கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1978.10.28

Page 1
No. 18 - October 28.
 


Page 2
SUBSCRIPT It .1979 ܘ ܐܘ ܐܝܟ
Title
Soviet Union Soviet Woman Soviet Literature
Culture And Life International Affairs
Socialism Theory & Practice Sociai Sciences
Soviet Film
Sputnik Sport in the USSR New Times
Moscow News Moscow News information Asia & Africa Today
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People's Publis
|24, Kumara
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e 36.

Page 3
Letter From CUAe Eifòitor
THE PICTURE ON THE COVER this week is, as everybody
from a coastal fishing village. Tribune comes back to fis after several months. Readers will recall that We had carri against the licensing of foreign trawlers to operate in our the authorities did not at that time have the grace to say Tribune which first brought to the notice of the public the trawlers had been licensed to fish in our waters and ha out the dangers inherent in allowing such operations. It w our investigative and exposure stories that the governme licenses of the two foreign trawler companies for violating If the Ministry and the Corporation had, immediately were examined the complaints from local fisher-folk that the violating the 25-mile rule and had taken the necessary at not have pursued the matter in the way we did (with polem Furthermore, officials of the Fisheries Corporation, who responsible for concluding these contracts on the pursuasio entrepreneurs (a nice word for brokers), started a press an to defend the licensing of the trawlers, to boast about th would accrue to Sri Lanka by the fish caught by the trawle a great deal more of this kind of piffle. Even Minister Fe inveigled into joining the white-wash campaign and was proclaiming that he hoped to build large buffer stocks from of the trawlers' catch and then bring the retail price down. built on the foreign trawlers had soon come tumbling down a soon disappeared from the scene. They went faster than t away all the booty without any accounting. How much S this misadventure is not known, but a future Presidential C investigate how these trawlers came to be licensed and also vities of officials responsible for leading the Minister astray To the credit of Minister Festus Perera it must be said that trawlers left our shores, he has with single minded devoti to improve our fishing industry and there is no doubt that in bringing down the price of the more popular vari reasonable levels. This is a great achievement which we possible in this short time. The sales programme of the Fis tion has also shown remarkable improvement. What is mo who had earlier resented any criticism of his officials, now res and constructively to any criticism. In recent weeks, the Mi to criticsm and exposures in the Sun and/or Weekend in a impressed us. He still has a long way to go, especially in mess and the rot in the Corporation; and, if in future wee attention to short-comings and wrong-doings in that Cor not be to den igrate the good work of Minister Festus. Per him do his job better. For one thing, though attention in the frauds committed and secret commissions paid during the last government, Minister Festus Perera and the prese must also keep their ears to the ground in regard to sin floating around about many matters connected not only w the current avalanche of imports but also the much lamen foreign trawlers. On the footing that there is usually no fire, the fishy tales presently going the rounds about the co kickbacks, rebates and the like in regard to the licensing make anybody sit up. The Presidential Commission has the rumours of yesteryear have become facts based on
today. -

knows, a scene h and fisheries
ed on a campaign
waters. Though
so, it was the fact that foreign d also pointed as mainly due to nt cancelled the he 25-mile limit. ised the matter,
trawlers were tion, we would ical impatience). were no doubt
of certain local
di radio campaign he benefits that is together with StuS Perera was
stampeded into
Sri Lanka’s share All the castles
ind the trawlers
hey came taking
ri Lanka lost by
Commissior mu St about the acti
on this matter. after the foreign con endeavoured he has succeeded eties of fish to nad not thought sheries Corporare, the Minister, ponds positively hister responded
way that has cleaning up the ks, we draw his boration, it will era but to help ust be paid to the tenure of nt Government hilar allegations ith Fisheries and ted licensing of
smoke without mmissions, cuts, of trawlers will also shown that solid evidence
OUT OF THE TUB
—hn Hospital . . . p. i THE WORLD, TODAY -Iran, Pakistan : p. BOOK REVIEW
CONFIDENTIALLY
TRIBUNE
Ceylon News Review Founded in 1954
A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs
Editor, S. P. Amarasingam -
Every Saturday
October 28, 197s vol. 23 No. 8
TRIBU NE
43, DAWSON STREET
COLOMBO - 2: .
*上 A. CONTENTS
EDITOR'S NOTEBook -Press dn Sri Lanka-3 р, 2 SRI LANKA CHRONICLE -Oct. 12-Oct. 18 p. 4
BETWEEN THE LINES -Kandy's Menace, ADA - p. 8
-Non-aligned Movement p. 16 ACID BOMB EXPLOSION-20
-Insurgents Strike p. 8 WORLD BANK AID
-Indian Experience р. 23 HIGH COST -Of Dying р. 26
CATHOLIC COMMUNITY -And Education p. 27
LETTERS - --from Our Readers p. 28
-Transport Mess
р, 32

Page 4
: HE PRESS | N SRI LAN KA-3
Times, Gunasenas And The Party Dailies
Chailapathi Rau, who was associated with the National Herald from its inception in 1948, was recently forced out of the paper by various pressure groups which had gained control of this prestigious paper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru. It was a daily newspapar group that had managed to keep out of the big corporate sector until recently, The resignation of Chalapathi Rau was the open manifestation that
the National Herald was no longer what it was. Chalapathi Rau
had been editor for 30 years un- ci he retired in 1976 and took
i ever as Chairman of Board of DireIctors of the Herald Group, but he could not keep himself or the old ffera di afloat for more than two
y Ea? Si
We shall refer to the editorial greatness 3nd steadfastness of Chalapa
· thi Rau (and also Edatata Narayari, founder of the Link-Patriot group who died recently) in coming issues, but for the present it is enough to refer to an article by Chaispathi Rau in the latest issue of The Working journalist from New Delhi on his
* “Reminiscences on the Emergency."
He concluded the article: “. . . . Censorship was lifted. The Lok Sabha was dissolved. There were to be elections. Censorship, apart from its excesses and vagaries and Severities, had hidden much from people like me too. It was just before the elew ction that I saw the Black Holes of the new colonies like Khichripur. The Prime Minister had not timed the winding up of the Emergency properly. The Congress lost, leaving many wondering what could have happened if the Prime Minister had come to power again with the same
፲፱፻aUNE October 23, 1973
set of advi now freed it was kn whom and tions have * irak” cai answers. ' th Whi e si the sesa Formic cha ack of c. as: rEWys
The San in Sri Lank Group goi sector, th tely-owned further ree at virtue it of newspap behaved in no doubt than gover been show the taking 1973|74,
in the c
governmen the Busine gust 1977, down und incial bank Times Grei
göver'in mef) to enable SLFP VIP's call 'their House grot plaything Mrs. Banda wardene's taken over it first une President's
buildings, etold goodw newspaper bed by on ding entre huge financ text of litt in the blac better for

sers round her. There is lonn, no certsorship as own. But freedom for for what? The quesa not been answered. in fight to find out the For me the only worensationalism has been tion of social and econge. Change is news; hange, of course, is
e questions can be raised a also. With the Times ng into the government e smal group cf privadaily newspapers was iuced. There is no specithe private ownership yers in the way they have
Sri Lanka, but there is that it is at least better inment ownership as has
in concrete form after over of Lake House in
ase of the Times, if the t had not taken it under SS Acquisition Act in Auit would have gone er the Hammer into finalup ty. From 1974/75, the up had been sustained by tal artificial respiration Felix, Anura and other to have a daily paper to own' because the lake Ip had become the sole of the Prime Minister ranaike. If Mr. J. R. Jaya
government had not the Times and brought ser the PM's and now control (lake House is similar control), the machinery and centuryof the Times as a would have been grabe or other of the maraupreneurial houses with sia resources (in the cone Sri Lanka) with money c., white and abroad. It is the country that the
Daily Papers
Times has become the rather weak and effete newspaper owned and controlled by Government rather than become an appendage of the Maharajahs or the Gnanams, or the Upali Vijevardene's or the Aloysius', or any combination of ome år ritore of them.
So far big business groups have not owned a newspaper group as their own. Lake Hot: se uri der the Wijewardene's was connected to certain business interests, but the chief interest of the Wijewardenes was in the newspaper and publication business. So also the Gunasena fortune was primarily based on printing and publishing (they came into printing newspapers from textbooks whilst the Wijewardenes went from newspapers to text books). It was only recently that Virakesari went over from personal individual ownership (first one, then a few persons) to
corporate ownership of a syndicate
of big Tamil businessmen in various fields.
The question is how the Times has projected its new image as the government undertaking on the public. In the one year or a little more since the governmental takeover, the Times group has had many ups and downs. Editors have come and gone, and some have even come back again. The news reporting has been uneven, but in recent weeks, the Daily Mirror's front page news has been more lively and pointed than for some months previously. The Daily News has a wider coverage, but it is restrained and restricted. The Daily Mirror occasionally goes off the rails (one is led to think that it is with the definite approval or inspiration from different lobbies in the Establishment) and has published scorching exposure stories, Most of these stories have stemmed from the Customs beat, but there is little or no follow up once the stories have appeared. Many of
و من
ష

Page 5
Daily Mirror and the Sunday
Daily Newspapers
them proved to be still-born or
died an unnatural death soon after the birth. Many readers feel that pressure was brought to
secret suppress the stories or that the forces that had inspired the stories had got what they wanted.
Nevertheless, the Daily Mirror very often has political or exposure stories which the Daily News seems
reluctant to touch. The quality of
the features in the Daliy Mirror is unevin. It must be admit ted that both in the case of Lake Hause as well as the Times, after the fairly full reports are
carried about the day's proceedings
before the Presidential and Sansoni
Commissions there is very little
space left for other matters, ever, important ones. But within its limitations, the Daily Mirror has in
more recent months shown a live
liness and forthrightness in news reporting which is highly commen
dable. Often, it has beaten the Lake House on important news stories.
The government has pumped a large amount of money (millions) to re-float the Times group as a financial proposition. More money
is likely to be spent on the import
of new machinary and equipment without which the Times cannot hope to improve its publications qualitatively or even quantitatively. But, with all this governmental expenditure, the question must be asked: whither the Daily Mirror and the Times Whilst news columns of the Daily Mirror and other Times publications attract attention and comment, its
editorials and features (which seek
to interpret events) are read only by a few, and of this number only a small number are impressed or take these writings seriously. But many of them are more readable than similar editorials, comments
and features in the Daily News.
In sharp contrast to the Daily News, Observer, Sunday Observer Times
3.
v+----
come the English e GunaSena group, th Weekend and The Hot coverage is not as as the Daily News but been well ahead of th on political stories. are more readably are ofte first Perceptive and readers will detect slant in some of the end stories, bott this || of any newspaper as facts are not distor and the Weekend h
guilty of wilful distor
but there is no di Gunasena group have view which they cc best interests of the c.
The Sun and the really made their n exposure stories, inve res and other article deal of punch by Gamini Navaratne Wijetunge. Editori not, followed what I the Government (or line but have hit whenever they felt done. Like the ot quality and calibre c and articles in the pers are uneven. can be expected on learn English and ge journalism and writir ly teenage paper, Ho remarkable improven Pinto came on the st largely directed towa groups, its articles a good enough to att Sunday newspaper
Some excellent and it
have appeared in its c
This survey cove daily papers and the Sunday editions. E
unfair rot to ment
Sari, the Tamil di organisation, which

apers of the e Sun, the
ley. The news
Comprehensive the Sun has e Daily News The stories written and rate SCOOPS. knowledgeable a particular Siin and Weekis a privilege long as the 'ted. The Sun lave not been ton of facts, oubt that the a point of insider in the lountry. Weekend have mark by their stigative featu
is with a great
writers like and Eustace ally, they have may be called Establishment) out forcefully it had to be her papers the 5f the features Gunasena paImprovement lly when more at a training in g. The weekney, has shown hent after Jean :ene. Though rds the teenage ind features are ract the normal reading public. |imely features
Colums recently.
rs the Fnglish ir weekend and But it would be ion that Virakeaily newspaper has one of the
kcara (SLFP).
in the country.
and a The language is harsh and rough,
best news coverages of all newspapers, especially on political matters. The Eelanadu is in every sense a provincial paper, published in Jaffna, and caters mainly to the population living in the Peninsula.
On the question of the daily papers a brief reference should be made to the Sinhalese-language dailies, Aththa (CP), Jaradina (LSSP), and the DinaThese daily papers must be read every day to have a full picture of what is taking place The lake House and Times maintain a kind of selfcensorship which is transparent and has contributed greatly to the loss
of credibility of these papers. The
Gunasena group has a different kind of self-censorship (all papers have this) but this has not so far affected the Sun Group's credibility.
The Aththa, janadina and the Dinakara have no inhibitiors, or
self-censorship except where it con
parties or causes they represent. Otherwise, they print every piece of information that comes their wayoften exaggerated and more often slanted to suit their party political line. Sometimes their stories boomes rang with a bang because they are based on half-truths. But with all these defects, (the Lake House, Times and the Gunasena papers suffer from the same defects) these party dailies are today the most lively and vigorous expressions of free (daily) journalism in the country.
The greatest weakness of the party jourf als is their addiction to a particular jargen, particular idiom a straight-jacketed logic.
and has unqualified appeal only to small section of the people.
器( 梁 邻“
28, 197a
" ; متC( : 2 متحمل
TRBUNE Cctober

Page 6
SRI LANKA CHRONICLE
Oct. 12-Oct. 15
DARY OF EVENTS IN SRI LANKA AND THE WORLD COMPLED FROM DAILY NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED IN COLOMBO.
CDN-Ceylon Daily News; CDMCeylon Daily Mirror; CO-Ceylon Observer; ST-Sunday Times; DMDinamina; LD-Lankadipa; WK-Virakesari; ATH-Aththa; SAM-Silumina; SLD-Sri Lankadipa; JD-Janadina; SU-Sun; DV-Davasa, DP-Dinapathi; CM-Chintamani; WK-Weekend; RR-Riviresa; EN-Eelanadu; DPRInformation Dept. Press Release; DK-Dinakara.
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 12: The World Bank is expected to extend a larger slice of credit for Sri Lanka's development on a district basis under a five year plan now in the process of being finalised by the 22 District Ministers appointed last week, Sri Lanka has paid US dollars 2,479,384 to American shipping companies for delaying the unloading of rice, flour and sugar shipments during January to August this year. The PMB has started storing paddy in the assembly halls of schools in the Amparai district. The govern
ment has decided to set up an
independent environmental authority with wide powers and functions. The Minister of Labour will reccommend to the government the appointment of Honorary Consuls in West Asian countries to see to the interests of the Sri Lankans employed there-CDN. Sri Lanka gems and precious stones valued at RS. 7 to 10 milion Y are believed to have been smuggled aboard the Lanka Sagarika to Singapore during the last eight months. The Vap Magul ceremony which is to take place at surumuniya, Anuradhapura on Saturday will be on a simple note; however the 50 far
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
miers Who
Ceremony worth of . ing seed p families w sanitary aj for 7 ye. port hous rate have new house a new ho hawatte a CDM. The policemen criptions : nising spc etc. The N
ment to policy gui other inc ment unde GCEC. Fi grenades a the Recor Kachcher
governmen ployment a many of t without ey posts-DP. mittee of til to discuss accept the ters-VK. decided no of Scholars tended the asked to re. Janawasama profit of R: DM. The 75 million start in D transitional end racial near future white resid and educati President C intend to r Smith duri der’s curre Rhodesia's a end to dis

will participate in the will be given Rs. 30,000 gricultural inputs includddy, fertilizer etc. Forty ho Were living in ind unhygenic conditions rs in prefabricated uniin the Borella electoow been provided with s made out of brick in sing scheme at Ambagaong Elvitigala MawattePolice Chief has banned from collecting subsnd donations for orgarts meets, celebrations F has asked the governfescribe any changes in delines and fiscal and antives affecting investr the jurisdiction of the we revolvers and 200 re reported missing from is Room of the Badulla -SU. The number of t servants seeking embroad is increasing daily; hese people are leaving en resigning from their
The General Comhe TULF will soon meet whether they should posts of district minisThe government has t to extend the period hips; officials who exir scholarships have been turn to the island. The has earned a record ... 32 million last yearonstruction of the Rs. Ceramics factory will ecember-LD. Rhodesia’s government decided to discrimination in the opening up exclusively ential areas and health on facilities for blacks. Carter said he did not meet Rhodesian PM an ng the Rhodesian leant visit to the US. nnouncement of a quick crimination brought a
Sri Lanka Chronicle
sceptic reaction from some black Africans, a warm welcome from Britain and a guarded response from the US-CDN. Egypt called for a comprehensive settlement involving Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied since 1957 ir cluding Jerusalem-CDM. Ali s,
rian and Soviet diplomats have
been evacuated from Beirut while heavy Syrian artillery and other forces were advancing towards the Lebanese capital. President Carter cut off US trade with Uganda because of President di Amin's policies-SU. FRIDAY, OCTOBER 13: Sri Lanka will export its first consignment of locally grown and milled rice after 232 years; the las rice shipment left the country in 746 during the Dutch period Indonesia has agreed to purchase over 17 million pounds of raw rice produced in this country the first shipment will go out 57 early November. The President of the World Bank expressed satisfaction with the economy and financial policies of the Sri Lanka government and its intermediateterm development program at talks yesterday with Finance Minister, At the recently concluded Commonwealth Parley in Jamaica, Mr. Amirthalingam presented his views in a dignified way, without embrassing the Sri Lanka delegates or the government said the Minister of Trade and Shipping. The Minister of Trade and Shipping said that Sri Lankans working abroad remit between Rs. 25 and 30 million a
month and this figure is expected
to reach the RS. 50 million mark soon-CDN. The Minister of Fil-: nance and Planning said yesterday that the World Bank had given a significant level of aid amounting to nearly Rs. 2,300 million for nine development projects so far; he was hopeful that Sri Lanka would get an increased level of assistance for the accelerated Mahaweli Pro

