கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tropical Agriculturist 1969.01-06

Page 1
TROPIC AGRICU
AGRICULT
VOLUME JANUARY
 

AL LTURIST
JRAL JOURNAL OF CEYLON
OF *6%ictც آللم&\\ہ
!

JA
CEYLON
CXXV, NUMBERS 1 & 2 - JUNE, 1969

Page 2


Page 3
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接

Page 5
VOLUME CXXV NUMBE
TRO AGRICU
A gri cultural Jo
O Ο Ν T
STUDIES ON THE PLACEMENT OF AMMO RICE, USING ISOTOPICALLY TAELLED by M. W. Thenabadu, M. M. M. Jauffe
DITBIZONE EXTRACTABLE ZINO IN RUB:
■ by V. Pavanasasivam and F. S. C. P. K.
FORMIS AND LEVELS OF NITROGENOUS EF TOBACCO IN THE DRY ZonE OF CEYL( by E. Jayanetti and P. Sabanathan
INFLUENCE OF PRIE-TREATMENT OF SOM
MICROFLORA OF THE SEEDLINGs by G. Rangaswami
DROUGHT INCIDENCE IN RELATION TO R. by W. S. Alles
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT (January to
P U B L | S H
T H E D EP A R T M E N T
C E Y

S 2 JAN-JUNE, 1969
PICAL
LTURIST
urn a of Ceylon
ENTS
PAGE
NIUM SULPHATE FOR LOWLAND FERTILIZERS r and S. M. Willenberg
BER SOILS OF CEYLON Kalpagé
ERTILIZER FOR FLUE-CURED
DN
2.
IE SEEDS ON THE RHIZOSPHERE
29
AIN FED RICE
37
March, 1969) 45.
| E OG B Y
OF A G R C U L T U R
L ON

Page 6
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Page 7
ஆ
Studies on the place sulphate for low.
isotopically labe
M. W. THENABADU, M. M. M. J.
Division of Agricultural Chemistr; Institute, Pe
INTRODU
PLACEMENT of fertilizer in relation better utilization of applied nutrien flooded rice culture sub-surface pla prior to flooding or ball placement more efficient use, because ammoniu due to oxidation and denitrification of the profile (2, 3, 7, 8).
The use of isotopically labelled fe: the efficiency of fertilizer uptake frc the percentage taken up. Earlier wor and phosphorus fertilizers indicate sulphate at a depth of 5 cm. from the of both nitrogen and phosphorus by
This report contains the results oft in Ceylon under the Co-ordinated C the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Vienna, to determine the most effici phate fertilizers for rice using isot findings of previous investigations : reported (1, 4, 5).
The objects of this investigation v
(i) to study the efficiency of u. by different placement me
(ii) to study the interaction b the utilization of superp transplanting.

ment of ammonium land rice using lled fertilizers
AUFFER and S. M. WILLENBERG
y, Central Agricultural Research 2radeniya
(Received: March, 1969)
CTION
n to the plant generally ensures tS. Under conditions that exist in acement of ammonium fertilizers after transplanting leads to their m nitrogen is not likely to be lost
if placed in the reduced regions
rtilizers enables the evaluation of
om a source and the estimation of
k in Ceylon with labelled nitrogen
d that placement of ammonium
surface resulted in better uptake rice (5).
the fourth investigation conducted ontract Programme sponsored by Atomic Energy in Agriculture, ent use of nitrogenous and phosopically labelled fertilizers The in this series have already been
VeΥΘ.-
tilization of ammonium sulphate ethods ;
etween nitrogen placement and phosphate, applied broadcast at

Page 8
TROPICA AGRICULTUE
EXPERI
Five methods of nitrogen applic Agricultural Research Station, M. season, Maha 1966/67. The experi block design of five treatments w characteristics of which are present as follows :-
A ... Broadcast On the Sur B .. ... In rows, on the sur C . . In rows at 5 cm. del D . . In rows at 10 cm. de
E . . In rows at 15 cm. de
Fertilizers were placed at di procedure adopted by Nagarajah sulphate at the rate of 60 Kg. N. p. The excess of No in sub-plots with per cent. Superphosphate at the rat cast on the surface in all treatmer fertilizers, the superphosphate was 0.2 to 0.4 mc. per gm. PO5. All p. 60 Kg. KO per ha as a basal appli
The construction of plots, nu precautions observed in the han cultural practices were similar to t
Each experimental plot WaS follows :-
1. Radioactive sub-plot 2. Intermediate yield sub3. Final yield sub-lot
The 4-4é month Indica variel investigation. Mean monthly clir harvest are presented in Table II
Plants were sampled at two st transplanting. At the earlier ha: leaves of each of the nine centre hill (radioactive) sub-plots. These wel the intermediate yield sub-plots all completely, dried at 70°C and dry
2童

