கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tribune 1978.12.09

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Letter From TR- EfÒitor
THE TRUE GREATNESS of a people, even if dormant for cent foreign domination or other causes, manifests itself, it is sai crisis. In Sri Lanka, there have been crises without numbe years after independence, but whatever the crisis-politic communal or natural disaster-the only outcome so far was of the basest instincts of tribal clannishness and a selfish ques power. For the first time in living memory, a crisis caused storm of unprecedented magnitude, has kindled the first embr of a new and noblespirit of oneness and unity among our people parties have for once publicly extended their support to the of the Government to rehabilitate the victims of the cyclone, a that this will be further extended to the even greater task of r The response from an unusually large number of people w and spontaneous to help Government to bring succour to and displaced. Only a small minority in exclusive elitist g drawing rooms of Colombo felt that "too much fuss was bein; “the government was over-reacting”, that it was “a politi that "our plans for Christmas and New Year holidays were "all leave has been unnecessarily carcelled'. . . . . . . . and so on But for asinine vagaries of this small minority of old brown sa new-rich gem mudalalidom, the rest of the population of this shown a new and a rare spirit of patriotism and selflessnes. there is not the slightest doubt that the credit for this must go cert, Mr. J. R. Jayewardene, not only for giving the correc juncture but also for having prepared the ground for the was the people to respond in this way. Ever since he can J. R. Jayewardene's constant theme was a united country and a in spite of heterogeneity and diversity. He had matched hi. deeds. Chief lieutenants like Prime Minister Premadasa hav his footsteps with a deep sense of understanding and since the intemperate outpourings of maverick ministers like Mathe struck a discordant note. And when the hour of crisis came 24, the government of J. R. Jayewardene rose to the occasion ment has done in the past. The damage caused by the cyclo than what the resources of this country could bear-for the relief, and more so for long term rehabilitation. Merciful come from many nations and from many countries. They w with speed that took one's breath away. Without such help this country could have done to alleviate the misery and hard than million people affected by the cyclone. But all this hel been of little avail if Sri Lanka was not able to help herself. The has shown that it has an executive and administrative machi coping with the situation. The armed services, the police at ments of state power, have done a wonderful job of work. forty eight hours, food was delivered to the most inaccessib to nearly all marooned groups. In less than 96 hours all the r rail communications were opened to traffic. This is no mean considering the damage wrought by the cyclone. Many wh be knowledgeable believed that it would take three to four w road and rail communications to normal. This was done in As the work of rehabilitation proceeds, unfolded before the amazing plan of action has which given birth to a new sense about the future

Luries owing teo. ld, in times of in the thirty tal, economic, Il a resurgence it for loot and
by a cyclonic yonic stirrings
All political
national effort ind it is hoped econstruction, las immediate the distressed
roups in the g made," that cal gimmick”, 2 upset", and and so forth. hibry and the country has S. However, to the Presi it lead at this it majority of he to power united people s words with e followed in rity although ws have often in Növember
as no governs
he WaS fOres immediate y, relief has Pere flown in there is little ships of more p would have government ne capable of ld all depart
in less than le places and main road and
achievement
to claimed to eeks to bring as many days.
public is an
of confidence
TRIBUNE
Ceylon News Review Founded in 1954
A Journal of Ceylon and World Affairs
Editore S. P. Amarasingann Every Saturday
December 9, 1978. Vol. 23 No. 24
TR BU NE
43, DAWSON STREET
COLOMBO - 2
Tel 3372
CONTENTS.
EDITOR'S NOTEBOOK
-Press Freedom & The PFA p. 2 BETWEEN THE LINES -Parliament, Milk, Kurien p. 5 IN THE TUB --More About Sri Lanka p. 8 THE WORLD TODAY
--China p. 9. SEVEN MILLION POOR-3 -Employment p. 6 MARGINAL COMMENTS -Mathew's Fireworks p. 9 SRI LANKA CHRONICLE -Nov. 23-29. p. 23 REVIEW
-Gospel Of Mathew p. 27 SPOTLIGHT
-A Free Press p. 28 BACKGROUND
—Kenyatta p. 29
POEM -Why? p. 30 LETTER
--From A Reader p. 3 CONFIDENTIALLY (
-Railway's Tragedy p. 32

Page 4
  

Page 5
Press Foundation of Asia
nothing to contribute either to the
development of new thinking, or
the growth of press freedom in this region. They dispense patronage, they can fix scholarships and arrange invitations to seminars for favoured journalists", but little else. Excellent resolutions were adopted at the PFA but at every conference such resolutions are adopted. Nothing happens after that. The Press Foundation of Asia should be renamed
Printers and Publishers Foundation
of Asia.
in these circumstances the words of Wisdom that fel from the lips of President, the Prime Minister and the Minister of State-all centred on press freedom-were no more than pears of great value cast before a multitude of innocents : "President Jayewardene said the individual in a developing country was concerned with a little more food in his stomach, a little more clothing on his back, and a little more roof over his head. Do they care about Free Press 2 Or Freedom of
Speech 2. They have to live; they
have to find the food and develop When a nation is going on this footing, can we allow unbounded liberty ? If that liberty comes to a stage when the government is disrupted, what is the government to do? Hand over the reins of the government to the Free Press and say 'carry on' asked the President. 1. President | Jarrewardene Said the concept of Free Press was derived from the right of thinking freely and of expressing oneself freely in word and in writing 1f one went back to the period of dolescence in the 6th century C great philosophers such as Plato, Socrates, Gautama Buddha, Zoroaster in Persia, Confucius in China learnt and thought and their thoughts were spread throughout the world firstly by word, and then in writing. Some of them were killed and others were sought to be harmed. Freedom of the
expression of thoug
the 6th century BC
dent Said he was ce nowhere in the world say that there should dom of the Press. I and purpose of thei should not be so mu freedom of the Press
boundaries that sho Throughout the worl that had bean accepte there should be no of sex, violence, sedit umny. At this stage, said he would like to q ment by Samuel John in 1779. He said San had stated, 'if every
innovations may propa jects, there can be no if every murmurer at may diffuse discont can be no peace; and if tic in theology may to lies, there can be no
such unbou and the danger of bout produced a problem in of government which derstanding seems hith to solve ". Therefore t even noʻw is—t'he bo that freedom are the that posite set thems We do not k"ow h。 the PFA delegata 6 ab; tr tre content is and mea President's words. T himSeif wገ§ b”ob”bh;
thinking that the PFA
interfectuals who were a and significance of a frerdom, and the need freedom within bound 1 publishers are not cor freedom or the boundari in the sense the Presiden only want the freedo profits and money from t of newsbabers, and thi
most autocratic dictators
ling to give this right t
and muda lalis, Publish
 

ht began iñ ...The Presiinfident that
did anybody
be no freeThe problem ir discussions th about the
as about the
ild . be set. i boundaries
d were that
propagation ion and calthe President
ote a state
Son printed Johnson dreamer of gate his prosettlement:
government erat, there every scepa iso religion. The inded liberty ding it have the science human unherto nabe he problem undaries of boundaries alves.' - w many of reciated the
misled into conited of
livre to vale
oncepts like to CoリTin ries.
cerned with } of freedom
È rimeant. They
m to make
he is even the
hib was wiso czy tycoong ers sell sex.
Commissions had been appointed
earthy language had also
about Dress freedom: "There is ,
particularly in a country which
Most
countries -> patrons--the reading public? It has
perience of many of you also to
it reported the following day in
... and sensation to mint money. And's
this freedom even the most undemocratic was willing to grant to :
those who run newspapers. .
Then the President spoke a few Words about the state of freedom in Sri Lanka, what he said is true, is but how many countries in Asia seven countries from where the delegates hailed) enjoyed these freedoms. Did the PFA or any of its delegates raise questis of press freedom in Asian countries where thry were denied? "Speaking of the press, in Sri Lanka, tes dent said india and Sri Lanka occupied a unique position where they enjoyed freedom of the Press, ef Speech aänd opposition and their governments had been changed by the ballot-Several times in tour o country than any other country in the world. In both countriesses
to sea how that freedom had beer exercised.' ,
。 “云 魏
Prime Minister Premadasa. in
raised some fundamental questions
one aspect of this whole questions of mass media to which as a lays.
man and politician would like to a
draw yo' Ir attention. It is in a Sense the fundamenta question: VAV hat. does the public-the ordinary man. in the street-expect of the Press? What has he the righ-to-toss exprest
is prepared to tolerate varieties - of opinion-in a country which
does not count the holding of ܌--- contrary views a crime against
the State? Does the press as it. functions in our representative do its duty by its
been my happy experience and pe doubt it must have been the ex
attend a public meeting or to be . present at a function and to find
t
TRIBUNE, Deşember 2,378

Page 6
the local press fully and in a balan" eed fashion. It is not necessarily the length or the flattering report that catches the eye and wins approval, it is the fairness and correctness of the report. With consummate skill the whole spirit of what took place has been recalled and recorded. That is one aspact of it, it has also been my experience where the contrary has been the case; what is recorded has had little or no bearing on what was actually said or what really took place. What is the reason for this difference? Why does one report correctly, spell out what took place and the other suppress or distort? is it malice or indifference and carelessness or just sheer incompetence?"
flow many of the delegates were concerned with the problem Mr. Premiadas a raised? It was a problem that confronted a working in frnalist, ere news editor and the chief editor, bert was of little consequence to publishers who were not worried abort what was reported as long as it did not already affect cirrulation of advertising reventre, if a politician Worms o charartxirri-assasori mated it did not bother the publisher as long as the writer kept clear of the laws of libel. If a politician was misreported, the publisher was not
bothered-such misreporting could
La fader some circumstances give a boost to circulation -
rire Minister Premadasa then deat with another important aspect of press freedom: "... it is not true as far as the present government of Sri Lanka is concerned. I have, said t'mes without number,
“eer reet üst When We are Wreng: encourage us when we are right:
supports us when we are in need". Now I should lika to ask is this a very difficult task-this business
ment." udging by what appears a the daily newspapers through
ກisatioງ
out the world appear to be a What is the reas are probably m should like to tative ones. P include in this media, is work hectic pace an conditions. Sott is great and co allowance must ever mistakes that appear. Til the alarming sh and competent fieli of journalis professions, is is pay tention to de of training for f 1ists, This i ob major topics for at this confere scheme takes ef ayerage journali brings to bear and profession a agy u'red after ceship a consid present shortco disappear. But one draw back to be devil this inalism unless ressive to root There must be te the truth.”
Many delegate
that a Prime M
corre critificism Sri Lanka will E
evern where ti prevail.
Minister of St Alwis first rais point that flow dent's remarks said that the P thern të think d
should be placé and freedom of

this does indeed
formidable task on for this? There any reasons, but suggest a few tens ress work, and
all type of mass carried on at a d under difficult he chance of error insequently a wride be made for whatanc shortcomings hen again there is ortage of trained personnel in the m and its related ee that your orgaing particular atising programmes ture Asian journaserve is one of the discussion by you 1^Ce. When this fecit and when the st and broadcaster or his job the skill sm that he has years of apprentierable part of the mings might well I am afraid that will still continue profession of jourwe make a firm out this failing. total commitment
is were astounded inister should well
from the press,
e a model hard to Asian celuntries e PFA seems to
ate Anandatissa de 3d an interesting di from the Presi
“Mr. de Alwis
resident had asked
Beply on the bouinlimitations that
d on the liberties
the press: Nro de
Press. Foundation
Alwis said that the Press was faced with a new responsibility. Quite often when he used to ask newspapermen why it was that they gave so much to sex, crime, disturbances, destruction antagonism, anger and why it was that they do not concentrate on religion, sacrifice and peace, the answer was that they give what the people wanted. When he asked the readers, why they wanted sex, violence etc., instead of peace and sacrifice, their answer was that was what the newsapers give them, Mr. de Alwis said. In a developing country, in countries like India and Ceylon
politics had full coverage in the
newspaper's but no such coverage was given to other matters which a common man might be engaged in. So there was a confusion in regard to the role we are to play quite apart from the limitations we are to follow. That was also a matter we should discuss.'
The second matter was an excellent piece of self-criticism for the Asian presss: "The question had been posed as to why the West was not publishing enough news about the Asian countries. Why are we asking this, when we do not publish enough news about the Asian countries ourselves? There is no India, no Philippineš no Bangladesh, no Hong Kong but if Mr. Jimmy Carter gets a cough, it becomes front page news. But if the Malaysian Prime Minister is seriously ill we may not know about it..'.
He also stressed the urgent need to make the lot of the working
journalists better: "Mr. de Alwis,
said that there was not enough understanding among newspapermen of each other; it was such a dialogue between journalists that was wanted urgently. He was plac ing a proposal before the governi ment to see that our own news paper men and women were able to travel-not like UN experts

Page 7
In Aarhamed
bit to go with their colleagues and live with them, so that they finight gain an el indepth knowledge of the conditions under which other people were living. So that When they come back-they rnay s be restless because they are journalists--but they could be better informed and would be able to bring the Asian peoples together."
The PFA is not an organisation of working journalists. So some of our remarks may appear catty. it is a working journalist more than anyone else who is concerned with press freedom. Mudalali publishers, like all mudalat is, are concerned only with the freedom to make money. They have no commitment to truth or service and Minister Anandatissa's final appeal must have fallen on deaf ears: "We are working in a developing world in the mass media in the guiding of opinion. Let us there - fore get together and arrive at a consensus where all of us together can render a greater service to the country we live and the people to whom we owe a greater responsibility."
Minister Anandatissa talks the language of the common man. But it is a far cry from the PFA. The President, the Prime Minister and the Minister of State should have talked the language of the mudalalis to get a response from the PFA. -
The PFA Assembly at Hotel Oberoi was a grand show. Kind things will be said of Sri Lanka in the papers the ladies and gentlemen of the PFA publish. It was good ^ publie relations and tourist promotion to flatter the PFA and the publishing giants who are the
A
All that we can say is that we value the right of freedom to say AMEN.
x,》雲 * x —蠶
ment
BETWEEN
BY SERENDB
Rare Unani Milky Mess Krien Of
PARLAMENT
THE DEBATE on Reading of the B no surprises. The and the Committee debate, however, b unanimity among Whether this will it with matters and merits is a result to the damage caused of November 24, or due to a grcwing sectarian perty e mational economic is not clear. But the that this is a health) development.
The votes of m and departments wer
near unanimity. Ev
Department, which times been the targe all parties, fared v year. This was no the fervent plea nad Anandatissa de Aly
Police should be lef
out political interfere rectly he had pointe governments since tric cluding UNP governir terfered with the Police also got of free because of the popularity of Junior pitiya who has won all parties for fairpla
The votes of the Foreign Affairs were out even one single This has b

