fired territory in an Rhodesia's new b day-CDM. The Ganges and Jamu wide areas in Ne damages continue the vAyee kend. Pres the Shah of Iran regretted the vic ment riots in Iran. the close allianc two Countries-SU.
WEON ESDAY, A Mini general e about a million ve

recruited from for employment Mahaweli Project e with the help d forces is taking outbreak of viohern and eastern been reported to that it was diffivacancies created from government gning and going as more difficult fill the new posts reated-VK. The 'pal has appointed ia as Ambassador ith residence fin No. 74f78. Trade SLFP, SSP and heir members in ir to participate like on Sept. 28Desai suggested lion fraudulently State Bank of longed to former i. At least 25 killed so far in security forces trying to overSomoza in Nicaraamp David Sumbe entering a crirts to break the eaee talkS-CDM. at Bostwana and on each other's incident close to order on Saturs waters of rivers ha which covered }rth India causing d to recede on sident Carter told that he deeply »lent anti-governand he re-affirmed e between their
SEPTEMBR 3: :lection involving ters will be held
Sri Lanka Ciroñese
by the end of this year to elect to municipal councils and 33 urban councils that will start functions ing from February 4, 1979. interpol has alerted Sri Lanka that an international smuggler of Japanese origin, at present involved in a project here is the master mind of a massive smuggling operation covering the whole of South Asia. Australian meat at Rs. 60 per lb was imported to Sri Lanka for the non aligned summit by the Sirima government; owing to such calicus waste of money by the previous government all development work in the country suffered for want
of funds said the PM-CDN. 2469
bags of rice, a consignment frem Burma was thrown into the Sea in Galle Port because it was found to be unfit even for animal consumption. The Minister of Higher Education will crack down on university dons who do not do suffcient research or who engage themselves in activities outside their hermal work for financial gain; the minister will also publicise the research done by university academics. The national flag will fly at halfmast today on all public buildings as a mark of respect to the late Mr. Shelton Jayasinghe whose funeral takes place today-CDM. Two different versions of how an attempt was made to seize the passports of the then Leader of the Opposition Mr. J. R. Jayewardene and his wife at the Katunayake Airport were related to the Special Commission of inquiry yesterday. A maior fire broke out in the engine room of the Greek ship MV. "Sitia Sun' while in dry dock at the Colombo Port vesterday and one fireman died before the fire was brought under control, The persons who planted the bomb in the Ayro aircraft are understood to have acknowledged responsibility of this act to some of the embassiss in Sri Lanka; they have apparently
ག

Page 9
Šri laikā Chronicle
circularised to some embassies a roneoed document claiming responsibility for the act. Former PM and leader of the SLFP Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike filed papers in the court of appeal seeking a writ of Prohibition against the Special Presieential Commission of Inquiry now probing the misdeeds of the previous government-SU. The Minister of Education has asked the education ministry to re-adjust the education system to give priority to practical work more than emphasing on certificates when examinations are passed-DV. Government stenographers have also decided to join the national strike on the 28th ATH. Nicaragua's national guard and rebels seeking to overthrow President Somoza - were still locked in battle overnight with hundreds believed killed in fierce fighting. Three of Portugal's four maior parties said they would vote against the independent government of PM Alfredo Nabre Da Costa-CDN. The White House said yesterday it was unable to predict success or failure for the Camp David Summit on the Middle East now entering the second week. The State Prosecutor alleged at the opening of a trial in S. Africa that a group of policemen had suspended six black naked prisoners by chains from a ceiling and subjected them to beatings and electrick shock treatment-CDM. The government of Nicaragua suspended constitutional rights in 2 citias for the next 30 days in an apparent effort to restrain the militant opposition which started a guerilla offensive yesterday. More than 450 people have died of jaundice in the past six months in Bombay and the officials say there is little they can do to check the disease. An all party conference to the Rhodesian conflict was ruled out by Zimbabwe African People's ruler Joshua Nkomo-SU.
THURSDAY, SSPTEM BER 14 Any employee of the state or cor
poration services
in the token strik Joint Trade Uric mittee for Septer treated as having The Speaker, Mr. Alwis yesterday ri and will be sworn as Minister of Sta dent's House in K application made
Jayawickrema, for Ministry of Justic order impounding
aside was refused dential Commissio tain has offered to to build prefabric befere the Maha CDN. Pakistan Na M. Shariff will arr on Sept. 26 as a
Lanka Navy. The play photographs
and convicted pick minent places like and bus stands in
arrest this mena PMB and the Fertil are to come und of the President;
state bodies had hi under the Ministry SU. The governm to grant citizensh one and a half la persons' of Indian plantation workers ernment has dec laws to inflict sev for crimes such as ficking and huntin mals-DAM, Over werkers decided posed general stri JD. More than 3 have been affecte nuing floods in ln ation remains seri Egypt are showi Middle East peace is still no basis fic outcome of the C mit the White - Foreign Minister

Who participates e planned by the i Action Gommber 28 vill be vacated office. | Anandatissa de esigned his post
in this morning te at the Presi
andy. A second by Mr. Nihal *mer Secretary,
ce to have the his passport set by the Presi1 yesterday, Brihelp Sri Lanka ated rice stores season is overvy Chief Admiral ive in Sri Lanka. guest of the Sri Police will disse of well known (pockets at prorailway stations a further bid to ee-CDM. The | izer Corporation er the purview these two vita therte remained of Agriculturehent has decided ip to a further khs of stateless origin who are -VK. The gove ided to amend ere punishments rape, drug trae g protected ani: 26,000 railway Bio join the pro
million people d by the conti dia and the sittifous, Israel 3rnd. ng flexibility in talks but there pr predicting the amp David Sume Quse Said, Soviet Gromyko called
on Asian states to resist what he described as China’s agressive designs and expansionist encourage ments in this region-CDN. Cuban President Fidel Castro arrived in Ethiopia at the start of a state visit and Ethiopian leader Mengistu Mariam made his first public attack on China-SU. Nicaragua's red cross prepared a desperate attempt to get in to the town of Masaya where hundreds of people are feared to have been killed or wounded in intense fighting between the National Guard ane opponents of President Anastassio Somoza-CD/V.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4.
The GCEC has attracted Rs. 69. million worth of foreign excharge on the thirty four projects approproved so far; the total investment including the foreign exchange component has reached the 978 million rupee mark. Five minist ters and 22 deputy ministers took their oaths before the President in Kandy, yesterday. A Tower Hall Trust will be established to promote national theatrical activities and restore and utilise the Tower Hall. Japan under an agrees ment will provide a grant of yen 1,500,000,000 or approximately Rs. 22.6 million to be used for the pruchase of steel billets and Small size steel bars to construct C0,000 houses-CDM. Trade Union leas ders and other office bearers vigor rously campaigning for the pro posed strike on Sept 28 are to be identified by the government for replacement the day after the strike. Air Ceylon has lost its insurance claim of Rs. 7.5 million on the AVRO aircraft which was shattered by a bomb at the Ratmalana airport because the insurance policy for this aircraft does not cover the available risk cause in respect of sabotage-SU. About 3000 people have been provided jobs by the new garment manus. facturing centres registered at the
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1970

Page 10
Ministry of Textile industries; with
these 360 new centres, the total number of registered garment manufacturing centres in the island now exceeds 200-DPR No. 24. The Ministry of Public Administration and Home Affairs has decided to reduce 45 days from government and corporation Workers holidays in 1979 by reducing the number of annual and casual holidays rather than reduce the number of religious holidays-D. The police suspect that the Avro incident and the two bus incidents in Jaffna and Batticaloa are connected with each other-DK. estate workers Trade unions yesterday decided to join the proposed strike on the 28th-ATH. The Camp David Middle East Summit appeared headed for success after talks which israeli sources said had brought considerable progress. Government planes yesterday bombarded a central Nicaraguan city but failed to flush out guerilla insurgents in control of most districts-CDN. Japanese PM Takeo Fukuda warned that the world could be caught in a vicious circle involving a depreciating dollar and spiralling oil prices unless the dollar's decline was checkedCIDAM, Indian Foreign Minister Vajpayee held talks with Soviet President Brezhnev and assured him that his country's relations with China would not affect the close ties with Moscow-SU.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER i5 The President said yesterday that if the courts held that the laws in regard to Special Presidential Commission was abad the government will stop the proceedings. The UNDP will send to Sri Lanka seven of the world's top experts to help in the resettlement scheme under the accelerated Mahaweli Development Scheme. The TULF controlled Trade unions will not participate in the proposed one dãy
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
token strike trade unions S. 28. District Mir ted on Septem: meeting of the mentary groupone of tho olde has now been r as a mere Ge for Seven inter addition to be agent for other lines. The eigh University of S re-named when rate autonomou, month after th legislation is Three state agen State Engineerin National Water nage Board at Commercial Co. authorised by th collaborate with the execution of projects in the is to testify b Presiential Com shortly. Hashis detected for the Lanka by a polic dog at the Tal Thursday-SU. TI the I4 who wer nection with th incident and di phlets in Batt released-VK. P to the Job Bar will be grante November this has come forva reconstruction c dagobas in the i: farmers have de with their decis cultivation of Ministers of Fir ture rejected th one cent more tobacco-JD. Ei ported by the N at a cost of Rs.

of the Opposition cheduled for Sept. listers will be selecper 21 at: a special government parlia-CDN, Air Ceylon 2St carriers in Asia blegated to functions !neral Sales Agent national carriers in sing the handling international airit campuses of the ri Lanka will be they become sepaS universities next Ie new university promulgated-CDM
cies-the Sri Lanka ng Corporaton,
Supply and Draild the Colombo mpany have been he government to foreign firms in major construction Country. The JVP efore the Special mission of Inquiry h oil extract was e first time in Sri e narcotics bureau aimannar pier on
ree youths out of
e arrested in cone bomb throwing tribution of pamcaloa have been eople who applied is for employment i employment in rear-LD, UNESCO "d to help in the f old temples and land-DM. Tobacco cided to continue on to boycott the tobacco after the ance and Agriculair request to pay or a pound of ht machines inational Milk Board million to packet
sri Lanka Chronicle
Lakspray has not been used for more than an year because the board has decided its cheaper to pack lakspray in polythene bagsATH. President Carter yesterday conferred almost continuously with Egyptian and Israali officials in an all out effort to end the deadlock over a middle east peace settlefinent. Pakistan's military ruler General Zia U1 Haq will take over as President on Saturday following the resignation of Elahi Choudhry as Head of State. Portugal's parliament y esterday rejected the country's new non party government == CD f\!
LETTER
Religious Freedom
Sir,
Legislation has been intreduced to disbar from the practice of law persons who commit themselves to certain forms Cf religious observance.
From the reports in the papers I gather that these perSons will be excluded for no other reason except that they profess to undertake certain obligations in accordance with their religion. That is, the way they practice their religion is the only reason alleged for prohibiting them from enrolment in the legal profession. As a foreigner I have no business telling the Parliament of Sri Lanka what laws they can or cannot make. But anyone, foreign or national, can Say this: if they do pass such a law, they cannot talk about reli- || gious freedom.
Claude R. Daly SJ 3, Clifford Place, Colombo 4. . 1978 Sept. 25
শুরু

Page 11
Camp David Summit
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
by Ariel
o China & Vietnam
Nobody had expected anything to come out of President Carter's Camp David Summit. Even the American press which was proCarter was most sceptical about its outcome. Not a single paper had predicted that this Summit would find a solution to the EgyptIsrael confrontation or bring peace to the Middle East. Commentators critical of Carter were certain that the Camp David Summit would prove to be another of Carter's damp squibs which have so far marked his Presidency and had plummetted his popularity rating to a point lower than Nixon's just before Watergate.
Everybody was agreed that Carter was taking a big risk in resorting to personal diplomacy at this level, eepecially after his mumbo-jumbo about human rights violations in some countries whilst ignoring continuing violations in others had boomeranged on his prestige.
But, to everybody's surprise, and at a time when everybody had thought that the Camp David Summit had flopped, an agreement was reached between Sadat and Israel which had not been thought possible. Easwar Sagar, in a despatch to the Madras Hindu from Washington, on September 8 stated:
"The Heads of Government of Egypt, Israel and the United States who had been engaged in intense negotiations for the past 3 days in nearby Camp David in the mourtains, behind a veil of secrecy, made a dramatic appearance in the East Room of the White House last night to announce a major breakthrough in attempts to
象鼩
settle the 30-ye ween Arab and , Separate agreeme 'frameworks' for ering the future c and the Gaza stri covering return Egypt and relati rael and Egyptby the Egyptian Sadat and the Isr ter, Mr. Begin a President Carter blage of diiploma leaders and the Mr. Carter told t general terms of is to explain them when he appears session of Congre
'Because the parties are yet t sericus and difficu pecially with reg position of the cai Se the accord proved by the Isr because its succes reception it gets Palestigian residen pied territory, a Ara!-S with a Stak nobody is shoutit actually at hand ir Carter vyho vya S ft behind Camp Davi 80 hours of talk leaders insisted t until they achieve and who for at 13 days had susp presidential duties tious about the r that three decade terness could not night and that 'n' negotiations still
''The achievem are being hailed which will genera momentum for pe has summed it up Kissinger who, State in the For