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
MENTAL
ation for rice were studied at the aha Illuppallama, during the wet ment was a randomized complete fith six replicate on a soil, some ted in Table I. The treatments were
face
face pth from the surface pth from the surface pth from the surface
fferent depths according to the and Al-Abbas (5). Ammonium er ha. was used for all treatments. in labelled fertilizers was 0.90 atom e of 60 Kg. P-Os per ha. was broadhts. In the sub-plots with labelled labelled with P” at approximately lots received muriate of potash at cation at planting.
ursery preparation, transplanting, ldling of P* fertilizer and other hose of earlier experiments (1, 4, 5).
divided into three sub-plots as
... 1.56 sq. metres plot ... 1.88 sq. metres 3.44 sq. metres
ty of rice H4 was used in this natological data from nursery to
ages; 40 days and 122 days from rvest two fully developed young ls were harvested from the labelled te bulked and dried at 70°C. From twelve centre hills were harvested weights recorded.
ܐ ܕ ܢ

Page 9
STUDIES ON THE PLACEMENT
At the final harvest nine centre sub-plots were harvested, the grain seven centre hills of the final yiel grain and straw separately.
Leaf samples from the radioactiv analysed for No and Po at the IAE material from the intermediate yie. and P. Details of analytical proced experiment of the series (4). Gra harvest could not be analysed as ir lost in transit from Ceylon to Wien
RESULTS AND
Plant Growth
Plant Height. The mean heights ( at three stages of growth are presen plant height were not significant at most probably because it was too ea At final harvest, 122 days from tran in plant height were highly significa was placed in rows at 5, 10 and 15 than those in plots where the fertil
The height of a rice plant is not yield. Excessive height may in fact were to lodge before grain filling. to be a positive relationship betwee) grain (Table V).
Tiller Numbers. As in plant heig was not significantly affected by tr transplanting, probably because it effective (Table III). At harvest, h ing, the treatments showed highly plots where nitrogenous fertilizer applied in rows on the surface ha tillers per hill than plants in plots rows at 5, 10 and 15 cm. depth. The tiller numbers and the number of reflected in grain yield. It will be components the number of panic grain yield (Table V). There app between number of tillers and wei

! OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE
hills of the labelled (radio-active) and straw separately. All twentyd sub-plots were also harvested,
a sub-plots at 40-day harvest were A Laboratory, Vienna; while the d. Sub-plots were analysed for N' ure were as described in the first in and straw samples at the final tended because the samples were
a.
DISCUSSION
of plants as affected by treatments ted in Table III. The differences in 14 and 40 days from transplanting arly for treatments to be effective. splanting, however the differences int. Plants in plots where nitrogen cm, depth were significantly taller izer was broadcast On the Surface.
always positively related to grain contribute to loss of yield if plants In this experiment there appears in plant height and weight of filled
ght the number of tillers per hill eatments at 14 and 40 days from was too early for treatments to be owever, 122 days from transplantsignificant differences. Plants in was broadcast On the Surface or nd significantly lesser number of where the fertilizer was placed in 'e was a close parellelism between
panicles per hill which is also noted later, that among the yield
es per hill contributed most to bars to be a positive relationship
ght of straw.
3.

Page 10
TROPCAL AGRICULTUR
Dry Matter Production. The ef application on total dry matter p)
At the early harvest, 40 days matter produced by plants in plot applied in rows at depths of 5, 10 produced by plants in plots wh applied in rows on the surface. At production was in plots where am depth of 5 cm. As the depth of pl. dry matter production is observ related to the depth of root de probably the fertilizer at the 5 cm. at this stage of growth, than that treatments the indications are that than concentrating it in rows, as over a larger area for absorption by Dry matter production at the earl and number of tillers per hill.
The data at the final harvest i placement of ammonium sulphate dry matter than shallow placemen opposite relationship was observe be related to the extent and dep atter half of plant growth. It is ammonium sulphate was placed d than those in plots where it was increased root Surface Would ha other nutrients as well compare extensive root systems from othe noted that increased dry matter p. unless accompanied by proportion
Among the Surface applicat uniformly produced more dry ma in rows as seen at the earlier harv
The data on yield in Table V sho dry matter production up to fina This relationship will not be true vegetative growth is known to de
4