HE LINES
mity
Kaira
che Second udget bးူ{| third reading, Stage of the rought a rere all parties. hgness to deal ssues on their f the shock of by the cyclone whether it is awareness that blitics inhibits development, re is no doubt and welcome
test minili tries e adopted with en the Police has at all it of attack by ery well thls doubt due to e by Minister vis I that the t alone with rice (very cord out that all eeridence inments, had inPolice). The relatively scot prestige and 4i, ister Weraconfidence of y and justice.
Ministry of adopted withs
critical com=
been pointed
out, is a record. Ever since indee pendence, the debate on votes for the Fereign Affairs ministry has always evoked aerimonious debate. This was nearly always triggered by the Leftists of the LSSP ond CP. and the so-called radical progress sives. Not ene of them was rase
turned in the last General elections. It was also surprising that
not a single SLFP MP in the present Parliament stood up to wave the flag of the nich talked of Bandara: naike's policies. The Nation, the journal of the SLFP, regularly makes acidic and derogatory remarks on UNP's foreign policies, but in the debate on the vote of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, no SLFP MP uttered even a single word. In a sense, this is a reflection of the fact that interest in foreign affairs has all but disappeared from the political scene Minister
Hameed had the field all to hime
self to expound the Government's foreign policies without as much as an interruption from any MP. He was loudly acclaimed. It was a signal triumph for Minister Hameed. He had started his record rather: weakly, but there is no doubt. that he has pursued the policy. of non-alignment with acceptance. to the nomaligned world, and toe day Sri Lanka is once again carving out a new place of significance
in the niche of non-aligned and
third world politics.
MLK FOODS
The only fly in the ointment in the entire Budget episode was the mess on the question of the prices of Milk Foods-Powdered Milk to be exact. The Minister of Finance after presenting his nos
price-increase budget did a mast. No sochrer the í.
surprising thing. Parliament adjourned after listening to the Budget proposals, the Minis ter of Finance issued a gazette notification increasing the prices of all infant and ni ilk foods. This iš
TRIBUNE, becember 9, 1978

Page 8
was no doubt to further withdraw the subsidy on imported milk powder and infant milk foods. Already most of the subsidy on the powdered milk food had been withdrawn, but the latest price hike affected even the infant milk foods which had continued to enjoy a subsidy.
Naturally there was an uproar. Before the Opposition Parties could
make a popular national issue of the infant milk fooos que tion, the Parliamentary Group and the Cabinet moved fast. At the first Cabinet meeting after November 5, the Government reversed the decision of the Ministry of Finance and decreed that imported milk foods would continue to be sold at the "old prices." However, to save face, press releases spoke about devising a scheme which would enable the "less affluent sections of the population' to get infant foods at the old prices. So far so good. The Government had nipped a mighty oppositional storm in the bud, important questions arise from this milk foods embroglio.
Does the Minister of Finance have the right to increase prices of essentials (even if it is to withdraw subsidies) without prior Cabinet sanction? At least, it is clear the Cabinet exercises the right to reverse prize-increasing gazette regulations it considers wrong, inopportune or unwise. This incident, once again raises the question of our entire milk-liquid and powdered-industry and trade. Sri Lanka is a courtry which climatically and ecologically is suited to produce milk and dairy products even for export, but in spite of the billions of rupees inwested in the livestock and milk industry from the forties, this | country continues to import the bulk of its reads of nik and dairy products. Scandal after scandal
. . .
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
rocked the National Milk devan. It was
Board but it üntold milliot money in or (mostly from population.
Now, some been shifted of governme, to have a clu Board can b mess. The la were leaving
but these ra that can kee
there a cons.
persons to so that ther run the Mill go-getting Mit cannan, der from the big Board? Wher ever put th is the 64 in of the day.
However, silver li ning ir where “recor ign specialist government
| grammes WC
specialists wi necessary po their plans expert who is really a
Sri Lanka ! to persuade a Dairy, and in India to 5 to help the it 5 mind if; would help Irndiq i35 . rgo o., specialists on service are but Kurien fr man who h
dairy industry
The August Digest had by David Me
非。
 
 

as gone on spending ls of the tax-pa, ers der to provide milk imports) for the
of the imports have to other departments t. “But no one seems e as to how the Milk e pulled out of the test is that the rats
the sinking ship
is are the only ones p the ship afloat. Ils iracy for all qualified quit the Milk Board e will be nobody to k Board if the new lister in charge, Thonmands accountability bosses of the Milk ther Thondaman can e Milk Board right hillion dollar question
there seems to be a in the sky. Ilir a country mmendations of fores are grabbed by the to implement pro3rked out by local ho did not have the litical pull to have accepted. A foreign can deliver the goods “saviour.'' ha; been iucky enough specialist on the Milk, the livestock industry bend a few days here government to makeup to whať programme5 us. This visitor from rdinary specialist. Most I." international jet excellent paper men, pm India is a practical as revolutionised the in Indija. -
1978 issue of Readers an article on Kurien iller and Ashok Mahas entitled The Miracle
, , 2.
co-operative, had
The Milk Board
Worker of Kaira. A few extracts
from this article will show the man Kurien is: 'Somewhat recklessly, Verghese Kuren, the young manager of a small milk invited Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to pers" form opening day honours at a new dairy and milik powder plant
at Anand. Three weeks ---re.
the two main boilers for the plant were still on their way from ScotInnd-at the bottom of a ship,
25th in line outside the srike
bound port of Bombay. It took a meeting of the entire board of the port trust to get the boilers unloaded and on the train for Anand. And it was just 24 frantic hours before Nehru's arrival on October 31, 1955, that the first bag of powdered milk bounced of the production line. An ecstatic Kurien prompty emptied it en his assistant's bald head. And no wonder-it was a first powdered buffalo milk had never before been made on a large commercial scale it was a breakthrough of great significance for India. Dr. Verghese Kurien, now 56, and head of the National Dairy Development Board, is the father of our 'White Revolution'... By 1950, he was manager of the fledgling co-operative and working punishing 6 hour days. Nothing was too menial for him. He cleaned milking equipment and loaded milk cans into trucks. At this time, the Indian dairy industry lagged considerably behind the rest of the world's. State-run milk schemes and greedy private contractors paid peasants such low prices-often as little as 12 paise
for a quart of milk-that milk pro
duction, half from buffaloes, half from cows, was extremely poor. Most livestock were fed cheap, dry straw; animals were attended by stiperstitious quacks who often sought to protect them from the "evil eye" with such devices, as black string twired around horns.

Page 9
:: Kurien Of Kairo . . .
Since space was precious many good milch animals were kept in cramped, filthy conditions in teeming cities; most buffaloes were
slaughtered and cows were starved
to death when they temporarily s went dry. . Although the Arand Co-operative was a step ahead of this, Kurien had much to do. He introduced such inovations as qualified veteriarias, greenfodder feeding and breeding by artificial is Serniation. A rea breakthrough and proof for the peasants that the researchers were on the right track, came when Kurien was able to increase the number of available milkers by shortening the time between pregnancies and subsequent lactations. Milk yield rose from 3 quarts to 4.5 quarts a day. En 1964. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri inaugurated the co-opertive's sevenstorey computarized cattle-feed factory near Kaniari. He stayed for a night at Aiarpura, a village nearby, and listened spell-bound to owners who talked of how the co-operative had transformed their lives. Once heavily in debt, they now earned three times What they earned ten years before and had ready cash. Thus usury, the bane
of rural India, had declined in their
A. are2. Thè Aiarpura co-operative even made enough money to buy fibrary books and medicines, build two schools and repair the village roads.
“... 'Why can't we build cooperatives like this all over India? Shastri asked. "Absolutely no reason at all, Kurien promptly replied. From that brief exchange
grew the National Dairy Develop
ment Board that Kurien now heads and 'Operation Flood the project begun in 1971 to set up 17 other milk schemes, similar to the co
operative at Anand... Operation Flood may well be the largest and most
successful nutritional project ever undertaken in India. Squalid city
: :
dairies are being business, and an
million people direc the scheme have
income. What's in now supplied three
milk-152,000 gallons years ago, and Bom can get more milik in a country where. the people are ves milk as their sole sc protein, Operation ir: combating malnut substantial. . . . . . . . . .-
“Although Kurie combination of socia hardheaded technolo abiding faith in Ilir that makes the cliffe success and failure. power remains with he believes, do peas price for their mik incentive to increas He agreed to head Dairy Development condition that it be se *If it had been estabili he said, "it would sc snarled in bureaucr: And we would have touch with those produce the mi'k' .. tion Flood is self-sust Índia did not havye 1 milk powder, saying foreign-exchange bil
million. In addition
responsibilities, Kuri an international rolę by the UN’s Foodi aj Organisation, groups African trainees stus Afhand, Ard Such Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and the Malaga increasir gly ask for h milk Projects. In D Kurien presided ov national Dairy con: Delhi-the first time vas held in a deve Despite his renow

driven out of estimated 2 tly affected by doubled their hore, Delhi iS tirnes as much -as it got six bay consumers than before. 40 per cent of eterians, with urce of at, imal Flood's role ition has been
is a rare visionary and gist, it is his dia's peasants rence between
Only when local farmers, ants get a fair and have the se production. the National Board only on it up in Anand. shed in Delhi, pon have been stic red tape. been out of who actually Today, Operaining; in 1975 to import any the courtry a of Rs. 50 to his national en now plays 2. Sporsored nd Agriculture of Asian and y dairying at Countries as the Philippines sy Repubiic elp on buffalo ecember 1974, er the Intergress in New his conference sloping nation. n, o Verghese
Kurien still sees himself only as
an 'instrument'. Indian farmers,
he saye, have shown they can fashion a brighter future for themSelves”. Tribhuvadas Patel, his clad fried, testifies that Kurier is much too modest: "When he first joined us in 1949, thought it wasfortunate for Kaira's district; a few years later, felt Gujarat
State was lucky to have a man
like him; yesterday, it was good for the whole country, and today The world is beginning to realize its indebtedness to him."
Kurien will be in Sri Lanka for a
few days starting December 14.
He is scheduled to address all those interested in livestock and Dairy Development at the BMICH on December 15. But more than public speeches, Kurien will be able to help our Government disentangle the numerous plans and programmes-prepared by vested interests in the Agriculture and Livestock Development who have been always at cross puri cses because of petty departmental rivalries. The veterinarians have beer at the throats of the animal EUSbandrymen and the agriculturists and all of them have scorned the research scientists. Ard so on and so forth. The nett result is that Livestock and Dairy industry in Sri Larka has gone round in circles for well over 40 years. -
As Tribune has pointed cut, the National livestock Develop nerf Boa
rd (NLDB) re-structured after July
1977 has done an excellent job of
work within its limited purview. The NLDB, however, cannot do the work of a National Dairy
Development Board, nor can it organise dairy and livestock co
operative schemes on the Anand model. Livestock and Dairy Development in Sri Larka has to be rescued from the Veterifariars, Ags riculturists and Animal Husbardrymen who have been at war with each for three decades and môre,
TRIEUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 10
N THE TUB My Dogeneg
Waves And
Vibrations
The Master in one of his deep contemplative moods saw waves and vibrations completely envel oping everything on this earth. He found that countries, nations and men are subject to their force and there are magnetic fields and every man is right in the centre of one. Newton discovered the law of gravitation but Diogenes saw how these waves and vibra tions affected the lives and fates of nations. Human beings are affected by such waves and vibrations, surrounding them, and so are nations and countries affected. This is a fact still outside the full comprehension of scientists. It is not seen nor observed by the naked eye but evolved beings like Diogenes see ehese forces at work. They are like the thin strands of a Cobweb, so thin that they cannot be detected even with the aid of the instruments of a scientist. The laws of men are enforced by the force of arms. The eternal law of Cause and Effect is worked through these unseen strands. These are the strands that determine the lives of all beings, nations, em pires and eivilisations.
Diogenes saw how the great teaching of the Buddha, Christ and Mohamed and their lives on this planet had set these waves and vibrations as a neat pattern for the benefit of mankind. They have however been disturbed ever thereafter. Every act and every thought of man affect these strands not only surrounding him but also his fellow beings. for instance there has never been a house or abode on earth in which any being prospered if there has
FNBUNE, December 9, 1978
der änd bloe and vibration affects the liv live in it ther and misfortu though it was turbed these in a relatively in a tiny islan blood of innෆ. of those who and lament ha into am utter tations of the of men, wome and murdered, raped and the robbed, have and vibrations without design this is taking of the Dhamm
Diogenes ce like a mist violence, sin a over the blesse ral pall cover The Master w the casket was Lanka and the stone dead va mouthed Sri L their own pr: audible psalms ned by the le the living and
and vibrations
zag inviting C and every kind and they were ing over the
direction and the Bermuda Master saw dis There wysere tid
turnbling dos Goed that has
istand and her of the waves a violently distu asters, Diogeni be averted b

dished. The waves s disturbed thereit es of all those vyho eafter causing misery he to thern even } not they who disstrands. Similarly much larger context d like Sri Lanka the cents and the sighs are left to mourn ve put these strands Hisarray. The lamenbereaved, the spirits in and children burnt the shame of the
destitution of the caused the waves to shake and quiver or pattern and all place in this island 鬣。
uld see something a used by injustice, ind hypocrisy hanging id island like a funeing an open coffin. as able to see that
in the shape of Sri nation lying in it hile a few mealy ankans were singing aise. These hardly
were being drowe bud lamentations of the dead. The way es
were swinging zig yclones and floods
of national disaster
causing planes flyland to lose their bearings as within riangle. What the tressed him greatly. at waves, pestilence, lountains that kept ... it is not some cursed this blessed people. It is a case ind vibrations being "bed and these disas felt, could only y righteous deeds
Some Thoughts on Sri Lanka
and not by mere righteous words. The natives must go on mourning and the sinners among them must cease to deceive themselves
and the people. They must repeat
and wesh their defiled hands be
fore it is too late. Let there be an
end to righteous talk. It is now
time for righteous deeds and only then will Sri Lanka not be cheated of her great destiny.
With such thoughts, Diogenes closed his eyes and thought he saw the glory that will be Sri Lanka.
X X X
IL ETT ER
Acid Bomb
Explosion
Sir,
Tribune should be congratulated for bringing out James Goonewardene's new story and thereby a vast gap in the literary field gets filled. The pest independence period which should have been a period of prolific writing that marked many changes and crises has on the contrary been one of lethargy without natching up to the colonial era. Besides, current writing had also the tendency to just follow and imitate ancient regime without such meaning and even my good friend James couldn't get over the hangover at the start but now he seems to be taking his own line and readers could only wish him well.
A. E. GUNAWARDENA
44, Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo.