ur coງflict betew. After two its described as peace-one Covf the West Bank and the other of the Sinai to ins between Isad been signed Presiderit, M4 r. eli Prime Minisld witnessed by before an assemiEs, congressional ress, a jubilant he nation of the the accords. He in greater detail before a joint ss to-night.
tivo contending o resolve many ilt questioris, esard to the disWest Bank, beis yet to be apaeli Knesset and s hinges on the from Jordan, the its of the occuwell as other ce in West Asia, ng that peace is West Asia. Mr. he moving spirit d and who during s with the two they keep at it some agreer Ent à une recederited en Hed at other , was himself cauesults; he noted s of war and bitbe settled overonths of difficult lie ahead.' ents nevertheless as a major event te an irreyersible sace and nobody better than Dr. as Secretary of di Administration,
had had some limited success in
making peace in West Asia. Dr.
Kissinger said it was a 'very significant and major event'. It had been made posssible by Mr. Begin making previously unthought of concessions and agreeing to stop all further Jewish settlements in the West Bank area and also to discuss the future of the West Bank-two things he had sworn he would never do, Dr. Kissinger called Mr. Sadat a man of courage and vision who would undoubtedly come under tremendous pressure from his Arab detractors, but he wanted them to remember that Mr. Sadat was the orły Arab who had been able to get Arab lands back from Israel. The former Secretary said that if there was a fragile quality about the accords now signed that was only because there was a fragile cualitt a hout everything connected with West Asia. He gave high marks for Mr. Carter's perseverance and courage, and with a tinge of regret (because he was no longer associated with the problem) predicted a hih standing for Mr. Carter in the history of West AS) -
"As outlined by US officials; the two frameworks contain the following provisions; On the West Bank and the Gaza Strip now occupřed by Israel: A five-year transitional period of civil self-rule for te Palestinian inhabitants; withdrawal of Israeli forces to garrisons in sperified locations; negotiations between Egypt, Israel, the Palestinian inhabitants and Jordan to decide the final status of the two areas; no new sraeli settlements to be established during the negotiations; security arrangements which could involve UN forces, special security zones, demilitarised zones etc. to be negotiated; and an exchange of letters on the status of East Jerusalem.
'On the Sinai and israeli-Egyptian relations: A peace treaty between
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 12
the two countries to be signed within three months; phased lsraeli pullouts from all of the Sinai to begin within three to nine months after the treaty is signed and to be completed within three years; Israeli airfields to be returned to Egypt; security zones of various kinds to be established in the Sinai; normal relations between the two countries to be established after the bulk of the Israeli forces have pulled out of the Sinai.
"It was said to be understood that the two accords would stand by themselves; in other words the failure of one would not affect the other.
"All the three men-Mr. Begin, Mr. Sadat and Mr. Carter-hugged each other after they had finished signing the agreements-Mr. Begin even suggested that the Camp David conference should henceforth be known as the 'Jimmy Carter conference' in honour of the man who had made it possible: the moment was both euphorice and historic.
PRESIDENT CARTER addressed a joint session of Congress on September 18 and his speech set out the achievements of the Summit. The following extracts trace the highlights of his speech: "...it has been more than 2,000 years since there was peace between Egypt and a free Jewish nation. If our present expectations are realized, this year we shall see such peace again. The first thing I would like to do is to give tribute to the two men who made this impossible dream now become a real possisibility-the two great leaders with whom I have met for the last two weeks at Camp David-first, President Anwar Sadat of Egyptand the other, of course, is Prime Minister Menachem Begin of the nation of Israel. At Camp David we sought a peace that is not only of vital importance to their own
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
two nations, of the Middle of the Unite to all the we
'I have ce. you tonight y ders havi e aco this means to States has ha be deeply c Middle East, a influence and vance the cau last thirty wars, the pec region have in suffering an and bloodshed have suffered Israel. But t costs of confli olur OWn nati as well. We friendships amt and the people we have profe ments which a our values as a gic location of the resources means that ey East directly where. We could not be in power were nation there. world is there local conflict c. other nations a then perhaps conflict betwee ourselves, .
"Through the flict, four main the parties inv nature of pea will simply me are silenced, t longer fall, tha to roll, or wh that the natio East ran deal v neighbours and

but to all the people East-to all the people d States-and indeed, prld as well.
one to discuss with what these two leacomplished, and what all of us. The United ld no choice but to oncerried about tha nd to try to use our our efforts to adSe of peace. For the fears, through four pple of this troubled paid a terrible price d division and hatred i. No two nations more than Egypt and he dangers and the ct in this region for on have been great 2 have long-standing bng the nations there es of the region, and und, moral committre deeply rooted in people. The stratethese countries and that they possess ents in the Middle affect people everyand our friends different if a hostile to establish domiin few areas of the a greater risk that a :culd spread among diacent to them and Brupt into a tragic bn US superpowers
long years of conissues have divided
olved. One is the ce-whether peace an that the guns hat the bombs no it the tanks cease ether it will mean ns of the Middle with each other as as equals and as
Camp David Summit
friends, with a full range of diplomatic and cultural and economic and human relations between them; that has been the basic question. The Camp David agreement has defined such relation snips, I am glad to announce to you, between Israel and Egypt. The second main issue is providing for the security of all the parties involved, including, of course, the Israelis, so that none of them need fear attack or military threats from one another. When implemented, the Camp David agreement, I am glad to announce to you, will provide for such mutual security. Third is the question of agreement on secure and recognized boundaries, the end of military occupation, and the granting of self-government or else the return to other nations of territories which have been occupied by Israel since the 1967 conflict. The Camp David agreement, I am glad to announce to you, provides for the realization of all these goals. And finally, there is the painful human question of the fate of the Palestinians who live or who have lived in these disputed regions. The camp David agreement guarantees that the Palestinian people may participate in the resolution of the Palestinian problem in all its aspects, a commitment that Israel has made in writing and which is Supported and appreciated, I am sure, by all the world.
"Over the last eighteen months, there has been, of course, some progress on these issues. .That progress continued, but at a slower and slower pace through the early part of the year. And by early summer, the negotiations had come to a standstill once again. it Was this stalemate and the prospeet for an even worse future that prompted me to invite both President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to join me at Camp David. . . . When this conference began, said that the prospects for success

Page 13
cult question
frespecting
Camp David Summit
were remote. Enormous barriers
of ancient history and nationalism
and suspicion would have to be overcome if we were to meet our objectives. But President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin have overcome these barriers, exceeded our fondest expectations and have signed two agreements that hold out the possibility of resolving issues that history had taught us could not be resolved.
"The first of these documents is entitled "a framework for peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David.' It deals with a comprehensive settlement, between israel and all her neighbours, as well as the diffiof the Palestinian people and the future of the West Bank and the Gaza area. The agreement provides a basis for the
resolution of issues involving the
West Bank and Gaza during the next five years. It outlines a process of change which is in keeping with Arab hopes, while also carefully Israel's vital security. The Israeli military government over these areas will be withdrawn and will be replaced with a self-government of the Palestinians who live there. And Israel has committed that this government will have full autonomy. Prime Minister Begin said to me several times, not partial autonomy, but full autonomy. Israeli forces will be withdrawn and redeployed into specified locations to protect Israel's security. The Palestinians will further participate in determining their own future through talks in which their own elected representatives, the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza, will negotiate with Egypt and Israel and Jordain to determine the final status of the West Bank and Gaza.
"Israel has agreed, have committed themselves, that the legitimate rights of the Palestinian
people will be r the signing of th night, and during concerning the
the Palestinian S new Israeli sett established in t future settlement decided among
parties. The fin West Bank and
cided before the year transitional which the Palest have their own part of a negoti produce a peасе Israel and Jordan, ers, withdrawal, crucial issues. T will be based on and the principles ci resolution 242 all are so familiar, on the final statt will then be sub by the represent habitants of the Gaza, and they w for the first time the Palestinian p how they will g permanently. V of course, all of us, be a just settlem lems of displaced fugees, which talthe appropriate
resolutions. ‘F ment also outlin security arrangem peace between Isra bours. This is, ir hensive and fair peace in the Midd glad to report til
“The Gecond ag “a framework fo of a peace treat) and is rael.' It r its full exercise of the Sinai peninsul several security : ing carefully that

ecognized. After is framework ast the negotiations establishment of elf-government no lements will be his areas. The tS issue will be the negotiating al status of tine Gaza will be deend of the fiveperiod during inian Arabs will government, as ation which will treaty between specifying bordall those very hese negotiations all the provisions of Security Counwith which you The agreement JS of these areas mitted to a vyote atives of the inWest Bank and ill have the right in their history, eople, to decide overn themselves We also believe, that there should ent of the probpersons and rekes into account United Nations inally, his docues a variety of ents to reinforce ael and her neighdeed, a comprefra mayork for le East, and I am his to you.
reement is entitled r the conclusion between Egypt returns to Egypt
sovereignty over a, and establishes zones, recogniz
sovereignty right
for the protection of all parties.
It also provides that Egypt will extend full diplomatic recognition to Israel at the time the Israelis complete an interim withdrawal from most of the Sinai, which will take place between three months and nine months after the conclusion of the peace treaty. And the peace treaty is to be fully negotiated and signed no later than three months from last night. think I should also report that Prime Minister Begin and President Sadat have already challenged each other to conclude the treaty even earlier. And I hope they-this final conclusion of a peace treaty will be completed late in December. And it would be a wo., derful Christmas present for the World.
“Final and complete withdrawal of all Israeli forces will take place between two and three years following the conclusion of the peace treaty. While both parties are in total agreement on all the goals that I have just described to you, there is one issue on which agreement has not yet been reached. Egypt states that agreement to remove the sraeli settlements from Egyptian territory is a prerequisite to a peace treaty. Israel says that the issue of the sraeli settlement should be resolved during the peace negotiations themselves. . . . . . Now, within two weeks with each mernber of the Knesset, or the Israeli Parliament acting as individuals, not constrained by party loyalty, the Knesset will decide on the issue of the settlements.
“None of us should underestimate the historic importance of what has already been done. This is the first time that an Arab and an Israeli leader have signed a comprehensive framework for peace.... . . . . But we must also not forget the magnitude of the obstacles that still remain. The summit exceeded our highest expectation-but we know that it left many difficult
TRIBUNE, september 30, 1978

Page 14
issues still to be resolved. These issues will require careful negotiaion in the months to come. What lies ahead for all of us is to recognze the statesmanship that President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin have shown and to invite others in that region to follow their example. I have already last night invited the other leaders of the Arab world to help sustain progress toward a comprehensive peace.
“We must also join in an effort to bring an end to the conflict and the terrible suffering in Lebanon . . . . We will want to consult on this matter and on these documents and their meani ing with all of the leaders, particularly the Arab leaders. And I am pleased to say to you tonight that just a few minutes ago, King Hussein of Jordan and King Khalid of Saudi Arabia, perhaps other leaders later, but these two have already agreed to receive Secretary Vance, who will be leaving tomorrow to explain to them the terms of the Camp David agreement. And we hope to secure their support for the realization of the new hopes and dreams of the people of the Middle East. This is an important mission, and this responsibility can tell you, based on my last two weeks with him, could not possibly rest on the shoulders of a more able and dedicated and competent man than Secretary Cyrus Vance..."
Even before Cvrus Vance reached the Middle East, Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia had condemned the agreement. Sadat's Foreign Minister Kamel and his ambassador in Washington Gorbhal had tendered their resignation because they disagreed with what had been agreed on at Camp David. Moscow denounced the agreement and said that Sadat had betrayed the Arab cause. The PLO was or posed to the agreement and Arafat vowed to continue guerilla war.
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
Whether Se be able to pel of Jordan or Arabia to with tion and suppo agreements eve of way is not “Front of Stea frontation' co Libya, PLO, and meeting in Dan 20. Efforts w bring back lir: tation Front-r ground that Syri Hassan of Moro and Sadat was his way from t support. Sudan of Egypt has b the Gulf State ticised the agre
Willi Vance the support of Trilateral Comi selling the Cam eyer to a Sima States? At the t a single Arab the support of
WHLST CART putation and
at Camp David, crast of diplo offensives to a as a big nuclear
scale. In this against Vietnam bour. Peking
has been set up up anti-China reality, the bone ween the two question of the s Chinese in Viet Vietnam to acc a !955 agreema which ethnic Ch virtual dual natie ment WaS | Finleyer Vietnam. Furthe East countries,
Chou En-lai

scretary Vance will rsuade King Hussein King Khalid of Saudi idraw their opposirt the Camp David an in a limited sort known. The Arab dfastness and Cennsisting of Algeria, South Yemen held a ascus on September ere being made to aq to the Confronag had quit on the a was "too soft'. King cco has been silent calling on him on :he USA to vin his , another stipperter een silent. Some of s have already cri2em;çeşit.
and Carter (with Kissinger and the mission succeed in p David Ågreement number of Arab ime of writing not State has conne to
Sadat.
ER Stake his rerisked his future China is on the matic and political ssert her position power on a globali she has come up her closest neighasserts that Hanoi by Moscow to take postures. But, in of contention betcountries is the tatus of the ethnic lam. China wants ipt and implement nt with Hanoi by nese were granted inality. This agreeobserved in South rmore, in Southt will be recalled had repudiated
fort countries
Efhnid Chቮገese
the principle of dual nationality which China had insisted on earlier. China, by wanting to now revive this dual nationality concept in Vietnam has made all South-east Asian countries with large ethnic Chinese populations nervous. Malaysia is the first country to take it up, and the Malaysian Prime Minister has indicated a wish to go to eking to discuss this matter before the end of the year.
At first one thought that China had only wanted the principle of dual nationality operative in (bloodbrother) Vietnam alone. But AsiaWeck of September 8, in its column Frontlines had the following note under the heading CHINA SAYS T AGAN: 'China last week went as close as it probably ever will in declaring that its policy on overseas Chinese has changed radically. Addressing some 1,600 Chinese residents in Bangkok at a reception organised by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, the newly appointed Chinese Ambassador to Thailand, Chang Wei-lei, said overseas Chinese are free to take up the nationality of their adopted countries but that China will oppose any moves to force them to change their nationalities. That should give Southeast Asian governments plenty of food for thought. As if to make the digestion harder, the Ambassador added that those who took up local natioinalities will still be welcorne to maintain friendly relations with the mainland. And those who want to go back to China will be taken care of, he stressed. Peking could hardly put it more bluntly than that. But this newly articulated stance is unlikely to come Struggling against historical odds to achieve a mea
sure of national integrity that
transcends ethnic loyalties. We wonder what a Thai Ambassador would like to tell a Thai Chamber of Commerce in Peking.'
墅