Page 7
Sri Lanka Clironicle
ject. The Minister of Trade said that the separate state claim of “Eelam” put forward by Mr. Amirthalingam at the Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference did not find favour with the great majority of the participants at JamaicaCDM. The World Bank President has offered to set up a special fund for the accelerated Mahaweli development programme; this would be goverened by a plan entirely separate from the Bank's funding for other development programmes for Sri Lanka. Frozen chicken from China has arrived in the Colombo harbour and will soon be available to consumers at Rs. 9.60 a pound. Tourist hotels are to be asked to import their own stocks of food in the future; this decision follows numerous complaints that the high prices in local food items are due to tourist hotels making heavy purchase of local beef, fish and other frozen foods imported for local consumption. Railway will transport goods from Sri Lanka to India and vice versa from early next year. The Central Bank will shortly issue new five and ten cent denomination coins in aluminium-SU. Police have been authorised to try without granting bail, anyone in the possession of unlicensed guns or other dangerous weapons and those who manufacture such weapons-DP. The Ministry of Rural Industrial Development has taken
measures to step up the production and collection of milk locally
by the National Milk Board-IDPR No. 33. Rodhesian PM lan Smith acknowledged he had failed to win the support of the American government for the transitional gov
-ernment Aristides Royo a for
mer Education Minister was yes
terday elected Panama's President's
to succeed Torrigos. The Belgian government resigned in a dispute over a pact dividing the country into three linguistic regions. Britain formally invited
China's Chairman Hu. to pay a history mak London next week. Union yesterday war against supplying arm and said such a step Britain's commitment CDN. US President Ca the peace conference raelis and Egyptians E them that an Egyptianagreement must be stone of a West Asia The Nobel prize for n shared among Prof Switzerland and Ham and Daniel Hopkin of
SATURDAY, OCT The President will ta the Wap Magul cer the tsurumuniya Raja raya today inaugurating maha Paddy cultivation tradition, The UN vol tors will be paid in Sri according to the sam local doctors; any d remuneration which
will be paid by the U. agency said the Secret Ministry of Health. Parliamentary Group is vided on the question ing the District Min Jaffna and Mullaitivu; the MP's for Easter Mannar and Vavuniya : ceptance of the posts representing the Jaffn are opposed to it. Fifty graduates have been with immediate effect ragging of freshers-CD tection of a theft of the Ceylon Petroleur tion installation at Ko sparked off an investig massive racket in highly chemicals and petroleu the fraud appeared millions of rupees an gone on for a numb 50 foreign medical of soon be posted to m

a Kua Feng
ing visit to The Soviet ned i Britain
is to China contradicted to detenterter opened between lisby reminding Israeli peace the cornersettlement. nedicine was Arber of ilton, Smith JSA-SU.
OBER - 4: ke part in Brmony near maha Viha the 1978/79 in national Lunteer docLanka rupees Le Scale as ifference in might arise N volunteer Eary to the The TULF's
sharply diof acceptistership of
apparently,
in Province,
are for acsbut MP's a peninsula one undersuspended for alleged 2N. The dechemicals at m Corporalonnawa has ation into a expensive m products; to involve di may have ær of years. ficers would
edical instie
tutions in all parts of the island; the first batch of fifty will be recruited next month. Although the "Open University' which is to be set up will award external degrees the campuses of the university of Sri Lanka will continue Eo register external students and award their own degrees-CDM. The government is taking steps to build 8 Ayurvedic hospitals in major towns in the island-DV. The Housing Department will sign an agreement with the government of South Korea and a French firm to construct 2543 houses at a cost of Rs. 230 million; they are to be completed in 18 months-LD. The Government Services Commission has decided to give back the power to secretaries of ministries to recruit workers for the government service. The Minister of Trade and Shipping said that if 20,000 more people went abroad for employment Sri Lanka could earn the same amount she earned from tea exports-DM, Rhodesian PM lan Smith said he would attend an All-Party's Conference on Rhodesia without pre-conditions and would accept international supervision of general elections scheduled for December. British Foreign Minister, Dr. David Owen is planning to visit China in the first half of next year. The US reported good progress towards an israeli-Egyptian peace treaty, at the end of the first day of negotiations-CDN. The worst floods for 50 years have hit parts of the Northeast Soviet Republic of Estonia causing widespread crop failure. Lebanese President Elias Sarkis returned to Beirut aftera six day tour of several Arab countries in which he also had crucia talks with Syrian President HafeezAl Assad on the ceasefire in Lebanon between Syrian troops and militias-SU.
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 5:
Moments before he stepped into
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 8
the mud of the surumuniya fields to plough the first furrow at the second Vap Magul ceremony of his government the President yesterday reiterated his commitment to break the back of the unemployment problem that had llong burdened the country. "To a country like Sri Lanka which knows how to help itself, we are prepared to give not only twice but thrice', the World Bank President said shortly before his departure on Friday night-SO. The President of the World Bank has promised us every cent of the money we need to complete the Accelerated Mahaweli Scheme the President announced to a gathering of over 50,000 at the Vap Magul cremony at. lsurumuniya, Anuradhapura, yesterday. The Customs yesterday imposed a penalty of Rs. 4.5 million on each of the three suspects in the Lanka Sagarika gold smugg" ling case. A master plan to protect about 400 elephants that will be affected by the implementation of the Accelerated Mahaweli Scheme has been drawn up by the Department of Wild Life which is seeking the co-operation of the Mahaweli Development Board to implement it-ST. investigations have revealed that ragging is on in a big way at the Peradeniya Campus of the University of Sri Lanka; under the cloak of secrecy, freshers are being subjected to some of the most obscene, crude and vulgar acts and many of them are painfully going through the ordeal for fear of reprisals. The government is to set up a National Develop
dhist leaders and government offi cials held at the Secretariat it was decided that all the land with ina mile of the Dalada Maligawa be declared a sacred area and the buildings within it both private and public be aquired for the purprose within the next two years,
The President has instructed the
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
National Price as the State submit to report on ciner as thro WK. Lands Mannar, distri been utilised soon be take ment; |Survey cultivated et gress. The di of the Crim many of the mitted in th any connecti moyennent bl ing under co group or o Sovyiet UN victed by a J can military the Roman C ded public fore retiring to elect a n tern foreign Namibia to forts to pe to accept U for Namibia. dent Sadat is voy to Paris t. port for peac East-ST.
令
The
sit by the w the vast and
take reflect the
* Ñoth the calm e
call
watch the
by t sigh. How
this seems So cal
O.

es Commission as well Film Corporation to im a comprehensive the management of ughout the countryin the Vavuniya and icts which have not for cultivation will in over by the governS regarding the lands C are now in proeputy DG and head les Branch Said that 2 criminal acts come North do not have on to any organised ut they were operatver of some terrorist rganisation-CM. Twe employees were conury of stealing AmeriSecrets. Cardinals of Catholic Church attenDrayers yesterday bebehind closed doors ew pope. Three wesMinisters flew to launch five-power efrsuade South Africa Nfndependence plans -WK. Egyptian PresiI ending a special eno enlist France's supe efforts in the Middle
nevitable
raterside staring across
tranquil whose waters silver moon. . . . ing disturbs -- xcept the occasional of a lone bird.
ripples caused he breeze and
deceptive lake can be it m and sarene the surface but
Sri Lanka Čhronicis
what currents and
whirlpools are hidden in it's depths, that a man looking on the outside may think he can walk upon
it. Yet the moment he tries, the swirling
waters pull him down. How very like the lake life is A man sets out upon
the journey of life nursing delusions of a calm
and peaceful existence. Yet the moment he takes
the first step he realises that hidden
dangers make him Thus the battle goes on
with minor triumphs and great defeats. He surfaces
and thinks he can stand, only to be pulled
down further. What is the strength or
resilience of man when compared to the strength
of the waters or of life He knows sooner or later
he will be overwhelmed.
Casava,
fall.
OBITUARY
Dr. W. D. L. Fernando, former Judicial Medical Officer, Colombo, aged 64. Dr. Fernando had worked under forensic experts like Sir Sydney Smith, Prof. John Glanister and Dr. Keith Simpson. In 1967 he was elected President of the Ceylon Medical Association. He was also at one time President of the Governmenr Medical Officers Association.
Edwin Black of Chan kanai, Jaffna
Mr. Black retired from the public service as Chief Engineer, Ceylon Government Railway. He was also Chief of Railway Section, United Nations, ECAFE, Bangkok. Rev. Bro. Anslem Calixtus, the last Director of St. Benedict's College, Kotahena.

Page 9
At The Fixed
And Controlled Prices
S TT
Dispensing (
259/ Galle Colombo
Tel: 840

A 1 S.
Lhemists
Road, - 4.
58

Page 10
BETWEEN THE LINES BY SEREN DIB
e Kandy's Menace
e A D A
The Tribune of October 7, which carried an articles about E. L. Senanayake and Ranjan Wijeratne also had a piece about the Bookmaker's Daughter in Peradeniya. This issue of Tribune seems to have created a stir in Kandy not only among our regular readers but also among a large number of new readers. We have been inundated with letters from Kandy as well as other places on these two matters. Exigencies of space prevent us from publishing all of them. We can only pick extracts from a few s3lected letters, comments and even articles.
The extracts below will give our readers an idea of the interest aroused by the two matters. The University, on the one hand, and Agriculture, on the other, are extremely vital spheres of activity for the well-being of the country.
The following extracts from a letter sent to us by a reader from Kandy under the title KANDY AND POLITICAL SKULDUGGERY stated: “Tribune gets a big bouquet for firing the first shot at political skulduggery in Kandy. Now the big question that is being asked by everyone is whether the Minister of Higher Education will issue the directive that will enable the bookmaker's daughter to enter the Peradeniya Medical Faculty through the back door. The Minister of Higher Education has an intimate interest in Kandy being the Diyawadena Nilame of the Dalada Maligawa. is he unaware of what is happening in the very shadow of the holy of holies of which he is the lay custodian?
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
if he is unawar Agricultural Re ment cannot be is happening in Working behin of local politicia (Three Ps), this rations are, how in secrecy. Th Colombo to Kati to Badulla and o to India and Engl ple of a day's organisation....
Then, we hav of operations fr night. But we cerned with th Once a year dur Perahera, this V. turns his talen saying talons, Bogambara. Spo biggest Gamblin Lanka as a sort year's activities, supporters of all when the Sports Prope VVIPs (blue or on which Gover extend their ft. by wanting an year it was an bition) at Bogam vast crowds that Perahera, the *ac government.
'One big loc ponsibility for t many governn spend lakhs of much to show i invites the Boc the Exhibition Government. the Government of foreign gove open each day's
sorry, Exhibition
ful people want very high ups th which was of that tirre but t past the Police.

e, the Minister of earch & Developignorant of what
a thick curtain ls, press and police
bookmaker’s opeever, not shrouded ey extend from dy to Trincomalee in the foreign scene
Work of his vast
om II a.m. to Midneed not be conis now. But '.. ing the Holy Esala erSatile bookmaker
ts. I was nearly to staging at the rts Stadium, the
g Carnival in Sri of climax to his a bonus for his
l hues... How come -
Stadium is Goyrty? QED Local
green depending nment is in power) Illest co-operation
"Exhibition' (this
Agricultural Exhibara to Show the : come to See the hievements' of the
1 VVIP takes reshe Exhibition and hent departments rupees for nothing return. This VIP kmaker to run for him and the his year VIPs of and Ambassadors rnments declared ambling carnivalSome ungrateed to show the 2 gambling section course closed at ley could not get
Kandy's Menace
*"What about the Press? You should see, Mr. Editor, the local reporter boys enjoying the free booze and other goodies in return for favourable publicity and for hiding the truth. Gate collections alone top the million mark and the donation of a mearly Rs. 50,000/- or so publicly handed over to the sponsor is given headline publicity in the press. Who is there to let the President, the Government in Colombo and the people at large know the truth and what is happening in Kandy, the Heart of the Dharmista Society? Who, except Tribune........
There were many letters of this kind about Kandy and its underWorld that has submerged the top. But more important than Kandy is Agriculture. A reader from Geo. E. de Silva Mawatha in Kandy writes: 'Your weekly has become a great hit at Peradeniya. Along the corridors of the Department of Agriculture, Head Office, hushed groups discuss your exposure of the Department and the Ministry as if they were on the subject of perversion or pornography. Your service to help Agriculture in highlighting the experiences in this field is real Service to the country. Please keep this up. God Bless You! P.S. The exposure about the bookmaker is really fantastic.'"
A retired government servant (thankful for his retirement) now residing in Nawala writes: "Arising from your controversial but nevertheless excellent evaluation of recent developments and changes
in the Ministry of Agriculture, now
renamed, it is un doubtedly the prerogative of upper echelons to decide on the holders of vital and pivotal positions in the administration. The new Secretary of Ag. Research has cut a positive figure and must now assume the mantle of the saviour of agricultural development in this island. He also continues as the Chairman
*