Page 11
The World Today
THE WORLD TODAY
CHINA
CHINESE LEADERs split
OVER MAO’S TEACHINGS Tokyo, November 19,
The Chinese Communist Party leadership is apparently divided over the current campaign to reassess the importance of the teachings of the late Chairmați, Mao Tse-tung according to a Japanese news report from Peking quoting observers. Tne observers quoted by Kyoda News Service said the division was between the party mainstream, led by Chairman Hua Kuo-feng and Vice-Chairmran Teng Hsiao-ping, and the Opposition, led by ViceChairman Wang Tung-hsing, Mao’s former bodyguard, and his followers. The split surfaced about 10 days ago * Kyodo said, when a wali poster appeared in Peking, accusing the party's theoretical journal, Red Flag of failing to join the current i discussion cr Mao’s teachings on the relationship between practice and truth. The report
said the Red Flag was believed" to be under the strong influence of Mr. Wang." In sharp contrast, reports Peking said, the People's Daily kept the campaign alive subsequently
with an article and editorial on a
| reassessment of Mro's teachings. A series of recent party decisions Consisting of a re-examination of the “Tien An Men Square incident ** of 1976, in which many persons paying homage to the late Premier Chou En-lai were arrested, and a call for belie rehabitation of many disgraced reactionaries" was made public soon after Mr. Teng returned from a tour of Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Peking's official Hsinhua News Agency said that people in Nanking and other parts of Kiangsu pro
under the Gang of Fo
Premier Chou En-la
the gang, must be
This was the decisio
Provincial Committe 蠶證$e Communist
علاس --عx-
PEKING POSTE
TBEN G, CRITE (CISE Peking, Nov. 2,
Big character pos peared here claiming Premier Chou Enlai leader to have prote nese people during **facism” from ş66. another poster dire the late Chairman for his alleged su ou sted “gang of fou ters demanded the s con mittee to inqu bloody riots at Pek Men Square in Apri find out who wa Local residents have all day to read the take notes. The post raise embarrassing about the riots and said they were not the recent declarati were heroic revoluti
instead of counter-re
they were labelled The 1976 disturbances being glorified along cutbursts in other cit opposition to the ga. then at the height of The riots were foll removal from office Vice-Premier "Keng H tored to all his old year-and the gang in October 1976, a Maio died. -
The Chinese medi portrayed Mao as a
gamg which S Said
vince, who had been "persecuted
him in the dark in

rfor honouring and opposing rehabilitated." of the Kingsu
Party.-A.P.
=Xمضضے
Rs praise | MAO.
ters have ap
that the late was the only bicted the Cini- , 10 years of Alongside was ctly, attacking Mao Tse-tung sport to the
r.' The pose etting up of a
ing's Tien An
is responsible. been jostling. a posters and ers seemed to new questions the writers Satisfied with on that they ionary actions volutionary, as .
at the time. in Peking are with similar ies, as popular ng which was its influence. owed by the of Senior siao-ping-respositions last was arrested month after
a has so far
victim of the to haye kept : recent years.
But the posters seemed designed to suggest, without naming him, that he played a more active role. One poster has been on a wall ón a Peking main avenue for more than 24 hours-leading diplomats to speculate that it had some kind of official support-and says that Mao, 'because his thinking was metaphysical during his old age and for all kinds of other reasons, supported the gang of four in raising their hands to strike down Comrade Teng Hsiao-ping." Posters written by workers at an instralments factory and workers at a factory run by the Chinese Academy of Sciences sought a full judicial investigation of the riots.
The werkers at the academy fac
tory addressed their poster to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Procurator (legal investigator), aņd told of how they were arrested, jailed and persecuted after laying a wreath in Tien An Men in nemory of Premier Chou
They named a number of minor
officials whom they wanted are rested and tried in connection with the riots and listed their demands: the setting up of a grand jury to hold an open trial and punish those involved, an investigation of the 'true nature" of the disturbances and the rehabilitation of all those arrested with compensation for people who suffered. The poster probably was prepared before the week-end announcement that all 388 people arrested in Peking had been exonerated. The poster written by workers at the instrue
ments plant called Mr. Teng "the
still-living Chou Enlai, the great Marxist whom the Chinese people love and respect."
*,*
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 12
  

Page 13
Ching
death to Hua Kuo-feng in which the Chairman reportedly said he would feel at ease if Hua took control when Mao died. Hua eventually became Prime Minister and Party Chairman. The letter was used by Hua's supporters as proof that their man was ehe personalchoice of Mao. The Tieanman demonstration is the central theme of a wall poster campaign which began in Peking on Sunday.
According to China watchers here the posters are directed against opponents of Teng, who was the most prominent political victim of the riots. Teng was later rehabilitated by Hua and observers here say the Vice-Premier's supporters are now out for revenge.
The biggest casualty in the apparent reassessment of the Tienanmen incident is Wu Teh, recently dismissed as Peking Mayor. It was he who ordered the crackdown against the rioters. Today's wall posters said that rehabilitation of those politicians who fell into disgrace following the demonstrations was not sufficient. The posters called on the authorities to reveal the names of the "big shots' behind the "oppression.' They said that in capitalist countries "big shots' had been charged in connection with scandals like Watergate and the Lockheed Bribery Affair. Observers here believe the main target of the campaign could be Wang Tung-Hsing, a communist party vice-chairman, who has been accused of faili, og to speed up the new evaluation of Mao's teachings.
INSIDE CHINA
China's Three
Immortals
VV. Lione Fernand
This article wa soon after the a turn from a tour in August 1978.
many developme taken placo in C Chou Enlai cui: considerabe Vice Premier Te ping, nominere o Chou Enlai for
disgraced durir: time (when the four was wield has gained in stren Posters have com cising Chairman
questioning the mont of Hura K. Chairman of the C nancer of the ar. er di Premier of S1 ci is uricer SCE Ut
The - author W. Fernar do was fin || 1957-58 as the Priy tary of the first AnBeaessecco = Étoc Ch he joined the Department w S. VAV. - R. D. Ban was Primo Minist his retirement fro lic Service he w Ceylon Observer unti
SOON AFTER CHAIR DEATH the question politics was "what ne: This same question was an Asian Ambassador in there be any changes
 

is written ܨeܗs P* ܘܕܸtifhG of China Sirice the In : ants have ha The has gained memeritum. ng Hsiaof. Premier succession, g Me's gang of ng power) gth. Wai e . Uap critis Mao and appgn= Icefeing as CF, Cermirted forces Eate Cours : ny.
V. Lione Peking in ate SecreSri Lanka
a Late nfermation e Mr. midarara, ikke er. After in the Fubs as Editor, July 1977. I - Ed.
MAN MAO’S
in parlours t in China 2''. fut by me to Peking. "Will n Mao's poli
cles," I asked him, "o ething is certain" he saia, “there wini neve be a de-Mactilization in Chiria as ix happened to Statin in the Soviet Union. China can never te withoü a Mao. Even when a change is contemplated, the leaders resort to the vi ritings of Mao fer that change. They quote him in support of any such move. They will never follow the Moscow line in regard to Mao. The new leadership may Want εο put right some of the decisions taken by "the garg of four” in the name of Mao when actually he was not funetioning physically during the last few years of his life. Even these changes will be in accordance with the teachings of Mac." -
Political observers raised this same issue and thought that events that followed Mao's death on September 9, 1976 were the begins nings of the end of Maoism in China. Some thought that the purge of the gang of four" amounted to a
| " posthumous military coup against
Mao' while some others thought that the deMaotization process had already begun and that " by the 1990's the Chinese political atmosphere can be expected to be heavy with stagnation, elitism, bureaucratism and related ills.'
These views, however, were not shared by mary students of Chinese politics. For instance, a Frofessor of Political Science of Stanford University, Mr. Harry Hardirig, Jr., the author of several published articles and monographs on Chinese politics does not share this view. He loes not think that China will follow Soviet example. He says : " for one thing Mao is more a Lenin than a Stalin; he was the principal founder of the Chinese Communist moves ment and it would be extraordinarily difficult to keep the movement intact if its founder was denounced. For another, there is no real need to concelemn Mao: scapegoats have alreo ady been found for most of his errors, and his writings are complex enough
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 14
ehat they can be justify virtually any policy, The costs to the party of renouncing Mao would be infinitely greater than any pos sible gains. A much more likely possibility is that Maoism while maintained officially as the ideological basis of the Chinese political system, right gradually become routinized, losing much if its role as a guide to policy-making 2nd political action and serving more as a means of legitimating policies arrived 2覚 pragmatically."
N CHINA three names are still held in reverence, Mao Tse-tung, Chu Teh, and Chou En-lai. They are immortalised in China. to them, the inspirer of their life their saviour. Nine hundred million people sing in his preise every day. They owe the success ○f their struggle and tre victory over the enemy to him. They owe their 'glorious new life' to him. He is their teacher and father. Following him their life will be happeir and richer, they Say.
His statues, more than life-size, have come practically in every city in the country. All public buildings have his bust or his full figure in large
sizes made in marble. Millions pay
homage to his remains in the Peking Mausoleum which is open to the public three mornini's a week. watched how thousands of men and women, both Chinese and foreigners wait patiently from early morning on those days in long queues Som3times three-deep to get a glimpse of this great man who has brought new life to them.
* Erected in Tien work on this matestic structure a commenced in November 24, 1976 and it was completed on May 24, 1977. At the entrance to the Hall is written in Chairman Hua's
Chinese characters * The Chairman
Mao Memorial Hall."
on the first anniversary of Mao's death, Chairman Hua reflected the
Taunt, pieceaber 3, 578
Mao is a god
En-lai
An Men Square y
he said åt
meeting: "W our great lead man Mao, th:: ship of the mittee, the w army and the inalities in th to the Party's ing in big st unswervingly continuing 鲇 the dictators as Chairman attempts by and abroad t change its
which were main. Maes, ar day-dreams. the great Maථ ධූS. උu{{" hand it cr generation.'
CHU-TEH, of the Arm: prede three men and will a as the arch it Chu Teh it wara
man and co
as a people was From t Resistance a
ne hac a SS Mao and has Communist sant family,
verty and le as he says ta culties. Ha hardships at vyeather mor of 30 years vity. It wa who gave tion and th; o fel his is "Mother gave teen childre poor to SԱp|
first eight
were drown

the Commemorating e may now assure er and teacher Chairat under the leaderParty Central Comhole party, the whole
people of all natio
e country, adhering basic line, are advance rides confidently and along the road of he revolution under hip of the proletariat Mao indicated. . “All class enemies at home o cause our Party to Marxist-Leninist line, formulated by Chaire merely re-actionary We must cherish banner of Chairman precious heritage and from generation to
Commander-in-chief and Premier Chou ceased him. These are eternal in China ways be remembered eets of modern China. is above all a military uld not be described man as Chou Enlai he time of the War of gainst Japan (1937-45), ociated himself with been a member of the arty. Born to a peaChu Teh grew in poarnt from his mother, struggle against diffiving gone through home he was able to of thern in his career of revolutionary actihis mother, he says, m a strong constituhabit of hard work. cry in his own words: birth with me to thir. As the family was too cort them all, only the ved. The latter five g ae birth Each time
İnşide Čhina
it left a searing pain in her, but she had no other way out."
Chu Teh was very fond of his mother and her loss was irreparable to him. He says: 'Mother has left me for ever. I will never see her
again. Her deach is an irreparable loss. Mother was an ordinary person, one of millions of the
Chinese working people. Yet it is these millions who have made and are still making the history of China. How can repay my mother's kindness? I will continue to be loyal to our nation and people and the Chinese Communist Party, their hope, so that others like her will have a happy life. This is what I can do and will do. May my mother rest in peace." Conti nuing he says: "As the Chinese revolution developed, my ideology underwent more changes. When found that the Chinese Come munist Party was leading the revolution in the correct direction, joined it.' sM,
TO THE MILLIONS of Chinesa people, Chou En-lai is "our respected and beloved Premier." No other leader in China is referred to with such affection. He is their idol. Numerous poems and songs have been written in his praise, Articles recalling his exemplary life and his close touch with the people, his friendship with the third world and his efforts to establish friendly ties with all nations appear in the Chinese press. As watched the people's reaction to his memory, thought a Chou Enlai cult was in the offing which some observers think may finally crystallize in a Mao-chou Enlai-lai cult. . .
The first shot against the "gang of four' which brought about its dowrfall was fired by Chou Enlai when he summoned the veteran cadres of the Shantung province to Peking and drew up a ten-point programme against them. The "gang of four" had its dagger
2.

Page 15
. *
it:Teatroia erats
Public
China Řevisited
at him. They tried to frame him and even interfere with his medical Being in charge of the mass media, they saw to it that no publicity or memorial articles were allowed at the time of his death. demonstrations of grief were tained and the coverage of the funeral in the Chinese press blacked out.
But today a permanent Exhibition in his memory has been set up in Tien-An-Men Square on the East side of Mao's Mausoleum. This Exhibition, which is a permanent feature in Peking is housed in a separate section of the Museum of Chinese History and Chinese Revolution and is termed "The Exhibition in Memory of Comrade Chou Enlai.” As one enters the hall a huge oil painting of the three leaders, Mao, Chu Teh and Chou En-lai strikes your eye. An English speaking girl takes you roundexplaining to you the 1000 oddi relics, documents and pictures in the Exhibition Hall. Going through half of the Exhibition, her place is taken by another girl. It takes quite a long time to go through every item.
Articles of Chou Enlai's daily use are prominently displayed in the Exhibition in separate enclosures. In one enclosure are his darned socks, patched shirts and towels, two airs of leather shoes of twenty years, his mug, tooth brush, sock-darning block are in this enclosure. The bed which he used in hospital especially made enabling him to go through official
papers and have meals without
having to move about and the special pair of cloth shoes are also there. This pair of shoes had been specially made for him because, at the last stages of his life he could not wear leather shoes bwing to the swollen nature of his feet. The articles in his room at home, his bed, writing and
conference table, are all there.
Though born to
with a foreign educ and Germany, the e the frugal life folk Ernella i as a fe fou Exhibition also pres table made for him to his bed when he for him to go thr rect official docume hibition is in four his young days, his a the New Democratic period and the per revolution and co finally the "Eternal rade Chou En-laj.” titled 'Selected Ph. mory of Chou En-la photographs with cribing Chou En-lai been published in C
-X- -X-
CHINA REVS
After 22 Yea
by Nikil Chakrava
Editor, "Mainstream",
THE NON-STOP F BOMBAY to Peking table and provided hours to ponder cov ghts that came cr me. To visit any twenty-two long yeat a matter or excite nje is a different wor How much has happ intervening years– ing, annoyance, bi and even blood was confliet. Inside Chi convulsiors have čo stability has given certainty, mighty gi: parted and new tead faded. How could

ás book. * CASE
trkştෆcracy ඍd ten i France hibition shows wed by Chot tionary. The Berry es the bedto have it fixed was in hospital bugh and corints. The Exparts showing ctivities during : Revolutionary od of socialist struction and Glory to ComA book enotos in Me' carrying 800 cactions desis life has also hina.
حیXK=== '=
ED
"S
೪ಿಳಿಸಿ?
Ney Delhi.
LIGHT FROM was comfor
restful seven er many thouowding upon country after is is ordinarily int, but China di altogether. ened in these risunderstandEtter polemics shed in armed na and India, me and gone, place to un مtrints haye de fers havę surns everything be:
the same again, and yet why there be animosity in perpetuity og either side of the High Hirolayas
As the Svissair took The die erast-cover-flying Aiarangabad, Nagpur, Calcutta and Chittagongand then a sharp turn to the northover the mighty Mekong river, the city of Kunming with its stone
flower garden, the steel centre of
Wuhan with its blast furnacesand on to Peking, once the imperial capital and now of a late-coming world power, replacing Confucius by Communism-1 wondered if would be breathing the same reaxed air of 1956. Where are tre old friends and comrades? Would it at all be discreet even to eri quire about them? How should measura what might strike me as new and above all, what thoughts dominate this country where over 900 million people live today?
The faces of fellow passengers betrayed no such worries: a large contingent of German business executives and engineers of various denominations, a strange assorte ment of sentimental revolutio naries from different corners of Western Europe. With thern from Bombay three executives óf
our proud HMT whose modest
appearance could hardly betray their standing, came along with this wandering journalist. It was in deed a journey into a stange twilight without being sure when the night would fall or the day break.
The very first impression of landing at the airport dominated by larger-than-life portrait of Mae, was that the new building though recently constructed bears a striking resemblance to any old style Soviet airport with its huge columned hall and portico outside. The long drive tờ the city intefe spersed with occasional heardings be aring Mao's quotations, is li need with thick rows of trees on- both sides
TRIBUNÉ, Deeember 9, . 978