Page 15
Ethክic Chineኛë
Batuk Gathapai, in a despatch from London on September 9 to the Madras Hindu discussing current developments said: ".... Slowly and steadily, there is also mountin concern about the ripple of unease through South East Asia, against the background of the fast deteriorating relations between Peking and Hanoi. Indian observers find this development pregnant with catastrophic consequences for peace in Asia. "One way or the other, whether we like it or not, we will be sucked into this Peking-Hanoi business-if we don't live by our wits'-quipped a senior Indian dips lomat the other day. Everybody is aware that the latest round of diplomatic talks between China and Vietnam has so far failed to produce any agreement on Contentious bilateral issues, including the problem of the mass exodus of ethnic Chinese residents from Vietnam, which has brought the two Asian Coint unist powers close to a state of war on their border. Peking accuses Hanoi of forcibly booting out the ethnic Chinese minority and now it all looks like a seemingty neverending slanging match between the two. Hanoi is determined to stamp out private trade in its earnest desire to build up socialism in the post-war unified Vietnarin. Tien there are issues concerning Vietnam's border conflict with Caribodia, which amo
unts to a struggle for regional hegemony between the Chinese and Vietnamese people. Vietnam
is also wocing the ASEAN members who also have the 'problern of powerful trading and prosperous ethnic Chinese minorities. The problem is of varying degree but it is bad business in their individual bilateral relations with Peking. In Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur, overtures from Hanoi have had some response because indonesia aid Malaysia have sizable trading and prosperous Chinese minorities. Hanoi has suggested that Peking's
2.
policies towards Chinese origin ar. using them as a advance Chinese South-East Asia.
4 million oyersea ASEAN countries Hanoi finds it : capitalise on what 'tractitional fears Chinese. . . . . . . . .
Fhis com frient C the following cont Hua has emerged a man after his h tour through the E As China's relation terin and NATO more cordial and b senses a new freez of East-West deten Administration's pri under the umbrella rights issue infuria Soviets feel that pre-occupation wit and activities of S amounts to direct Soviet internal affa as the cemir List: West af di East argu rights is Mr. Carte V\kmat about the nation against colo in Western countrie support for white in all these years in sc Perhaps, the Weste more respect for rights, could have ity if the West house in order firs in the United State in Britain, the T Germany or the A rians in France--a off than say the dissidents in th China interprets t World problem. M pean intellectuals the far-reaching he politics of detent perturbed by wha described the oth

Vietnamese of e tantam o Ult to fifth column to bolitical ends in There are some S Chinese in the
and, obviously, advantageous to t is termed as about the
Satani made in text 'Chairman s a world Statesighly successful Balkans ane ran. S with the WesPowers become usiness like, on se e in the politics te, as the Carter pricking antics of the 'human te Noscow. he the American h the politics osiet dissidents interference in irs. Moreover, S both in the 1e, what human r talking about? racial discrimiured mincrities S er the VVetern Rinority regimes puthern Africa? brin claim our for
basic human more credibi= put its own
t. The Negros s, the coloureds urks in West frican and Algere they better the Jews or e Soviet Union
his as a hird any West Eurowho dream of brizons of the te feel deeply t one of them er day as “this
amateurish obsession in the White
House? "human rights
issue",
And now, apart from the the China
factor further complicates the perspectives of the Western world's relations with the two communist
giants.
Seasoned Indian diplomats
one talks to about India's role in all
this,
also find themselves
in a
state of quandary, if not down
right confusion.'
And, though
lndian
Foreign
Minister Vajpayee is going to Peking soon, there does not seem to be any chance of a real rapprochement until China is willing to meet
ndian
demaids on the
dispute
about boundaries at least halfway.
China is doing its best to wish
friends
South Asia by
Karakoram Highway.
What next?
THE WORLD
India,
Bangladesh
NS DA: #F26C6CC
FURY
like
in Southeast Asia whilst reaching out to strategic areas
roads
iti tfie
TODAY
While it is too early to estimate
the current
floods,
reports suggest that the will be substantial. Severe floods have been reported from Punjab in the north to Madhya Pradesh in south and Gujarat in the west to West
Bengal Kurukshetra, districts
have been fully marooned.
in the east.
n
preliminary
damage
Ambala,
Karnal and Sonepat more than 70 villages
Sutlej
river is threatening several areas
in Punjab.
However round-the
clock work on embankments and weak points have so far been effec
tive.
in Moradabad in UP, Ram
ganga is threatening 200 villages. Some of them are already under
water,
About 20,000 houses have
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 16
collapsed in different parts of Muzafarnager district and 50,000 people had to be evacuated. Over 5,500 marooned people have been rescued from 412 flood-hit areas in West Bengal so far. So far 30 deaths have been officially reported. Total loss in the second round of floods this year is estimated at Rs. 25.6 crores. Standing crop in 6.5 lakh acres were totally lost. In Orissa, Subarnarekha river in Balasore district has submerged 1.6 lakh hectares. This has affected two lakh people.
Devastating floods have been an annual feature of most big rivers in India right from the pre-historic days. Though no dependable statistics of the flood loss is still available, a rough estimate is around Rs. 1,500 crores every year. During the past two years floods caused considerable damage in Haryana, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Assam. In Haryana, nearly 500 villages with a population of one million had to suffer badly in 1976. Several parts of these States are at present reeling under the flood fury.
The crippling effect of floods on Indian economy was acknowledged even by the British rulers. Annual visitation of floods, makes India's budget an undependable exercise. Yet no serious steps were taken in this regard until the devastating floods in 1954. In fact, the credit for initiating the National Flood Control Programme goes to Jawaharlal Nehru. Under this programme by the end of the fourth Plan 7.0 million hectares were given "reasonable' protection from floods. According to the latest assessment, in all 25 million heetares are "liable' to floods. Flood protection schemes for 20 million hectares are considered by the experts to be economically feasible. During the four years of the Fifth Plan two million hectares have been protected against
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
floods. Of th crores spent c Rs... 247 crores States, and the
tre. The total flood control s 24 years afte
RS. 445 crores.
So far the foc have been confir ation, storage bankments, dive tection, river anti-erosion and ment. The app concentrate on optimum develt of various rive included food expected to i effectiveness of their Smooth im area so far negle tion of the for ment areas from mindless defores soil erosion an run off. In so control has been to for the past Plan, therefore, need for a bette protection and which must be catchment areas that are flood E officially claimed been made two respect. . . . . . . .
-Link, Ne Septemb
NDA: T SHOCKED
The Capital fac flood crisis in m Hundreds of De ered in the face Yamuna-which in burst its banks, and overflowed is areas after inun low-lying areas.

e total of Rs. 287
on these schemes, came from the rest from the Cen
Spending on these chemes during the r 1954, has been
bd control measures ed to flood moderreservoirs, emersions, town proimprovement and drainage improveroach has been to multipurpose and ppment of waters :r systems. This control. This is mprove the cost the projects and plementation. An !cted is the protecest areas in catchdevastation. Such tation lead to heavy d the consequent me dam areas silt partially attended 5 years. The sixth emphasises the }r system of forest soil conservation 2 extended to the of all river systems brone. It is now that a start has years back in this
w Dahi, er, 0, 1978
HE CAPITAL
:ed its worst ever emory last week. hi citizens cowof the rampaging a thre3-day spell, breached bunds nto the suburban dating scores of Not since the
lfdjid
days of the Mughals, several centuries ago, have the waters of the Yamuna lapped at the outer walls of the Red Fort as they did last week. Officially fifty people were drowned in panic stricken evacuations; unofficial sources put the toll at many hundreds more as desperate citizens tried to swim the turbulent waters to safety. Over a thousand army personnel and 2 boats were busy rescuing 350,000 beleagured people and strengthening the last marginal bundh on the east side of Yamuna to save the teeming suburban colony of Shahdara.
The city's tale of woe began last Sunday when the Central Flood Forecasting Division of the Central Water and Power Commission broadcast a warning of a catastrophic flood in the river. It was the sequel to record rainfall that had lashed northern India the previous two days (2 cms. in the Capital itself). It filled up the headworks of the Yamuna at Tajewala from where the water is released periodically into the river that flows past Delhi. The forecast said that a flood of extraordinary magnitude unknown in the history of the river had passed the headworks early on Sunday morning and in the 36 hours that it took to reach the Capital, it made a mockery of all the antiflood control measures that an un prepared Delhi administration took. It swept over bunds with awesome
ease, cut the main G.T. road to
Panipat at several places, inundated a vast stretch of land up to the vicinity of Delhi University-swallowing enroute the teeming resettlement colony of Jehangirpuri, whose residents had been pushed out of their homes during the emergency.
in two days, all the four bridges across the Yamuna even the cen
turies old railway road bridge were
ܡܵܪܝܢ
༤

Page 17
declared to be in danger. Experts feared that they would not be able to withstand the pressure of the waters. The inadequate waterway at tine bridge could obstuct the free flow of water it was said, and the authorities promptly closed all of them to vehicular traffic and a day later, to pedestrian traffic also. People of the thickly populated trans-Yamuna colony of Shahdara and its neighbouring areas, battered by the floods every year,
were totally cut off, spending a
night of terror as army jawans worked to strengthen the left marginal bund between the old railway bridge and the lindraprastha bridge. The army put 4,000 personnel on the job, as the Capital's last line of defence on the northern extrem itly, the Shah Alam bund collapsed, letting the gushing waters into Adarsh Nagar, Model Town, Kingsway Camp, Mukherjee Nagar and the outer colleges of the University campus, Waters reached the first floors of houses, inundated shops, petrol pumps, police stations, the AFR Transmitters were flooded causing the AIR to go off the air on three popular frequencies. There were not enough boats to move people to safety from flooded areas, Most people made their own arrangements, using inflated tubes of cars, little plastic Contraptions normally used for bathing babies or just swimming across to safety. There were casualties too -over 50 persons including an army sapper lost their lives as boats over-turned, mostly because of panic among the passengers.
The army faced unexpected problems too. Residents of areas like Model Town, Hakikat Nagar, Mukherjee, Nagar and other areas refused to be evacuated. As the waters rose they took their belongings and families on to upper floors, afraid of the uncertainties of the relief camps. They were not far wrong; a massive relief
5.
camp set up at th stadium turned int as the waters swept
gees were homeles army men found the wanted to use boat Service to and fron to get food and r rather than as a m To add to it all w of sightseers who
cars, Scooters an to See the river ris had to issue a war loiterers would be their vehicles impot
not as if the more
dential areas where lived escaped the flot Colony, New Frienc Maharani Bagh, w men and others buil sions, suddenly fou in deep waters as moved in menacing Ohkla region. Wate ring the basements of
The mullahs lead in near lilak Bridge, ne and further on bega It looked as if the r nies and office bla areas would be thre first time ever, an evacuate basements By noon on Wedne it looked as if the ri to recede, slowly bu bridges had held breathed a sign of then, however, the tables shot up, mi were in short sup seemed to be no sig as all the rail and Uttar Pradesh wer lowing the heavy floods upstream. and matches were i Fruits, brought ot storage turned out than vegetables. Th in the temples. pagoda and the v

e Model Town o a vast lake
in and the refuS again. And it the residents tS in a shuttle n their homes, medical reliefeans of escape. ere the hordes
drove in on d motorcyles e. The police
"ning that any penalised and inded. It was exclusive resithe affluent bd fury. Kalindi is Colony, and here businessEt palatial manind themselves the Yamuna gly across the r started entethese houses.
g into the city ar fisizamuddin in to rise also. esidential coloDcks in these atened for the d warnings to
were issued. sday, however iver had begun ut surely. The and the city relief. Before proces of vegeilk and bread ply and there in of early relief
road links to e snapped foldownpour and
Even candles a short supply. ut from cold to be cheaper ere was silence
The Buddhist arious shrines
India
along Ring Road were flooded and priests and monks in their distictive costumes trooped out to join the faithful crowding the streets. Even the samad is of Nehru and Shastri were under waterthough Rajghat was luckier. There seemed no place to cremate the dead either as Nigambodh Ghat was engulfed by the Yamuna and waters lapped the electric crematorium a mille downstream.
-Link, New Delhi,
September 10, 1978
NDA: THRSAT POSED BY KHARA KORAM HGHWAY
The Kashmir Chief Minister,
Sheikh Abdulla, has called upon people to make a united endeavour and muster their strength to face the potential threat posed to the country’s integrity, solidarity and sovereignty by the construction of the Karakoram national highway adjacent to our borders by China and Pakistan.” Replying to a discussion in the Assembly on an adjournment motion moved by a Congress member, Mr. Bhimsingh, regarding threats posed by the highway, Mr. Abdullah said the Government of India had lodged its protests to the quarters concerned.
The problem was no longer to prevent construction of the highway, which had been built despite protest from India. What was important now was how to overcome the "dangerous situation arising out of its construction, particularly when China was leaning towards Pakistan', Mr. Abdullah said.
Mr. Abdullah denied he had told the former US Ambassador, Mr. Lov. Henderson, when the two met hare in 1952, that he favoured independence for the State. Referring to the Ambassador's claim, reporteldy made in the classified documents released by the American State Department, the Chief Minister said the fact was that it was
TRIBUNE September 30, 1978