Page 11
A.D.A.
of the ADA. A dual position. We were made to understand very early on in the present government's policy that no one person was to hold two positions. No two reins of command, one seems to recall were the words. Some said this arose as a result of Anura Weeraratne who at one stage held the prestigious position of Additional Sec. Industries through which he consolidated and built up a monstrous empire in Ceramics. But Anura W. had proved himself before he came to the public sector. He displayed an. abundance of capable and decisive policy deci
sions with a degree of diplomatic
finesse. He had his faults and his killer instinct had to be kept in check. T. B. Subasinghe both listened to and heeded the critics of Anura W. He also acted When the occasion demanded it. As regards the new Sec. Ag. Res. we have had to contend with the build up of the aggressive personality though Lake House. After all was he not put in charge of the Transport pool there in the initial stages. Thereafter, came the ADA, the nauseatingly monotonous references to the Presisident's Wish, the President's Orders,” “The President's Plan”. The indoctrination has been so complete that not one of the many corns as you put it has the guts. or gumption to present the other side of the picture. And now comes the priceless gem by yet another Lake House reporter who categorically Says this unqualified man cannot be fooled by the best brains in the country. What confidence our new Sec. oozes. Oh, for the breed of silent and dedicated workers. Not any left but one can safely assume that the few survivors will soon disappear leaving the new broom with either a vacuum or a roomful of mediocre *yes” men.”
Then, EMES from Kandy writes
9.
about government Minister of Agricult admitted that all go are run at a loss. but why doesn't th necessary action losses? Who is stop
taking action? Who
the crooks. The a farm now and aga by the very official Ponsible for all til irregularities in the rally they'll be ev make one excuse convincing enough sins, and nothing or solved by the and findings. As and favouriteS are a at Peradeniya, the Agriculture will ne But, the more i ments are about knowledgeable comm ped into the past the Report of Pla tion’s Evaluatión Te the Public Sector to say: "The setting in January 1978 W. an abortive attemp National Food Prc "concentrating on tion in the plantati the help of the available with the in the Plantation proposal was blow the Ministry of P. tries and equally by the Ministries ministration and o the genius behink decided to concent tion on private lan of the plantations jected him quite "The genius claimed, quite col Cabinet paper Cr was based on a sented by him te the Opposition

farms: “The ure himself has vernment farms True enough, e minister take io stop these ping him from is safeguarding minister visits in accompanied S who are reshe losses and se farms. Natuen at hand to or the other to cover their is ever gained Minister's visits long as 'Gangs lowed to reign Department of ver prosper.” interesting comthe AIDA, A entator has dipand also into in implementaam findings on in Agriculture up of the ADA as preceded by it to set up a bduction Board food producon Sector with infra-Structure 2 Corporations Ministry... This in sky-high by |antation lindusfirmly opposed of Public AdFinance. Then d the project rate his attend' keeping clear
which had retotally. concerned has
rrectly, that the
eating the ADA
I proposal pre
b the Leader of
in 1973/74. (At
about this time he was also presenting similar proposals to the Prime Minister of that time on the development of milk production in the plantation secsector.) “The Cabinet Memorandum on the ADA carries gems like the following: "... authority to organise, discipline and service the rural life.'
Each Unit will be in charge of an administrator... employed by the Central Authority working a scheme like the defunct Agency Houses.'
“He Should like the PD to be out at 6 in the morning going round his area, return home for his office work and meals and again be out in the afternoon till dusk."
"It should be the national policy to allow private ownership of lands within existing laws as long as cultivation etc. is done in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative Officer."
"These excerpts from the Cabinet Memorandum illustrate the authoritative managerial approach of the ADA. It is in this approach that the Evaluation Team (ET) found a major fallacy (para 9: 23 page 54). The ET went on to deal heavily with this particular арproach in their letter of presentation to the President. ,
The Chairman ADA, confirms that his activities "are in keeping with the objectives laid down in the Cabinet Memorandum. The Cabinet Memorandum states very clearly: 、
As soon as possible the Board should be able to finance its own expenses by levying a fee or commission on the sales of the produce of the area and for other services that it can render such as the provision of manure, pesticides etc. "This appears to be a key element of the Cabinet propiösa
TRIBUNE, October 28, 978

Page 12
since the costs of the ADA were not enumerated in the Memorandum. Is there any evidence that the ADA is making an endeavour to pay its way? if it is too soon to do so, what plans does the ADA have (and in what period of time) to ensure that it will finance its own expenses as laid down very clearly in the Cabinet Memo
"if evidence is necessary of the authoritative attitude of the ADA -an attitude that will positively fail in the rural sector-what better evidence than that provided by the Chairman himself when he speaks of granting the President's Evaluation Team the "privilege' of a personal interview
"The Cabinet Memo specified that the ADA would work in consultation with local cultivation committees and the Department of Agriculture' and that it would "arrange for the help of Government Departments, etc.” to land owners. However, the lines of authority in the ADA's own organisational chart shows officers like the DAEO and the Assistant Director of the Agrarian Services and all their subordinate staff under a 'persuasive and indirect authoritative relationship' below the Provincial Director of the ADA. How does this indirect but authoritative relationship conform to the 'consultation and 'seeking of assistance" stipulated in the Cabis net Memo?
“ln its note on “How the A DÅ Works' (Ceylon Observer 89.78),
the ADA speaks of its intention
"to train farmers and farmer famiHo jes.” We view this in the context of a recommendation of the Evaluation Team:
Agricultural training is a specialised function which requires the support of research knowledge and extension experience' (para 4: 19 page 8). *On the basis of what research knowledge or extension experi
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
ence, does the trainin toral persor courses for it the yiew knowledge necessary ti of training these are t petent pers *The AR note to Spg be a located of the Dep and of the vation Off
goles on to Officers w for other y these depar perform an obviously u their own how with by the A DA its will (an officers? Wa the ET to p does not hay other depa tions and th; cut across implementati other organis
"is there anomaly 靛 poration of principal put
constituted a
supervise fun
| cissed by othe
The Constitu VeStS supervi Þaftar Erit. S on the Ministry. is to be tak vyfties weud tution. Mer ADA that it But the ano come by t taking over
of the Ministr thing will be

ADA plan to 'organise g programmes for elecnnel as weil as crash land owners..."? Or is of the Å. DÅ that Such and experience is not o support the planning programmes even if o be executed by comDnnel ? DA proceeds in this ak of families who will to an Extension Officer artment of Agriculture uction S tat the Culier "wiki fook after" t speak of other Field ho “would be utilised work. If the officers of Erments have duties to id functions to fu ifall inder the supervision of
Departmental Heads
a situation be improved
attempting to impose di its pians) on these S this what prompted offit out that the A DA
tments and instituat its present activities lines of authority and on of programmes of sations.”
not a constitutional the Terms of incorthe ADA since the "poses for which it is tre to co-ordinate and ctions already exer
:r State organisations? .
tion as far as we know, Sory powers over dety in the Secretary of
en seriously, its acti
F violate the Consticifully, it is only the lakes itself seriously maly has been overhe Chairman, ADA, the Job of Secretary y. Hey presto everyhunky-dory hereafter.”
The Coconut Triangle
FINALLY, we have a letter from a coconut planter: "Being an old established farmer in the coconut triangle and a reader of your magazine for many years, was concerned about your doubts regarding the capabilities of the new energetic Secretary to the Ministry of A-R/Dev. Dedicated, hardworking and intelligent men like Mr. Wijeratne are hard to find. Why don't you examine his achievements over the past few months before criticising him? First of all, nobody can fool him-he is an expert in all fields. Even the Observer acknowledges this. His tea planting experience gives him the necessary qualificiations to judge the secrets of intercropping all croPS
which can be grown in our villages,
and also rural and small privately owned estates, many of which have been neglected for years. He has appointed equally dedicated and competent experts on the staff of the ADA. They too cannot be fooled by our technical bureau
crats. ADA will be undertaking
all responsibilities from persuading the reluctant villager, compeling the recalitrant small owner to be more productive, will arrange finance, undertake marketing of produce. How can you criticise Such a long overdue combination of vital factors in our efforts for greater productivity. Mr. Wijeyaratne and his staff have had a number of public meetings. These have been crowded to capacity. The farmers are apt pupils listening in raptures to this new philosophy. All the MPs are the epitome of co-operation, and activity is being generated in all quarters of the eleven elec
خماد
torates. Even complicated subjects
like engineering and irrigation. where our experts are leaving for foreign shores, is handled with consumate care by the staff of ADA
"Mr. Wijeyaratine is said to have claimed to be the price mover
O

Page 13
The Medical Profion
of the dismissal of the Board of Directors of the Fertili Ser Corporation. So many of our Boards are overflowing with incompetence.
At last, we have a man who has
the sufficient influence with the President to sack errant Board members. that if errant board members are
sacked, the Staff will thereafter be
loyal and subservient to the new concepts.
"The ADA has promised to convert the eleven electorates in the shortest possible time. The rural unemployed, see at last a day of hope, The ADA Will establish model farms and train youth. These are not vain promises and all the MPs and voting public realise the true value of candid utterances such as these-we will no longer heye vain boasts and unfulfilled promises. The ADA will fulfill many of the promises that the voters so eagerly grasped when they voted for the UNP in the last election
"Mr. Wijeyaratine's aggressive charisma has been recognised by the President. He holds two vital positions now, in order to enable his plans to actively function as long as possible. His objects are not only to plan but to execute as well. He plans a third position. Mr. Bertie Fernando of the Jana
vasa is collecting details of pro
perties under 250 acres to be brought under a new board to be called the National Agricultural & Industrial Development Board to be run by Mr. Bogstra under Mr. Wijeyaratne's guidance. What inspiration this team will provide to the plans of the hungry hopefuls. Even tube wells in the rock filled strata of the triangle will be
undertaken by the ADA. You see
therefore that where all government departments and corporations have failed mainly, this giant steps into the breach like Churchill in Great Britain, be it Sri Lanka here a man
You must appreciate
of all seasons now Act 1 playing the le greatest tragedies o'
سية قصصه سيسي وميسسب
OUT OF THE
by Diogenes
Hippocrates
Diogenes walked Athens never min firmities of his b cased his mind an last he was prey his friencis to sut the skill and mer geons, the anaest nurses in the hosp tal city. Diogenes his life which he eternal and outsid un reality unrelatec SP3Ce.
The great phic round smooth Ston side his belly. It w below his belt by indulging in a ro The Master Su self to a brilliant in the art of repa carriage of elderly moved the foreig lessly with the a anaesthetist who a problem to kee all knowing mind away from it all.
In the Recovery one was laid up in cared for by imar angel. With him ordinary citizens paying patients an pleasantly surprise cal men, the a

in Scene ll of house officers and the nurses gave ad in one of his the same care, love and affection current times.' to all suffering in the unit without discrimination. There was no Amen. class, no race, no position which mattered. All were equal in the eyes of the medical men and the nurses. Doigenies saw Justire ever present in this unit without her eyes blindfolded and began to un
UB derstand Why Justice has her eyes blindfolded in the Courts of Law.
-C-
The Master leaves the unit more than ever convinced that the medical profession is the noblest of professions and gained the experience for the first time in I his life that it is only in the Recovery Unit he saw for himself all men equal before the men and women of skill working there.
the streets of diful of the irody which end spirit but at tailed upon by
mit hims älf to The Master pays them this tricy of the Sur- | buite and salutes them all in the hetists and the name of suffering humanity. They ital in the capi- have saved the great one who has cared little for still many great things to do for
believed was his country and his fellow beings. e this world of
i to time and X X X X X
per hula , THE WORLD TODAY
te embedded inas a stone flung a friendly spirit yal sport.
Iran, Pakistan
rrendered himsurgeon skilled iring the under
Only a year ago it would have been unthinkable. On nationmen. He re- wide television, prominent drain body effort- nian politicians were delivering id of a skilled impassioned attacks on the government. They lambasted the regime for everything from the imposition of martial law to its transparent attempts to cover up the death toll in a season of bloody rioting. In Unit the Great a country noted more for authoribed tended and tarianism than candid criticism, the ly a ministering decision to allow broadcasting of in the unit were the free-for-all debate in the who were non- Majlis (Parliament) was a bold the Master was gamble indeed. Yet by week's d that the medi- end, the un precedented a’ring of naesthetist, the opposition emotions seemed to
had more than p the great and of the Master
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 14
have had the desired effect; plainly conscious that ran was facing its darkest hour, the legislature gave the three-week-old government of | Prime Minister Jaafar SharifEmami an overwhelming vote (766) of confidence. Then, suddenly, a town named Tabas lay dead. . . . . .
Nearly nine months of rioting led to martial law and the bloody climax in Teheran's Jaleh Square on Sept. 8 in which troops opened fire on tens of thousands of demionStratorS. Estimates of the death-toll in that incident still vary widely, from the plainly conservative official figure (10) to the obviously exaggerated tally (1,700) being publicised by oppo. ments of the Shah. Clearly, authorities are now hoping that martial law clamped on Teheran and other major cities will douse the passions that sparked off the butchery on what Friday.'...This week, there were signs that things were starting to settle politically. Not only was the new government given a hearty endorsement in Parliament, but the Shah strongly reaffirmed that he had no intention of stepping down. . . . . . . .
-Asiaweek, September 29, 1978
x X x X x
FRAN: MORE TREIMoRs
After a climatic clash between troops and some 100,000 youthful demonstrators in Teheran last month, it seemed that the strifestricken Iran might finally be blessed with a period of peace. Palliative reforms under way included even an un precedented code of Conduct that would bar Shahan Shah | Moha med Reza Pahlevi and his relatives from holding official positions or conducting business activities even remotely connected with the Government. But it was not to be: With the country's universities opening last week for a new aca
TRIBUNE,
October 28, 1978
has been dubbed “Black
demic year, si led the ranks rebels. The viously in nor they put on force, despatch through city army units at again, the hea the universitic bodings of the Demonstration of cities, the Caspian town people were 50 wounded. Work in Statecompanies, centres and h as the governi by granting a ted one officia demanded in state business.'
For the gove fort could per twist in the fic who had provic thrust in the tollah Khomey Shiite Muslim been liv ing in 1963 quarrel v expelled from south of Baghda Kuwait, the ge to be thinking c Why Iraq, no the Shah, Shou Ayatollah is an the fiery Khor can only be of sc fit to the auth Already, local ob ing that this wc headaches. Foi week marks th hundreds died "Black Friday' Region, Sept. 22 the 10th day is o in the mournin yond that is Moh long period begi

tudents quickly swelli of anti-government authorities were obmood to take chances: a massive show of ning military convoys Streets and posting campuS gates. Once E was on. A day after 2S opened, the fore: army were fulfilled. S erupted in a string Worst hit being the of Amol where four reported killed and Strikes disrupted run banks, insurance telecommunication oSpitals. "As soon ment plugs one gap pay increase,' lamenl, 'similar hikes are other branches of
!rnment, Small comhaps be taken in a Drtunes of the man ied the inspirational anti-Shah side. Ayani, the 80-year old leader who had exile in Iraq since a with the Shah, was his base in Najaf, ld. Barred also from aunt elder is said if moving to Algeria. special friend of ld turn against the ybody's guess. Yet meyni's predicament ant practical beneorities in Teheran. Servers are predictpuld be a month of one thing, next e 40th day since in the capital's
1aSSaCre (The ); for the Shiites, f special significance g cycle. And bearrum, the monthnning Dec. 2 when
The World Today
Muslims mourn the martyrs who died for their faith in the 7th century. "At the best of times, this would be a period for wailing and self-flagellation,' observed one Teheran diplomat gloomily. “This year I'm afraid it might erupt into a religious revolt.' Those Sentiments, added another source, was an accurate pointer to the continuing influence of fundamentalist Islam in the ongong campaign against the “modernistic” Shah.
Indeed, Iran's monarch Seems to be running out of time. As strikes spread, Teheran's universities closed almost as soon as they were opened. As even women students joined the widespread demonstrations, the harried Shah was clearly feeling the pressure and turning towards dramatic geStures that would either impress or frighten the people. There was growing speculation this week that the six-week-old government of Prime Minister Jaafar Sharif-Emami
would soon be replaced by ano- i
ther led by a military man. At the same time, Minister of Higher Education, Housbang NahaVandi, was reportedly planning an "Iraninan National Movement
to push for reforms and a consti
tutional monarchy. The idea is unlikely to cut much ice with the People as many seemed firmly set against the existing order. Diplomatic sources expected a series of new reforms from the goverínment, but there was little doubt that the Peacock Throne was shaking precariously under Shah Reza Pahlevi.
-AsiaWeek, October, 20, 1978.
-X- -X- -X-
HRAN: WILL THE SHAH LAST?
The political situation in Iran continues to deteriorate. Under the Martial Law, the Opposition forces have resorted to strikes ଅS a basic form of Struggle against the