Page 16
impression from Peking down to Canton right up to the Lowu frontier post, that afforestation has been taken up in China in a manner which any country can emulate with profit. We have our ceremonial vanamahet sayas followed up, mcre often than not, by the saplings being equally unceremoriously eaten up by stray cattle since nobody is put in charge to look after them.
Enter the newly laid out dip
lomatic enclave, so different from the old Legation quarters with
their must pre- revolutionary smell. These enclaves are perhaps
easy to look after-or watch overby the Chinese security authorities, reminding one of Manila's up-town 'villages' where the rich live away from the eyesore of poverty-in the case of Peking, away from being infected by the ferment that is China today.
Not that the diplomatic corps has always been left in peace: at the height of the Cultural Revolution, the British Embassy had to bear the brunt-part of its building was set on fire, which neither Shirley Williams not Edmund Dell during their current visits with
expectations of Chinese bonanza
would have liked to be reminded about. Those ultra-revolutionary nightmares left their mark not only on the "arch-revisionist" Soviet Embassy put virtually seige, but the Indian Embassy as well, with any amount of harassment which spared neither the senior nor the junior officers of our mission at the time,
THESE ARE of course things of the past which the Chinese in their present euphoria of Four Modernisations prefer to keep aside. And our Embassy under time perceptive and widely respected guidange of Ambassador. Narayanan and
ois hand of alert but extremely:
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
Warm th and dil standing in the if it does not t f extra-favour Estir blishment.
An arm using nost-favoured from grace co treatment rece hailed as the of Maoist Mar ing out agai volutionary has now earne present powe The huge maj built by the Embassy in P. as the China not yet hande the naughty A the so-called the U.S.-area lar parlance Embassy-with activity, is in commodation, bę surprised if ing meant for mately falls to cans. Unex they say, occi tuating air-p
Many things Orne a S fe'We some of them beyond recog on cycles-m: had seen in 9 the few are a pointment. confined to a fe
Peking's Ret
An-Men has ge
ehe , oleoj Railw had seen opp has moved fu the wide vista An-Men is fla by the Great where all th are held and

ficers)exuding both igence=has earned a diplomatic set, even elong to the tribe ites of the Peking
case of one of these
missions uld be seen in the ived by Albania. Long unshakable outpost xism fearlessly holdst the counter-reEurope, Albania 2d the Wrath of the s-that-be in Peking. insion that has been
Albanians for their
eking is still vacant se authorities have d over the keys to banians. Meanwhile, Liaison Office of dy known in popuas the American its fast expanding Search of more acand I done would I not the sprawling buildthe Albanians ultithe lot of the Ameribeeted hypertension, rs in Peking's flucresSU re.
in Peking strike The roads, at least have been widened mitom Thousands any more than 56. No taxis to hail, vailable only by apColoured TV, but w cities.
d Square the Tien
it a face uplift, and
ay Station which ! osite to it in 1956 rther up. Instead, in front of the Tienlinked on one side
Hall of the People
e major conclaves by the Museum of
falling
chirp in chorus.
China. 了
the Revolution and History in
the other; facing it at the other
end of the massive concrete square is the Mausoleum of Mao Tse-tung. it front of the Mausoleum stands the monument of the People's Heroes, the martyrs' memorial, the scene of demonstrations against the then Establishment sometime
after Chou En-lais death în 976.
THE HUGE PORTRAIT of Marx and Engels at one end of the Square and of Lenin and Stalin at the other end, stand where they were when had seen them twenty-two years ago-mute witnesses to
waves of turbulence in between.
Peking Hotel has been modernised and the signboards on many of the shops and establishments bear their names not only in Chinese but Roman script as well--a new
innovation not for the benefit of
the tourists I am told, but as part of the drive for modernisation
making the Chinese familiar with
the script that will help them to know more than two thirds of the world. Hindi fanatics in our
country may gain from it, if they
are in a mood to learn.
12 1
There are a number of things
common to our world which is missing in the Chinese scene. No birds to greet you in the freshness of the morning but millions of crickets There was a Sparrow Extermination drive at the time of the Great Leap Forward to save grain stocks, but it led to in balance in environ frient as insects grew in billions, there being no birds to peck them. Only in the
thick batch of trees in the Indian
Enbassy compound, I could see a
couple of sparrows enjoying the morning sun.
Except for the foreigners, nobody takes milik or butter in China
mot even the Mandarins in the .
days of old-and one can hardly
see any Gattle in the countryside
騰

Page 17
  

Page 18
As REPORT is the result.
of several years of intensive research. it draws on the ease his tories of Rrisoners of conscience in China currently under adoption
or investigation by Al, some of
whom are serving sentences ranging from S or 20 years to life imprisonment. Among them are Lin Xiling, a girl student arrested in 1957 at the age of 20; Chamba Lobsang, a Tibetan monk arrested in 1959; Deng Qingshan, a young peasant sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in 1970, ano others detained for teir beliefs. The report is also based on testimonies of former prisoners who have been held in labour camps and prisons in different parts of the country,
The report criticizes the exis tence of legislation in China which provides for political imprisonment and says that laws are loosely-wore ded and ha\ e been interpreted broadly, permitting large scale imprisonment on political grounds (see report pages Il-7). Under the Chinese constitution, certain cate" gories of people, defined as "class fenemies' can be deprived of their political and civil rights selely on the basis of their "class origin' or political background (see report pages 7-i3).
"The continuous "mass mobilization campaigns' since the early 950s have been used to identify people dissenting from official poliey”, saici ÅN. "These campaigns have broadened the range of political offences to the extent that each of them has defined new types of offenders according to the politics of the period." (see report pages 3-3),
A said it was concerned that
Ander Chinese llaw, pre-trial des tention is unlimited once an arrest warrant has been issued by the Publie Security (police). The trial does not normally begin until the
Political defenda in camera, or trials” where sible. Accordi "Trials are a me than trials, t m2etings to anno (see report pages
CERTAN POL said A, could compulsory lab judicial investig pages 57-61). F range from a ment to executi ment of the Pe China is, today, ernments which has executed pe political offence report cites the who was Sente February 1578, f tributing 岔 tionary' leaflet. court notice, he refused to adm was executed
sentencing (see
A emph?sizec possible to pri hensive portra conditions prev any one time d、 tailed informatio from restriction information with rective labour prison condition ters 3 and 4). A 'to our knc been constant t soners about pi cient food find care.”
A seated that eerfin was the rele of conscience, ອີງຕouncement being made in public of China carriages of just
detainee has "confessed" in writing the past. How
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978

its are usually tried by "mass public to defence is pos
ng to the report,
re formality; rather hey are, in fact, unire the Sentence,
37-57).
fical of ENDERS
be punished by our without even ation (see report ormal punishments errn of imprisonom "The governsolle’s Republic of one of those gove in the last year, arsons convicted of is,' A said. The case of He Chunshu need to death in
br writing and dis
'counter-revoluAccording to the had "obstinately it his crime', and immediately after report pages 6=6%).
that it was not eSent a Compreit of detention ailing in China at e to a lack of dein resulting, in part is on the flow of in the country (Corand penal policy: s, see report Chape
"Although,' said wledge there have complaints by priInishments, insuffis inadequate medical
its primary con base of all prisoners
it welcomed the
that efforts are the People's Reto redress misfee committed in
over, Ấ) säid, o cho
legislation providing for political
imprisonment is still in force and arrests on political grounds are continuing, "We would well come any steps by the government to review the laws and procedures
affecting the detention and treat
ment of political offenders. All provisions prescribing punishment
for non-violent expression of :
beliefs should be repealed’, Al Sä.
一×ー 一×ー -xー
SEVEN MILLION POOR-3
Employment
-train for work, not produce
by R. Kahawita
THE OTHER voice we hear today is the clamour for employs
ment. Within the year gone by we have taken steps to fix many in employment as announced at various political meetings. But the employment provided is no better, and no different to a gove
ernment the people condemned.
Such employment is neither satise fying nor productive. It is done just to get rid of some one clamouring at your door for a job,
any kind of job is what they ask
to secure a morse of food.
So we keep on plugging more hands into every establishrent whether extra hands afe tesdod or nota Even to the private sector an order had gone out to increase the
numbers employed by 10%.
There vras no question of increased production, effect on consumer pffees by such ad= ditional ide hands, inflation and such other repercussions on our economy by increasing employment without a reci
proea înerease în produe
eiconia - - - - - - - - -
6 :

Page 19
Priorities for Progress
Therë ärfe several aver Ues avialable for employment with production and they are all short term: to name a few, sugar cane cotton growing, market gardening and may be a vegetable oil industry.
instead we have several long term.
plans which will be years before we get results. To satisfy the present unemployed we must have parallel plans-short term to absorb as many as possible remember we get 500,000 coming into the labour market annually. We must adopt a different approach to settle this problem from the previous government.
A good example of how they did it is best illustrated by what experienced at a post office. At the stamp counter there was one man to sell the stamp, another to lick it, another to affix it to the letter and yet another to cancel the stamp and throw it to the despatch basket. What is the outcome of this operation? There are four people after one loaf of bread-inflation, and we come plain that fish, meat, eggs, vegee tables, clothing etc., are searce and consequently prices are high. The four persons have zo be maintained on the fifteen cents stamp. No wonder the postal service is running at a loss, like many other national ventures.
do not know whether we have
grasped the magnitude of t'ge Linemployment problem and how em: ployable even if we have the jobs for them. If we did we will not speak of increasing or multiplying university educational facilities. i do not know how, but wé seem to believe that every boy and girl should be put through a University course irrespective of the ability of the student for higher edu. cation or employment opportuinities thereafter, or whether the country needs such education and in such numbers to meet the natio
inal needs. It may be popular polis,
ties. Büt it is nඟt. moment. If so, advertisement for f Due to our short-si be piecessary to officers, surveyors etc., and then mid fitters down to se
Today, if we li draughtsmen, sury it u ral draught trica, mechanical, foremen, book-kee phers, typists, m: tants, dress maker we get them?! Tc our many long te programmes in fiv. quire an army of s. and women. The is there in the What are the teach facilities the cour Yet we speak education in art classics, history e of thinking wou quite in place d. old days, when tion was a sine admitted to a lie Today we must tion to bread an
DURING THE YE ment was in pows'e up Commissions a to investigate un tion, elementary
so on. Haye We S thought to technic ted teaching and tr "GCE 'O' level and th outs? Have wici ap mission or commi gate into the man in the technica tra
grades and take st
training facilities? A ser leyel of “specii we going to com infrastructure for Zone, Greater Colom plan, Housing prog
 

Mye višji not see Dreign Engineers. ghtedness it may import technical , agriculturists
sons, carpenters, mi-killed abour.
»ok for trained eyors, architec፲ኸe፲}ን el e c
civil technical peos, stanog raanagement assisS etc, etc., Can push through rim development e year"S We re
Luch třaihed men
same problem.
private sector. ing and training try has today?
of university is humanities, etc. This kind di have been ring the good libera educa qua non to be isured, society. fit our educae ld butter,
AR the govern
ar, we have set nd Committees liversity educa
education and to far given any and job oriene aining after the he school droppointed a comttee to investio power shortage ເies and artiSan eps to set up
Michôut this les: alists" hoy cre
plete Mohawesi,
the Free Trade
boʻʻ Development កញ៉es frrigge
the redundant school
čjo project8, ment etc.” ݂ ݂
These arê our omissions. So et : us start an intensive training programme to meet the country's
agregard develop=
needs before we embark or expanding university facilities.
e is build schools and teacher facil
is lities at the village level and move
up from there to the urban areas: and district levels. Let us organize trade schools in every village council area so that the school dropouts could be trained in a trade useful to the community and riot loiter in the village lares fin search of erreployment or be idle and qualify for the fifty rupee dole as un employables and unemployed. Let us start training these boys and girls for employment ar. train them to be on their own, rather than lead them to a university and prevent their being unemployed. We have already one and a half milion
of this class in our hands.
What have we planned for this group? A fifty rupees a month will not lead them anywhere. What we have got to do is to train them to be employable. Therefore the government must plan and imple ment a training programme so that every year a certain number of employable and trained boys and girls are available to the courttry. Instead of paying Rs. 50/- a month for being unemployed, let the government pay that allowance
to boys and girls who are being
trained in Trades.
To implement a programme of this nature the government must set up Training Schools and Centres with buildings, equipment and implements, and
teacher artisans and special lists. Let us not start these in the city and towns.
These schools and training cera tres must be in the viagès, electorates and the distriets. - Buildings. Take over some of buildings,
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 20
vacant school buildings after the
school take over and convert and equip them to be trade schools. There are over 400 buildings built aduring the last regime called Agricultural Development centres' many of them are now abandoned or partially occupied. Convert them into trade schools. I am certain about 300 of these build
ings will be available for) imme
diate conversion. Staff: There are hundreds of artisans who have learnt the trade in the hard way. They know their onions so to say, though they may not be educated in the bureaucratic way of thinking. With a little bit of revision, and training in teaehing methods, they can be deployed in the training centres to start
with while we build up the train
ing staff. Equipment and implements: We have already admitted that we have all the goodwill of the world to help us in pushing ahead with the development schemes. So let us get the necessary tools through these agencies, not highly sophisticated equipment but simple hard tools or in the alternative cut out the import of cheese and cake and use that foreign exchange to import trade tools required in these training centres.
To take off on a meaningful job orienta.“ed traira fring programme, we must make an assessment of facilities available and facilities to be provided. For this a Commission or Cornmittee should be appointed within the shortest possible time, to investigate, in quire and ma'ke recommendations to the government with a target date if possible to commence training by the end of this year.
We HEAR of rumblings and teno sion in the country due to our omissions of not implementing short
term programmes to deal with
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
immediate proble let is not wait What are the in ment? Priority o cost of living to cut out import tead, liberalize clothing and oth
of the average
open the distrib ing trades to ti scattered in the many as can b.
Priority two: Ensui
needs regularly
so that there is
enforce a pricing the importer, dis and consumer a fitted. Priority th tries to be geare needs of the av spare machine tin be used for exper vide all the ex to import the meet the first ob four: increase loc food items and for efficient train bution of market tables, meat, fish incentives to th to expand these rural areas.
I NI EMPLOYN a commission to
facilities available technicians in the wate sector inst institutions to absorb post GCE and post eleme vvork out conti curricula for Su teaching institutio
AND, appoint find out ways and the present uner self-employment training facilities ment in self-empl

s
for an eruption. eeds of the mone: bring down che common man, of luxuries, ins
import of food,
Sr essential goods citizen. Throwy ution and serviche small traders rural areas as e accommodated. re import of basic and in quantity always a surplus: Structure so that tributor, retailler re equaily beneree: Local indusd to produce the erage man. Any he thereafter may siye items. Pro
change necessary
aw materials to ligation. Priority all product on set up facilities s ort and distriproduce. Vegeand eggs. Give e private sector services in the
MENT, appoint
inquire into the now to train 2 Public and priitutions, training be organised to
school drop-outs htary education, int, scope and ch training and
So.
a coñ mittee te means of placing
ployed youth in
and set up base prior to placeኃymenቒ፡
To do this
Progress
The two committees to report on practical schemes to enable the government to take action on the recominendations at the beginning
of 9/9.
in the meantime, the
private sector should be requested
to undertake training and provide training facilities in their factories, workshops and work places. To
encourage them to participate in solvi, g the nationaj problem of unemployment, a scheme of income tax relief can be worked out to benefit those participating in the scheme and produce results. What the government is attempting to do now in worker camps, a ps prenticeship schemes, and armies will not produce the desired
rests
conteini.
and job
satisfied worker with a future. We cannot afford to Create
"dissidents.”
At the end of the year gone by
we have a backlog of unemployment around 20% of the work force, very high prices for normal con
sumer goods,
scarcity of these
items, low agricultural droductivity ang the consequent scarcity,
of vegetables etc.
These are the
many problems we took over a year ago and these are the very problems the people wanted the new government to solve for them, S. We have not done this yet and why a government cannot to it
overnight
the people
will not
understand and will not brook
explanation.
So let us create the
impression that a very purposeful attempt is teing made in our se
cond year.
But how? We haya
sought goodwill from other nations and that plenty of money is available to us. So money is not the problem. Trie problems are policy decisions and implementation thereof.
In the foregoing we have listed
what policy decisions are needed
and now let sus reiterate them:- (a) Expand and liberalize import of consumer goods which we elas
ssed as B group in the
foregoing -
3.