Page 18
Mr. Henderson who had wanted to know why Jammu and Kashmir could not remain independent.
Mr. Abdullah said he had told the Ambassador in reply that independence for the State was not possible.
"Whatever Mr. Henderson may have told his Government are not rmy views, but constitute the projection of his own views."
-PT, Srinagar,
September, 0, 1978
ANT - NEDA EENGS i N BANGAEDES
An Indian arriving in Dacca will at once get the impression of being in an unfriendly country if the Writings on the wall and posters are any indication. Although abrasive slogans such as 'Boycott Indian goods and boycott our enemy -India' are no longer to be seen
in Dacca as in Mujib's days, anti
India wall writings are far more numerous than before, "Down with Indian imperialism and expansionism' and "We shall never let Bangladesh turn into a vassal state of India' and similar slogans are splattered across Dacca's walls, 'Since the creation of Bangladesh we have been so thoroughly conditioned in thought and action against India that we are now more antiIndia than during the Pakistani days. Mistakes committed by India are largely to blame for this'', a senior bureaucrat of Bangladesh said. He sought shelter in India during the 1971 liberation war. Meetings at Dacca's Paltan Maidan are still the popular forum to politicians for campaigns against India. At the election meetings India vas the target of attack by President Ziaur Rahman's Jatiyatabaei Front. The front alleged that the Indian Border Security Force had
urged the Bangladesh voters over loudspeakers to vote for General It alleged that hundreds of miniature plastic boats, the
Osmany.
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
election symbo Were Sent do the Indian b the voters. the allegation at a time whe self was tellii with the 'in Government i relations with proved' and t year the 3,00 India was "p incidents', the tial goods frt been checked the Farakka foundi.
“If We have
stuff why shot India against we can buy it Japan or the ferably buy lr Indian rupee Bangladesh Ban Indian busine including Gov ings, are to b queering the pi and services it behaviour of to haye made Bangladesh bure gladesh officials more and mor and the islamit CauSe any m India.o soir. Foreign Secreta has proved a g nomic assistanc Skilled aía un 1976, Saudi A S 200 millionour prejects, grant and $20 lizer. In the pa 30,000 Banglades ind jobs in the has signed an and in the next recruit 24,000 ment and short

ol of General Osmany, Nf the GGrnati frem orders to influence was significant that s were being made in President Zia himng the people that ew, friendly lndian in power Bangladesh's
ndia has vastly im
hat in the past one
0 km. border with 2aceful and free of smuggling of essenom Bangladesh had and a solution to dispute had been
to buy sophisticated ild we buy it from hard currency when rom West Germany, UK. We shall preoian goods against
credit', a senior k official said. Many SS men and firints,
enrient undertaktame themselves for teh for Indian goods Bangladesh. The ndian officials seems a large section of aucrats hostile. Barisay: "Our turning : towards the Arab world should not is understanding in obārāk Hossain, ry said: 'For us it dood Source of eco: and jobs for both six led workers. In rabia promised us - $ 50 milion for 50 million as cash million to buy fertit three years, about h nationals have fouurab countries, lran agreement with us three years it will eople. Unemployge of funds for our
Bangladesh
projects have been our most pressing problems. We hope to attract good investment from the Arab world because the situation has stabilized here and we are offering good opportunity for private iny strinert.'
-Manash Ghosh in The Statesman.
Bombay.
BAN (G ADESH: REFUGE OF
- E - DESPERATE
from Bangladesh is usually good news because any news from Bangladesh is usually bad. Thus, this weekend, the political scene in East Bengal, nine days after a tumultuous presidential election, seems remarkably tranquil which is surprising and good. But the flow of refugees from Burma continues amid mounting efforts at mediation: and the flow is wholly bad...Clearly though, something very nasty has been happening. You do not lightly fee penniless to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the poorest, most crowded, least appetising refuge in the world... Inside the country itself, though, the refugee challenge and the presidential election have come to be linked emotionally. We say Bengalis, live under a mili. tary dictatorship. General Zia-ur Rahman has pushed national spending of the armed forces from 3 to 30 per cent in his short tenure of choice. Our army has swelled. And yet, unlike the indians, we cannot seal our border. We carnot even control Burmese seeking safety. What, then, is the point of the Bangladesh army? Sheikh Mujib, long ago and grandiloquently, saw as the Switzerland of Asia. Now we spend money on guns rather than rice; but for all that Vive are pitifully weak. we can use our soldiers only to keep our
No neys
蚤

Page 19
Bangladesh
own people in subservience. This, indeed, has been a heavy shadow over Dacca during General Zia's regime. He has offered Bangladesh some stability and some efficiency -both virtues direly needed. But the emphasis on military strength. the persecution of political oppoments and the specific cold war alignments that have come in train have rimoved Bangladesh rather cloSer to a corriyeti ornal third world autocracy than seems either prudent or desirable. Bangladesh's main enemy is its endlessly burgeoning population-a population that the World Bank reckons may
reach 134 million by the end of
the century. Famine and utter disaster overlay such statistics, and General Zia’s – administration has done little to lighten the appalling prospect. His main aim in recent weeks has been to re-establish his place at the top of the 'international basket case' league by adding a gloss of democratic letigimacy to his image. That the presidential elections certainly did: though their suspicious haste and ever more suspicious outlay of funds leave many questions unanswered, -
-The Guardian, London. 12 June 78.
BANGLADESH: CABINET of CONCESSIONS
Having acquired a patina of legitimacy from the people in the elections on June 3, President Ziaur Rahman announced on June 29 a new Cabin it of 29. It is heavily weighted in favour of bureaucrats and technocrats despite the backing he had from a coalition of political parties, the Jagodal (National Democratic Front). Zia's bitas towards the bureaucracy seems to stem from his repeated declararion that the main purpose of politics in Bangladesh is the economic emancipation of the people, and his apparent conviction that
y
the technocrats, can lead the cou Zia has not joi though he has sa on his inspiratio ticians have had t positions in the bureaucrats such Huq, a senior mei Police Service ( tioning of th: Si3ful Azarm, t nei ber of the F vice before the Abdul Moinen
ñeñmber cof the & and Azizul Huq, tionalist and
preporder: ince of also suggest that politicians into
not rintich more the 'polirid of 3sked for helping challenge in the
Zia has made
to latent rivalries a cotiation of parties. Althou, tion demands th be a prime mini cided to do will post was expected Rahman, leader o National Ayami architect of the F yielding to prote: tist Muslim Leag tituent of the Zia named Mashi Minister. Not Rahman been de premier, but th is very much a pa with as many mer are from Mashiu At the same t People's Party, young Left, seer equally well. W "coat of many well in the electi difficult to envis wear now that 7.

ot the politicians, try to that goal. ned the Jadogal, id it was created And the polio yield the senior abinet to retired as Quzai Anwarul nber of the Indian before the partiSubcontinent); he most senior akistan Civfil Serbreak-up in 1971; Khan, a senior 2ngal Civil Service a former estacabureaucrat. The buffeat CFats would the indiction of the Cabinet was tha ngiying them flesh” they haci Za věřard off titiae elections. . . . . . . .
Some concessions within the Front, disparate political gh the Constituat there should Ster, Zia has dethout one. The to go to Mashiur if the left-inclined
Party, the main ront. Presumably sts from the righue, another consmulti-party front, ur Rahman Senior only has Mashiur nied the post of e Muslim League rt of the Cabinet, bers in it as there r Rahman's NAP. ime the United representing the ms to have done (hile this political hues' served Zia ion campaigri, it is age how it will Zia is operating a
nev Government. Cabinet members belongrg to the Jagodal imay. not always see eye to eye with one another on most vital issues. One such point of disagreement among them may be the question of nationalisation ef industries. En ayetullah Khan, Minister for Industry, are both members of the Jagodal central convening committee, but while Enayetullah Khan is a great advocate of state capitalism, Ahmed's support for the private sector is fairly well known . . . . . . . .
--Daud Majlis in the Far Easterni
Economic Review. 21 July 1978.
BANGA SES-: TRABE GAP.
The projections under the new import and export policies indicate that the country's foreign trade sector would continue to remain under heavy pressure during the current fiscal year. The value of total imports will be almost three times the value of exports in 197879 as in the preceding fiscal year. And this will mean a staggering deficit of Taka 17920 million with total imports (including ඝ11 උදෑtégories of imports such as consumpt tion goods, raw materials, Spares, foodgrains, capital goods, transport items, defence equipment etc) projected at Taka 26920 million and total exports at Taka 9000 million during the current fiscal year. The related unfavourable balances of trade, to be mentioned here, amounted to Taka 12145 million and Taka 7180 million in 1977-78 and 1976-77 respectively. like in the previous years, the deficit in the balance of trade is to be met by substantially larger volume of foreign aid (grants plus loans), and private transfer receipts (imports under Wage Earners. Scheme). În view of the proiected huge trade deficit for the current fiscal year, a further draw-down of the country's foreign exchange reserves is also expected. Mean
YAwNING
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 20
while, debt servicing including payments of principal plus interest will amount to Taka 1530 million in 978-79. This means that about 17 per cent of the country’s export earnings will be needed for meeting her debt-servicing liabilities for the current year. In addition, payments to the linternational Monetary Fund (IMF) on account of repurchase of Special Drawing Rights (SDR) would involve a substantial amount of transactions in the IMF account. According to an earlier projection, payments to IMF will amount to Taka 850 million as against balance of payments assistance from it to the tune of Taka 217 million in 1978-79, reflecting a net deficit of Taka 579 milion on the related account.
The widening gap in the country's balance of trade points out a distressing economic situation. And, this is more so in view of the fact that the gap has been widening every year at an accelerated pace. Notwithstanding "laudable growth' in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) the economy has simply not been able to meet increasingly its current liabilities in the foreign grade sector out of own resources and earnings. Cautious observers commenting on this aspect of dependence of the national economy on foreign capital inflow note that the country is probably incurring disproportionately large long-term liabilities for short-term expediency and thereby the present ruling elite is exploiting the productive potential of the future generation.' One particular cause of concern in this context relates to the deteriorating terms of trade. While the prices of imported commodities for the country have
gone up several times during the last
six years, those of her export commodities have failed to register any significant rise. . . . . . . .
-The New Nation, Dacca.
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
BANGLADESRATION N. S.
The split in th integration of th coupled with mas the people by th has triggered of of political and and confusion in t total impact of it
because of the pr
law. The strang menon that had g since the govern licensing of the has gained mom Amidst siogans of the political force tegrating and the into small groups The process of dis litical forces and rties started right f the government licences to those have a political part political parties w government in its " allowed about two to function. Most Were a one-man sh Seemed anxious t off as a party lead stage of the disint with the formatio blishment-backed emergence of the hardly noticed by unnerved the spons who later made a cruit from Variou, ln the hope of gett fishes” a good nu bers from various ing Muslim League, United People's Par Leaguers, hurriedly selves as loyal mem party. Even the parties banned by rushed to joine til The process of dis resulted in three instead of one, thre

DSANTEGAGFS
e parties and dise political forces sive let down of e political leaders a new process
economic chaos
..he country. The is not being felt esence of Martial e political phenoripped the nation ment went for political parties entum of late. "national unity' S are fast disinparties splitting and subgroups. . integration of poaplit in the parom the moment: decided to grant who wanted to ty. Overnight, 52 ere born. The infinite wisdom' o dozen parties of these parties Iow. Everybody Io pass himself er. The Second egration started n of the estaJagodal. The new party was the people. This ors of the party afforts to res other parties. ing “loaves and Imber of memparties includBhashani NAP, ty some Awami enlisted theme bers of the new leaders of the the President he bandwagon. integration has Muslim Leagues e Bashani NAP's
Bangladesh
in place of one. The United Peoples Party is divided with splinter group forming a Revolutionary Party. The Islamic Democratic league has split into threa groups. Even a small party like Peoples Party is divided into two. The former ruling party-Awami League-which had retained the facade of unity till recently is faced with the threat of a definite break in next few days. Worst of all, the initiators of the disintegration move are the worst sufferers now. The Jagodal which was formed with consent and help from the President himself is busy in bitter and at times nasty in-group fighting. The party is divided on the question of National Unity... the call given by the President after his election in the polls...The country is under Martial Law even after three years and a presidential poll. The Controversial Fourth Amendment in the Constitution remains with small adjustments suited to the establish ment. The fact remains that in the presence of Martial law no institutions can grow no system can function. The will of an individual or a group is above the nation and the state. accountability.
-The New Nation, Dacca.
30, July 78.
جیسے C9) جیسے
مسOمس- == C9-سے
NXET wEEK
(D PRESS IN SRI LANKA
OD ULF AT CROSS ROADS
D QUIDNUNCs-MoRE scan.
DALS, ADA etc.
NICARAGUA, MIDDLE EAST
(D)
O NARCOTics & Local
POLITICs
8
There is no
.