Page 15
gulf. This
The World Today
regime. The Shah's secret police SAWAK have made massive arrests and have incited acts of terrorism against leaders of Opposition. This, however, has not weakened the extent and the scope of the anti-Shah campaign. According to the diplomatic circles in Teheran, the American experts on fighting anti-government activities, who have arrived in Iran, are said to be responsible for persuading the Shah to suppress with terror the strike movement in the country and extend martial law to all the cities and areas of Iran.
Many now believe that the crisis in Iran had arisen not only because of the Shah's ruthleSS dictatorship, but also because of the American presence and policy in Iran. It was the USA which had constantly encouraged the Shah to militarise the country no doubt to make Iran a satellite military outpost to safegard American interests in the ME and the oil-rich has contributed to the worsening of the quality of the life of the Iranians. The popular belief in political circles in Iran
is that the US advisers had egged
the Shah to attack peaceful demonstrations with the army and to impose martial law in 12 cities in the country.
Today, the Shah's regime has begun to lose the support of many officers of the Iranian army-the most privileged segment of the Iranian society. Reports have filtered out of Teheran that in the Iranian army there now exists an underground organisation "The
Committee for the Struggle for
National Solidarity', which is believed to favour a military coup and the liquidation of monarchy and thereafter to set up a so-called "Islamic Republic.” There have been suggestions that this organisation is supported by Saudi Arabia.
There is no doubt that the Shah is shaken by the intensity and
3.
persistence of peok It is not unlikely, will seek to appea tion which is critic posed to America Iran. He may soo nificant changes in ship with the US. tance, the Shah mai reduce the number tary personnel in
Should this happ ington take it lying US afford to lose fantastic amount has poured into ra a strong pro-Ameri dispensable military the US in this c. Questions are bein ther the US will not if he should display sure of "independe tutelage?
Will the Shah s of Diem? Will US at civil war in Iran? W another Vietnam?
It is well on the US will take measur of the Shah, becaus to show an intoler independence in tac tions directly conne US interests in ther wants to save his t probably can do th Some of his ties will
-IPA, New Delhi, C.
X X NA
PAKSTAN:
ZA FLAYS CENT
The Chief Martial tator and Chief of Staff, Gen. Zia-ulcribed CENTO “a t with no significance no teeth, no backin was better to be “CENTO is becom to Pakistan's Secu

ple's movement.
that the Shah -- Se the Opposial of and is opin presence in in introduce sigIran's relationln the first insy take steps to of the US milithe country. en, will Washdown? Can the Iran after the of money it n? And, is not can ran an innecessity for bil-rich region? ng asked wheditch the Shah a certain meaince’ from US
uffer the fate ctions lead to a Vill it become
cards that the es to get rid e he has begun able degree of kling the quescted with the egion. The Shah hrone and he is by breaking th the US. .
October 5, 1978
X X
"Ο
Law. AdminisPakistan Army Haq, has desreaty on paper !, whatsoeverg', and said it non-aligned. ng a hindrance ity', he said
in an interview with Time magazine. The interview is a part of a long article devoted to CENTO and reflects the disenchantment of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey with the American-sponsored treaty. Titled “CENTO” a Tattered Alliance', the article notes: "Among other CENTO leaders there is mounting impatience with the vagaries of US public opinion as reflected in such congressional actions as the Turkish arms embargo and aid cuts for countries that try to acquire a nuclear capability. They also regard Carter administration policies as quixotic and punitive. "Pakistan, for example, is furious at Washington's jawboning nuclear non-proliferation activities, which recently led France to cancel a contract to provide Pakistan with a nuclear reprocessing plant.' The result says, Gen. Zia, is that "this is perhaps the lowest point the (US-Pakistani) relations have rereached.
The article continues: “Zia
wants the CENTO charter rewritten so that Pakistan could call for alliance help if threatened by an "indirect' Soviet attack. Washington interprets this as an unwarranted commitment to defend Zia in the event of another IndoPakistani war, and will have none of it. In response, the Pakistanis talk about withdrawing from CENTO and joining the non-aligend movement.' Time quotes, Gen. Zia as saying: “In the current day, it's better to be nonaligned than aligned. Look at India and Afghanistan, both under the Soviet Union, yet they are Supposed to be non-aligned, countries. Look at Cuba-a non-aligned country. Today there are countries that are not aligned yet are much more secure than those that are aligned under the CENTO pact.'
(It was offieially stated in islamabad that Time did not quote
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 16
Gen. Zia accurately on india and Afghanistan. According to the clarification, the sentence in the transcript actually reads: 'Look at India and Afghanistan-the se curity of both is underwritten by the Soviet Union. Yet they are supposed to be non-aligned countries')
The article notes: “Pakistan is
doing a litle bridge-building of its own with the Russians, des. pite its traditionally close ties with China. Earlier this year, Zia dis
patched a high-level delegation to
M3scow. The ostensible purpose War to Secure an additional dollars 250 million in credits to finish a sta e mil in Karachi that the Pakistanis are building with Soviet help."
Bu e Gen. Zia said, another purpose of the mission was to warn the US that "I must have my own opening-il must have our options open." The article said: “The Pakistanis and Turks also resent and reject what they have Poriwately dubbed the "Brezinski doctrine' that describes the Carter administration's policy of relying on "regional influentials' to shoulder much of the burden of maintaining security in their area. The "influentials' in this case are Iran and India-and the concept annoys Turkey and terrifies Pakistan.” Says Gen. Z ia angrily: “If the US is thinking of aligning with pillars of strength in this region, then am not having any part of it. Instead of turning to Teheran and New Delhi, why can't Pakistan turn somewhere else?'
-APP, New York, Dawn. Overseas,
September 23, 1978.
X X X X X
PAKISTAN: CENTO LONGER RELEVANT
PAKISTAN'S disenchantment with CENTO an edentulous child of the Cold War born in a world
NO
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
with
- in Which teet
again brough when Genera ailing, alliance paper with n
SO e Ver--no te made this i fe in an intervi zine, shortly as the sixth In this intervi ment display | last week, Ge words in ciri recent pressur its contract with a nuclea
He asserted:
lowest point lations have
out that Paki
the CENTO is sh of ran and T General Zia is becoming a tan's security. it's better to aligned. Today that are not all Priore Secure 1 aligned under Referring to which have t written by th two are suppos General Zia si res write the tar) could call alliance. If the of it and go Brezen"...ini do lying on “regi maintaining th area-Pakistan its options ope along with its China, İslamab: some "bridgeRussians: there ing about “ CENTO and aligned movem text one might

! count a kot, vas once
t into focus, when l Zia described this : as a "a treaty on to significance whateth, no backing'. He Drth right observation ew with Time magabefore taking over President of Pakistan. ew which got a promin the national Press, eneral Zia minced no ticising Washington's e on France to cancel to provide Pakistan r reprocessing plant. "This is perhaps the the (US-Pakistan) rereached.' Pointing stan's disillusionment American sponsored ared by the leaders turkey, Time quotes as saying, CENTO hindrance to Pakisin the current day, be non-aligned than , there are countries igned yet ar's much than those that are the CENTO pact.” ndia and Afghanistan heir security undere USSR, though the sed to be non-aligned tressed the need to CENTO Charter so for the help of this
US will have none on sticking to “the ictrine”-that is reonal influentials' for le Security of this Would like to keep an. Time notes that traditional ties with ad is already doing building' with the is also loud think"withdrawing from oining the non-alia ent' in this con
recall that Pakistan
The World foday
had withdrawn from SEATO in 1973, two years before that illfated alliance was officially liquidated. After pulling out of SEATO, this country has been contending that most of the regional military aliances have become moribund in today's multipolar world and that bilateral treaties have ΕΓΟWη more potent than multilateral pacts. Pakistan has also been pinpointing the fact that its membership of CENTO was no more than 'a technical association', for there were no foreign military bases, nor any foreign troops on its territory. Moreover, its pursuit of an independent foreign Policy, constant Struggle against Colonialism, imperialism, and hegemonism, and its spirited fight for a newer and juster world economic order, have brought it closer to the non-aligned bloc.
Significantly, when Pakistan was granted, for the first time, a guest status at the non-aligned summit in Belgrade, last July, General Zia observed in his message to the 85-nation moot: “Pakistan is a non-aligned country, in the spirit and substance of its foreign po
licy”. Eulogising the objectives and ideas of the non-aligned movement, he affirmed that it
"embodies the aspiration for a new and truly just era in human
history..." Never before had any
Head of Government in this country gone that far in applauding and expressing solidarity with the non-aligned nations. Viewed in this context, his latest denunciation of CENTO, in particular, and
military blocs, in general, and his
leaning towards the Non-aligned, cannot be interpreted as a sudden policy departure. It reflects Pakistan’s growing affinites with the Third World, which includes the Islamic fraternity, and re-thinking on the rationale of linking our defence with military alliance cobbled up by the Western Powers
4.

Page 17
The world Today
to serve their own global ends.
Time was when the leaders of Pakistan thought that alignment with the West was the sheetanchor of our foreign policy and a guarantee of our independence and sovereignty. Thus, when we stepped into the Baghdad Pact in 1955-renamed Central Treaty Organisation in 1958 after Iraq's withdrawal-it was looked upon as a means of 'collective security' and a shield against aggression. Although the first Prime Minister of Pakistan had warned against the acceptance of military assistance from any foreign power, for that would compromise independence of foreign policy, his successors chose to put their neck under the yoke of SEATO and CENTO, hoping to negotiate with India on Kashmir from a position of strength and to divert defence
spending to economic development. These hopes were dashed before long. Between 1956 and
1965 this country did receive 1.5 billion dollars worth of military hardware, but its own defence expenditure continued to mount and cause economic imbalances, The quantum of economic aid from the US escalated during the first decade, but since this aid was tied, it tended to put the economy on foreign crutches. Under the slogan 'strength through development”, communications in the CENTO region vere improveda micro-wave telecommunication project linking the regional capitals was undertaken-but the inadequacy of economic projects sponsored under the alliance came
to the fore when the countries of
the region felt constrained to set up the RCD to step up regional cohesion.
The meagree advantages that the membership of CENTO brought for Pakistan were outweighed by a host of disadvantages. The alliance was hardly a year old and
is
had not overcorne troubles when it we by the Suez crisis. the Muslim League ar. tions of the ruling A began to clamour foi dation of a Pacts. Eve chest supporters of C stunned by the Angle inist aggression aga Pakistan Suffered a bi setbaek in the Arab w fel11 - in the estimation o because of its alignme West. Again, Pakistang ing from the Pacts in disputes with India. on Kashmir was we cause, after its entry and CENTO, Russia be every Security Counc -formerly it used that called for effecti Kashmir. What was for this country was allies began to lean me towards in ria in air at conflict, the Anglo-Am al out to bolster ne juggernaut despite Paki tic protests. In the Pakistan war, the US military and economic ally and this served opener, for the polic Islamabad who once t they had "entered a nium' by walking into SEATO and CENTO.
The question is C Why did Pakistan cl alliances even after t sponsors decried then tis” and "pactomania" ticians have answered tion, saying that the f had seen 'how the of CIA had toppled regime in Asia and decided to 'stake in rity for individual saf usual to a personal r party explains why try has remained :

its teething as overtaken in Fakistan, di large secwarni League r the liqui2n the staurs ENC vere b-French-Zioinst Egypt. g diplomatic od. it also f Afro-Asians int with the gained nothespect of its its position akefield, bera into SEATO agan to Veto i1 resolution to abstairiye action in
more galling
that its big ire and mere tempt indian ericans went Tia's military istan's fran
1965 indՃ
cut off a aid to its
aS an eyey-makers in hought that new millerthe fold of
3ften asked:
ing to the heir original n as "pacti? Some poliI this quesormer rulers hidden hand regime after Africa' and ational secuety . . not unagime.' That
this counattached to
the alliances even when the quid pro quo banished. Now many leaders of public opinion openly say that since we have been left to fend for ourselves in every hour of crisis and deprived of both military and economic aid by our superallies, it was time we said goodbye to military pacts and ended one of the anormalies and contradictions of our foreign policy. But there are others who point out that we cannot ignore our fraternal ties with Turkey and Iran, who have firmly stood by us in every crisis, and they must be consulted before any decision in taken to quit CENTO, At the same time, the reaction of China should be ascertained, for it is deeply interested in the stability of this region and Indian Ocean. However, discerning, observers argue that allliances like CENTO have become almost anachronistic in the wake of nuclear stalemate and superpower detente, and the interests of smaller nations like Pakistan will be better served by keeping away from entanglements-including the Soviet-proposed Asian Sea curity plan-identifying completely with the emergent states of the Third World and steering clear of all power blocs in keeping with the postulates of an inde
pendent foreign policy.
-A. T. Chaudri: Dawn. Oversecs, Sep, 30, 1978
X X X X X
PAKSTAN: CAMP DAVID TALKS
Pakistan has termed the absence of any reference to the Palestine Liberation Organisation in the Camp David documents as "a grave omission, and has stressed that the PLO has been recognised by the Rabat Arab Summit and the Lahore Islamic Summit as the sole representative of the Palestinian people, reports APP. Coma menting on the Camp David nego
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978.

Page 18
tiation between Egypt and Israel BOOK REVIE under the US supervision, a Foreign Office spokesman said here that the accords and related documents signed at Camp David were being carefully studied. The total World picture would become clear after fuller information, throwing light on all the details, was available, he added. The spokesman re- The Non-A
Singham, A.
affirmed Pakistan's commitment to in Wic the Lahore Islamic Summit decla- This colle ration regarding the restoration papers deli of the holy city of Jerusalem to sophy of N Arab sovereignty, which was the vered at permanent and unchangeable pre- in April, requisite for any resolution of the the proceed Middle East conflict. He recalled international Pakistan's sustained initiatives in Aligned nati the United Nations, and outside, Among the to reiterate the inadmissibility of || Samir Amin the acquisition of territory by office of til I force and to ensure Israeli with Robert Chr drawa1 from Jerusalem and all thẻ Black Schola occupied Arab territories. Jr. (Member
in this context, he referred to Johan Galtun
the letter which the President, tical Scienc Gen. Zia-ul-Haq, had addressed to Geneva), M. President Sadat on the eve of the feSSor of Llatter's historic visit to Jerusalem. Windsor, Ca He regretted that the national (Ambassador rights of the peoples of Palestine, Nigeria), Tra including their right to set up an fessor of P. independent state in Palestine, as Temple Univ
enshrined in various UN resolu- A. W. Singha tions, did not find a place in the and introdu accords. The spokesman con- is Professor
cluded by saying that President at Howard. Carter had made “a determined 324 Pages ISBN effort' towards securing peace in the Middle East and had been able, in co-operation with President THE NON Sadat, to initiate the process to- MENT IN W wards that end. If the process of EPTEP BY peace were to gather momentum HAM (LAW and to lead to a just and perma- & CO. WEST nent settlement of a conflict, which TICU I978 had lasted for 30 years, the spokes- 273) man said, the initiative taken by The non-a President Carter would have to has come to p be pursued further to settle more role in world fundamental issues which affected are few fields
the entire Middle East region. sphere of influ --APP, Islamabad, September 30, influence and in
978, Dawn Overseas ment has not
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

W
ed And the
W.
signed Movement
brid politics
tion of essays and heating the philolon-Alignment delliHoward University 976, also includes lings of the last conference of Nonons in Sri Lanka. contributors are (Director of the he UN, Senegal), sman Editor, The r), John Conyers, of Congress, US), g (Professor of Polie, University of L. Marasinghe (Proaw, University of nada), Edward Sanu to the US from In Van Dinh (Proan-African Studies, ersity, Philadelphia) lm, who has edited ced the volume, of Political Science
: 069-9 paper: 36.95
ALIGNED MOVEORLD POLITICS
A. W. SINGRENCE & H.L.L PORT, CONNEC$ 7.95 pp XIII-||-
ligned movement
lay such a decisive
politics today there
which escapes its fence. For all its lportance the moveyet developed into
The Non-Aligned Movement
an organisation; nor has it assumed any institutionalized status Though constituted chiefly of third world countries it is not a bloc with any leading central power. It is often criticised for the lack of a defined ideology and cohesion, But it is not often realised that the absence of these factors are the ones that really gives strength to the movement. The movement does not impose any universal conduct. In the words of the editor, “the non aligned movement is a global social movement, a coalition of a variety of governments which share certain broad international objectives...... A Social movement unlike a political party has loose organisation and, in turn, develops organisational structures to achieve specific objectives, often later dismantling the organisation or structure created for that pur
pose." Viewed from this point the movement is a permanent one, activated during a crisis, to influence world opinion.
Without realising the contribution it could make towards achieving racial and political equality, prace, and freedom from hunger, efforts are being made by certain powers to weaken the movement by covert actions. Even some of the members of the movement, themselves are very pessimistic of the role it could play in the absence of any backing from certain world powers. There are others who argue that non-alignment was the creation of the Cold War, and as the Cold war is showing signs of thawing in the face of "detente', is it necessary to continue with this Utopia?
Though Cold War might have temporarily receded to abeyance there are many other factors to be met collectively. Those who monopolise the world mass media are all at one to destroy the movement. From the inception of the movement the mass media, particularly
- I6