Page 21
(b) Open the import of these goods to the private sector also Allow the private sector to wholesale, distribute and retail them. (c) Restrict and control the import of non-essential consumer goods. Those who have the contacts and facilities to import such items let them break into the import and distribution of essential cors= sumer goods. (d) Encourage the small scale trader to set up business in the rural areas for selling and buying; also to retail all rationed items of consumer goods. (e) Develop the production, price support and effective marketing of Group A. To achieve this deploy a trained Agricultural and livestock extension service based in the rural Agricultural rommunities. (f) Appoint a committee to go into the content, quality, levels of training, training facilities, job fixation of technical and tradesmen, teaching and training facilities for technical personnel, certificated tradesmen, junior grade management levels, sub-grade specialist and recommend ways and means of achieving a comprehensive training programme within the shortest possible time. (g) in the meantime, en
list the corporation of the private
sector and government institutions undertake a crash programme of training in their offices, indus tries, factories, workshops, work places. Offer them some scheme of tax relief for such training. (h) Finally set up a working group within the Minstry of Planning to follow the training schemes and assess the results. (i) At cabinet level a portfolio for youth affairs and training for the purpose of
Policy making, implementation and
follow up should be created. We Sald so in our manifesto, a year ago,
Concluded.
Montreal. 26th August 1973.
。 * རྒྱ་
9.
MARGINAL Coi
The Math
Fireworks
by Pertinax
MNSTER CYR who has recently a kind of notoriet, Tamil Windmills Lance of doubtful style and manner of old, launched time in the field the garden of
Nissanka Wijeyer: assisted not by on btit had three P the ministerial a met. in fact, it three Panchos ha Don Quixotic mi
this new war.
It is necessary te the manner in v was joined. The Monday, Novembe page lead entitle STUDENTS GIVE -NDUSTRES report read: "Th in spotlighting t found in the m: GCE (AL) papers to create commu alleged by certain to bring to book mitted against a pupils who sat Mr. Cyril Mathe industries and Scie a Press Conferenc the 1977 GCE ( about 4000 Tami given high mark marking of their Tamil examiners, Professor, P. P. G Vice Chancellor c of Sri Lanka, Pr Ariyaratine, Profess of the Vidyalank Professer Susanth:

MENTš
ew
L MATHEW, cquired a special by tilting at with a Sinnala quality in the of Don Quixote a new war, this of education, in fellow; Minister, atte. He was e dutiful Pancho, inchos, to carry rmour and hellooked as if the ld inveigled the
nister to launch
place on record which the battle Daily News on r 3 had a frontsed 4000 TAM N - GH MARKS MNISTER, The e main purpose he discrepancies arking of Tamil was not intended hal dissention as
TULF MPs but
the crime come vast number of the examination, w, Minister of intific Affairs, told ze on Friday. At AL) Examination students were s due to overpapers by some Mr. Mathew said. L. Siriwardene, 5f the University ofessor J. K. P. sor of Chemistry ara Campus and à de Silva were
associated with the Ministe åt the Press Conference. Mr. Mathew produced at the Press Conference, the relevant Tamil Answer Scripts which showed these over-mark ings and invited the Pressmen tot
have a close look at them. Pro
fessor Siriwardene answering a quere: stion, said that where University places were concerned, every single mark counted and one mark could easily displace the positions of at least 50 students. The Professor said these discrepancies in the Tamil answer scripts had been detected at the re-scrutiny stage in an answer, which had to be given with diagrams. These scripts had been picked at random and re-scrutiny was generally done by One Chief Examiner and two Assistant Examiners.
Below this report was a second headline with equal prominence. DISCREPANCIES IN GSQ TAM ILSCRIPTS MARKING, and and the report read: "Discrepancies have been suspected in the marking of Tamil answer scripts in the 1977 General Science Quali fying Examination of the Peradeniya Campus of the University of Sri Lanka. A high percentage of 'A' passes in the Tamil medium indicates discrepancies. Forty five Sinhala Students sat this examinas tion and their results indicated that there were only two 'A' passes, thirty five 'B' passes and eight 'C' passes. Whereas in the Tamil medium where only 2 students sat, ten of them had got 'A' passes and two 'B' passes. In the Jaffna campus, the results of the General science Qualifying Examination revealed there were only ist and 2rd class passes, and not a single third class. This high percentage of "A" passes in the Tamil medium indicate discrepancies and this matter will be inquired into, said Professor P. P. G. Lܕ݁. Siriwardene, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sri Lanka at a.
TRIBUNE. December 9, 1978

Page 22
Press Conference on Friday, it is accepted that a large population of Sinhala children are clamours ing for a higher education and this is the same in the Tamil areas. Discrepancies of this nature have a fatal effect on the Sinhala children because ... their population is great, the Professor said. Professor Siriwardene said at the press con ference standardisation did not seem a fool-proof method, since discrepanries such as over-marking, could take place. Therefore, he said the best method would be to divide the students accord ing to their media, standardise according to subjects and allot places in the university in relation
to the population percentage of
the races. This method would ensure proper representation of the different rares and would protect
students against cheating, he said."
THE Daily Mirror, also of November 3 had a front page splash entitled FULL SCALE PROBE INTO MARKING OF TAMIL MEDIUM SCRIPTS : MATHEW. The report (byline B. C. Perera) read : The Government would institute full scale investigations into the discrepancies noted in the marking of Tamil-medium GCE (AL) science answer scripts of April 1978. This was said by Mr. Cyril Mathew, Minister of industries and Scientific Affairs at a Press Conference on Friday night at his resid: ence in Colombo, Mr. Mathew said the investigations may even cover a
longer period because there was
proof of favouritism by some Tamilmedium examiners over a number of years. Associated with the Minis
ter were Prof. P. P. G.L. Siriwardene,
Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sri Lanka, Prof. J. K. P. Ariyaratne and Prof. S. de Silva. Showing pressmen several marked Sinhala and Tafinil answer scripts of the GCE (AL) Zoology paper, the
Minister said one question was the drawing of a series of diagrams showing the stages of life of the
TRİBUNİE, Ėecember 9, 1978
mosquito, Accort tions to all examir were to be giver allotted for the one of the stages mosquito was no marked Sirahala selected at rando
marks had been the stages of th mosquito had not în six of the Tan which had passed four examiners, given even for thr the Minister mai to be a regular feat of papers in respec students. This w the other studen Said that if favo shown in drawings imagine how writt had been correcte then pointed ou discrepancies that the General Scier
Examination in Bo deniya Campus in He said he had ret that at a recently examination the had been sent to Senate approval first and second cl had been no failur the first time in students had achi at an examinatio added that firm methods are new the Government discrepancies.'
Strangely enoug Sun-Davasa group carried any report cònference. T Tuesday 4th ear chis Press Con was oviously pirat
looks very much ment media alon Hogຮູ affi the Th

ing to the instručers no marks at al. out of 25 marks question, if even of the life of the t drawn. Sewerał answer scripts in showed that no iven when one of e grov”th of the been drawn. But hij answer scripts, through at least marks had been ee drawings. This intained, appeared lure in the marking t of Tamil medium as very unfair by ts. Mr. Mathew uritism could be one could only en answer Scripts d. The Minister t several glaring hae oecured at ce Qualifying
tany of the Perathe Tamil medium. beived information concluded degree results of which the Universities there was only ass passes. There es. This must be the world that eved such results ni Mr. Mathew and fool-proof contemplated by te afrest thèse
h, not one of the of newspapers about this press e Wira kesari of ried a report of Ference', but it ed from the Lake
newspapers. It as if the governs
mès ywyểre invited
yere famil Students. Favoured:
for the Press Conference-ff there was a conference at all, We shall revert to this later.
It is also only fair to mention that Minister Mathew had raised this red-herring in Parliament when thes new Universities Bill was debated on November 7. For the record, extracts from the Lobby Notes by Ajit Samaranayake in the Ceylon Observer of November 8 under the heading TAMIL STUDENTS FAVOURED AT EXAMS, CLAIMS CYRL MATHEW are published below: industries Minister Mr. Cyril Mathew dropped a bombshell alleging favouritism towards Tamil pre-university and university studeints on the part of Tamil university lecturers. Mr. Mathew produced marking schemes and question papers, affidavits and memoranda to back up his charge of Tamil favouritism. He rattled of a long
list of academics who had made the
identical charge ranging from Prof. A. D. V. de S. Indraratne to the Vice Chancellor, Prof. P. P. G. L. Siriwardene, himself. The Minister's prize production was a diagram. Students of Zoology at the 1977
Advanced Level examination had
been asked to draw the stages of life of a mosquito. Examiners had been specifically instructed that marks be given only if all the stages were drawn. But the Minister produced a Tamil answer script in which the student had scored 5 marks without giving the final stage. A similar answer script of a Sinhala student had been given nought. Mr. Mathew's charge was that Tamil university lecturers over marked the scripts of students of their community, that they leaked out questions to Tamil students and
that they were invited to and
attended seminars at Tamil schools where they tackled certain examinae tion questions which curiously
enough cropped up in quest för
甲、
papers at the next exam. on the general charge of fami
20
ܢܛ

Page 23
were Tamil Students favoured
favouritism Mr. Sivasithambaram on behalf of the TULF pointed out that a committee headed by Prof. Perera had exonerated Tamil dons of this oft-repeated charge. But replying to the ministerial revelation later Kayts MP, Pandit K. P. Ratnam, said that he did not intend to defend at all whoever had overmarked the scripts. He, however, put the ball into the Government's court by demanding why it did not act against such miscreats. He also voluntee red to produce similar examples of overmarking in Sinhala Medium scripts if a committee of the House was appointed to go through all the scripts. So much for the sub-plot which the Industries Minister introduced into the main academic drama. . . . . . 8 #
What was said in Parliament is privileged and other Parliamentarians have e dest with it and will no doubt deal with it in the future also. But important questions have a risen in regard to the "Press Conference' reported in the Lake House and Times papers on November 3 which greatly concerns the credibility of the government media.
A Tribune reader has raised the the following questions about this "Press Conference': "The Daily Mirror reported that the Press Conference was held on Friday night at the Ministers residence in Colombo i.e., on 10th Nov. 1978. The question ask are : (i) Who gave the authority to Minister Mathew to summon a press conference on the topic of education, which is outside his concern Even if we accept the fact that Minister of Education is out of the island, an acting minister is there. And why the acting minister was not present at the 'conference' which ccmes under his purview 2 (2) is it normal for a minister to hold a press conference at his residence, if not at his office at day time. Even if we accept that the topic was of urgent nature, then
2门
why the Saturda papers didn't re. too late to go for then why did t Nov. 78) papers there an un due for the conferent And why did Sun : lly in the forefro reporting) not that reporters of not invited
"From the wa the story, it look reporter had jus which appeared News and Daily report does no news conference it was held on was thère an und for the Virakesgr. it may be that, modate Mr. M. observation on Conference', W. 'educate its reac a report of the Conference pinch other papers.
(3) “Those wh with the Minister (according to the Daily News rep Chancellor P. P. Prof. Ariyaratine Silva, Let me ask vas making a se matter concernit But not one of t be present. Th Professors in paper, the Mini quoted) -name Arudpragasam ( and Prof. V. K. Campus). Were ed for this confe chief examiner in medium scripts not, why ? Ev authorities were the Minister, v reporters not Co
 
 
 

s (lith Now. 78) it this if it was print on Saturday, e Sunday's (12th miss it? Why was elay of two days to be reported 2 no Davasa (normalit of this type of port this? Is it these papers were
it had reported s like “virakesari' copied the story on Monday's Daily Mirror. And this : say, when the was held 2 And if Friday night, why ue delay of 3 days to report on it in order to accornSivasithamparam's the "Minister's rakescri had to ters by publishing so-called Ministers ing the story from
es were associated at the Conference a Daily Mirror and orts) were, Vice G. L. Si riwardenne, and Prof. S. de this. The Minister rious charge on a ng Tamil lecturers. hem was invited to ere are two Tamil Zoology (the test ster had seen and ly Prof. K. D。
Colombo Campus)
Sanesalingam (Jafna these two summon renee Or was the charge of the Tamil summoned 2 if en if these Tamil not summoged by hy did the press intact them to have
a follow up or explanation. And mark you, there was a two-days gaදා before the story appeared in print Was it not the duty of the Lake House and the Times to have got the views of the Tamil lacturers
(4) "Daily Mirror report says that, Minister "showing pressmen several marked Sinhala and Tamil answer scripts....' What is the range of this "several' 2 Was it in the region of tens, or hundreds or thousands - Why was it not said strictly 2 If the pressmen were so keen on accurate reporting, could they not have taken photographs or photostats, of alleged irregular marking in Tamil medium answer scripts, to authentia eate the story 2 why haven't they done this 2 The Daily News headlined its story by saying "400 Tamil students giver high marks". What sort of sampling was taken 2 Who were present there, when these detections were made 2 Was this 4000 number pertaining only to the Zoology paper of Tamil Medium where
the detection was made? Or does
this 4000 number encompass all the subjects in Tamil medium ? similarly has any check been rade on the Sinhala medium scripts + So who made it ?"
TULF spokesmen and the TULF press(such as there is) have protested against this Mathews onslaught assisted by Vice-Chancellor Siriwardene and two other obvious hatchet-men. But there has been a total silence in the government media-Lake House and Times-about these protests inspite of numerous memoranda (which has also reached Tribune and which we will publish in due course) by students and staff members of different campuses. is this fair, correct- or ethical journalism? is this not slanting and distorting of news Should those who have criticized and challenged the states ments of Mathew and Siriwardene not be given an opportunity to