Page 21
A Charter Of Freedom
SPOTLiGHT ON
The New Constitution
The author of this article, Dr. A. J. Wilson, was for many years on the Staff of the University of Ceylon and occupied the chair of Professor of Political Science.
Professor Wilson in 1955 won the Leverhulme Research Scholarship at the London School of Economics and in 1964 a Research Fellowship in Politics at the University of Leicester.
Two of Dr. Wilson's latest books are "Politics of Ceylon' and "Electoral Politics in an Emergent State' which analysed the elections of May 1970. Dr. Wilson is the son-in-law of the late Mr. S. J. V. Chelyanayakam.
THE SECTION ON FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS in the Constitution, when taken with the provisions for an Ombudsman, the independence of the Judiciary, and the restrictions on the exercise of emergency powers, is by far the most extensive charter of freedom that Sri Lanka has had in all its history.
The 1978 Constitution marks a watershed in the history of constitutional development. Whilst we have retained and modernised the parliamentary legacies inherited through the years, we have discarded some of the outmoded features that were impositions more suited to the needs of an expanding stable imperialism such as Britain, a country which has at present found some equilibrium as a declining medium-sized power. But even Britain has modified the Westerminister model to suit the
19,
changing situation. inner cabinet, and a still more confi of advisers.
At the top of th Prime Minister, inc inter pares but a in the American a Eden, f4acmillan, son are the exampl past and general e tain have tended t dential contests be ing conteinders-th issue being whet preferred to be g leader as against British have ever referendum to dete of the electors as the Common Mar
VWe hay e in ou tion eindeavoured te of government tha laden society that going off balance. some of the funct our own past as W the British, Amer systems of governi unique in that it to meet our own r cannot therefore as imbibing to a g major principles of systems mentioned. dential-parliamentar tical experiment t stability, popular rough elections an conformity with d tices made possible liberties and pro independent judicia
Adequate provis executive presidenc three ways. The F ted by an absolute voters participating tion. He is likely national figure c mot from one se but from a broad whole. He woul

There is an what is more, ed inner circle
: pyramid is the longer prints irtua President d Gaullist style. Heath and Wi2s of the recent lections in Bribecome presiween the leade question at her the voters overned by one another. The adopted the rmine the views for example on ket question.
new constitutb adopt a style t suits a crisisis in danger of it incorporates ional aspects of fell as those of ican and French ment. But it is has been framed equirements and be described reat extent the any one of the it is a presiy type of polihat will ensure involvement threferenda, and femocratic pracby a charter of visions for an
Гу.
or for a stable y is ensured in President is elecmajority of the ; in his/her electo emerge as a rawing support gment of society spectrum of the strive towards
consensus politics because a proportional representation is likely . to result in no one party obtaining an absolute majority of seats in the legislature.
Secondly, the President will necessarily enjoy a greater quantum of authority and prestige and will therefore be in a better position to initiate and implement governmental policy. Under our discarded system, prime ministers with one or two exceptions tended to be chairmen of cabinets involved in a vain search for coherance and continuity in policy and having to contend against the Donoughmore tradition of strong individuas lism on the part of ministers. They functioned more in the style of their nineteenth century British counterparts not realising that conventions had brought about significent changes in Britain itself.
Thirdly, the President as acknowledged leader will have a maximum of authority to handle the problems of a society in disequilibrium. The Constitution, in effect, intends him to be a crisis leader. Much-needed economic regeneration, social change and the reconciliation of alienated groups into the body politic can be effected with speed and decision by an acknowledged leader invested with the maximum confidence available.
VIEWS HAVE BEEN EXPRESSED that (i) the may work the new system but what of his successors? (2) there can be deadlock and conflicts between the President and the legislature if the latter body has a majority hostile to the President and (3) the system could give rise to dictatorship. These arguments need examination since they are based on genuine though unfounded fears.
it is true that the present President has been in the mainstream of democratic politics for over forty years and that his world-view is
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
present President

Page 22
coloured by a desire to maintain constitutional government. The underlying fear is that the succeding incumbent - might be spurred on with visions of Bonapartism, Castroite designs etc. The argument is really tied up with that of the potentialities for dictatorship. IWe will come to this question but suffice it to say at this point that a half-century of alectoral experience, an over-pluralised sociał structure and a militant trade union movement are, apart from the safeguards against abuse of power, written into the Constitution of the Second Republic, adequate built-in checks against subversion of the democratic processes. Besides the hour can produce the man. It used to be said that the Fifth Republic was tailormacie for De Gaulle and would not ot tast him. But Pompidou and D'Estaing proved capable in their own way and the Fifth Republic has shown ability to adapt itself to the stresses and strains of the volatility of French political life.
A hostile majority in the legislature need not cause problems. We had it in our constitutional past (the Donoughmore period) when ministers implemented policies that they did not approve of. And the Swiss Council of Ministers is the best example of a fixed executive that at times does the bidding of the Legislature. In the French Fourth Republic, ministers had to accept amendments from the legislative committees of the Chamber of Deputies which mangled their original proposals. American Presidents have had to go along with hostile majorities in one or both houses of Congress,
There are two alternatives that vill become avai lable to our President under the Second Republic. He can either carry out the wishes of the legislative majority as defined by the cabinet of ministers. Or he can revert to the role of a
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
constitutional hea: mentators on th have indicated th available to Firsic with a hostile ima titution is ther: and need not c. the nerve-centres THE CONSTITU Scond Republic is to dictatorship of one thing there provisions which s ly difficult condit £ensiston of the , 1i at the ter" o' In either instang majority is not The approval of th addition, be sough The Air 3rica; es || S | Fregeeft of " tha e i oys extensive y Congress. The ca, in certain giv in terms of Article titution, rule by the consent of Even in Britain, remarked that much more the thân that of a c ern Political Co. edition, P. 26). writers like R. M. Finner and J. P. N can presidential s resentyn blances wh; presidents rule ir one-party states. are mere boilies o legislatures only authority. Our P Prime Minister as in it and the le tiye committees pondence between executive.
The inequitable tage to backyar populated areas h Nor can there an verse landslide

i o stata, Conn ,
e Fifth Republic at this course is 1 Presidents faced ority. The Cons2fඋ;"ළ workable ause paralysis in of government. T1C}N of the the least prone all systems. For are entrenched tipulate extremeions for the exfe of Pai țările:
学二a三t\っ-thir望s in itself adequate. people must, in in a referendum
a's French sysar:::: 丁酯eיץ מכי h:2 United States eto Powers of er French President 'esh circumstances : 6 of the Consde cree Without. the legislature. C. F. Strong has the cabinet 'is "Lille of one man pmmittee" (Mod
institutions, 975
So hate other Punnett, S. E. fackintosh. Afriystems bear no itsoever. Their the context of Their cabinets advisers. Their possess residual arliament has the di Cabinet sitting islative consulta
2n SUdre a COffēS
government and
systein of weighd and sparselys as been dropped. y longer be permajorities ystyfhich
- the 978 Constitution
have little relation to the aetua number of votes polled under the outmoded Anglo-Saxon firstpast-the-post single-member constituency system. Proportional representation will ensure in the legislature a fairly accurate mirror of opinion in the country. The business of forming a stable government vil devolve on the President as well as on political brokers and amalgamators. There will be a move in the direction of consensus politics and national governments rather than the bitterness of party strife that has characterised government since independence.
long years ago, even in Britain a liberal historian of repute . Ramsay Muir, in a book, How Britain is Governed, which he published in the nineteen thirties, advocated proportional representation as a way of ending the monopoly of politics by the two major parties and as a step in the direction of ending dictatorship by the cabinet. Proportional Representation however, has its defects which we deal with below.
Articles 10 and 1 of the Constitution relating to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. and freedom from torture are entrenched, while the other freedoms are subject to the usual requirements of national economy, national security, national harmony and public morality. The state does not, however, have a blanket right to curtail these freedoms on the grounds stated. The state's decision will be subiect to interpretation and adjudication by the Supreme Court.
MORE SiGNIFICANT than all this is the provision contained in Article 7. Under it a citizen is entitled to seek the protection of the Supreme Court when there is an imminent threat to his rights by executive or administrative action. It might be recalled that
20

Page 23
The 1978 Constitution
Section 29 of the 947-72. Costitution safeguarded the citizen only against legislative discrimination. While the Constitution of the First Republic (1972-77) left out the ordinary courts and permitted only limited jurisdiction to a specially constituted Constitutional Court.
Certain sections in the Constitution are more entrenched than others, requiring, in addition to the usual two thirds majority of the total membership approval by the people in a referendum. The Constitution, in a sense, becomes more rigid than previous ones because proportional representation would make it difficult for any
one party to obtain a two-thirds
maiority. However, parties can combine for the purpose of effecting amendment. The attempt of the St. FP to negotiate with the TUF at the tai 4-end of the last Parliament is a pointer. And it should not be forgotten that even without proportional representation, chainge was difficult during the period of the 1947-72 constitution.
Only once before the major overhaul of 1972, did a government secure a two-thirds maiority (at the general election of 1952) but it did not on that occasion attempt to bring about significant alterations. The new system, therefore, in effect, seeks to achieye consensus or maximum agreement in this vital area of government as well. Constitutional change can no longer be affected on a urilateral basis.
The fact that the President's term is fixed, while that of the Cabinet and the legislature is likely to be different, need not detain us. e lf - the legislative majority is hostile to the President, the odds are that we will return to Prime Ministerial government, The President may dissolve the legislature is once but no Consti
象棋
titution can stad - a tions.
The President sible to the legi; Constitution is si that responsibility The Prime Minister answer for the Pr Parliament can, it amend the staten ment policy or thi priation Bill in or President in line.
Ultimately, the implication, makes for the President, the legislative m2
in harmony and c.
possible fragmenta under proportional will make the somewhat easier. course is to striy sensus politics.
PROPORTONA TION brings about tion and splinter But it might as we des pite the exister maior coalicior s v selves political pa and SLFP) they federations of group interests are some with each other an in their own right.
The new system with by-elections times, help goverr the state of publi enabiling the Oppo its protest. This c. tage which propo tation destroys. tions truly reflect temper of the elec and the SLFP's - 976 disporoves such it advantageous machinery of gov mobilised to fgr when its energies : needed for more

diet of dissolu
s made responlature, but the eit as to how can be enforced. will presumably esident. Besides it so desires, ent of govern2 annul appercer to bring the
Constitution, by
it indispensable the Cabinet and jority to work b-operation. The tion of parties | representation President's task The rationale of e towards con
REPRESENፕAthe fragmentaing of parties. ill be noted that ei tva rival yiich = cal 1 ttn gerrties (the UNP are themsey es iiitereste. These times in conflict di can be parties
also does away
which can, at ments to gauge c opinion while isition to record
rtional represenBut do by-elec
the mood and itors? Mulkirigala victory there in a view. Nor is for the whole fernment to be it a byelection and reseurces are urgent purposes.
Proportional representation will, however, promote the dictatorship, of the party machine. The candidate becomes dependent on the party to have his name entered in the list, When this is coupled with the anti-defection clauses (Article 99, sub-sections i 3 (a) and (b) under which a party has the right to expel and replace Members of Parliament, the dictator. ship of party becomes truly dangerous. The size of the electoral district which will be the same in most cases as that of an administrative district will help to some extent to counteract the rigid control of parties. Members will develop and cultivate their own local bases within the electoral district. This will provide them with a certain amount of everage when lists of candidates are being formulated by political parties.
It is doubtful as to whether the referendum can be a useful device. The Constitution, however, stipulates that only questions of national importar ce and certain fundamental matters of constitutional significance should be referred to the electors. There are some disadvantages here. An excessive politcization of an already over-politicized electorate can be one outcome. Secondly powerful wested interests can mobilize sections of voters and persuade them to vote while the general mass may be apathetic. Lastly legislature and Executive might shelve their responsibilities by transferring the burden of decision-making to the electors. * -
Finally, the Constitution makes the Supreme Court almost a third chamber of government. The Court is vested with a certain preeminence. It senioys fairly extesnsive powers of iudicial review, the right to render advisory - opinions, and in defined cases to intervene in the operation of the Constitution, Judicial review of ex
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 24
* ecutive, legislative and adminisI strative acts is no doubt a safegurad of individual liberties. But the Court can also hold up the work of government. The working of the Constitution in the next few years will indicate whether the Court will be helpful or obstructionist.
Sunday Observer, 0/9/78
十,十,十
IN THE TUB by Diogenes
The Rule of law
In the period 1955 to 1960, this column had appeared in the Tribune regularly, practically every week. Between 1960 & 1970 it had appeared more occasionally. After 1970, the had column gone into hibernation. It is being revived again because Diogenes is once again with us, and we are certain that our readers-old and new-wiki erjoy the reflections of a modern philosopher.
DIOGNESS, after a brief sojourn in the Council of Elders, has come back to where he belongs after he came to grief at the hands of the powerful ones in the State. He was in deep contemplation reviewing with great detachment and compassion the ways of men and the nature of things. Being a great lover of the City and its Men, he hoped that his expulsion will bring benefits not only to himself but to the citizens and the powerful ones as well. He refused to say he was wronged but he had been heard to say to his many friends 'whom am to deny these mighty little ones, in Samsara, whom am to deny them their little sport
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
in which they me what they t
Diogenes rec Great Teacher quers himself conqueror of The Master rela than ever cons ness and his iority over the Master was pri frailty. He was gant and when him for it, the humour would
not arrogant. of my inner Self and it cannot words of the pc but a childish t Sin but Ignorance was in one of tive moods that the room and be pihiilosopher.
''Master, have say of the Rul
“I am unabl question, my f me who are t are the laws. vA, ith the ever indestructible r Rule over one' was, there is,
no mam So poW or in all the that Rule over
"I asked yol. Rule but about
"I told you th transient peris concerned only that perisheth have no end. is the one over Perennial Law is There are no ju this Law there : Pleaders to plea the other. Th forces to enfor unobtrusive and

indulged to cause hought was pain?"
alled the words of “the man Who conis greater than a a thousand mem”. xed in his Tub more cious of his great
intellectual superpowerful ones. The one to this human intellectually arrohis friends rebuked Master with good reply "I am really
it is the strength ... it sees everything suffer fools. in the bet 'I count Religion oy and there is no
3. It was when he
his deep contemplahis Friend entered gan questioning the
a you anything to e of Law?”
e to anSY#er y Qur riend, till you tell he rulers and what am only concerned
lasting rule, the ule which is the s own self. There
and there will be erful in this world worlds to destroy
one's own Self.'
not about that the Rule of law.'
at any rule that is heth and I am with that Rule not and its years The Perennial Rule one's Self and the s the Karmic Law. idges to interpret are no Courts or d on one side or ere are no armed ce this law. It is works - itself out
Diògenes Again
without any pomp or pageantry. It works in silent splendour. It is within human comprehension and yet beyond it. Pain and pleasure, praise and censure, life and death are all unreal. The Reality is the Intelligence, the awareness of things and the Rule of one's own Self which carries us through the ocean of life and death to Supreme Happiness...This is the only Rule of the only Law I can see from this Tub.'
So saying the Master turned to a side and relapsed again into deep contemplation.
O O O O
龜
ACID BOMB EXPLOSION - 16
Chapter Sixteen Police Inquiries
By James Goonewardene
That night Deva lay reading in bed. The day's events, however, continued to Worry, him, especially the staff meeting that had to end so abruptly and in so disturbing a fashion. It continued to surface and give him, the odd feeling that this was only a prelude to more dramatic and terrifying events. He could forsee it ending in disaster; it could not end any other way.
After a time he gave up the struggle, rested the book on his belly-the petromax lamp continuing to burn on the table by his bed-and let his thoughts take their course. It was easier to do that than struggle against them. It was close on nine o'clock but there was still activity he could hear in the rest of the house-the land-lady, her husband and their woman servant, an old woman from á distant village, were - preparing to go to bed. Otherwise it was perfectly still everywhere;
这
ܬܹܐ