Page 19
The Non-aligned Moviment
of the West has viewed the activities of the movement with contempt and hostility. The movement has been described as consisting of the worlds “adolescent nations' and a 'Union of Beggars' who were trying to bargain with their donors. There are others who view the movement as a group of the tyrannical majority of the world's population anxious the world's rich and to demand their share of the riches.
This is a groundlesso a CCLSation, and expresses partiality for western powers. However it has a warning to the imperialist nations. Simply put, as far as the imperialists are concerned, the tyranny of the majority means that in most issues in the world today the pro
gressive interests of the non-aligned
states often corresponds to those of the socialist countries (p. 88). Besides this, the entry of Cuba, has added new and powerful dimensions to the movement. The example of Cuban struggle and Revolution has offered encouragement to many African states struggling for national liberation and this is a thorn in the side of imperialism. Hence the antagonistic attitude of the imperialists to the non-aligned novement.
These are some of the critical views expressed in the Non-Aligned Movement and World Politics. This book contains articles prepared for the Conference on Non-alignement held at Howard University (April 8-10, 1976) and other articles from distinguished diplomats, minister S, scholars from the Non-aligned world and Afro-Americans. Though the book is addressed to Afro-Americans, as they have not been sufficiently informed of the global interest and activities undertaken by the non-aligned states, yet the discussions are very useful to all students of Non-Alignment.
The subject division of the book is done in such a way that it shows
7
to blackmail
the immediate obje engaged the atten aligned movement informative prefa sion contributed
the book is divide parts, each in tur divided subject-wis headings are as f
Non-Alignment;
pectiveS; Non-Alig bai was 5 Corn Alignment and the tiof Moverent; and the New Eco Non-Alignment and can People. In a Chapters the pol mic declarations mit Conference Governments
tanke in 1976 h. porated in the b
in the opinion the most valuabl book is the one the new economi lopment in inter co-operation so fa that the proble development in th of the institution policy pursued, \ ved on the bas colonialist concep relations, dominat nal and monopol the industrially tries. This has crisis in the inter order and disinteg of its parts. In the balance, the tries have called new economic or affect both the ca, cialist systems equ for a new econom
the following:
(I) A meanir control of w. investment, trac (2) Direct par

ectives which has tion of the nonBesides the ie and concluby the editor, 2d into five main in has been subSe, The five main blows:-
Continental nrent and Glo= unication; NonNatione Libera
Non-Alignmeniť nomic Order and the Afro-Ameriddition to these itical and econoof the fifth Surinof Non-Aligned in Sri lave - besen incorook“.
of this reviewer e Section of the that deals with lic order. Devenational economic r clearly indicates ms of economic 2 world, in terms is establisned and were usually solis of traditional tion of economic led by the natiolistic interests of developed coun1ed to a Seriou S. national economic ration of certain Drder to restore non-aligned counfor a re-oriented der. This demand bitalist and the soally. The demands ic order includes
gful share and brld production, ie and technology; ticipation in the
Perg
policy-making processes that affect the wealth of the world(3) A re-crganisation of curi rent international financial st ructures to allow transfers of
resources and technology to places where they are most needed.
(4) Full participation in the exploitation of the oceans and space (p 4)
These demands are based on
the sound economic principle that supplier of raw material is equally entitled for equal share in the profits made by the manufacturer of goods. The decisions of the OPEC countries to raise the price of oil were welcomed by the nonaligned countries, despite the fact that it led to a depening of their economic crises, as a measure of strength and bargaining power of the third world countries. This is an event of historic proportions. At least for the first time in the history of the world, the "Wretched of the Earth' were able to effect and enter into a sound bargaining with their exploiters. As the editor clearly stated "the very act of raising this question is a courageous one, for the demand implies a willingness on the part of the non-aligned to examine the resource question on the globall level (p. 23). The world cannot continue to fight the merits of the two types of economic systems as it prevails today. Sooner it decides on the mode of production and distribution on a global level the better it is for man
kind. -
In the Section on national liberation movements only the case of Zimbabwe and Puerto Rica has been discussed. The struggle waged by the Namibians and Blacks in South Africa are equally painful and should have found place in the book. Though glimpses of their struggle have been mentioned, yet their fight for liberation deserves
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 20
equal space in a conference
papers like this.
The other area of interest in
the book is the attempts made to bring the Afro-Americans into the fold of the non-aligned because the Africans in America have been
lending political diplomatic and material support to liberation movements in Africa, Secondly,
as the most progressive sector in the US it is felt they should align themselves with the progressive forces of the world. themselves have struggled and are still struggling to achieve what most of the members of the third world are demanding. Finally it will also provide a forum for the blacks in America to declare thenselves against the criminal acts of imperialism committed in their name by the US Government in the interest of monopoly capitalism. (p. 217) Therefore, their area of conflict with the white racists in US does not materially differ from that of their counterparts in Namibia, Rhodesia and South Africa. It is difficult to reach a consen SuS on the issue of Afro-America as they are placed in an embarrasing position of having extra-territorial alliances. This will be an
interesting development worth watching in the future.
in brief the book critically
analyses and shows the achievements of the non-aligned to date and its plan of action for the future. One cannot altogether agree that there was no division among the members of this group. The Sri Lanka Conference proved that there was division between the progresssive courtries and those who were widely identified with the Western bloc such as Singapore and Malaysia. Among the progressive groups, there was the difference, between the camp followers of Soviet Union and China. The Editor's conclusion which touches Sri Lanka Conference provides
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
Thirdly, they
excellent readin C8S.
However it as several of t book shows mo emert's tional relation still conducted b on the basis of colonization wi the nevent, nothing but a sł nialism. And economic syster cialist bloc would trolled by Unit puppet agencies.
This is of cour non-aligned Coun the face of the Nor has it the and economic p
moment to wield
power rest.S on SenSu S. & ut it | tiality for develc manent moyenner effect of super-po re-distribute hun energies on a gl
翼。 25.09.78
X X
ACD BOMB :
Chapter TV
insurgents By James Gooi
Sirina Piyaratne what time it wa police station. It two or it could thirty; she coul The clock on the to play tricks on Everything was jų up now; she rem ranted and ravec
 
 
 

on these differen
ould be admitted
2 articles in the at without the forts, internawould have bee the ်းနှီး’း loc division. Deout the help of would have been ceidway of colled Colicy.-- inally the world outside the So3ye still been coindi States and its
i.e. not to say that ries have charged world overnight. political, military ower just at the the big stick-its unity and connas all the potenping into a perit to reduce the ver monopoly and an and Scientific obal level.
Arturmainayagarn
K XK XX
XPLOSION — 20
enty
Strike
bewardene
could not recall she reached the could have been have been one not remember. wall had started her imagination. bled and mixed "mbered she had and then when
A Novel Ábott 1971
exhausted and she had stopped her mind had gone blank. She had been here at the Station since then, her chair placed against the wall. It was now four.
"Why don't you go back home and come later?' The policeman told her. "The Inspector doesn't come at four in the morning. We told you we will look into it when it is daylight. Your husband is safe, Who would want to harm himan old man like him. You'd better go now.'
All she had done was to sit and stare back at them. The policemen were themselves jittery. You could see that. They too were frightened. Every little while two policemen with rifles would come in, check at the guard room, have the tea which the young lad would bring for them, and return to their post at the back of the station. The policeman in the guard room would take Some tea himself and offer some to Mrs. Piyaratne and she would bluntly refuse it. They would then offer it to the woman she had come along with-she would take it and seem glad to have it.
After a time a look of bitterness came over Mrs. Piyaratne's face. She had begun to hate the policemen-they just sat there and did nothing. She had been thinking while she sat there, apologising to her husband for any wrong
she had done. She had nagged him in
the past and he had closed up like a clam. The only time she realised something was wrong was when they took him to hospital that night. If they brought him back safe she swore she would never be rude to him again. She sat with the fall of her saree wrapped round her shoulder against the morning chill and against her weariness, and her greyish brown face, plump and drooping and looking very old now. She held the fall of her saree round her shoulders as if
that was the only protection she had.
8

Page 21
Á Novel About 1971
When daylight had finally broken she stood up suddenly, glared at the policeman, summoned her servant with the jerk of her hand, and stamped out of the place. The policemen telling the story later had a laugh. They were ready then to laugh at anything; they were bored with their waiting and they were frightened. They were hardworked and underpaid; it was a bad joke that they had to look after others as well; it was a truly bad joke; they had a hard time looking after themselves, leave alone trying to get husbands to stick to their homes instead of getting lost all over the place.
The abduction of the Principal was like a signal. Incidents began to occur with great rapidity in the next forty eight hours. The things that the country had been building up to in the recent years, it seemed, were about to find its release, its resolution, its final moments of disorientation, frenzy and madness, It began with seemingly conmonplace incidents. A hold up of an isolated post office by an armed gang of robbers, where there was always money to grab, was not so infrequent an occurrence recently. So when the raid on the sub-post office took place it did not surprise anyone.
"Here they are at it again-the criminal minded, unemployed youth finding an escape for their frustration: the ide mind's the devil's workshop-the terrible indiscip
line in the country-that's what it
was, indiscipline. They should all be put to work in the fields and whipped-that's what had to be done.” This was the tak in the street corners, in the houses.
It all happened that morning
without any fuss or bungling. A few people had transacted business
here that morning, as they usually did-buying a stamp, sending a postal order, putting money
穆
into the savings at how it was at this after the initial rus ways a lull, and it
lull that these you rived in the jeep a the office. Two of guins, and one a rif open the door at th in. Two of the y hurriedly, went to assistant, Sirisoma, aid held him dov the other surrou postmaster's desk; pluickly little man him like a startle from his Seat, grał there was on th round to the safe firm ble vAyiith the k were quicker. The one of them, the his arm round and wrestler's hold, a tr ing with swiftness master made the ir ing for help and rii
“Keep quiet nox going to harm ye the money and let
The rotund litt going to let the t He grappled with shouted for helpthing to do-he against them-sud the midst of the exploded; the bull and it struck the the shoulder; mc than the seriousne he dropped in a fa They let him lie t helped themselves money there was; tant to deal with t master they clim jeep and drove off.
There was an ference and lack the consequences It convinced the thered at the se

ce unt. This was ittle post office; h there was alwas during this ng mera had arund walked into
them had shot le. They pushed
e side and went
Ծնոg men, սոthe postmaster's grabbed him wn in his seat, inded the subthe stumpy, looked about Í rabbit, spratig bbed the money e table, turned I and started to eys; the raiders y grabbed him; r leader, swung twisted it in a 'ained man WorkThe sub-postlistake of holleresisting.
v. We are not pu-just give us : us go.'
€ man WaS nOt hing go at that. the man and it was a crazy hadn’t a chance denly then, in
scuffle, the rifle et was defected
postmaster in pre from fright 'ss of the injury int on the floor. ihere while they to whatevyer leaving his assis:he injured postbed into their
Jin Common indif
of concern for of their action. people who gaene, afterwards,
that this was no ordinary raidthere were several pointers here that made them feel that this was different. There was no waste of tirsts er energy-having got the money they went-they had done nothing to disguise themselves.
The next ing morning came as suddenly as the previous one. Ariya had been to town that morning and had been purchasing things for the resthouse; on his return he sat at his desk to get his purchases down in his books. He had not been long at this when a jeep came to a halt suddenly outside. Apart from the screech of brakes and the SuddenimeSS cof their arrivali there was nothing to indicate that these young men in a jeep were anything more than a harmless group of spirited young holiday makers out for a good time; he went on with his work, hoping that one of the waiters would licek after them.
The young men tumbled out of their vehicle and went into the resthouse. Two of the young men advanced towards Ariya's desk. The others placed themselves at various other points inside the resthouse. It was like something one had seen in a western film-a raid on a gaming house. They were on a great, romantic adventure in the style and manner of the lawless days of the Wild West one had read of in books. The long, hard life Ariya had lived had taught him not to panic in a tight situation.
"Your waiters-where are they?" asked their leader.
"If there's anything you want can attend to it.'
"How many waiters have you here?'
Ariya looked back at the young man, saying nothing. He had decia ded to give no replies. He decided to treat them as ordinary visitors despite the feeling he had that this was trouble and it was serious,
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
incident, the follow

Page 22
"You are asked a question you give a reply-you understand?'
"Want rooms and food
can
arrange them for you.' "I asked a question.' Ariya paused a moment. “I am
the manager of the rest houseusually the questions are asked by me,' he replied after a pause. Suddenly the butt of the gun struck him on his head. It was done with an extraordinary speed and skill. He was thrown back violently. He swayed for a monent and suddenly collapsed in his seat.
"All right, get all the waiters,' shouted the leader. 'Get them allround them up.'
Ariya had only been stunned. It took him only a moment to come round again. He rose then. He felt this lump; in his head; it was hardening and with it came a burning sensation. He put his hand to his head and withdraw it. It was full of blood. He lifted his eyes and looked at his assailant. He looked so young, barely twenty -square jawed and dark skinned, the colour of Stained nadun wood, with high cheek bones. He was deeply sunburned. He didn't look vicious, but he stood there, with his legs spread apart like a gunman in the cinema. His real bosses, were perhaps, elsewhere, he thought, and this was their chief gunman who was trying to act the part assigned him, or was he the leader, the boss, the district governor, and where did they come from? He glanced round the place and looked at the other young men who had come with him. They were just peasant or working class youth he had not seen before-just a rabble of young hoodlums, and suddenly, then he thought he recognised the young man who had accosted him on the beach that evening; he looked at him trying to think back, but he felt dizzy-he couldn't co-ordinate
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
his thoughtshead-they we looked So unr just a cheap at and he h; dizzy.
*"Tie him to the leader say roughly and st Yes, it was . killers. They w He was not had nothing a the blow he head and the act heroically hero's motives. Life was what He Wanited to 1 if that was a do it was a ri to kill him the so already. He sa a mist, the wa together in the rest moved thr collecting the t the bottles of thing was carrie went through great thorough thing they nee grabbed the ke) him and got a was the last thi they had clear Went.
It was over ar Ariya waited. || head had clear think. The sudd everything had dazed for Some nothing in his a parallel to wh
Clearing the fo
resthouse-every -even the scrap piling it-but
It was this th: bother him. lt came and rele trussed-up posi and he got on
 
 

he blow on his 2 all young, and it |-perhaps, this was m he was looking
suddenly become
a chair,' he heard They grabbed him rted to tie him up. real. They were uld kill if provoked. bing to resist. He ainst them except ad received on his leeding from it. To ne had to have a He had no motives. he needed now. fe. To tie him up..hey were going to ght. If they wanted y would have done w then, as if through iters being herded dining room. The ough the resthouse ins of canned food, liquor and everyd to the jeep. They the resthouse with less, taking everyded. Finally, they 's of the Safe from : the money. This ng they did. When ed the safe they
di tied to the chair e waited till his 2d and he could anness with which appened left him time. There was (perience that had it had taken place. d stuff from the hing there was -they were stock
ith what object?
had started to as when Aramanis 2d him from his
on in the chair
feet, still feeling
A Nove. About 97
a bit dazed from the blow on his head, that he tried to think.
"Where were you when all this happened 2' he asked Aramanis.
"I hid-I saw what was happening and hid-i am sorry, I was frightened,” said Aramanis.
"Who were those young menwhat were they up to?'
"They are the insurgents-this is what everyone's talking about in town. They earlier attacked the post office."
"And you were hidden when all this happened?'
"I am sorry-I was frightened and hid, but later thought I'll creep out and get help, but couldn't. They would have seen me. was going for Deva Maha
taya or the police-whichever was
easier.’’
"What use of that-by the time help arrived they would have gone in any case
But Ariya was worried now; he was worried about Aramanis. The raiders seemed to know the layout of the resthouse. He was suddenly not sure about Aramanis, but it was just a suspicion. It was just his dazed condition making him see ghosts in every bush.
“lts all right,” he said. “I don’t blame you. Life's what is important -one does not show bravery in the presence of guns-but you vill go nov and fetch Deva Mahataya.”
Araman is nodded and was gone.
It was nearly one o'clock when Deva arrived at the resthouse. He had still not had time to recover from the excitement and shock of the attack on the sub-postmaster and the hysteria of the boarding mistress. The whole of the previous afternoon and night he had been busy trying to calm her fears."Nothing more serious than a grazing bullet wound on his shoulder,' he reassured her.