Page 24
Teat-owned. Tedia become so Ferverse ?
The Communist Party fortnightly Forward of November 5, 1973 alone made a pertinent comment (che SLFP and LSSP have been silent oil this matter so far. This is what the Forward said: "Why Mathew 2 That is the first thing that strikes one about industries Minister Cyril
and later at a press conference at hi, residence on November 10th, regarding the alleged overmarking of exam papers of Tamil-medium students by Tamil-medium examiners for the GCE (A level) Science examination and for the 1977 General Science Qualifying Exam for entrarice to the Peradeniya campus of the University. Such matters, surely, come under the Minister of Education and Higher Education, Although the permanent Minister is temporarily out of Sri Lanka, the matters referred to go back to earlier times when he was among us. Dr. Nissanka Wijeratine is also too ingrained an obscurantist and Sinhala-chauvinist to remain quiet over such a matter. But both he and his deputy Minister, who acts for him, have remained strangely and significantly, silent, even though, if there is any truth in the aflegation, a maior Scandal has taken place in respect of institutions in their charge. Mr Mathew may also be the Minister of Scientific Affairs. But this cannot exolain how examination papers, which should be kept in the security pos
session of educational authorities,
came into his hands, to be exhibited to newspapers. Nor does it explain how the Vice-Chancellor and some ether Professors came to be asociated with Mr. Mathew in a press conference held in his private house.
"if there has been ary tampering with marks, it is a serious matter that no one can condone. Those responsible should certainly be identified and sternly dealt with.
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
Mathew himself, that the govern investigated the a Daily Mirror (i. Matthew as ran investigation. to be investigate. Mathew been so public conclusio matters for which
terial responsibil
fiumber of di can be reached if investigated. It r the allegations a 2 genuine mistak Or that some pe favouritism has t
"Brushing all aside, Minister that there has bee and not merely fe tions a systemati vide-Spread consp in the Tamil me to inflate the mia in the same media them unjustified a their Sinhala-med in selection for me engineering cours sity. The allegati premature, but ca up racist antago when it is made investigation and Mr. Mathew’s pe
"The big quest Mathew Should ha this matter at this when the Presiden trusted colleague has just been rega India with tales a he and his governi friends with the much he has alrea their problems. Mr. Mae hevây has bee by Chauvinist elemet the Ministry of Ed lobbying to have abolish mediawise

statement of Mr. it seems obvious ment has not yet legations. For the 3ff) quotes Mr. nising a 'full-scale the matter is still , why has Minister quick to rush to ns, especially on he bears no Minisity ? After all a erent conclusions matters are fully may be found that re fase. Or that e has been made. ersonal cor limited aken place.
these possibilities Mathew Suggests n for several years }r these examinaC, organised and iracy by examiners dium deliberately rks of examinees Lim, so as to give dvantages vis-a-vis um counter-parts 2dical, science and es in the Univerbn is not merely pable of stirring nisms. Especially 2 before proper by a person in bsition. icn is why, Mr. fe chosen to raise time, especially whose close and Mr. Mathew is, ling audiences in hout how much ment want to be Tamils, and how dy done to solve Some think that in made a catspaw hts in aາd around lication, who are the decisions te standardisation
Ayere rami Students - Favovared?
reversed. But while such pressures are undoubtedly there, Mr. Mathew is no political baby and cannot easily be led by the nose. He is not only a red-baiter and crypto-fascist, but also che mostraest-oriented Minister in the Cabinet. He led the campaign to keep Mr. Tondaman cut of the Cabinet and to oppose even the small concessions given to the Tamil language in the new Constituticn. What people want to know is whether Mr. Mathew's latest shots are part of a pre-emptive volley, inspired by fears that there may be some truth that the TULF or parts thereof may soon be coming closer to the government. President JayaWardene's indication in India that some TULF MPs want to join the government, and that he is giving thought to how the Constitutional obstacles can be overcome, must be giving Mr. Mathew and his racist friends the creeps. What is most likely is that Presiderit layawardene's Sermons on national unity and Mr. Mathew's racist salies are two sides of the same policy. After all, the President and Mr. Mathew are too close political buddies to clash over a mater like this. Anyway, it is small wonder that Mr. Amirthalingam, on his return from abroad a few days ago, re-affirmed the statement he made while abroad, that the Tamil community in Sri Lanka had been more secure during the seven years of the previous government than in the nast year of the present government'.
Before we go on to set out and discuss the memorandum circulated by the Teach ing Steff in the Jaffna Cam
pus We thirk it best to first Publish
Statement of the Peradeniya "
the University Teachers Association on Examination Malpractices. It is dated November 21, 1978. The document is signed by Dr. P. V. J. Javasekera, President, and Dr. B. Gajamerage= dera, Secretary, and it reads: "The PUTA is perturbed to note that attempts are being made to mislead
22

Page 25
Sri Lanka Chroniele
the general public regarding the conduct of a section of the examiners of the G.C.E. (AL) and University Examinations (General Science Qualifying, 1977). The statements made at a press conference by a Cabinet Minister and the ViceChancellor of the University of Sri Lanka which were reported in the national newspapers of the 13th of November, 1978 are particularly disturbing. The PUTA regretfully notes that these statements could only result in stirring up communal dissension rather than solving any problems that may exist regarding the examinations referred to at the press conference. The PUTA observes that no official inquiry has been held into any of the alleged examination offences or discrepancies referred to and hence considers it unfair for responsible officers of the University to issue public statements on Such matters in a manner that : (i) brings this University and its examinations into disrepute : (ii) maligns one section of the examiners of the GCE (AL) and University examinations ; and (iii) prejudices any possible official inquiry into the alleged offences. The results of the General Science
Qualifying examination were released
two months ago and the ViceChancellor had sufficient time to hold an inquiry and take appropriate action before " making public pronouncements. The PUTA urges the Hon. Minister of Education and Higher Education and the University Authorities to initiate immediate and impartial inquiries into alleged offences regarding GCE (AL) and the General Science Qualifying Examinations respectively. Such in qui ries should also cover possible shortcomings in the examination systems and recommend appropriate corrective measures. Any examiner found guilty should be duly punished."
This statement, we are aware, was sent to all newspapers, including
Lake House and
following note : herewith a staten tive Committee the alleged exan tices which were g in the national n November 1978. this issue will repercussions in earnestly hope t receive your seri
Why was this
(To be c
Χ
SRI LANKA CH
Nov. 23
DARY OF EVEN AND THE WORL DALY NEWSPAP
COL
CDN-Ceylon D Ceylon Daily Observer; ST-S Dinamina; LD-L kesari; ATH-At SLD-Sri Lankar SU-Sun DV-Day CM-Chintamani RR-Riviresa; EN information De DK-Dinakara.
THURSDAY,
The President sa asking why a g to create a just a is harassing appointing a Commission but of appointing t not to harass or anybody but to f committee du regime. The pli taken over the
fated ice-landic
DC-8 from her

Times with the We are sending hent of the Execus of the PUTA on minations malp raciven wide publicity ewspapers of 13th We believe that have widespread
the country and
hat our views will ous consideration.”
blacked out 2.
ontinued)
Χ. χ.
RONICLE
-Nov. 29
ITS IN SRI LANKA D COMPLED FROM ERS PUBLISHED IN OMBO.
aily News; CDMirror; CO-Ceylon unday Times; DMankadipa; VK-Virantha; S/M-Silumina; dipa; vasa, DP-Dinapathi: WK-Weekend; -Eelanadu; DPRpt. Press Release:
NOVEMBER 23 : aid that many were overnment pledged ind righteous society certain people by special Presidential he said the purpose he Commission was politically victimise ind out the misdeeds ring the previous lot who was to have controls of the illAirlines Loftleider e to indonesia said
that he could find nothings wrong with the Katunayake Airport infant milk foods and all other varieties of milk food will be made available to everybody at prices that prevailed before November 5-Budget Day. Severe penalties including fine and imprisonment await traders who hoard goods, refuse to sell, monopolise trade and engage in profiteering and unfair trade practices under the Consumer Protection Bill the Minister of Trade has placed before Parliament. The 24 resthouses
managed by the local authorities and coming under the purview of the Ministry of Local Government, Housing and Construction are to receive a new look on the directions
of the PM. A cyclonic storin with
an intensity of 75 miles per heur is expected to cross the east-coast near Batticaloa about noon today and cross the island.-CDN, The President asked yesterday why persons who condemned the government for appointing the Special Presidential Commission are disturibed if they have done nowrong. The leader of the Oppositiori denied yesterday that he had said in America that there was persecuting of Tamils in Sri Lanka He had been misquoted he said.- CDM. The Minister of Land, land Development etc has ordered a full probe into allegations against certain government officials who are said to have provided misleading infers imation to a visiting World Bank team. The state is to take part in the brokerage business legislation to enable this would be introduced in Parliament soon, said the Minister of Finance. Trade and Shipping Minister Athulathmudali leaver today for Malaysia to r resent his views to the presitigious Willy Brandt Cemmission sitting in Kuala LumpurSU. The PM speaking in Parliament stated that the government would find a solution to the problems ef the Tamils soon if the TULF cooperated with the government.
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 26
The Minister of Finance said is Parliament that however many buses are imported the transport services cannot be improved as the adminstration was too corrupt.-VK. The | MP for Tangalle speaking în Parliament said while Sinhala blood flowed in their veins Tamil Eelam cannot be got.-DP. 25,000 hundred weights of dry fish stocked at Welisara is facing the possibility of getting spoilt as co-operatives do not wish to buy it; a further consigiment of the same quantity is expected in the island shortly. The Minister of Textiles said that Sri Lanka will be in a position to export textiles in two year's time-LD. , 50,000 yards of various textiles will be distributed among co-ops, private traders and Laksala for the festive season-DV. Algerian President Boumedienne is in a coma and his condition is very serious. "an's oil industry badly hit by strikes and work stoppages which have cost the country more than a billion dollars
in lost revenues is slowly returning
to normal.--CDM. The UNESCO will in future support the return of cultural objects taken from third world countries to countries during the colonia! era. Cuba announced it would release 3,000 political prisoners about 80% of them remaining on the island:
however the US would have to accept those prisoners who wished
to go there. The Justice Department said it would permit 2500 homeless Vietnamese now living in over-crowded camps in Malaysia to enter the U.S.-Si.
FRU DAY, NOVEMBER 24 : Cyclonic weather which hit the east coast. yesterday evening is reported to have affected over 500 families; all contrunication between the Batti
caloa district and the rest of the
island were cut off around 6.40 situation reports reaching Colombo through the Police Radio Command
Centre Foire éjarjera stated that 30.
laŭdustrialised se gestion in the por
houses and 10 fishing wadiyas had
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
i tipta
been badly dar
cyclonie winds
over 15 feet.
of food suppli affected area': '\n' raceived be 3 Were out last : appeinted a c delimitation of Concils. The
volunteers who cến the 21st bị orientation cours day. The gover to issue compr eov ser to a fish off the coast a Widespread dam have beer caus cyclonic storm w and high seas las cf the island fro
gate force win
were experience Batticaloa. The
Port Cargo Cor
g-dered the sa nearly Rs. 35 uncleared cargo days in various in a drastic mow
MF has increased for borrowing fr substantially-the
recruitment of 5 including women immediately to cies-CDAA. An ing program is t the Ministry of January next year. is expected to m DP. The Ministr,
steps to export 2 the Maldives.--
ment has deciờe oil in Pesalai and from Triñeeñala
Petroletim Corpo to grant the exp
Norwegian firm.
wing of india's a

haged by 80 m.p.h. and waves reaching A severe shortage es in the cyclone as the last report re communication light.
the proposed Rural first batch of UN arrived in the island egan their 9 day e at Kalutara yesterninett has decided ‘ehensive insurance ing craft operating
age is believed to ed when a severe rith hurricane winds shed the east const m noon yesterday : is around 80mph di in Kalminai and
Chairman of the poration yesterday
le by auction of
million worth of tying for over 30 port werehouses e tolease the con "t of Colombo. The i Sri Lanka's quota om the fund very country can draw lion dollars. The 10 police constables will get under way
ill existing vacan.
ajor teacher trainbo be tainched by
Education from -SU. Tha cyclone ove northwardsof Trade is taking 500 tons of rice to M. The governd to explore for
in the coastal areas
e to Galle ; the ration has decided loring rights to a -DM. The oficial
nce-powerful Gone
The PM has ommittee for the
Sri Lanka Chronieke
gress Party was split over an appea, from former PM indira Gandhi to
unite with her congress faction to
fight the government of PM Morarii CP leaders and Premiers
Cesai. from the Soviet bloc gathered in the Kremlin for the first Summit meeting of the Warsaw Pact military alliance since 1976. The Shah of ran said that he is not going to
abdicate in response to the rioting
in the streets of his country. The Iranian military-led government of General Azhari won a confidence
vote in Parliament yesterday and the PM pledged political and social f Sri Lanka.---CDN.
freedom for all once law and order was restored.-CDN. Tension over a possible civil war gripped Nicar'a- gua as General AnaStasio Somoza defied an opposition demand for
his resignation as President. Fighting
involving armoured forces has flared up once more between Uganda and Tanzania, both countries claiming the clash took place on their own
territory.-CDM. An apparent call
for Vice Premier Teng Hsiao-Ping to take over the Chinese leadership
was made in wall posters which
appeared in Central Peking yesterday. Iraq is seeking increased military support from the Soviet Union according to Arab diplomatic sources. British Foreign SecretaryDavid Owen made clear that Rhodesian PM lan Smith would stilt be liable to arrest as a rebel if he visited Britain-SUX.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER. 25 : The hundred and forty nine persons were reported to have lost their lives, 15 of them in the Batticaloa district alone, in the cyclonic storm which hit the Eastern Province last Thursday morning and spread to other areas leaving a trails of devastation. The government yes
terdry rushed a team of Parliamen
tarians and simultaneously mounted
a massive relief and rescue operation
in the areas affected by the cyclonie
storm. The Finance Ministry has
24

Page 27
said a firm 'no' to requests made
by doctors and engineers for a reduction of import duty on cars they are permitted to import on free exchange. The Red Cross Society answering the SOS for relief for cyclone victims in the Eastern Province has made arrangements to despatch volunteers with medicines, food supplies and clothing to the stricken areas. Train services to Kandy, Matale, Badulla, Batticaloa, Puttalian and Trincomalee had to be cancelled last night. 188 prisoners in the Batticaloa jail escaped during the confusion caused by the cyclonic stroin. A massive flood relief operation was launched by the National Security Council when reports reaching Colombo revealed that the cyclone had devastated many parts of the island.-CDN. Over 100,000 were rendered homeless by the havoc wrought by the cyclonic strom that ravaged the eastern and northern provinces and the incessant rains throughout the country. The fury of Thursday night's cyclonic storm was felt not only in the east and north but even in the hill country where heavy rain and gale force winds caused earthslips and floods which left many dead and injured and thousands homeless or marooned as well as extensive damage to property.-CDM. The government yesterday appointed eight co-ordinating officers for areas badly affected by the cyclone. Power supplies in the North Central Province and Fastern Province have been completely interrupted following the cyclone. The giant Parakrana Samudra Reservoir in the Polonnaruwa district is reported
to have reached almost spill levelSU. All train services operating on the main lines have been cancelled due to floods and damage to rail tracks.-DP. Since there was gale force winds upto 80 mph all planes were diverted from Katunayake airport. The government is to launch a program to export coconut oil
25
needed for the soa import tallow instea can save over Rs. 3 of foreign exchange phone subscribers dialling facilities to by June next year. announced a maior in its war against Erit and said it had re-op to the province's to the Sea. Aut Iranians who fled t fear of persecution charges to give the face trial in their abse loss of their prope of Iran’s principal reli Ruholloh Khomeing his followers to laun of civil disobedience country’s new militar A personal envoy of leave for Southern Af in an urgent attemp Camp David style st over Rhodesia.-CDN. dent Leonid Brezhet British PM of Seriou if Britain sold China ment.-CDM. The E forces everthrew F Pereda in a coup fou he came to power.--
SUN DAY, NOVEM massive relief effort yesterday as state private organisations with the trail of deat tion left in the wake storm which crossed of the island late t early Friday morning. ment of Marketing despatched ten lorry provisions to Battica flood stricken areas About 500 persons a and nearly one mil homeless as a result which raged over se the island last thursday Milk Board is expect loss of over Rs. 85

p industry and d; the country 0 million worth this way. Telewill get direct 200 countries -DM. Ethiopia break through Crean seperatists ened a key road main outlet horities urged he country for on corruption imselves up or ince and possible *ty. The Shah gious
has called oil ich z. campaign 2 ť9 O:ISť tň8
y government. British PM will rica, next week it to set up a um mit meeting Soviet Presy has vya Fred
S Copa Sequences military equipBolivian armee President Juan r months after
SU
BR 26 : A got underway
agencies and
began coping h and destrueof the cyclonic the eaS& coast
hursday night
The Depart
Development loads of dry loa and other yesterdav-SO. re feared dead för rendere of the cyclone veral parts of . The National ed to incura million on its
import of skimmed milik powder and payment of rents and dues for the warehousing of imports. About 2 p.m. yesterday the Maha Oya overflowed causing extensive damage to people, property and animals; according to police reports over 400 houses have collapsed on either side of the river. Two Indian Air Force Avro planes and two helicopters ás well as a Russian Air Force plane was expected yested ; fourteen SLAF Aircraft are being used for rescue
and relief operations. A trail of
havoc has been left in the Kelani basin too reminiscent of the 1947 floods. A crisis is brewing in the SLFP owing to its youth league refusing to nominate its represent tative to the Party's Political Bureau-ST. The death toll in Friday mornings' cyclone havoe, the worst in Sri Lanka's history reached over 600 yesterday. Many tanks in the traditional "rice bowl" have breached and overflowed. The multi-milion rupee Valachenai 93Pe? mills factory is out of operation and rendered incapacitated by the de yastating cyclonic storm. On the orders of the President all operations connected with the cyclone have been placed on a 'war footing'; reinforcements of armed services
and Police personnel were being
rushed to the affected areas yesterday. The Minister of Justice said that the havoc is a deadly setback for the government's development efforts and it would take at least six months to restore normalcy. Paddy worth eight million has been destroyed in Batticaloa as a result of the cyclone.- WK. The extent of damage sustained in Kalmunai has still not been estimated.-VK. The conservative government of PM Robert Muldoon of New Zealand won yesterday's general elections but with a greatly reduced maiority. The known death toll from last weekend's mass suicide and murders of Jones Town religious commune
rose to 775 and it could go stil
RBUNE, December 9, 1978