Page 25
beein
message across to me.
A Novei About 1971
the road, outside, lay buried in darkness and the stillness disturbed only by a single passing car, and by the rumbling of a bullock cart advancing slowly from a distance. The sea continued to pound the
beach.
Suddenly, then, he heard the sound of a car stopping outside the house-not a frequent occurance at anytime, but in the night a most unusual thing-a moment later he heard the front gate being unlatched, and then came the knock on his door. 'Open the door', he heard Ariya's voice call urgently. "it's me'- Deva went to the door and opened it and Ariya pushed his way in, his face distraught, and going to the chair he flopped into it. "Its old Piyaratne-we've got to take him to hospital'.
Deva didn't do a thing for a moment. He stood there looking flummoxed.
"What's happened?" "He's seriously ill.' Deva continued to stand and stare at Ariya.
"Get dressed-'ll tell you all about it,' said Ariya.
"All right-go ahead and tell me while change.'
"It will delay us." - "It wont-you can tell me while dress.'
'He's drunk himself into a coma; unconscious since evening. His wife managed, at last, to get a - He had started to drink soon after he returned from school, and stuck to the bottle until he dropped unconscious.'
“lts that staff meeting,” said Deva. "Oh my god...” Deva held his head in his hands.
"What staff meeting?" "Let's get him to hospital." Deva was soon ready, and locking the door they went out. The
tyvo men sat in the beat-up old which Ariya had hi and started out serted road.
"What happen meeting?'
Deva briefly ex pened, and endij said:
"I thought at way he fought E he rallied himsel man had still got and there was t end of the meeti, got up and strod contempt and d he would come day and continue this bunch of ho seem to have th: him-obviously he beaten than his fa revealed.'
“lts the way to show defeat; whatever the od that, perhaps, t VVhen the wo
round your ears
foolish to try to p
"In a way I fee all this. It was that we should tion of Gunapal afterwards, its tr thing possible to it-when realise up against, but he it." “lts again tha in him. Once h thing he goes to t
They reached a few moments : shrouded in dar single electric lam sitting room tha through the open were met by the and over-wrought 'How's he no "The same. He

the back seat of chevorlet coupe, red at the bazaar, bn the dark, de
ed at the staff
plained what hapng his story he
the time, by the back-at the way Ef, that the old some life in him; his thing, at the ng, when he just e off, with such ignity-l thought back the next the fight against odlums. He did at much fight in was feeling more ce or his manner
with him-never takes challenges ds, but even to here is a limit. rid's tumbling you would be rop it up alone.”
el responsible for who suggested hold this exhibia's painting; but ue, I did everytalk him out of d what we were wouldn't hear of it stubborn streak e is onto Sorinehe end with it.'
Piyaratine's house ater and found it kness but for a p burning in the t could be seen doorway. They old man's plump
wife.
w?" asked Ariya.
} has not moved."
"We'll get him to the hospital straight away. tried to get through to the local doctor-he was gone. Apparently each evening he goes back home, some distance away from here. So this is the next best thing-the hospital',
"A neighbour tried to get him earlier, with the same result', said the wife.
Five minutes later they were on their way to the hospital in the next town, twelve miles away, the civil hospital, and nearly twenty minutes later they reached it.
Night in a busy civil hospital presented so great a contrast to what it was in the day time-gone were the crowds, the noise, the bustle and the smell of medicine and the rush around of nurses and attendants. Now it had the air of a morgue. It was a while before they were able to find an attendant who, after some coaxing, was persuaded to fetch a stretcher, and into this they transferred the inert body of the Principal. It took them a little while longer before they were able to find the admitting house surgeon. When told the patient was the Principal of the school in the neighbouring town he took a sudden new interest.
"Not he, surely,' said the doctor, “How did it happen-you are both from the staff of the school?'
"Only am,' replied Deva. "Ariya is a friend of Piyaratne." The doctor bent over the unconscious old man and started his examination. He checked his heart, his pulse, his pressure, and looked under the eye-lids, and then he straightened up. "He's breathing normally-that's a relief. He's taken quite a bit of drink to get into that condition-what drove him to it?'
"it's a long story, doctor," said Devā.
TR8UNE, September 30, 1978

Page 26
a.
"I'll have to get the story. We'll get him into the ward at once.' | A moment later the stretcher was wheeled down the corridor with the doctor following in its wake. Deva and Ariya sat on one of the benches in the dimly dit waiting room and waited until they had news of his condition. Deva looked at his watch. it was getting onto ten thirty; all activity had ceased in the hospital. There was not a sign of a nurse or an attendant. A cat came rous a pillar, soft-padding along and locking about it with a rather quiet, philosophical air like a tired surgeon going off duty. They both sat there and watched it go. Deva lit his third cigar.
"Wonder whether there is some where we can get a coffee?' said Ariya.
“Should be an all-night plac somewhere--a boutique or an eating house.” ーエー-三リー "Let's go and have a look.' They strolled out into the main road-walked a short distance. It was dark-not a - man or a dog to be seen. A single street lamp burned on the street, but there was no sign of an all-night eating place. There were a couple of shuttered boutiques, ordinary grocery stores, but no eating place. There would be one at the junction, a mile away; they were in no mood to walk that far. It was nearly eleven thirty when they returned from the fruitless trip. They returned to their bench and Ariya it himself a cigarette and Deva a cigar. ... Ariya stretched out his legs and closed his eyes for a catnap. Deva continued to sit up and think. It was close on twelve when the young doctor came round again. 'He's coming round,'... he said. "It was a bit of a struggle, but we have managed to do something for him, but we can't send him home. its best you go back, now, and re
عقبہ یونٹی ::#
ARBUNE, September 30, 1978
“Will ia be
'He should go slow for a solute rest is and, of course off drink for cese Shaye.”
"VVHSther h needs is ano Ariya.
‘-e a\e - His cogerstituti; many shocks. take to drink who cormes fro things are bad true?." * “Qute gr, "I'll tell you w the momentyou come with and have a cup better there."
'Yes, it shoul How about yo Ariya nodded. They arcse an corridor and t to the doctor's Aftea his a decided to go week or two ht side his house daily trip to th not seen at th this time. At weeks an eld dragged him al would make ni would talk to A then drag hims less assured, his his shoulders h
in the weeks unaccountable, descended on suburbs. The have fallen into within which b dents went abo a noticeable la inderneath it a sent an indefiaa

all right by morning? be-he’ll have to while-a voyeek’s abcertainly indicated, he'll have to keep a time-he's had a
e'll take the rest he ther matter," said
to rest, am afraid. per can’t take too What's made him One of the nurses fin the area teļS : me at the school; is this
ʼ Said Deya.°
hat-he's all right for
e's asleep; why don't me to the quarters of tea-we can talk
ld be all right by me. u Ariya?ʼʼ
d went down the hrough the grounds S quarters. dventure Piyaratme off liquor For a e was not see outs, apart from his he school. He was le resthouse during the end of the two habit, sometimes, long there but he is visit brief. He \riya for awhile and elf back, his stride head drooping and unched - that followed an yet ominous quiet the town and its school appeared to a desultory routine oth staff and stuut their tasks with ck of interest, but üller there vivas - preble tension! -- Every
A Nove. About 97
-one felt its presence and knew it was there building upte some" thing | 3 = }
Then one day the inspector in charge of the local police station called on Piyaratne! The old man was resting after school. When the inspictor was announced by the middle-aged cook who had gone to the door, Piyaratine sat in his chair looking quite puzzled There was nothing he knew of that could warrant the visit of a police inspector! What could a police hapector want with him
"I've come to make some inquiries, said the Inspector, a well set man with slightly greying hair, in response to Piyaratne's stare
'Yes, sit down please,” said Piyaratne taking a chair himself! "Yes, inspecto", what is it you want to know?'
"You have a teacher by the name of Hemapala?' -
The Inspector spoke English-his accent rather broad and heavy he spoke the language correctly, if a little hesitantly! . . . . .
“Yes, I have a teacher by that name!' -
"Piyaratne showed a momentary interest. He wanted to add some comments to his statement but restrained himelf; he screwed his eyes reflectively for a moment, and then suddenly he leaned back in his chair, clasped his hands and waited
"There are two other names-s I am just checking; Peiris-Vimal Peiris and K. Munidasa-they are also mebers of your staff?".
Piyaratne looked up at the laspector and hesitated; the inspector seated on the edge of his chair, kept his eyes fixed on his notebook which he had been scensuiting from time to i time.
"Yes, they are members of my staff,". 望 ཚེ་གང་བ། ...
臺

Page 27
ཟན༽
A Novej
The Inspector paused a moment and then sitting back in his chair he glanced at Piyaratne. He had a
rough, down-to-earth manner, but
he was doing his best, one could see, not to upset the old man; then suddenly he asked him the next question.
"You have trouble from these people?' : . .
"It depends on what you mean by trouble, inspector. The three of them have been friends and are members of a union-a teacher's union; and usually the management does have difficulties from union members.''
“Yes, that's right-my reports say they have been creating difficulties for you-obstructing you, setting up the students-and recently they have been away a lot from School. . . . . . . **
"I have had occasion to pull up
one or the other of them at some time of other.’’
'Their attendance-what about their attendance-they have been away from school a lot.'
"I am sorry, inspector... these are
matters purely of discipline; cannot see how it can interest the police. There is no crime they have committed-not, at under the law!'
“I am coming to it, Mr. Piyaratne. should have explained-all this has connection with what we are investigating. I don't think I am in a position to divulge anything at the moment; I am only permitted to say that all this is connected with an outside matter. I don't want to seem secretive, but my orders-you see... could just ask you these questions?'
"Yes go on, inspector; all this seems to me like an attempt to shut the gate after the horse has bolted. All this has gone on for
sometime-these men are extre
mists-they believe in violence as
25
least,
a way to achieving minority; they are they are blind to "We are trying can Sir. agree St have been dome ea got to act on ords wye gle:Ase.”
“I understand t but don't see hoy me in the school; trouble as it is-but discuss School matt ders tco you see." The inspector wa before he asked the he seerned determ plete his inquiry up. He suddenly trouble at your ste recent staff meeting
Piyaratne glanced inspector. "How d about that?'
“We haye cur. Sc mation--if you coul what happened.'
in this manner continued to prod. for answers and S began to show imp askedi if he had a
all this he sudden
"Do not press m wers,' he cried. ' something to you : but I cannot also After what has take think anymore. a I know my time's r wish now is to pa scene quietly, go t shortly and live th life in peace.'
"But what's happe We need help. E must help us to u1 is behind all this. It big movement.'
* “This “ I have s. kino more serious than e but we are trying
 

g power for a fanatical and reason.'
o do what we
omething should rlier-but we've rs-can't do as
hat, inspector,
v you can help
have enough
prefer mot to
ers- have or
-
sited a moment řext questicsin; lined to comwithout latting said; "You had ff meeting-the
s
Sharply at the lid you know
burces of inforld just tell me
the inspector
the old man lowly Piyaratne atience. When ny views about y flared up.
e for such ans
"I can describe as it happened,
give opinions. in place I don't m an old man, un out. All I ss out of the into retirement he rest of my
ning is serious. -
ducated people lderstand what : is becoming a
wn. Its serious,
ven you think,
to deal with
one little segment of a problem.
What's serious is this attempt. of theirs to bring the mental and intellectual life of the country to
manageable levels and quantities
I hope you can understand what
I am saying. This has been one of
the most frighten ing things about
all this-these ideas they have
borrowed from these modern dic
tatorships. I am an old man and
sometimes feel glad that I am old.
I shall not live, I think, to see such
things attempted in this country
as part of a political theory, but lots of things have happened round
the country that make me feel this
is not mere fanciful thinking.'
"Don't you want to prevent such things taking place here?'
"I do, Inspector, I do want to help. Everyone knows what have done to help prevent this sort of thing; then comes the time one must learn to distinguish fact from illusion. I have, at last, learned the wisdom to try to withdraw and live in peace.'
"This may be another name for weakness,' said the Inspector. "This wisdom may be your reason for running away.'
"Inspector, I don't want to disillusion you, but it may have occured to you that you may just be a pawn in this game. You are being moved around for the convenience of certain people, and you may think that is bravery and courage to be waiting until you receive orders in order to act. Your delay in acting may be the chance these people have been waiting for, and if they come into power you might be the instrument by which they will inflict these terrible ideas on the people.'
The inspector gave a nod of agreement, and there was, suddenly, this desperate look in his eyes. it become clear to Piyaratne that the inspector had no illusion about his own predicament. He, after
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 28
all, was a man himself and hadi
children of his own. Piyaratne.
rose and held his hand out which the inspector took.
"I hope what I told you has made things clearer to you," said Piyaratie.
"You have been of a great help.
Sir," said the inspector.
Reserved
O KO K}
Hi GH! COST OF LOVING-2
Suicide Or. . . . . .?
by R. C. Thavarajah
was Officer-in-Charge of Bibile Police Station. Over thirty years ago, some rural Police Stations did not have the modern facilities and amenities such as Government Jeeps, Electricity, telephone or Radio communication. Drinking water was a precious commodity. A monthly sum of Rs. 551- was paid to the contractor for the supply of drinking water. The only mode of transport was my motor cycle C.E. 7951, good old faithful "AREL" Red hunter which had certainly
seen better days. It had quirks
common to old age and, quite of ten, the contraption was temperamental. It needed much coaxing and persuasion both mechanical and manual to get it started. The men who worked with me shared a joke among themselves that PT (Physical Training) was superfluous in the mornings as they derived sufficient exercise pushing the reluctant machine sometimes even to the nearest petrol filling station which was quite some distance away.
On being informed of the death, pushed to the scene of the incident.
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
Preliminary inquiries revealed "ex-facie” that the young man
had entered t dinner and de He did not use vant related t} sed me as be narrative, in t the master unu out cof the ro out to him. O. and finding the inside, he fore and found that gbbed out
vras a fled: Sub-Inspector frienced in inves a stint of only field work affa of the Police Tifft was then at B Words of Sur late MR, LAM SEKERA vano a admirably as Police, Badulla e to my mind. re-iterate that, cases of suicide them as suspec cide, elirminate | tigation the po and look for fr mentor par e: believe in the y trivialities of M was a practica indubitably grad in the School which accord in that "cin il 1 tout proof reduces a false hite'. He growth of a st by helping him self-reliance anc paid attention ti dent inspiring ar to achieve distir with the ultima the young Polie his contribution unique dynamism inte is a Wie to us of the La