Page 23
A Novel About 1971
"But he could have died. They could have killed him,” she cried. Now the news had come of the attack on the resthouse. This was more than a coincidence, he thought as he hurried to his friend's assistance. The whole of the town had been shocked into fear by the disappearance of the Principal, and now these other things that had happened. Something terrible was afoot. Deva vas grateful, vhen he arrived at the resthouSe, to di Scover that his friend had not been really harmed. In this rapid decline into chaos one had to have the wisdom to look for the Small ellements from which to Seek consolation in the hope that the little comforts and mercies would all add up to something to live by. The school had been closed since the Principal disappeared, and a dozing, backwash town had been struck by fear and terror of a kind they could not understand. NeWS was also spread of the disappearance of various young boys from a variety of homes. This aded to the hysteria in the town.
“What's the police doing? What are the authorities doing?' asked people.
"What can the police do when they are wetting their own pants in fear?'
"But they must do something' "Why can't they call for help?' **From where?'
The government, of coursethe army.'
Nothing happened, and the people waited.
The only sign of discomfort Deva discovered in his friend Ariya was this large plaster stuck across his forehead. For the first time since he had known Ariya he saw this look of dejection on his face. He looked beaten. The Safe world he had been living in had begun to show cracks. He could only bring out a tired smile when his
2
friend Dewa Showed they called dharm island of the doc had spawned dev built hou Se had apart.
it didn't take De cover that Ariya facing a crisis of There was no food resthouse. They out. Ariya had se the shops with a had had in his po returned empty had Sensed the in down in the distr and had bought there wa S to be ha It was like a town destroyed by a cy other in describab|| There was a similar certainty and fea human relationship disappearing, and the feeling of secul tion one had fro processes of law a another day you' here,’’ said Deva. the present 'll fe from the boarding money-for whateve
"You are exhaus heard of what y through helping t recover her sens hysteria. Rest a b all right for the m some tea-the or spared. It was ove would have taken
Deva eventually boarding and retur ever food he coul on; the money was use. The shops an had been stripped Things people had had been bought u struck by famine. in the filthy show bought up for t

up. The land adeepa or the trine of peace ils. The jerry Started to fall
va long to diswas, however, another kind. to be had at the hed cleaned it ent a vya iter to few rupees he ckets, but they handed. People pending breakibution of food up everyth ing ld in the shops. that had been clone or some le catastrophe. gloom and unr. All normal ps were slowly along with it rity and protecm the normal ind justice. "In Il be starving "At east, for toh some food and also some er that is worth.”
ted. I have just ou have gone he landlady to es, calming her it first. We are ɔment. We have tly thing they looked or they that as well.’’
left to the ned with whatlay his hands of no practical d eating houses if items of food.
Scorned earlier
like in a town tale bread lying
cases had been ree times the
price they had earlier paid for fresh bread. They had Scooped up bits of rusks lying forgotten at the back of the show cases. The proprietors of eating houses sat despondently in their empty shops. They had nothing to sell. There was no flour therefore no bread was baked nor buns made; a couple of customers stood in front of the shops staring blankly into space. The most desolate place was the bus stand. A stray dog nosed in the garbage can. It lifted its head, its paws still clinging to its edge and disconsolately turned its head and let its watery eyes drift in different directions, while a fly hovered over a suppurating wound on its back, then it dropped its paws and wandered off. An empty garbage can seemed like the last straw for the animal.
At the resthouse Ariya and Deva sat like two mutes thinking what next to do, but saying nothing. What could they say or do not knowing what next to expect, but Ariya was slowly arriving at a decision. The waiters were still around. He had to make a decision about them. He had the responsibility now of feeding them, but there was no food to be had-the flour, the rice, the vegetables, everything that could be transported had been taken. He spoke to the gardener first.
"Velu, you go back to your estate. There, at least, you can find something to eat.”
"No-how can go when you are in trouble.'
"Your presence here will only create more trouble. I cannot feed you...you know that.'
"Yes, know there's now no food.**
"Its better, therefore, you should go Velu. I think there's more trouble coming. This is only the beginning.'
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 24
"All right, if you think it will be the right thing to do-ill do that. I'll go.”
“Yes Veļu, go-you'll be better off on the estate.
"But what of you-there's no
food-what of that-and the Waiters-they too will be without food? I'll be all right, but you Say
should go.'
"Do you want to stay and strarve with us?'
"I don't want anyone to starve.'
"We can look after ourselves, Velu, but seeing others starve whom I am responsible for-it will create problems for me-the less there is to worry about the better.
"They are animals to have done this-to have taken the foodanimals, that's what they areand why did they have to do it?'"
"We don't know why or what it is they are trying to do, but they are up to something-what it is I don't know, but it will be like something this country has not seen before, it will bring suffering and death. There will be killing and dying-all because someone has had a dream that he is a great hero.”
When Velu was gone Ariya leaned forward in his chair, put his hands on his lap and his hend down and stared at his feet. Deva waited a moment and spoke to him. He
I knew what it was that was Worry- ;
ing him.
"You have still had no news of Piyaratne?' he asked, his voice almost hoarse. Ariya turned his head round to look at Deva, stared at him and then shook his head.
He suddenly stood up and started
to pace the floor. "No, Deva, no. I've asked all sorts of people-no one knows except. . . . . . . .
"Except what?'
"I don't know... I am not sure. If only could be sure.'
TRIBU NE, October 28, 1979
"What are
“Don't ask be sure." Ariya sudder waliter. “Son shouted, his and angry, W he asked him nis-have yo “Aramanis,” “Yes, Aram:
'I've not s not seen him
"Ask the ot The reply was regative.
*Deva, ! : Aramanis is in to be.' .
“Why do y “I don’t ki to go on; its it. things come the other-m) maybe, but I' couple of days seem to be tense, restles knew more t to tell us, and before the enc be certain the
'You are tr Araman is too this movemen
"Yes, but y they trying to are silent-no you have a fe om dynamita
and there's no
the police doin eyeryone facing is that no foo in for several not likely ther today.
It was even they had to hay was difficult w ing to do. Eve

you talking about?' me yet, 've got to
nly called out to a mapala, Somapala, he voice sharp, throaty hen the waliter arrived h; “Where's Aramaseen Aramanis?'
exclaimed the waiter.
an is.'
een him around. I've for sometime now.'
hers.“
from the others too
am afraid, that our ot what he appeared
bu, say that?ʼʼ now-l have nothing 1st a feeling-all these one on the top of over-heated brain, ye had this feeling a now-Araman is didn't acting normallys-it was as if he han he Was Willing if he doesn't a ear i of the day I would
ying to tell me that is in this thing, in t?'
what is it--what are do? The authorities one's talking, but !eling we are sitting ts going to explode, news of Piyaratneg nothing and now.. ; starvation-the talk
di lorries have come
days now, and its will be any coming
ing now. They felt fe news. The waiting hen there was nothry little While Ariya
A Naye! Atgitt || 97 ||
would fiddle around with the old
transistor radio. The music went on-the same old
records,
the
same old announcers going on with their patter as if nothing was wrong.
搅
irritated Ariya.
He
suddenly
stood up and Snapped the radio
Shtit.
"Bloody nonsense,' he said.
"You've got to do something about your vai ters, said Deva.
"Yes, I'll speak to them now.
I'll give them the alternative of
staying or going away-they'll go except the cook who's an old hand and without any relations around
Ariya si
here. He'll stay with me and possibly starve with me.'
poke
to the waiters; three of them decided to leave in the morning. “lts better that you should go,' Ariya. "I don't know what's going to happen. You'll be safer in your own homes and y our own people.
said
At about five thirty he switched on the radio and listened. He let the thing go on now. When the
news
WaS
of trouble was breken d○ae
calmly, without
it. fuss.
The music was suddenly faded out and the announcer's voice came on: "Attention please, attention please, we are interrupting our normal broadcast to bring you an important government communique" and he went on to give details of an insurgent attack on the police station in a little town, far away on the east coast. They had attacked the police station with hand bombs and other weapons. One consta
ble had been killed. When night
came Ariya and Deva were still where they had been seated earlier: the radio continued to blast out its
softly, its commercials,
its
jingles, sounding crasy against the collapse of normal life; yet above the radio there was this hush that
had settled on
the resh
ԾԱՏe
which had affected even the waii. ters who talked softly and went quietly as if in the house of the
22

Page 25
ܓ .
A Noye About 97
dead. They had nothing to do now but to wait not knowing for what. From time to time Ariya would call out to a waiter and ask for Aramanis, and the reply continued to come in the negative. He had disappeared. Since the trouble with the police he had been sleeping in an empty store-room at the back of the resthouse. This was empty now, screaming out the absence of it's late occupant-the few things he had kept in there had vanished. Both Deva and Ariya examined the room; there was nothing there -he was gone; he was gone without a warning.
Deva and Ariya Went back to their seats.
"What was he upto, assuming the guise of a bum? asked Deya
"He was just their spy-hanging round the place and getting the
information back to his comrades
in hiding.'
'What then was he doing by the river-fishing-all the time fishing?' "Watching the resthouse, of course, Who came and who went-the army, the police. . . . . ...*
"it was excellently done-so simple and innocuous.
This is it, and this is what has forced me to the conclusion that it all seems bigger than anyone suspects.'
'What is it going to be like then?'
"'Anything-its why have been
thinking the last hour or so. You
have a chance to get away from
ere" ܗ
Deva turned his head sharply to look at his friend.
"You want me to go and youwhat are you going to do?'
“I don't know what in do, but its better that you should go. When the trouble starts its going to be hell here. I feel it in my bones. Its better, therefore, that you
go. You have your brother to go
23.
back to. The city place. It will be place when the food will be e will have people 'You know while we have happened to F sense for me to not a dog to t 'I was only t testing out my stuck here, whi are Stuck flere. been the only h. the last Severa where can ge
Copyrig
一ó一。一
SOMETHING ATC
World Ba And IMF
by The Record
THERE HAS R spate of euph about the aid th undertaken to e celerated Mahay, other Projects a credits the IMF agencies have a Lankas, Too mi been paid in the
has long forgotte cal analysis and
benefits and g. Such aid, but litt has been paid te difficulties inher such aid-and m
problems conne
ment of these |
it is no doubt money and capit done, and that Sri Lanka to ra from UN agenci and the IMF rath

f will be the safest the most guarded 2 trouble startsasier to get — you to turn to....'
cannot-i cannot no news of what's Piya ratne-its nongo and you with urn: to.” alking; I was only own fears. We are atever happens we The resthouse has ome li have known 1 years-and now p?'
hit Reserved
-o-, -o-
D THINK ABOUT
nk Aid Credits
er .
ECENTLY been a bric drum-beating
e World Bank had Xtend to the Ac
eli Programme and .
nd also about the
and other UN greed to give Sri uch attention has
local press, which
in the art of criticomment, to the ories of getting le or no attention the dangers and ent in receiving ore especially the cted with repayCanS.
true that without all nothing can be it was better for aise these monies es like the BRD ler than from pri
without staggering
vate banking consortiums, but it is also necessary to know just what the IBRD and IMF loans imply and entail.
INDIA has been one of the biggest recipients of World Bank aid in the last thirty years and more. India's present development could not possibly have been reached World Bank loans and IMF credits. But these loans and the "liberalised' import cum export economy which these financial institutions insist on as a condition precedent for granting loans and credits have caused serious problems for India.
World Bank President McNamara, before he came to Sri Linaka on October 12, spent more than 7 days in India (partly to attend a meeting of the resuscitated Ford Foundation of India and partly to attend to World Bank affairs). The New Delhi weekly Link had two interpretative backgrounders
on the implications of World Bank
aid. The two articles are reproduced below.
ο ο Ο
From THE LINK New DELHI, OF OCTOBER 8, 1978 ON 'USA NG THE U.N.'
WORLD BANK President Robert McNamara is in india on a weeklong tour. Normally when the top bosses of the UN organisations visit, they come in strength supported by an army of officers and experts. McNamara has a busy schedule visiting various World Bank projects, discussing Some issues Connected with the On-going Schemes and some new proposals. He is meeting all important Gov.
ernment leaders including Prime Minister Morarji Desai, Finance Minister H. M. Patel, Industry
Minister George Fernandes and some State government leaders.
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 26
"While the talks are in pro
gress, the impact of variouS World
| Bank and other UN organisation's programmes in India has become a matter of controversy. Apart from the Bank's shift in stress to rural schemes there is much misgivings about the very intention of initiating such projects as Super power plants and modernisation of railWayS. Normally, such projects are welcome in any developing country because of its aid Component as well as import of better technology. In the case of Super thermal plants there is already some controversy about their very utility and relevance. Even in the case of the advantages such as operation cost, a section of world experts question many of the claims by the protagonists of the super thermal plants of 500 mw. According to the current thinking, four big thermal stations with a total capacity of 2,000 mw. each will be set up in the central sector alone. While the public sector BHEL is not in a position to meet such huge demands at this stage, the fact remains that this will affect its business in the long run, considering the already poor order position. This long-term damaging effect on the indigenous industry notwithstanding, it is feared that the super power plants will be virtually sidetracking the former and make it permanently inferior. its initial investment itself will be huge. Then it needs regular Spares and maintenance by providing a
permanent business for a few multi
I national giants dealing in power. "The World Bank is reportedly trying to push the railways also into a similar trap at the behest of some US and Canadian A multinationals. The iure in this case too comes in the shape of World Bank loans and grants. The idea is to buy about 50 locomotives from abroad, preferably from the US and the Canadian firms as part
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
provementS
慈
of the moc new design c with some a technical eXF Ministry have move even af proposal got Finance Minist Madhu Danda have thrown this scheme.
A much
seems to be a moy, e Wi1| nological impe production u1 forced to per imported tec financia ioSS only a coup The Work Ba. persistently fc cept the pro
fered a 240
for the purpo way technical the US. Later ability to toe veyed to the pressed read in aid to effect
likely that th Bank tout wil pressure on N “In this rega of the ambitio is cited by its stage, the ope an expenditure and the next Rs. official figures t in the milk pro a closer look a fact that much due to imports powder and but components of milk. In fact, th ports of SMP ant creased from Rs. 75 to Rs. 39 c It will increase in proportion

Hernisation plan. The iffered is of 3,400 HP dvantages. However, perts in the Railway Strongly opposed the ter this World Bank the approval of the ry. Railway Minister Yate is reported to his weight against
more valid reaSon the fear that such virtually mean techBrialism on its own hits. India may be petually depend on hnology with huge which will benefit e of multinationals. nk, which has been Drcing India to acposal, had even ofmillion dollar loan se. An Indian raiteam had visited , when
the line Was conBank, it even exeSS to grant moře the necessary imthe tracks. It is le visiting World once again apply ew Delhi.
Erd, the experience JS Operation Flood critics. In its first eration will entai
of Rs. 100 crore 500 crores. Though alk of big increase duction as a result, t it establishes the of the increase is of skimmed milk ter oil, two major Ehe operation flood e value of the imbutter oil had in25 crores in 1974. rores in 1976-77. year after year to the expansion
India's in
World Bank And India
of the operation. On the other hand, the production figures show that the actual milk output in the operation areas have not made any significant improvement. In fact, it took several years for the government to feel the trap laid by IDA, a subsidiary of the World Bank. Initially, the entire SMP and the butter oil was to come in the form of gift. And it did so. However, in the past few months there have been some delays in supply. But the aid-givers have now politely informed the government that there was likely to be continued disruption in the gift supply and that India could buy SMP and butter from the world market freely. What has worried the Agriculture Ministry is the reports that it might have to do so permanently. This means that even
on the basis of the first stage of
the operation, India will have to depend on imports to the tune of Rs. 50 crores for ever to main tain the project because it has been designed by the DA design. Thus, it will from hereafter help the West to dump its increasing milk surplus on India at the commercial rates on a permanent basis. Another advantage for the multinationals has been that they could dump on this country their dairy equipment for the operation flood because all schemes financed by the UN funds have to call global tenders.
"In fact, there have been a large number of cases in the recent past to show the increasing attempts by the multinationals to exploit the developing countries through
the UN organisations. A favourite
method is to plant their QWn men in such UN units. In mid-70's, half a dozen multinationals, some of them very active in India, had formed a secret organisation to infiltrate into the “Group of Eminent Persons' set up by ECOSOC.
The secret unit not only managed
24