Page 28
higher-SO. Rhodesia slapped martial law on another 10% of the country bringing almost three quarters of its territory under military control in the war with black nationalist guerillas. Eritrean rebels claimed that the Soviet backed Ethiopian Air Force was attacking them with bombs and said 20,000 government troops were trying to regain control of the province-ST. The view among
analysts in Peking én the latest wall
poster campaign is that Vice Premier Teng Hsiao Ping is the favourite of those putting up the postorsWK.
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 27: The Ministry of Social Services will undertake a rehabilitation and reconstruction program in the cyclone and flood devastated areas on the directions of the President to rehabilitate all victims within three months; they will be given free clothing and food aid assistance to rebuild irrigation channels, paddy fields, houses and school buildings. The oficial death toll has been confirmed at 375. The Ministry of Health has organised an immunisation program against typhoid in all cyclone affected areas. India yesterday decided to send tents, blankets, light clothing for 10,000 persons and 100 tonnes of rice and biscuits for people affected by the cyclone in Sri Lanka.-CDN. With the cyclone death toll now at an unofficial
ly estimated 1000 and nearly
million homeless the government will allocate about Rs. 200,000,000 for immediate relief measures for relief in cyclone and food devastated areas. Foreign aid to provide relief to cyclone victims has been mobilised on a top priority level; representatives from CARE, Red Cross,
UNICEF, WHO, UNDP etc. and
governments of USA, UK, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Japan and India participated at a meeting and
鄱 indicated that massive scale would be forthcoming-CDM. More
TRIBUNE. December 9, 1978.
than` one mil) by last week's
free food for
gover ninet an people from th: of Manampitiya tion ; they ar without food cyclone hit t Royal Airforce packed with ni arrive in the
The Kelani G minor flood lev low lying are going under v. Yatiyantota an Kegalle distric and people art tops. A large
and nurses are
cyclone affecte operations. (. persons have b less in the Batt The army is clock on road cyclone affecte Anuradhapura,
parai, Dambulla Reports reachi
ths kalmuna that everything to the gro
well as buildin of the people a yet come-VK. or Sri Lanka
Nohamed LebH Ambassador ta No. 256/78. Sri Lanka has a Tilakarate Amh
in Japan.-DPR
government of S ed Mr. C. R. D. L. in China as Amb tic People's Rep. residence in
247/78. The M Affairs has in Diplomatic missi the N Disaster UNDP and UN

tion people affected
cyclone will receive
three months the journed yesterday, 24 a NC Province village have died of Starvae said to have been aid water since the he area. A British = VC O Airliner nedical supplies will
Country tomorrow.
anga has exceeded - el and already several
ag of Colombo are vater. Ruwanwella, d Dehiowita in the È are under water
e living on tree number of doctors
being rushed to the di areas for relief Over fifty thousand een rendered homeicaloa district alone. working round the clearance in the d areas of Kandy,
Polonnaruwa, Ám
and Batticaloa-SU. ng Colombo about i situation reveal has been razed und – trees as gS but no news
ind their plight has The government
has appointed Mr. e Ahamed Refai as Yugoslavia.-DPR.
The government of ppointed Mr. B. P.
bassador of Sri Lanka No. 245-78. The ri Lanka has appointDesinghe Ambassador assador to Democra
public of Korea with
Peking.-DPR No. inister of Foreign
formed Heads of .
ons and others that
Relief Organisation DO had contributed.
Sri Lanka Chroniele
US dollars 65,000 to meet Sri Lanka's immediate requirements.-DPR. The Flour Milling Corporation has taken steps to distribute Rs. 1 million worth of flour among the cyclone victims. The second MP for HarisPatuwa Mr. P. Wiesiri disclosed. in Parliament yesterday that Mr. A. C. de Zoysa has misused his position as the Chairman of the Air Ceylon Commission by giving ar. agency of Air Ceylon to Miller Trayel Agency who's director is his wife.-DK. Egypt said yesterday no agreement had been reached on either the draft peace treaty with Israel or any of the annexed documents related to it. An Israeli Justice Minister said that Jews would continue to settle in the occupied West Bank of the Jordan and Gaza strip once the local Palestinians were given self rule. S. Africa has agreed to a supervised election in Namibia but with reservations that will T require further negotia
tions.-CDM. A string of sensational -
Wall posters attacking late Chinese CP Leader Mao Tse Tung and praising Taiwan and the USA have opened the way to freedom of speech dramatised by an open discussion between foreigners and crowds of cheering people.–SU.
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 28: The President making the opening adress at the tenth anniversary assembly of the Press Foundation of Asia said that no one disputed that the press should be free but the issue that has to be resolved is what the boundaries of this freedom are. The Minister of State în his keynote address of the Press Foundation sessions stated that the press today faces a new responsibility. The Press Foundation of Asia has been able to give the press of our count tries a certain degree of stability and also some thrust to proceed in the right direction during certain dark periods said the PM who was chief guest at a luncheon meeting of the
26

Page 29
Sri Lanka
Press Foundation of Asia. The
Minister of Finance made an appeal to the TULF in Parliament to cooperate with the government as he said that this was perhaps the last time that national unity can 长会 achieved.--CDN. A badly-shaken Justice Minister yesterday said that he estimated the death to to be around 1000 and the damage about Rs. 100 million in the Eastern Province alone. Food waters were receding all over the island except for a few areas where rising waters were causing anxiety and alarm.- CDM. The PM said in Parliament that the cyclone that struck Sri Lanka last Thursday was the worst in our history. The Batticaloa distillery which had its roof blown away by the cyclone was later looted of its entire stock of bottled arrack.
A contingent of 100 prisoners of
Welikada prison have volunteered to assist in relief work on the cyclone ravaged east coast; they will help to clear roads.-SU. Justice Minister
said that there was no way out
other than building an entirely new city in Batticaloa for there was nothing left, not even one place of worship was intanct. As the tidal waves reached over 20-30 feet in height the entire coast of Kalmunai has been washed out during the recent cyclone.-DP. The PM speaking in Parliament on the budget debate requested the TULF to join the government as district ministers and work to build a better Sri Lanka. The first buses to go to Jaffra after the cyclone will operate today.-VK. Massayoshi Ohira 68-year old Christian became Japan's next PM after incumbent Takeo Fukuda suffered a stunning election reversal. -CDM. The release by Egypt and Israel of previously secret portions of their draft treaty package may signal that the middle east peace precess is heading towards a succesfut conclusion diplomatic sources said. Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu publicly broke ranks
with the Warsaw Pact this week
27
end when he decla
had refused to sign condemning the East peace talks an
to boost the a spending at a summi
seven member, all
ast Aveek -CDM
WE DNESDAY,
The S LFP and TUL with the governm two-thirds majori important bills-th ing (Amendment Consumer Protec leaders of parties in parliament yest decided to postpc to Local Authoriti have been held in Reports reaching Defence yesterda the machinery
the Mahaweli Dev had not been cyclone. Parliame animously passed Export Credit ( The GCE “O” leve be held from De as scheduled. Th a grant of US dolla UNICEF for the plu supplies for those week’S cyclone traders could b
carrying out and
provisions of the tion Law which v mously by Parlie A Parliamentry cc mittee comprising government and c was formed yester relief work in c. Sri Lanka's yawnir India will be the
trade and Shippin bilateral trade tal! ext week-SU. T has informed the
the food situation control but there of clothes, uten
 

red that Rumania
a part statement
current Middle ld resisted moves Iliance's
iance in Moscow
NOVEMBER 29: Flyesterday voted hent to im USter a ty to paSS EWO e National Hous) Bill and the tion Bill. The at a meeting held Brday unanimously bre the elections es which were to January next year. the Ministry of y revealed that being used for elopment Scheme jamaged by the nt yesterday unthe Sri Lanka Corporation Bill. examination will cember 2 to 20 e US has made trs 25,000 through rchase of medical : affected by last -CDN. Errant e banned from trading under the Consumer Protecwas passed unaniment yesterday. p-ordinating comrepresentatives of pposition parties
day to co-ordinate
yclone hit areas. g trade gap with chief topic when ig Minister holds KS in New Delhi The GA Batticaloa government that Was now under
was urgent need
sils, lamps, oil,
defence nit meeting of the
candles, medicines etc.-DP. 80% of the
residents of Pollonaruwa have been affected by the cyclone-LD. The government has decided to appoint a commission to look into at legations that Tamil students were given more marks at the GCE 'A' Level exami
nation-D.M. More than a thousand
people were arrested and police teargassed and batein-charged supporters of Intias opposition Congress
Party in the Western Indian city
of Nagpur yesterday. The II day strike by port and dock workers
around India was called off last
Soviet President of Brezhnev grain
night. said yesterday this year's
harvest totalled 235 million tonnes,
an all time record-CDM. The governments in Cairo and Jerusalem were making efforts today to present compromise proposals which would enable continuation of the stalled peace talks in Washington. Ethiopia has publicly confirmed for the first tine that it is receiving military assistance frori East Germany, So iet bloc governments have called their ambassadors home from Bucharest in a dramatic sharpening of tension with Romania-SU.
X X X X X
REVIEW
Exploding The Gospel of Mathew
by Jayantha Somasundaram
- THE allegation that Tamil examiners discriminate in favour of Tamil
speaking students, is a charge that
became very prominent once swabasha was introduced for Advanced Level and University examinations. It was this accusation of favouritism in admission to the Engineering facul
ty in 1970 that prompted the setting
up of a committee of investigation. But notwithstanding the clean bill
of health given by that committee
TRIBUNE. December 9, 1978

Page 30
the infamous practice of standardisation was introduced for university admissions in that academic year,
in practice it meant that the authorities decided in advance how many from each media would be selected; regardless of relative nerie, by the arbitrary introduction
of cut-out marks. Thus Sinhala me
dium students who got 227 marks were admitted to the Engineer ing faculty at Peradeniya. But a Tamil-medium student had to get 250 marks to enter the same faculty.
This was followed in subsequent years by an equally notorious practice, also called 'standardisation, whereby the mean marks in clifferent media were equated. In practice this meant that if students in one media had scored higher marks on an average, if their frequency distribution was superior, they suffered, because mean marks were equated and they received new, lower, 'standardised-marks.'
Later came the district quota system where weightage was given to so-called backward districts. Once again behind the altruistic facade one could detect the vicious come munalism lurking in the fiercely
competitive business of university
admissions.
The new J. R. Jayawardena govern ment stepped in with a new, ambiguous, policy. While abolishing "standardisation', ostensibly because it discriminated against the Tamils, 'The Government increased the number of students admitted," pointed out A. Amirthalingam (Lanka Guardian No. 7), "thereby ensuring that deserving Tamil students are admitted, while at the same time ens suring the admission of all Sinhalese students who would have been admitted if standardisation was in operation." So that's how you have your cake and eat it as well.
While one arm of the Government seemed to be making concessions I to the Tamil media students, another
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
ing the gospel a it was claimed
that Tamil-me helped by their
conference was h Residence at whỉ Vice Chancellor dena made da. 'In the Jaffna of the General
Examination re. only first and s and not a single
This high per and the first and in the Tani i mi crepancies and t inquired into, sa Siriwardene, Vic University of Sri conference on Fr Neys 13th Nove
The Science St. Jaffna Campus ha and exposed the statements. The there is no such held in this cou qualifying exam i. Science. In any awarded for qual only for final on no BSc exam in in the English me ing candidates s 356 percent
Failure Ordinary pass Second Class-low Second-Class-upp First Class
Given above a of passes and fail speaking and S candidates for th held by the Jaffna
The Peradeniya her's Association the Press Confe

ກment was emuncate
ccording to Mathew.
that proof existed dia students were examiners. A press eld at the Minister's ch Cyril Mathew and
P. P. G. L. Siriwa r
mning statements. campus, the results Science Qualifying vealed there were econd class passes, third class.'
centage 'A' passes second class passes edium indicate dishis matter will be id Prof. P. P. G. L. e-Chancellor of the
Lanka at the press iday."--Ceylon Daily nber.
udents Union of the staken up the issue Vice Chancellor's ly point out that exam as the GSO ntry anymore, the s called the First-incase, classes are not ifying examinations, es. But Jaffna had the Tamil medium. dium, Tamil speakcored a failure of
Tamil Sinhalleşe
35.6 6.7 3.7 20.0 er 23.3 33.3 er 5. 20.0 2.3 0.0
re the percentage tures among Tamil Sinhalese speaking e BSc examination
campus.
| University Teaccommenting on Pence has this to
dospel of Mather
say: These statements could only result in stirring up communal dissension- エ 。
So much for the Gospel of Mathew,
X X X
SPOTLIGHT
Anyone Else for A
Free Press 2
by Canax
THERE no doubt has been a lot of debate throughout the country, even confusion, after President ayewardene's reference to the Free Press in his inaugural address to the Press Foundation of Asia meeting in Colombo the other day. But have only His Excellency to thank for helping to clear up confusion on the subject in my own home.
Which only goes to show, by the
way, that you can live with a woman for years and still be a stranger to her thoughts.
it all started with her remark that the President had made a jolly good, no-nonsense speech. Truth is, she has been an admirer of his for years. So when J. R. talked about limitations on the Free Press,
she interpreted it as being his bold
and inimitable way of using the PFA forum to do what Finance Minister Ronnie had been too scared to announce in the Budget. Admiration aside, if it was for the good of the
country, she was all for limitations.
thought I was getting the drift of things when she put forward the
theory that, in much the same way . the Free Ration was cut, the governe
ment would soon introduce drastie, though necessary, cuts on the Free Press as well, restricting newspapers only to those who fell below the poverty line.
"But you can't eat newspapers' said.
28