e Dispensary after ided to end it all. the gun. The ser2 facts and impresing truthful in his he morning, finding ually late in getting
bm, het had called -
receiving no reply
room locked from ed the door open life's little day had
eling of a Recruit hopelessly inexpeligation having done a few months of being passed out airing School which ambalapitiya. The Chief Lecturer, the BERT N. WIJEter functioned most Superintendent of ame flashing vividly He always used to in investigating , we should treat :ted cases of hemiby thorough invesssibility of murder notive. The great xcellence' did not
Praeteouslv Sura erficia
ERE THEORY. He Policeman who uated with honours
of EXPERIENCE
g to BYRON is chstone whose sad.
things from their believed in the full udent's personality to build confidence, initiative. He o every single stus nd er eouraging him ction in his studies te aim of enabling e recruit to make teo the State-a which he infused an he used to speak w of God and the
Police Procedures
Law of Man, we did not, at that stage, appreciate that he was trying to activate a positive interest in the study of law by instilling into our minds the rudiments of Jurisprudence which has so great a relevance in the training of Police Recruits today. A law enforcement officer should rect only familiarise himself with statutes, Acts, Enactments and Crdinances but should also understand something of the relations of Man to Society and to his fellow men in so far as those relations are regulated by Lavy.
He used to arrange with most meticulous attention to the mis nutest detail SMULATED SITUATIONS in serious Crime such as Murder, Gang Robbery, Burglary and even fatal motor accidents, The trainees had to first learn the correct method of interrogating the complainant, the witnesses, suspect, most carefully examine the scene for clues, make precise and accurate observations and record in detail everything of evidential value. Having personally
checked our efforts, he used to
eorrect us wheney er ve made
mistakes or omissions.
investigations were completed
with whatever ability 1 could muster. The couple den ied association or friendship with the deceased. The "Lady' in particular was most emphatic on that point. There were no shortages of Government property. There was no motive
for anyone in the village to put
an end to the young man's life. The linquest proceedings, however, took an unusual and curious turn. The deceased's brother who claimed to be a Medical expert who graduated from the Medical College appealed to me not to insist on a post-mortem examination on the body of the deceased. He assured me that he was satisfied that his brother had committed suicide and pleaded that the holding of a post
26

Page 29
Suicide Established
mortem examination would result
in delay and inconvenience.
| fmorticians
The
had to embalm the
remains which had to be taken to their hometown for the funeral
rites.
Foolishly, in a moment of
misguided sympathy, considered this a reasonable request as it was rather late in the evening and they had to travel a long distance. I had the sense, however, to inform him that the decision was left entirely s to the inquirer into Sudder: Deaths to v hom hie riade the Sšne re
quest.
The fatter recorded "inter
alia” the brother’s evidence of his observations and opinion as to the
cause of death.
in his report to
the Magistrate, Badulla, the inquirer gave his verdict as SUCDE. The toxicologist of the Government Analyst's Department reported that the poison used was a
lethal corrosive sublimate.
Åbočtit
a month later, much to my surprise and dismay, a petition was addressed to the Inspector-General of Police alleging that had been negligent in my investigation, that foul play was suspected and a postmortem examination was NOT held te ascertain the cause of death. How much blamed myself for not insisting on an autopsy by the DMO of the area! The Superintendent of Police in charge of Uva Province perused my notes of in
vestigation.
duty. to suicide,
pected or established.
with hawk-eyed assi
facts pointed inexorably
No fou play was susThe main
factor that pointed to suicide was that the finger-prints found on the glass tumbler were ONLY those
of the deceased.
in retrospection
and in the light of subsequent
experiences,
realised that the
value of this system of identification
Carn rhewer
be over-emphasised.
There is a tremen dous contribution in this field by Scientific Research institutes of advanced Countries. The Atomic Energy Research
Establishment at Harwell is
27.
es
gaged in carrying out the Police Scientific Branch on the use C substances for develo finger prints on papel materials. st has be radio active Sulphur bring out latent fing surfaces such as et and fabrics.
That was the Sne episode. Moral of who cares about find logical imperatives th losophers of old and kers might have extol with justification at tion. Today, in the of reckless speed fo delerious paroxysm o maniacal rat race and erual cut throat = ca supremacy, morality come a ludicrousy e chronism.
For my part-i lear in the exercise of there is no place for 'mush' of sentimen and regulations have observed without fe; irrespective of any considerations. The promising young ma have made his contri Country by healing rural areas, paid a v. for his folly with his life... AS for DELI LA "QUEEN" of sirens, sons best known to even care to pay hel to the departed, the piquant prono Henry Wordsworth vibrantly appropriat wrote:- “The ADOR heart had been te the perfume a WILD SHE HAD. CARELE HED: VVTH HER PASSING.'
Conclude:

research for
Development f radio active ping tATENT and clothing en found that
dioxide ean ger prints on irrency notes
ef the said
the Storyprahis or = ideo= ese days? Phi
Great thina
e this virtute di sanetifica
insane FURY r Power, the if the megaloi the savagely mpetition for may soon be i utmodied arlas
nt my lesson. one's duties, the worthless tality. Rules to be strictly ar, or favour
extraneot S deceased -a. in who might bution to our the sick in ery high price own precious H, the calleus who for reas her, did met r last respects cannot resist uncement of tongfellow so e when he ATION of its her ONEY as floweť vựhich SSY CRUSFEET N
R E V E VA/
இ8 جمعہ۔
American Film
Festival
The international Communication Agency of the Embassy of the United States of America held a special film festival from August 24 to September 5 to celebrate the 50th Ånniversary of the Academy Awards, featuring ten of the films that have won an Academy Award since the awards were presented in 23.
The choice of films was good and one could see the progress and development of the film industry through the years. Besides it was a good opportunity for a whole generation of film goers to see these films (or ones like them) for the first time,
WINGS (1927) the only silent Filin, was a touching and sensitively done film, and the script was a especially good. One realizes the greater burden placed on the actor in a silent film because he has to express everything without the help of words, it is the story of two World War I Army Air Corps pliots who love the same girl. Rivalry in turn gives way to friendship but the film has a very sad and touching ending. There was a remarkable display of stunt flying.
“T HAPPENED ONE NIGHT was a delightful movie full of wit and interesting episodes with Clark Gable in the lead role. The film keeps one enthralled right to the end when with much fanfare the "Wall of Jericho'-the blanket which se erated the out-of-work news. paperman and the runaway heiress played by Vivien tleigh falls. Bing Crosby, looking young and des bonair in the film 'GOING MY WAY" (1944) pays the role of priest in a poor community res.
TREUNE, September 30, 197g

Page 30
markably well. Barry Fitzgerald does a good supporting role. There is subtle humor as well as witty dialogue in this movie, yet it is full of warmth, and understanding of human problems specially by Ring Crosby when he trains the kids in the neighbourhood to sing in the choir or when he Writes a Song to help raise funds for the chruch. He sings his famous song "Going My Way' in this film which ends on a sentimental note with the old priest being re-united with his ninety year old mother due to the efforts of the young priest. (Bing Crosby)
GENTLEMAN's AGREEMENT (1947) based on Laura Z. Hobson's novel of the same name brings out clearly many features of anti-semitism. Trying to find a new angle for an article on the subject, Gregory Peck hits upon the idea of posing as a Jew to observe first hand the various problems that beset the Jewish community. The movie depicts not only the outward manifestations but also the in built prejudices of many who claim not to have any. This very thing brings him into conflict with his girl but everything ends on a happy note.
What struck, one after seeing these films was the underlying sentimentality and the 'true love conquers all' theme which certainly belongs to another era and which is rare in recent films.
"STREETCAR NAMED DES RE (1951) is the movie version of Tennesse Williams' play. It was a brilliant portrayal by Vivien Leigh of Blac du Bois who tries valiantly but hopelessly to cling to her gentility against the badgering of her 'uncultured brother in law. Her performance was truly commendable for it brought our so well the various conflicts experienced by a woman who is lonely, realizes she is ageing and can do nothing
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978
about it and to insanity. movie - a bott shall, Gary C. heis lefthigi folk when h who has vo by killing hir veys pretty has a date \ specially on when the ve ped, his frie, No one unde to Stay espe for retiremen to : his decis the end. A in Suspense a the fine.
ΟΝ TH (1954) portra of a gangster longshorman's bers. Marc guy who ul. corruption at neck helped girl who's bi helped to kil is shot most tough docks not without ing momentSfor example : him and the who also give
One Was gli to view these films for the is one comp venue. If the at one of the t American cent wider audience
as one can be
ber of people v ciated these f chances due t modation.

which leads ultimately 'HIGH NOON' is a a small town marlooper, who finds that and dry by the townsle has to face a man wed to take revenge m. Gary Cooper conwell how a man who with destiny at noon, his wedding day feels ry People he has helnds, refuse him help: }rstands why he wants cially when scheduled it but, alone, he sticks ion and triumphs in film which keeps one nd also has a haunting
E WATER FRONT ys the terroristic rule -Controlled New York 3 Union over its memon Brando plays the timately exposes the : the risk of his own by the priest and a rother he unwittingly 1. Though the film ly in the rough and of New York, it is its tender and touch-the pigeons he rears
and the love between
girl Eva Marie Saint s a good performance.
ad of the opportunity : (specially the older) first time. But there laint-the choice of ey had been screened theatres instead of the re auditorium a much a would have benefited Sure that a large numa who could have appreilms did not get the :o the limited acce
V. A.
- Films
IL ETT E R s -
To The President
102/3, Barnes Place
Colombo 7.
| 2.9.78 The Editor, Tribune Sir, . I enclose a copy of a letter addres ed to H.E. The President. You may find it worthwhile to print in your columns.
Dr. B. Mahendra
翰 豪 毫
His Excellency President. Jo R. Jayewardene, Dear Sir,
Let me first congratulate you on assuming the office of the first President of the Second Republic of Sri Lanka.
It appears to me that for the first time, certainly in my generation, there has emerged a Government with a plan to unite this country. For thirty years since Independence this nation has gone nowhere except downhill and at the end of the third decade it was a moot point as to whether a single nation existed.
You have had the courage, the wisdom and good judgement to bring forth this constitution which seeks to re-unite a divided land-- riven by considerations of language, religion, caste and politics.
Already your government has demonstrated by both word and deed that it is prepared to put the need of the country uppermost. Much remains to be done and you will have the good wishes of every rational person in your endeavours.
You will almost certainly find yourself obstructed-by those operating underground as well as by black flags, boycotts, bombings
28
سفر

Page 31
Fron, Our Readers.
and burnings. I trust that with the uniquely wide powers that have been granted to you by the democratic charter, the promulgation of which we celebrated on the 7th of this month, you will have the capacity to deal with saboteurs of every description because all your good intentions are in danger of being undone by a handful of scheming individuals. You will have the vast majority of your countrymen supporting you if you decide to deal as firmly with these elements as is compatible with the law.
As I have said, you now have the capacity to deal with them and I hope you will exercise fully the powers that we as the citizens of this country have granted you and your party at the last general elections.
I have taken the liberty of releasing a copy of this letter to an independent weekly journal as believe you will have no objections to our fellow citizens sharing cur thoughts and am certain many of them wil join me in assuring you of our fullest co-operation.
(Dr) B. Mahendra.
O O
Landfordism
Sir,
The tenant, until almost the end of last year felt protected, but now, suddenly this seems no longer true, it is now as if the Rent Restriction Act itself has been substantially altered. There is some real anxiety in the minds of tenants that, behind his back, this has actually taken place, so blantly do landlords defy the act, almost as if the act itself did not any longer exist; every kind of subterfuge and ruse was adopted earlier to get round the act-the standard practice being the non-issue of receipts for
??
rents paid; but eye dispensed with no tempt do landlords Rent act. -
I have met inumero have suddenly, with Warning, been - plu
predicament of havi
Streets looking fo powerless are they t Selves against lan tragic and incontro that tenants so place bly wage earners w move too far fror places without add ready high Cost of 1i pelled to agree to terms placed before landlords; the alter being the equally te being forced to re. sive and lengthy lit rich and powerful l;
The landlords, Soaring rents and offered by gem dea and other big-time have begun, where a or house exists, to a bly high rents and ac tant contravention C contemptuously dism else as an upstart. have misread the g tention in bringin market economy as gorging themselves rent business boom appears only to ha grinding power t○ jackboots.
ft will be a relie tenants if the gover Stage. declares tha any time, intende the wage earner t of a landlord. The government on this conveying the noti approval has been landlord's greed ha time, driven a grę

this is beingW, Such conhave for the
s tenants wi.o but the least ged into the g to trek the - a home, So defend them - dlords. The ertible fact is di are invariaho, unable to their work ng to an alfing, are cointhe impossible them by their native to this rrifying one of Ort to eXPen“ igation against andlords.
attracted by house prices lers, foreigners : money bags : vacant annexe isk for impossiiwances in blaif the reit act missing any one it seems they overnment's in g in an cpen a licence for fat in the cuir, a boom that ye given extra the landlord's
f to a host of inment, at this it it never, at d to abandon o the mercies silence of the question while Չn that a tacit given to the s, at the same at may people
te the astonishing belief that, in fact, the rent act has been jetti
soned. If the contrary is true then
obviously the landlords are acting in a manner that is hostile to the intentiens and objectives of the government. - - -
A vietiri Ternarit Co1oim bo 4. 29, 3.78
O O
Pañ ters” Grouse
Sir,
in your issue of August 5th 1978 You have Confidentially described some of the grouses purported to have been described by the planters (Periya Dorais and Sinna Dorais),
It is a surprise that the planters are unsatisfied with the new salary scales given by the UNP govern ment which is an increase over what they got during the last regime. Further the present system of uniform salary scale to all planters is an outcome of the Weerakkody Commission report on planations published as far back as in August 1976. The old system of salaries according to the acreage of estate is unjustifiable as this led to serious disparities between persons having equal qualifications and experience working in different estates of varying acreage. This might have been justifiable in olden days when a planter once recruited to a company estate was kept in employment in the same estate until his retirement or discontinuance, but in the present context of transferable state service this is thoroughly unjusti
fiable.
It is the consensus of the working class in this Gountry that the salaries, paid to planters are far in excess of their qualifications and aptitude. Even young and inexperienced planters today are paid
TR BUINE, September 30, 1978.