Page 27
- . ܛ
Workd Bank & IAAF
to infiltrate into but also gave vital information of the working of the ECOSOC. On another occasion, the secret unit even managed th: rough its agents in the "Group of Eminent Persons' to tailor to their whims the report on the impact of the multinationals on the Third World. This was later given big publicity by the nultinationals' propagandists.'
FROM THE LINK, OCTOBER 1, 1978, ON EXPORT MYTH “EXPORT-LED growth,” tourism and handicrafts are the World Bank's prescription for India's economic salvation. The various economic indicators available during the past few months have shown to what extent these favourite Western remedies for the developing world have trapped this country. Official figures released last week have revealed that the adverse trade balance during AprilJuly 1978 alone has been Rs. 280 crores. In the case of foreign trade realisation of 1977-78, the deficit has been as much as Rs. 705 crores. What is more alarming is that this marked a 5.4 per cent fall in exports during the period. During April-July, the total exports have been valued at Rs. 1,634.06 crores and imports at Rs. 1,913.82 crores. On the contrary, there has been a Rs. 72 crore trade surplus in 197677.
"Apart from the very bankruptcy of the theory of export-led growth, this dismal performance also exposes the damage it can cause to the economy. On the imports side, it is a two-way damage. Indiscriminate imports of large varieties
of con Surmer items Such as edible
| mestic production.
oils, synthetic and cotton fibres and now even cement and coal, have led to the double malaise of draining the foreign exchange reserves and discouraging the doin the case of edible oils, it has been a virtual free-for-all. Wholesalers vied with
25
each other in placin foreign markets. T an excessive import lakh tonnes or twic needed to be impc from major oil-see centres revealed a anxiety among the the price of their ciri the dumping of i Though the import fibres have had some pact on prices, it h hit the indigenous whom face serious these cases, an imp has been that import to bring down the p ester fibre, for inst day of the announc Government decision its prics marked a 5 in the Japanese me price of cement ha derably higher. Thu had to announce a increase in the de as well.
'Another area of imports has been th seccor. In power gen and textile machiner on a large scale have survival problems fo nous industry, so s ing developed as part Among thems are pli lic sector units like order books are fast ner. 'n many cases, are floated for equ result, the relatively units are forced to the huge multination tile machinery unit: in trouble. Not a da out the imports c items, allowed by ment. The lateSt îS t In fact, the only ben game are the mul porations.
"This extravaganc is matched by a libe

g orders in the he result was of over eight e the quantity }rted. Reports ds producing considerable farmers about ops in view of imported oil. s of synthetic 2 marginal imad very badly units many of
crisis. In all portant l'esson s utterly failed rices. In polyance, within a cement of the to import it, per cent rise kets. 'mport s been consiss, the Centre
proportionate omestic prices
indiscriminate e capital goods eration, mining y free imports begun creating or the indigestrenuously beof self-reliance. restigious pubBHEL whose getting thinglobal tenders ipment. As a young Indian compete with al giants. Texs are already ty passes withf some new the Governhe bus chassis. eficiary of tinis tinational cor
!e in imports ra ban on ex
ports of even such items as vegetable, meat and tamarind. Any item that tends to cause some seasonal shortage is put on the banned list. On the other hand, in the name of earning foreign exchange, even such exhaustible items like minerals and ores are freely allowed to export. In fact, nearly 50 per cent of the iron ore mined is for exports. The same is the case with manganese ore. The disgraceful agreement for the Kudremukh mining needs no more explanation.
"In spite of the wild craze for exports, its share in the huge foreign exchange reserves has been rather poor. The reserves had increased to Rs. 4,598 crores by the middle of this year from Rs. 937 crores. Bulk of this is due to the increased inward remittances by Indian nationals abroad. The excessive reliance on export earnings in the successive five year Plans has been mainly aimed at meeting the foreign exchange costts of the national schemes. To that extent, and to build up reasonable reserves, it has all relevance. it assumed the role of a major fundraiser for economic growth only after the western economists sold this curicus idea to the lindian leaders.
"On the one side is the big talk of
virtues of exports and on the other the increasing protectionism in capitalist world prevents the exports of both traditional and nontraditional items. India's accumulating sugar stock is a living testimony for this ironical situation. Faced with such helplessness imposed by its own creation, the export lobby is only further walking into the trap. These days, much of the import relaxations are being made in the name of boosting exports. Capital goods, raw materials, spare parts and even consumer durables are being freely allowed to import to help the "export industries'. Then there are a large
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 28
number of concessions like import replenishments. But there has been no serious study into the actual cost of such concessions and imports
and the export benefit actually
derived from them.
"Another important factor is the increasing irrelevance of exportS in helping to boost investment. India is still starving of funds for investment even while the foreign exchange accumulation has reached over Rs. 4,600 crores. In other words, foreign exchange in itself does not provide funds for investment. It has to be matched by in ternal resources. In the absence of such responsible use of the exchange it will only lead to inflation. This further narrows the SCOPe for the export -led growth.'
+ + +
THE HIGH COST OF DYING-2
Unnecessary Rituals And Outmoded Customs
-must be done away withby R. C. Thavarajah Retd. Suptd. of Police
THE A BHAGAVAD IGITA or the Song of God, an episode in the Epic of the Mahabharatha and which contains the teachings given by Divine Shri Krishna to his disciple Arujuna says:-
"Worn out garments are shed by
the body. worn out bodies are shed by the
dweller Within the body new bodies are
domined
By the dweller like garments' DR. SARVAPALLI RADHAKRISHNAN, India's erudite scholar, philosopher and author of Indian Philosophy, the Hindu view of Life, Eastern Religions and Western thought and several other books
TRIBUNE October 28, 1978
in his inestima "Religion and "The Religion gious is a simp: shackles of cre merդth or Super affirms the re that broods on it has for its the maxim H. is of God'. To beauty and to the spirit of T religion."
ARTHUR WIL RUSSELV, whos been in develo and applying and philosophy reformer wrote tionality may shocks of war new persecuting
SWAM I VIVEK Paper on Hind World's Parlian on 9th Septem: Hindu believes is a circle whit is nowhere but located in the be means the chan from body to Soul bound by matter. In its y free, un bounded perfect.'
in the signific levance of the pronouncements, whether any Served in the ob rituals and cere I do not profess in metempsychosi even eschatology, any intention wh ing in the Quix tilting at windmi] the intelligence in to trespass into
matters. Theologic
cal. Being an ig

ble treatise entitled Society' writes:- of the truly reli
le one without any
ads, dogmatic Sentinatural elements. It ality of the spirit er time and Space. practical expression e that does good
do justly, to love walk humbly with uth is the highest
LIAM BERTRAND > principal work has bing symbolic logic it to mathematics and also a social ;- “Philosophic rabe choked in the and the wetter of
Superstitions'. ANANDA, in his uism read at the ment of Religions yer, 1893 said “The that every soul pse circumference whose centre is bdy and that death ge of this centre body. Nor is the the conditions of ery essence, it is holy, pure and
antly dynamic rewisdom of such one Wonders Jseful purpose is servance of some monies at death. to be a dilettante s, metaphysics or do not have latever of indulgcotic exercise of ls. have neither br the knowledge the polemics of all or Theosophinoramus who is
On Funeral Expeង
ardently desirous of preserving
some of my religious beliefs,
earnestly beseech to tened on this question.
be enligh
I want to know whether Paying
far too much attention to ritualistic observances and more so-customs some of which are worthless relics of an antiquated feudal system is essential. With the cost of living spiralling, can
an average middle class family
afford as much as Rs. 9,000/- for a funeral? Wasteful and sense less expenditure at funerals and even weddings especially in certain the North should be dispensed with even if it means disregarding some un necessary rituals
- and outmoded customs. The
essentially emphatic dimension projected should be the real subs
tantial content of austerities, spiri
tual, mental disciplines and con templation of Truth-not what passes off as a mere facade of cere
mony and slavish acceptance of
customs for the sake of prestige and public opinion.
Yours truly-like most of the ranks of the retired public servants -is afflicted with the common malady-too much month left at the end of the three figure pension. There will be precious little left for "terminal' exspenses. It is my fervent hope that the undertakers and others concerned' will take a hint from some prosperous Airlines who have achieved the acme in advertising with the tantalizing offer "Fly nowPay later'. I sincerely wish that the undertakers and those who perform allied services would grant me the concession by slightly altering the cliche to read “die now-pay later'.
Unfortunately, unlike other come mercial enteprises, this is one field where the Entrepreneur will not take a risk in business. Since it was for "richer or for poorer,
26
sections of

Page 29
Catholics Ånd Education
for better or for worse, the surviving' better half' will have to foot the bill. After all, it is one of
the "occupational hazards' of marriage
Concluded.
Ο Ο O
CATHOLICS & EDUCATION N.
SRI LAN KA-3
Community Schools by Fr, tissa Balasuriya O.M.I.
It is within an evolving situation
of grave inequalities, great promises and dangerous trends that the Centre for Society and Religion has proposed fundamental changes in the educational system in our country. We have tried to take into account the national aspirations and traditions of our people, the better trends in modern education in different parts of the world and proposed a complex of changes which can be expressed as a proposal to set up Community Schools. They have been explained by the two previous speakers Mr. Charles Abeysekera and Mr. Sunil Bastian.
The Community School idea tries to meet the goals of education: of personal development, orientation to production, and Social living within the educational set up. It is based on: (1) an overall education for creativity; (2) of relating to the environment of the area, ecosystem; (3) of combining work and study throughout the educational process; (the children may learn part of the day, week or month and work during a part of the remaining time) (4) curriculum should include vocational skills related to the job opportunities of the area, as well as opportunities for continuing of general education. The time table will relate to economic and cultural life of the area.
27
(5) of educating sensitivity to othe to work, self relia and for developm justice; (6) of cc tion based on cu and work experie ther than merely examination held participation in vity the children educational costs. fee he or she is school, communi (8) of the school tution directly community; the members of the Skilled persons su craftsmen will the municators of k. attitudes and value generation both and through worl
(9) The school open to the corr versa. The school grounds, library lable to the comr school to be a C learning, and ph (10) school curric multiple termina Grade 5, 8 or 10 dingly there sho bility of re-entry tional structure stages to the curr education to be munity needs fa of continuing edu munity centres
be places of adu cussion of public ciation, cultural
Radio, News pa relate to these; University to be school system. Al work for at leas to admission to of tertiary educa to leave school at begin work eithe

the mind, the ers and the will ince and sharing, ment with social ntinuing evaluamulative records ence records raa pen and paper Dnce; (7) through productive actican help meet No child need a burden to the
ty or country; being an instirelated to the
teachers will be local community. ch as artists and mselves be comnowledge, skills, as to the younger by word and in k;
facilities to be munity and vice | buildings, playetc. to be avfalimunity also. The entre of culture, Iysical education; ullum would have points as at ( ) Corresponuld be a possiinto the educaalso at different iculum; (2) Adult related to contcilities, Provision ຂation The com> like libraries to lt education, disissues, film appreprogrammes etc. pers and TV can (3) The entry to delinked from the students should t two years prior the institutions tion. All students Pter Grade 10 and r on their own or
in State organized national service schemes; (4) Admission to higher education to be based on intellectual competence, skills and attitudes to work, and the dedication to the community and country. Likewise also evaluation of education at the university level should have similar criteria; (5) A variety of university institutions of higher learning to be set up dealing with disiplines like mecharical, civil, chemical, industrial and electrical engineering; industrial technology. Similarly for fisheries, textile, agriculture, animal husbandry, cultivating and processing of tea, rubber, coconut, paddy, cereals and vegetables, forestry, gemmology, refrigeration, business management, planning. . (16) Special support to be given to the people in the less privileged areas, the hinterland villages, the slums and shanties and the estates, (17) decentralization of administration to be effective, so that education planning may suit different
needs and conditions; (8) Reli
gious education can be more authentic in such an environment of harmony, freedom, justice, work and sharing.
lf such proposals are implemented some of the evils of the present system of education can at least be reduced: (a) education will be open to all, at all stages, on a self reliant basis; (b) the school will contribute to production, and thus educational costs can be reduced and shared. This is different from the IMF type proposals which would be to reduce subsidies by increasing fees, and thus benefitting only the affluent; (c) Any student of competence can proceed to the biggest level of his area of work-study. Education need not terminate at the stage of the first leaving of school as at present; (d) Given the grave disparities in the present social system’’ thể schools can be developed to meet
* RABUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 30
the needs of children of different environments. The curriculum need not be the same for all at least at the commencement. The Slum and shanty or estate and hinterland children are handicapped for academic work and need to be helped. They are often skilled in productive work. This can be taken as an initial value and opportunity provided for it to devetop. This does not mean keeping the poor children always at an unskilled or intellectually lower level. They can advance according to their abilities Similarly the requirement of all having to work prior to higher education will also have an egalitarian impact.
The community School is designed to bring about a normal authentic relationship between the children, teachers and nature. The effect of environment o perSonS and persons on environment can be realized better in this ongoing creative relationship. The relationship to the community should include the due loyalty to the
country and the wider human race.
This school becomes creative not merely in abstract thought or under mere laboratory conditions or in sample models but in the actual physical psychological reality of the real world of day to day existence, of work, production distribution and sharing.
Learning of the sciences would combine principles and their application. Thus the study of botany will be related to the real growth of plants, the use of manures, pruning, plucking etc.
Biology will relate to the dairy, the Poultry, bee keeping...The study of nutrition, Veterinary science, of Pests and weeds can be linked to the work on the fields, nurseries, incubators, etc. The processing of milk to produce cheese, butter, icecream will be learnt by making
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
them. Pure scienco cation can thus inter-related. So wisdoms of the re practice.
The community be able to gather ancient skills and still prevalent amo such as in medic practices, weather servatives, human Care etc.
The community to combine Gan Education, Rabind Shantiniketan exper list views of shari Chinese experience ing education, th
in Tanzanian, etc.
thus evolve an e cess and structur to our needs an employment will n. as children coming cess will have p and experience of
(To be Cor
κ. 十
LETTERS
Anti-Americ
Sir,
Your designating lished in Tribune issue, as a 'hango day of. Dulles. bri
of that ugly Ameri
what is good for who insists. a 'c every bush,' is u
un true.
Nowhere did
| believe, that Ame democracies know for the world. They things that are g But as any staunchi editor does, you've

2 and its applie more closely also the ethical igious and their
school will also the best ore of wisdom that is ng our people: ine, agricultural orecasting, pre
relations, child
school idea tries dhiain ideas of ranath Tagore’s ience, the Sociang such as the
of re-organizhe development Sri Lanka can ducational proa more related di values. Unbt be a problem out of the proroductive skills creative work.
Itinued)
my letter, pubis October 14 Ver from the . . ngs . . memories can who knows the world, and om mie” behind warranted and
write, nor do ricans or other
what is good do a number of tood for them. y anti-American
simply reversed
From Our Readers
the western and communist roles. The incontrovertible fact is that with the western withdrawal all over the world, the
communist imperialists have rushed
to take over "Commies' know what's best
You didn't deny or refute my statements that the Russians and Cubans are meddling in Africa, that American blacks steadily improve their position, or that Sri Lanka is overwhelmingly dependent upon western capitalism-because, again these statements are indisputable truth.
În terms of the individual's optimum freedom, nobility and prosperity, there can be no question as to which side offers most.
For that reason conclude that
the west and what it offers the
large majority of men really is
mankind's only hope in today's
world. You may disagree.
Rolf Satteriee
Co. American Express,
Colombo.
CD
It was not necessary to enter into a point by point refutation of the provocative red-herring thrusts by Mr. Satterlee on a variety of issues all of which, in Dullesian style, were impress upon the natives of the Third World that they must follow the Western beneficiaries who are intent or doing good for their benefit and not be carried away by the commies. it is not correct, as Mr. Satterlee seems to think, that the imperialists withdrew from their colonial holdings owing to the goodness of their hearts. They were droven out at the cost of much life and sacrifice of the subject people. More recently few imperialists have pretended to wit - draw only to ensure that their investments were safe. Tribune is not 'staunchly anti-American', but it is staunchly anti-Dull-lesian (and McCarthyism) and also certainly anti-imperialist (even
28
imperialists'
intended to