Page 31
joprio Kenyattá
She agreed with me up to a point "Not except as a last resort," she replied. The way she saw it, no newspaper should be given to the needy for its nutritive value, for that could create complications; - one family given, say, the "Daily News', might get no more than its daily requirements of starch and perhaps a pinch of protein, while another on a daily diet of the "Sun" might possibly get the 2dded advantage of Vitamins A & D. Even more problematical, in her view, was that several big families in dire need of help might not, for instance, be able to stomach the 'Tribune' at all, finding it too acid for thier tender digestive tracts.
So nutritive value was not the criterion. The only valid and equitable basis for distribution was a newspaper's value. To ascertain that, one had to trust the proven expertise of the "bottle-man'. My wife had worked out all the details and was all set to give His Excellency the benefit of her unsolicited advice. Her proposal was that the most needy familes, the ones with the most dependants, should qualify for the paper with the most number of pages, and so on. Of course, ability to read on the part of any member of a family would automatically disqualify it regardless of all other considerations. After a1, it was important to ensure that assistance was put to proper, not improper USe.
Her masterstroke was the proposal for a Presidential Directive for all government departments and corporations to have regular 'supplements' in the Press to help to increase, however slightly, a newspaper's value.
By then I decided to tell her the truth, but she simply wouldn't believe me, "You mean we actually pay good money for those papers?" she asked, increduleus. She had had this wonderful illusion that, like
Santa Claus coming en Christimaş
29
Eve newspapers ges our door, and ey before dawn every of the government Subsidy Scheme.
Poor girl, she's 1 hard S6 hard She V at the papers now.
建 家
BACKGROUND TC
Mzee Jom Kenyatta by
Michael Wannyap Advoc te of the S of Sri Lanka, pres Magistrate, Meru,
Mzee Jomo Ken doubtedly the great Africa had produce it came as a shock Kenya, to hear that thed his last on the 1978 at Mombasa, at
From the time o in 1963 up to the tin he was the undisp Kenya, ard was n called MZEE (MZE means a respected was the father of th late President freed from the bonds bound the various country, with the HARAMBEE (Unity and established a and economic f Kenya, and was r statesman the world Kenya and the world as this revered lead but his rallying cal felt all over in Ker over is needed in tu and beyond,
On the 31st of MZEE Jomo Keny
to rest in Parliamen

t slipped under erybody else's, morning as part t's Free Press
taking it really won't even look
辜
KENYA
a LL.B (Cey.) upreme Court sently Resident Kenya
yatta, Was Unest leader that di in this era to all of us in he had breas 22nd of August,
the sea coast.
independence me of his death, uted leader of more popularly E in Swahiliold man), and he Nation. The the country of colonialism, tribes in the unifying call of
in Swahili),
solid political oundation in espected as a | over. Today, outside mourns er is no mere, for peace is nya, and more
rbulent Africa,
August, 1978 atta was laid in a specially
constrtested at Seleur. of mourners from all walks of life
thronged the State House, Nairobi.
for more than a week, where his body lay in State, paying homage to their beloved leader. World
leaders from all the continents.
came to bid farewell to this great statesman. Among the mourners from Africa were Presidents Ken neth Kaunda of Zambia, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Idi Amin of Uganda, Leone, Ahamed Abdalla of Comoro Islands; Somalia and Sudan were represented by their Vice Presis dents. The Prime Minister of India. Morarji Desai and the Pakistan lear
der General Zia Ul Haq were hos
table leaders from the East, Bris
tain's Queen Elizabeth was represented by Prince Charles, while
the Soviet Union was represented
by its President Mr. A. M. Klychev.
The US Government was repre
sented by the Chief Justice Mr.
Thurgood Marshall, and the UNAmbassador Andrew Young, Jeff Carter and others,
Ministers or their envoys.
who held sway over Kenya for the past 5 years.
Kenya ranks as a fast developing
nation in Africa, and is lined as a third world country, and it fols
lows a policy of non-alignment,
but has close links with the west,
It has a population of about 14
million people, who live mainly on agriculture, and it's from tourism, which centres aro
und wild life, the sunny beaches
of : Mombasa, colourful scenery and the warm and generous hospitality of it's people. Two of it's major exports are tea and coffee. Kenya
is self sufficient in food, and has quite a number of light (consumer) industries which have strengthened
the economy. Attempts have been
made to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor, but it stil
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978.
Siaka Stevens of Sierra.
All the other. . countries were represented by their
This 浣 was a fitting finale for a leader ,
earnings
Miss

Page 32
remains á difficult task. Foreign
aid and foreign capital has flowed in liberally following the policy of the Government to encourage
private | investment. Nairobi, it's
picturesque capital, is considered a mini London.
In the spheres of education, health services and transport, there
have been vast changes after independence, but a lot remains to be done, The administration includ
ing the administration of justice -
is based on the British pattern. Politically there is only one party, the Kenya African National Union (KANU), as the Kenya Peoples" Union was banned in 1969. The system of Government is that of a Parliamentary Democracy.
The major tribes in the country are the Kikuyus, Luos, Luhyas, Akamba, Meru, Embu, Masai, Tur- kana, Kalenjin and so on. Each tribe speaks it's own language, while most people speak Swahili the national language. English also has become a medium of communication between the various tribes and the races living in Kenya, due to years of British domination. Tribalism is a factor which cannot be ignored in polities, or in the administration, apart from having a fundamental impact on one's personal life. Most Kenyans are Christians by religion, and freedom of Worship is gurnteed by the constitution, and it's practice could be seen by any visitor to Kenya, who will find it, a country full of contrasts, interesting and fascinating. Apart from the Africans who are the maiority, Asians and Europeans also live in Kenya, in an amicable manner,
while preserving their own charac
teristies. .
This in short is the Kenya which was ruled by Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, who lived up to the nga of 89 years. Whart his life story is unfolded
it is seen, that he was born as the son of a poor reasant called Ngengi,
| run
tain), at Ngenda, Kiambu District, mother was Wa Kikuyu by tribe. biggest tribe in K named him Kan When he was ab he on his own ha by the Ch Mission, at Tho studied for 5 ye was baptised as
After sometim
employment in a
to an European. he was employed at Narok, he wa which by usage
| In 1922 he sec.
Stores Clerk cu in the Nairobi T obtained a salar) 250/- p.m., a rath an African at th this period he pur Dagoretti and co:
it into a shop. He
and then a moto the first African t licence in Kenya. taboo to Africa
he became an ins
Supplies.
His active polit 1922 when he ic Central Associatic hardly 25 years c came a trade un Kenvatta was ser represent the intel whose lands had and converted Highlands, and w to carry identity they went, and dirt by the Britis he became the ed THANYA (cone inalist newspaper hili. Kenya w Rhodesia where di practised against their own land.
in or about 1889 (nobody is cer- (To be C.
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978
 

Gatundu Divisioń,
Nairobi. His mbui. He was a
Kikuyu are the 2nya. His parents au Wa Ngengi. out 2 years old, Í gone to a school
rch of Scotland goto, where he lars. There, he
bhnstone in 1914. he had found farm, belonging in 1917 when by a contractor S called Kinyatta became Kenyatta. red a job as a m meter reader own Council and of K. shillings er high Salary for e time. During chased a house at verted a part of bought a bicycle, rbicycle, and vias to obtain a driving These were all is before. Later spector of Water
ical life began in bined the Kikuyu on when he wovaS if age, and he beionist. In 1929, it to England, to rest of the Kikuyus been taken over into the White hen Affricans had cards wherever were treated like h rulers. In 1930 itor of MWIGW
iliator) a natiopublished in Swas
as then another fiscrimination was
the African in
oncluded)
Thoughts On The Cyclone
POEM
Why?
Mother Nature 鰲。 Bounteous giver, source of life, Why did you turn your scorn upon this race of men? Wherefore your fury and ire; like Godess Kali roused from slumber and full of wrath who sweeps across the world and leaves devastation in her wake; why go berserk in this our beauteous isle and ravage the and from shore to shore leaving
scarcelley anything
intact? Why choose this place to rage and storm and rant and roar to create havoc in our midst? You have turned demon, virago, fiend! Has your fury abated? Have you completed your mission
of destruction
for tine Sins we do not know? Do you
teel justified to see the horror and the pain? Does
your heart feel glad that men have suffered and died;
that they starve and wander leafless without a place to rest their heads; to see the labour of their hands
and minds laid
to wa Ste, to ruin? You are cold and
cruel and do not fee remorse. When the very shelter of
man's life, his hafen and refuge becomes a hell,
do? When the
what then does he
very source of life, the giver turns
destroyer where

Page 33
Letter
then does he go? To think I sat on these self-same י shores and watched the ripples and Soft war es break and felt the wafting breeze of
my face when I sought | solace from the world of men. But now You who were a balm to soothe the trembling of my sou have turned traitor. Ruthless, hard and
cruel. All the love had for you is gone,
all faith shattered and now Know not where to go or to
whom to turn
Vinodini
-O- -O- -O-
LETTER
Discriminative Taxation Proposals And Higher Salaries
Sir,
Although still have my તoubts *
about the timing of it (the Prime Minister, Mr. R. Premadasa, himself having stated a few months ago that seven million people of this Country are living on the verge of abject poverty) welcome the exemption from income Tax and other concessions slowered by the Minister of Finance, Mr. Ronnie de Mel, on the public sector workers but I cannot understand why he has discriminated against the workers in the private sector in his Taxation Proposals. Public sector workers including bureaucrats have been completely freed from the payment of income Tax and given a ten percent salary rise irrespective of the quanta of salaries which they now draw but the economically hard-pressed
worker in the private sector who
B
| earns over RS. 1,000 is liable to income T
cause a lot of hea resentment. Do not in the private sector benefit and bettermen Are planters, engin ants, managers and ot in the Private Sector the Country than the in the public sector 2 are appreciated, wh been discriminated ag to taxation
It was not long a article of his which in the press, Mr. Esme sing he whose vierows and heeded, advocat: tion from lincome Ta of all workers up to 3,500 per morth or year. But Mr. Roinn gone farther than thi
public servants.
feel that a work treated on an equal as taxation is conce view of tone low valu and the high cost of free allow arre of a payers should be rais Rs. 2,000 per month Per year.
was pleased to pensions will be free Similarly, the tax of up is levied at present of Employees' Provide fits and gratuities a retirement, should Employees who cont vident Fund in the do not get monthly
trust that suitab will be made : at til Stage of the Budget hardships of the workers also which just and equitable. the workers in the are not legally entit per cent wage incre workers including

- per month
ax which wil rtburning and the workers
work for the t of Sri Lanka ?
eerS, a.CCOU pits
her executives -
less useful to ir counterparts If their services y have they
ainst in regard
go that, in an
was published pnd Wickremaare respected ad the exemp
a limit of Rs. Rs. 42,000 per die de Mel has s in respect of
cers should be footing as far *ned. And in
e of the rupee
living, the tax income Tax yed to at least
or Rs. 24,000
read that a of income Tax, to 5%, which on withdrawls ent Fund benet the time of be abolished. ribute to Proprivate sector ensions. e amendments he Committee to ease the private sector will only be incidentally, private sector
led to the ten
ase which al
the lethargic
will receive
bureaucrats in the public sector
have no personel axe to grind being an employee on a Governmentowned estate but I am at the same time employer of over 200 workers in the private sector who have my sympathy and whom prefer to the pampered arones in the public
sector.
ROBERT HARLEY,
Monte Cristo Estate, Nawalapitiya, 20, 1.78.
Mr. Harley, an old Tribune subscriber, died on November 22. This letter was written two days bef re this death.
Over the years Mr. Harley ha 5 written - P --
many le ters to the Tribune on the : problems of the plantation industry
-Editor.
YOUTH
Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind. We grow old only by deserting our ideals. Years wrinkle the skin but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, doubt, self-distrust, fear and despair-these are the long, long years that bow the head and turn the growing spirit back to dust. There is in the hearts of all of us, whether seven or seventy, the love of Wonder and love of life. We are as young as our faith and as old as our
doubt....... ... as young as our self. confidence..... and as old as our fear..... as young as our hope
and as old as our despair.
Samuel Ullman.
TRIBUNE, December 9, 1978,

Page 34
Confidentially
S T NOT A FACT that CGR has failed to make the progress the present UNP government promised to achieve when it came to power 18 months ago? That the Minister of Transport had boasted that the CGR would function efficiently in three months? That six such threemonth periods have come and gone and the Railway is still in square one? That in som a matters like the Catering Service, things have gone from bad to worse? That when the Minister was on his Haj pilgrimage recently, the unior Minister had addressed a press conference in which he had said, among other things, that nothing more could be done in the CGR until the new locomotives and carriages arrived in the course of 19792 That this is usdoubtedly a confession of failure? That it will be recalled that in 1969-70 the CGR had fewer locomotives than now and that it had run a far better service then? That the secret of success then was that the locomotives, carriages and waggons were serviced, maintained 2nd kept in repair without procasti nation? That the deterioration had started from 1971 when the ዚSSP”S Transport Ministry in the UF government kicked out efficient managers and replaced them with union favourites? That this featherbedding of a select trade union coteris had led the rot in the CGR2 That, step by step, from 1971 the work of repairing, servicing and maintaining locomotives and the rolling stock at Ratmalana had come to a grinding halt. That workers at running sheds also went to sleep and neither cleaned nor oiled the engines or carriages? that as a result of this, engines
驮
TRÍBUNE, December 9. 1978
and earriagලිහී viceable' and v in the yards could not get because union o
powerful than
That any superv enforee disciplin at the behest of when the G belatedly to enfo slow and strikes of the day? Tha came to power
the verge of t
S T NOT A first euphoria of great deal of mised? That the with vigour for LSSP hardliners from positions instead of picking visors to run new Ministry be kingpins of the officialdom even visors and depart as a result of feather-beddin, Workshop has even a fraction outturn of wor still a very larg motives, carriage various stages C most of them car and put back oj instead of doing Ministry as wel have found an their difficulties one in authority existing rolling motives were in the 'unserviceab yond repair ar. thing to do was number of loc
and other rollin
is what is being
a crime against new imports caj if the repair at

bséame “Unserwere left to rust That supervisors any work dor, e fficials were more
these supervisors?
isor who tried to a was thrown out the Union. That overnment tried rce discipline, gobecame the order it when the UNP the CGR was on total collapse
FACT that in the É UN P’s victory a boloney was prG” new brooms swept a while? That the
were moved out
of strength? That
on efficient superthe Railways the gan to rely on the UN P’s CGR union to choose supermental heads? That this new kind of the Ratmalama still not attained of the pre-1970 ki? That there are e number of locoes and waggons in if break-down-and be easily repaired in the tracks? That this, the CGR1 as Departmenteasy way out of by making every
believe that the stock and locoadequate and that le" ones were beld that the only to import a large bmotives, carriages g stock? That this done? That this is the nation? That in be justified only ld service facilities at minimum levels
fanzanian Railway's 3 Fate
of efficiency? That it is for this reason that World Bank complex has refused to touch the CGR2 IS IT NOT TRUE TOO that imports even on a massive scale will only help the CGR to have a facade
of an efficient service for a short > while? That the new locomotives,
carriages a.d. waggons will soon suffer the fate of the old without the necessary maintenance and servicing? That such tragedies have overtaken railways sistems
in developig countries where ideo
logical slogans and predelictionsbe they LSSP, SLFP or UNPprevent efficient administration? That the Time magazine of November 7, 1978 had a revealig report entitled The Great Railway Disaster? That it concerned the , 60 mile railway built by the Chinese in Zambia and Tanzania? "... The equibs ment was only two years old and already showed signs of neglect. foilets that the Chiness once serubbed meticulously were now subjected to desultory and occasicnal swabbings by Tanzanian and Zambian
workers. The express finally chugged
into its Zambian terminal elever hours late. We were lucky at that. Freight trains normally require 20 days or more to make the round trip, owing to equipment failures, crashes, derailments and endemic
-
ܝܵܢܲܝ .
small-scale pilfering. About 30% of
the 2,100 freight cars, and up to a third of the locomotives, are out of That what has happened in Tanzania-Zambia can well take place here if the Ratmalana Workshop and the Run ning Sheds of the CGR function
as they do now? That the come
pletely brand new railway System
in Tanzania-with new locomotives,
new carriages, in fact, new every thing-has begun to collapse be
cause the service and maintenance facilities do not function properly.
That this fate will predictably overtake the new locomotives and carriages of the CGR. if matters are not put right immediately
32

Page 35
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Page 36
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