Page 32
four figure salaries in the region of two to three thousaad rupees with various added prerquisites for a lush life-a few to mention are the rent free palatious burigalows, three servants at state expenses, official conveyance which they are entitled to use for their private runs as well. The rent free bungalows are carpetted, fully furnished with modern suite and even fitted with sconces all at state expenses juxtaposeed to the leaking and unlit shacks given as official quarters to some cf the govt. staff officers. Then what about the inrelatives house keeping such as fridges, ovens, cookers, Cutlery, crockery etc all provided by the state. It is untrue that these incentives and perks, thought unjustifiable, are taken away. With all these facilities for a posh life, if a planter's wife cannot live with her husband on the estate, then the government Cannot help it.
Regarding the loneliness in estates one can only think of the saying that every body cannot get every thing in life. What about those govt. servants such as CROs, Medical Officers and agricultural officers who too have to live in very remote areas and put up with all attendent difficulties-in many instances unable to get a decent house to live in. The trouble with our Planters is they still try to live in clovers as their predecessorswhite sahibs, at the expense of the country at large.
Aaren ܨܠ  ܼ -* Chilaw. 雳3碁978
蔓
Promises Sir,
Harassed consumers, whose
patience has been taxed tổ thề utmost since last Novem వై surely entitled to ask whether it is
TRIBUNS saatmiser só, 197ề
the price of upped recent per tin-and
has it, the per has been in s some time) is at its behest, government i: in the near
wonder y President óf * Socialist Rep. how nicely it letter appear his eye, will my impudence ther he can speech he m of the UNP propaganda in held rear the or about 4th of Mr. Vincent for the Colon when his pari the price of reduced to R Rs. 6/- per or pound tin and tin respectivel of PERAKUM to Rs. 163 per of 6.677). O politico in thi isle, convenie
Would it b to ask HE w that 5 moni welcome assu certainly have cheering from present who be asking the was not their attended this has not only be of both Laksp since, but also the latter has by 75 cents te nation of const
tion or
 
 
 
 

eneë of the IMF that
PERAKUM has been ily-it is now Rs. 41
whether, as rumour ice of Lakspray (which short supply for quite also to be increased
which obviously the s powerless to resist, ft:iture.
whether HE the first the New Democratic Lublic of Sri Lankasounds!-should this in rint and it catches take umbrage at 2 in asking hirin wherecall the memorable ade as the President at the well-attended teeting of the party Kotahena market on June 1977 in support È Perera's cardidature nbo North Seat, that ty returns to power lakspray would be s. 2175, Rs. 31- and le pound carton, one two and half pound y, and that the price would be reduced tin-(vide Thinakaran r, has he like every s once thrice-blessed intly forgotten it?
e rank impertinence hether he is aware ths after his most rance (which would
eyoked tumultetis the large crowd however, must now imselves whether it
misfortune to have meeting) that there ten a serious shortage ray and PERAKUM that the price of recently been upped
folk.
from our Read ris
crease. Or, is it that a midnight gazette notification (of which the public are blissfully unaware) had been issued in this regard, reminiscent of the infamous and irksome gazette notices of the UF/SLFP Government, which the UNP exploited fully to their advantage in its Election campaign, but which it appears to have forgotten? Surely Sir, in the light of recent events which have certainly left a bitter taste in the mouths of even staunch UNP supporterssay so from personal knowledgewhich is bound to stick like glue, one must be pardoned if one is coñštrained te ask whether UNF promises, by whomsoever made, are worth even a thuttu, leave alone two,
C. E. J. Al Hes 3, Anagarika Dharmapala Mawatha, DelhivAyala, 7.9.78
攀 蔓 鬱
VVater For Lovver Uva
Sir,
in two past issues of Tribune (Vol. 23/8 and 23/10), the Grama Sastra column by Garmiya had mentioned just a little of a very serious problem of the 'rural poor" in lower Uva. As one living in this part of the province wish to add a little more depth to what Gamiya
3á Šaid.
There is no life without water. Almost all cities and urban areas are provided with purified water through a tap system, not only for drinking but aso to watër the gardens, lawns, fill ponds, and even to wash vehicles of the town k. it's good and an easy thing
unused. Some make a of water cuts in the city
Ş%
ஒ

Page 33
Proff Our Readers
but the fact that water is provided right into one's bathroom, kitchen and garden is a privilege, compared to what the people have to undergo in lower Uva villages. A few big towns like Moneragala and Wellawaya are provided with tap water and mostly the residents in these towns are businessmen, government officials, teachers, clergy and the members of parliament, who are mainly from the urbanized, afluent and middle classes employed in those areas.
The matority of the people involved in production, viz, cultivation, agricutlu rall wycirkers etc, are residents in the surrounding
villages Mostly wel water issued
for drinking and in à village there may by one or two public wells (some villages do not have a single) a few private wells, 30-40-50 or even 60 feet deep sometimes and with iust a few feet of water. One is lucky to be close to a well or tank otherwise its a long long way to water. At present there are only a few tanks in the area, which provide water for citivation and bathing but many use water from them for drinking too. It should be 3 so mentioned that the women are burdened with the responsibility of providing the requirements of water for domestic use.
Gamiya talks of young deaths in these rural areas while in search of water. People have not only drowned in the tanks but there have been cases of death by falling into deep wells as all wells are not built and many are deep. There vivas an instance a few years ago in Anapallama where a father and two small sons were cutting a road to a well which was interior from the road into the thick jungle. The father led the way and the two sons followed. The youngest was at the tail end. A lone elephant which had killed about 15 people in the district happened to cross their path at this time and seeing
3.
the youngest child other two attacked was a young death of water.
Three weeks age (a village 4 miles o along Passara road) main who had an ea that fatal day had ge for a wash very ear ing. Before he cou water an elephant him and trampled h young girl who ha the river at this it incident left her river and ran home again for water. she is relictant te
rivý ser eyen for a bat
the distance, dept labour that relates for water in these fear of unexpected
The people of t pleaded with all ge have been in powe y ide them with fae ing water buti yfer aetieon has been ta' Auguration Freetir sangvardena samit in ovver Uva the premised the peop some how get govt public well system villagers with drink was in December signs of weils bei promise that was. Society from a y Wellavyaya has req cial Commissioner to provide the vill wells for drinking six months since an acknowledgeme government offic this grievance of th probably the govt
are surposed to too
are stationed in t tioned above whe

away from the him. And that while in search
at Horabokka ff Uya Palvatta a middle aged rly appointment one to the river ly in the mornild get into the had attacked him to death. A d also come to ime seeing this “kale” at the
never to come Up to this day i come to the h. It's not only h, weight and to this search - areas but also
death,
nëse areas have bvernments that ir so far to protilities of drinky little or no ké;h. At an in= ng of a gramati in a village Grafītā Sevāka le that he will approval for a to provide the sing water. This 977 ård ne ng dug-only a Another Rural illage close to uested the Speand AGA both age with public purposes. It is and not evert int from those ials regarding e people. Most efficials whe k into the areas he towaris men-re all facilities
are provided and as a result they do not feel the gravity of the inmediate need of the rural poor.
The other day when the Prime Minister visited Monetagala on the 7th of August 1978, at a meeting in Moneragala the MP for Bibite pointed out that there are six rivers in the district and all the water from them are taken out into other districts such as Batticaloa and Hambantota. It is a great crime to take the little Water avatlable in this district to feed the others while we are faced with a major threat to existence without
water for drinking, bathing and cul
tivation. The MP for Bible further stated that the govt. is very grateful to the people of this distriet for their patience to undergo the many difficulties faced with for existence. The patience of the people-the disorganised rural poor-should not be taken for granted by the govt Members of Parliament of the district and the govt. officials. The rural people of lower Uva expect much relief from the present govt. and are with great hope-Unless they åre satisfied with these basic requirements like pure drinking water the people may not be patient for long. Water for drinking is needed today and it must be given
today. GVE PURE DRINKING WATER TO THE VILLAGES OF. LOVVERUVA:
Loghead
Lower uva. 0.9.78
TRIBUNE, September 30, 1978

Page 34
Confidentially
Sugar-cane loans-2
IS IT NOT A FACT that Amparai MPCS which had handed out over Rs. 3 million in sugar cane cultivation loans did not have a Loan Committee as required by law to approve and or reject applications? That the Directors on the Board of Management are also expected to examine every single application after it has been processed-from the Subjects' Clerk level to the Loan Committeeand approve or reject the applications individually? That this was not done? That the Board had thought it sufficient to approve only the total amount of funds that had to be obtained from the Peoples' Bank for distribution among members? That the Report stated in categorical terms that this procedure was irregular and that it was also found that the same irregular procedures had been followed in the case of paddy cultivation loans as well? That the Committee then examined the procedures adopted at the next stage of the loan granting processat the offices of (a) the Assistant Commissioner of Co-operative Development (ACCD), (b) the Manager, Peoples' Bank and (c) the Manager of the Amparai, Co-operative Rural Bank (CRB)? That so far as the ACCD was concerned, he relied on a 0% random test on a sample of loan applications processed by a Co-operative inspector? That the Co-operative Inspector had to certify that the applications approved by the MPCS were in order? That the Committee found that in re; bect of these sugar cane loan; the Inspector had given this certificate when not eyen a single loan application form had been properly filled? That the Committee
हैं हैंaUNE, September 30, 1978
WaS Compe this particul ther not fai ће is expect berately giv and misled t the loan ap ciety? That found that by the AC That oce t| by the ACC bility fell of Co-operative tion (CRB)? had been issu of the CRB ? maintain the essential? Th: found that thị circulars were That, in the f mittee carme that in the laid-down pri Were Hot C mally? What that there a of staff? That gering was t the Peoples released the approval of required und
erders
IS IT NOT FACT that
the loans v. documents band the lo written up as violations of v ing to loan ap ments resulte the loans by Society? That employees but wives had bee: of the fact the
had not satisfi
teria to borro That the is allowed a fey friends and re
 

led to conclude that ar inspector was eimiliar with the work ed to do or had dei en a false certificate he ACCD to approve plications of the Soor this reason it was the control exercised CD was ineffective? he loans were okayed D, the main responsithe officers of the Rural Bank organisaThat detailed circulars ed to help the officials ls to how they should checks that were at in this case, it was e requirements of the : not complide with? inal analysis, the Comto the conclusion Amparai District the ocedures and systems bserved even minithe excuse given was as an acute shortage Was cyen more Staghat the Manager of Bank at Amparai had loans without the the Head Office-as er the departmental
A OST{jRBNG the CRB, released without the security eing duly completed an registers being required? That these ital procedures relatsprovals and disbursedi in gross abuse of employees of the not only some of the also some of their given loans in spite it almost all of them ed the sligibility criw under the scheme? ociety had also w individuals, their slations to take ad
Α Mផ្សេៗ Szandal
vantage of the weaknesses in the manner of implementation of the loans scheme? That this was seen in the case of the Digawapi Branch of the MPCS where the total number of five loans granted were shared by the Manager of the Branch, the Grama Seyaka, his wife and relations? That in most instances
the Co-op Society had given the maximum credit (Rs. 10,000/-) to the
limit permissible borrower without even inquiring whether he possessed land to the extent of 4 acres or whether the borrower had the ability to cultivate such land? That since the amount of the loan depended on the number of
acres to be cultivated, the acreage
seems to have been adjusted to suit the limit of Rs. 10,000-2 That certain borrowers had the
brazenness to declare that they | expected to cultivate crown land
even on an unauthorised basis in the hope of obtaining permits later on? That in the case of crown land permits are issued only for an extent of 3 acres-a fact that all institutions associated with agricultural credit should have been aware of That in conclusion, the Committee Stated some of the officers and the management of the Amparai MPCS failed to take even the elementary precautions necessary to prevent the abuse of the New Agricultural Credit Scheme? That this abuse was fur
ther compounded by some of the
officers approving loans for themselves, their wives, relations and friends? That there were times when this abuse was even extended to help the MPCS temporarily with its own problems of liquidity? That there is no doubt that this Report
should be made a handbook for those involved
in Agricultiral Credit to know how rackets operate and to see how they can be avoided by enforcing the baộic regislations without getting blogged down in red tabe?
(Concluded)
獸發

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