Page 31
From Our Readers
American) as it is anti every kind of exploitation and every manifestation of oppression judged from the angle of the poor natives of the Third World. And does “America’’ ipso facto mean all the 'western democracies' d', Mr. Satterlee Seems to imply?
- Editor
Χ Χ
Trade On Tribune
Sir.
Mr. Rolf Satterlee's letter appearing in Tribune of 14|10|78 needs notice. He asks you to level your guns at the communist demons instead of the American people who, according to him "are still the only hope in the world" (emphasis his). This is the year of grace 1978 and we Asians have a lot to remember.
We remember that in World War I, though the main theatre of war was Europe, the USA twice dropped the atom bomb on an Asian country-Japan, which was on the verge of surrender; a crime for which the American people will have to answer to posterity. It has been asserted that the atom bomb was dropped to frighten their then ally, Communist Russia, which defeated Hitler, when he had capitalist Europe at his feet, sacrificing 20 million of the flower of its youth to do so. The Russians learnt to make the atom bomb themselves and since then it has not been dropped, although Nixon's hands were itching to do
SO.
To us Asians, President Carter's crusade against Russia on the alleged violation of Human Rights leaves us cold. To us, as to all poor countries, euphemistically called Third World countries, the most important Human Right is the right to be adequately fed, clothed, housed, educated, provided Health care and work. All this is provided in Rus
r 29
sia While in th over 25 million p the poverty line is growing. Blac minority ethnic criminated agains ment rate amon as high as amor these things ha within the USA, concern for Hum countries may m Finally, Mr. Rol to be concerned in Sri Lanka. He Tamils were b murdered in Sri ago. Il do not k he got this figur Tamil people of S for his phobia a will not work. Lanka, both Sin realise that co is essential for u.
niñan, Wonnan an. with their chief adequate basic Jayewardere is the different cor do not need Mr Solicitude for u Lanka. He will n Blacks and oth now being den
Rights in his ow
7t, Jawatte Road, Colombo 5.
8.10.78
Χ
Tami Con
Sir,
had occasion to you which your journal of ber 1978. It was 22nd of Septem sumptiuons indiv yourself, Sir, importance to v

USA there are eople living below and the number ks and the other groups are dist. The unemploys g Blacks is twice (g Whites. When ve been righted President Carters' an Rights in other ake Sense.
f Satterlee seems about the Tamils asserts that 5,000 oth burned and Lanka only a year now from where es. But to use the ri Lanka as a prop gainst communism The people of Sri halese and Tamils, mmunal harmony s to provide every d child born here Human Rightsneeds. President working to unite
mmunities and we
Rolf Seatterlee's S Tamils in Sri eed it to help the er ethnic groups ied basic Human fn Country.
R.W.C.T.
x x
gress
to read a letter was published in the 4th of Octo
a letter dated the per 1978 by a preidual styled Z. Like do not attach any that a person who
is ashamed of, or does not know, his pedigree, says on any subject. Since there is some pointed reference to my late father and to myself. I write this letter not by way of a reply to Z, but to put the record straight vis-a-vis your reader S.
Mr. Thondaman, in a statement that appeared in The Observer in May 1976, soon after the resolution to fight for a separate state, totally disassociated himself and his party from that issue. Today Mr. Thondaman does not support this matter even as far as the North and East is concerned. To say that there are representatives of the CWC in the TULF action Com
mittee is not true.
I am happy that Z has started thinking in terms of the FP and the TC. What evidence does Z. have that it was the FP that got the riots of 1977 raised by the DMK in the assemblies of India? Do the Indian politicians shut their eyes to what is happening in the world around them? When the Pope dies, do we have to wait for a Vatican representative to tell us that before we send a message of condolence?
Z refers to the so called Tamil Congress formed by me. The All Ceylon Tamil Congress was founded on 9.8.44 by my late father. It still exists today, much to the annoyance of some. lf there are any one-time TC supporters who abandoned my late father they are found today in Z's TULF My late father was never "in exile' anywhere, least of all in Malacca. Z's reference to 'a long chat" with my late father in Malacca is totally false, since my father was never in Malacca. My late father always stood by his political convictions to the bitter end and suffered thereby. What is this change of policy he contemplated? What type of alliance did he contemplate with the late Chelyanayakam About
TRYBUNE. October 2g, 1978

Page 32
whose, betrayal was my late father
... heartbroken, Z could not be more
vague than this
That FP was born because of the move by the Government in 1948 to disenfranchise people of Indian origin, is again false. Why the FP was formed is not revelant to this I letter. If the FP was concerned about the Tamils of Indian origin, why was there not one word about them in the BC Pact? Why did time FP support the Sirima-Sastri Pact
which repatriated so many to India?:
What are the TULF represen
tatives in Parliament doing today if they are not selling themselves for petty favours, do not know what else they are doing! l find it difficult to understand some parts of Z's letter. Z's sojourn in Malacca chatting to people in exile has prevented him from getting his facts straight. If Z's reference to a long chat" with my late father is not false, will he have the strength of character to surface, disclose his identity and contact me at the : above address, in writing, so that will be able to educate him.
The inaccuracies and falsehoods in his letter no doubt discloses
the fact that he has a long way to
go and a lot to do' before he can be quoted profusely in the future."
| G. G. Ponnambatam (Jr.)
2, Naur Cross Roac, , Jafna.
7th October 1978
Χ Χ X
| Road To Talaimannar
Sir,
used to be fascinated by a poem
which went thus:
- Does the road wind to the very end Yes, to the very end, is the road winding all the way, Yes to the very end."
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978
Fascination ca.
fact that the o
questioner and dialogue and that of poetry. How Rupert Brooke's clock stand at t there honey stil But do not : Colombo-Talaim: 65 miles ard t wash your hanc a trunk road quite prosaically
- "NO. It is just
brac in many from 59 to 64 motley collectio tar, Sand, stone road is not cared by anyone. If the must surely be for that's the sc when it goes t off to the CTB not in the lea their passeange sides coming o our own people bone of our b them like this their road whic a Sri Lankan treatment like ask a ridiculo do some peopl to break away, had it so good: and all that.'
Telford and in Ceylor in da they been here have detected in the rubberiz which is Beyor yond-Macadam, of others, furth centre. The r this: 'Mannar y but Talai-mann:
another planet,
not rest a littl while the tar
put in a spade

me from the mere ne poet was both respondent in that didn't sound much far different from : 'Does the churchen to three, and is
for tea'
ask me about the nar road of hen run away and is like Pilate is it all the way? And
will answer you:
a trunk of bric-a- parts but mostly and a half: it is a in of stones, rubble, is, tar again...' The from or watched are is one, his name Mr. Bumpty-Bump und of car or jeep hat way, and hats drivers, they are st surprised when rs have their 'inutside'. These are flesh of our flesh, one and we treat at the tail end of h is also our road, road. Meting out this, Vive Sometimes us question: “Why e want to secede, when they never macadamized roads
Macadam worked ys of yore and had today, they would some hanky-parky ing of Some roads, ld-Telford and Beand the Hell-holing er away from the easoning goes like we can understand, ar is beyond, it's so why can we Le by the roadside s boiling and then or two, dont you
From Our Readers
know, and then rest again, terrible heat, what (and then an aside: nobody sees all this, they are far away in the seats of the centre of power and they warm it and warm it and never come here...)'. Mark Twain was once asked whether it is easy or not to give up smoking and he replied: 'Smoking? Easiest thing to give up smoking. I have done it many times!’’’ In the same twain, one could show surprise: ''Walking up from a carsleep? Or it's very easy on the Talaimannar road, I have done it many times, in fact now you are wallowing in a pot-hole, now riding the crest of a road-wave and now you have dipped below the horizon. Very easy. It's a wakesleep process.'
Then go and look at the Thirukethieswaram approach road. The people interested in the shrine have seen to it that pilgrims would have a pleasant journey, all the way, Then also there seems to be, said seems to be, a policy of divide and rule. An ethinically equal area (Erukalam putty) has been made so strong that there has been created an imbalance: brilliant, shapely buildings replete with science labs, easily inveigle the other community of that area. And I saw the rank and file of people, with darkened brows w nich bespoke hard work in the UV-Sunshine.
Slowly and surely, the MP of Mannar-a real people's choice, they say, is putting order and some system into that area. Quite open to suggestion, he is at the beck and call of People, people, people. That's what Saw.
A lower-rank official told me that most officials live in a comatose state o of fear, because if one suggests something to another as being good to be done, there is fear of being pulled up and so no one pulls up anyone else. And so
the officialdom doesn't even pull
up its socks in certain "areas."
30

Page 33
Froni Our Reggero
And musing on these thirgs,
I suddenly espied a Buddhist tem
ple. And why not. A Buddhist layman told me as he stood near
by: “Api meheth Vedasitinaya'-We are also here. By being Present here, and by Preaching bana to a small group, we hope to remove a traces of ill-will and to make our. Sinhala people truly full of metta, kindness, friendliness, graciousness to the Tamils and also to push for real reform in this area. Otherwise our Buddha statue has no meaning here, But, the monk himself knows that it is hard work, uphill work." Immediately thought of the possibility of a Sinhala-Tamil friendship society (metta society)
like the Geiger society of German
Lanka friendship fame.
Fr, Michael Rodrigo.
Bandaraw ela. 5. 10.78
Ο Ο O
Job Bank
Şir,
Time and again in the recen? past Presiderst Mr. J. R. Jayewar
Sne has pledged, inter alia, that ha will treat every citizen of Sri
Lanka alike and give him or her
equal opportunity to progress. This has roused a sense of contentment in the minds of all right thinking citizens of this country.
But one wonders whether the
Job Bank system of giving em ployment has received his 100% approval. The Job Bank scheme
has virtually replaced the much maligned by the former government. in the
'chit system' practised
present system a limited number
of application forms are allocated
to each MP. The MP can use his
discration in the distribution of
forms among the jobless and can effectively debar any of his "oppos
3 ۔۔۔
nents from apply thus even the basic date to apply for a unlike in the ch only recommend part.
it seems that scheme is self-det
mista doctrine.
Chilaw. 4.1轮。78
Ο C
New Const Tamil Lang Rights
Sir,
Under the Tami has been nal Language. also guarantees Tamil speaking p ever part of t may live in, to the Governmen guage. Even the e approved Bills sonable use of entered into Tami leaders, b mented the Fri. was given, but in the context of th rience it is but Tamil speaking pt with suspicion provisions in the ting their langua guage" status and to corresporid tongue.
It is therefo for the governme constitution it immediate and ef

ying for a job , () appoint sufficient staff pro
: right of a candijob is thwarted, it system where tions played a
this iniquitous eating the Dhar
Naga
D O
itution And
lage
new constitution
declared a Natio= The Constitution the right of the eople, in whichhe country they correspond with t in their fans arlier government
for the reas Tamil and even agreements with
ut never impleMany a promise ever fulfilled. In eir earlier expenatural that the Bople are looking and doubt at the coinstitution grange “National lan
them the right in their mother
re now necessary
2nt to honour the framed by taking fective steps to:
ficient in the Tamil language to all
offices situated in areas where the T2 mi speaking people live: (2) provide adequate number of Tamil typewriters to all offices requiring them to expedite work in the Tamil language; (3) have all printed and roneoed forms, devised by government departments, statutory bodies and local authorities for use by the public, prepared in the Tamil language as well; (4) have all name boards in government offices and government owned vehicles, hitherto not written in the Tamil, written in that language; (5) enco
urage non-Tamil speaking public servants in the Northern and Eas
tern Provinces to acquire proficiency in the Tamil language. For purposes of administrative conve
| nience it would be better still if
even officers, living outside the above two Provinces but having frequent official dealings with all sections of Tamil speaking population, such as Grama Seva Officers, C.T.B. Conductors, officers serving at reception counters and at the Telephone Exchanges and the like are encouraged to learn at least to converse in the Tamil language: and (6) eliminate the English language altogether in all official correspondence by Government with the Tamil speaking people as they prefer their mother tongue to any other language.
K. Kanagasabapathy 20/7, Uplands,
Kandy.
8th October, 978.
TRIBUNE WILL PUBLISH only letters and communications that are properly authenticated frem verifiable addresses Pen-names and pseudonyms will be used at the request of the Writers at the discretion of the Editor.
TRIBUNE, October 28, 1978

Page 34
Confidentially
Transport in A Mess-1
IS IT NOT TRUE that a large number of our readers have been asking us why we have not for some months now dealt with deteriorating conditions in the Transport sector-both the CGR and CTB2 That it is true that we had left both these organisations, afflicted by a disease which can be described only as albus elephantiasis (from which we suggest the English term White elephant was derived) severely alone for some months? That we did this because many people felt that we were carrying on a vendetta (riding a hobby horse to death) by frequently spotlighting the miserable joke the CGR was and the menace the CTB had become? That matters have become so much worse since we last dealt with Transport that it is impossible to keep quiet any longer? That in this period teams from the World Bank (IBRD) and/or the Asian Development Bank (ADB) had come out to report on the working of these two organisations and to see whether CGR and CTB could qualify for long term soft loans? That I some say that UN aid agency nternational Development Agency (IDA) had also made a survey of the CGR and the CTB2 That the Ministry of Transport which has an unenviable record for inducing newspapers and the SLBC to cover the CGR and CTB with glory kept the news that these teams were evaluating these undertakings very quiet? That the investigations and inquiries are now over, but no reports have been released? That this may be because the reports have not been finalised, but there is no doubt that even if finalised and presented, the Ministry will not want them put before the
TRIBUNE October 28, 1978
public? That ADB’s (and Transport sp by the way were di SSati] fied) with the That if they they will fin the CTB ha badly in rece as a short tin shop had an units a day, to 60 to 75 means that fe (even new o roads? That comes the st that-be in the CTB to t a good Servic ries revealed there was we with new a buses and tha only because on the roads a fraction of could have b this connectic the daily Sun a end have don spotlighting th and also less vails of the tr That Gamini scintillating | comings of th end of Octob say that this was either di (intentional lated sabotag: new developm the basis of til of specialists the ADB or sed a qualifie the CTB wi more buses, shops etc. etc. new developin know what tions will now ter to get a s

Tribune is aware that the may be IBRD and IDA) ecialists were horrified the CGR is run and sfied (but not horria working of the CTB2 make a fresh survey ld that conditions in ve deteriorated very it weeks? That wherene ago the main workoutput of 125 to 150 it has now dropped In its a day? That this awer and fewer buses nes) will be on the down the grapevine ory that the powersKelaniya had taken ask for not providing ze there? That inquithat the CTB depot ll and amply stocked ind also serviceable t the service was bad the number of buses every day was only the number that een utilis d? That in n, Gunasena papers, nd the weekly Weeke a very fine job of e defects of the CB frequently the traav ellers in the CGR ? Navaratne had a piece on the shorte CTB in the Weeker 15? That insiders drop in the output de to wilful neglect go-slow) or calcuThat before this ent took place, on e evaluation reports teams, the BRD or he I DA had expreswillingness to help sh a loan to get improve its workThat in view of the ents one does not he lending institusay? That it is betft BRD or ADB or
Foreign Experts Baffled
IDA loan to buy buses etc., and it will be suicidal to spend IMF standby credit or have recourse to highinterest private commercial loans to buy buses and other equipment
IS IT NOT A FACT that while the
experts from these organisations were prepared to take a risk on the CTB, they had made it clear crystal clear, to use a cliche, to all concerned that the CGR was a concern in which it would be foolish to put any money? That the experts felt that whilst money sent down a drain had chances of being recovered, any money put into the CGR in its present condition would disappear into thin air in the form of smoke? That the ADB specialists were convinced that the way the CGR was being run now made it a sure-hit dead loss? That stories are current how one day a big shot in the CGR had a mighty verbal battle with a foreign expert who had pointed to certain shortcomings? That the din and nois 3 of this battle had reverberated in many places? That one of the matters that had intrigued the foreign railway experts was why the Workshop at Ratmalana was working so badly? That even making allowance for the standard excuse that a rot had crept in after 1970 and everything had gone beserk in the seven bad years, the experts wanted to know why matters had not been set right even 15 months after July 19772 That in some matters, the low output had fallen even lower since July 1977? That this ever decreasing output was coupled with an insane craze for more and more imports even of equipment that could be turned out in Ratmalana and which had been made there before 1970? That foreign experts have been baffled by all they have discovered?
(To be Concluded)
O
Ο Ο

Page 35
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GLOBE in
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Page 36
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Registered as a Newspaper in Sri Lanka
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Τη ΘΥ
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right...... have it around for your fessional in agriculture and farming,
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