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
fect of the method of fertilizer roduction is seen in Table IV.
from transplanting, the total dry S where nitrogenous fertilizer was
and 15 cm. was greater than that here fertilizer was broadcast or
this stage the greatest dry matter monium sulphate was placed at a acement of fertilizer increased the "ed to decrease. This perhaps is -velopment in the soil and most depth was more available to plants placed deeper. Among the surface broadcasting the fertilizer is better
the former method distributes it y roots than does the latter method. y harvest is related to plant height
in Table IV indicates that deeper (15 cm. from surface) yielded more t (5 cm. from surface) although the d at the earlier harvest. This may th of root development during the probable that plants in plots where eepest had longer (and more) roots ; placed closer to the surface. The ve enabled these plants to absorb ld to those with shorter and less 2r treatments. It must however be roduction is of little value with rice al increases in grain yield.
ions, broadcasting the fertilizer tter than when it was concentrated
rest.
ows a close parellelism between total l harvest and yield of filled grain. under all conditions for excessive press grain yields in rice.
১৯৯৯

Page 11
STUDIES ON THE PLACEMEN
As expected the weight of straw directly related to the total dry m
Grain Yield and Yield Components
The effect of treatments on grai shown in Table V.
Filled and unfilled Grain. The eff and unfilled grain was highly sign ammonium sulphate at 5, 10 or 15 yields than surface applications, b. yield was obtained when the fertil surface and the lowest yield was applied in rows on the surface.
Filled Grain. The yield of filled that of filled plus unfilled grain, the ficant effects. Placement of ammo) surface produced approximately 1,9. more than when this fertilizer was Further, the effectiveness of ferti greater depth of placement. The 15 yield of 1,322 Kg. per ha. over the su the yield increases from the 10 and broadcast application were 828 and lower yields in plots where ammon surface may most probably be du oxidation and denitrification as has
Number of Panicles per Hill. T effects on the number of panicles nitrogen at depths of 5, 10 and 15 ( hill than surface applications. Ther lation between the number of tiller hill.
Panicle Weight, Weight per 1,00( Grain. Method of nitrogen applica panicle weight, weight per 1,000 g ripened grains although grain yield level of probability. These results and Al-Abbas (5).

OF AMMONIUM SULPHIATE
at final harvest appeared to be Etter produced.
yield and yield components is
ict of treatments on yield of filled ificant. Sub-surface placement of cm. produced significantly higher roadcast or in rows. The highest zer was placed 15 cm. below the btained when the fertilizer was
grain followed the same trends as treatments showing highly signihium sulphate 15 cm. below the 00 Kg. per ha. (1695 lbs. per acre) applied in rows on the surface. lizer applications increased with cm. placement gave an additional Irface broadcast application, while 5 cm. placements over the surface 723 Kg. per ha. respectively. The ium sulphate was applied on the e to losses of fertilizer through been postulated by Pearsall (6).
reatments had highly significant per hill. Placement of fertilizer m. encouraged more panicles per e appears to be a positive corres and the number of panicles per
Grains and Percentage Ripened ;ion had no significant effect on rains and on the percentage of s were affected at the 1 per cent are similar to those of Nagarajah

Page 12
TROPICAL, AGRICULTUR
Grain : Total Dry Matter Ratio. in comparison to dry matter prod nitrogen placement is seen in Tabl (10 or 15 cm. from the surface)
shallow placement (5 cm. from the fertilizer on the surface appears to comparison to total dry matter, th
Grain : Straw Ratio. The most between grain and straw was ob was placed at a depth of 15 cm. f. by treatments where fertilizer was and broadcast on the surface. Th result of deeper placement (15 higher straw yield (Table IV) is a in this treatment.
Utilization of Fertilizer Nitroge
The only data available on N" a from the first harvest (40 days a material harvested at maturity w.
The effect of treatments on the shoots and the percentage of ni were highly significant (Table V.
The highest concentration of 1 where ammonium sulphate was p surface. This was significantly application at the Surface. The nitrogen in treatments where probably reflected in the higher
The highest percentage of nitro also found in plants from plots wh at a depth of 15 cm. from the sul from the treatment where fertilize
The method of nitrogen place percentage total phosphorus in of this nutrient derived from fer surface. However it appears that
6

IST, VOL. UXXV, 1969
The efficiency of grain production uction as influenced by method of a V. Deeper placement of fertilizer, resulted in narrower ratios than surface). Broadcast application of result in better grain production in han surface application in rows.
efficient distribution of dry matter served when ammonium sulphate rom the surface. This was followed placed at 10 cm. from the surface, he narrow grain: straw ratio as a 2m.) in spite of the significantly reflection of the higher grain yields
in and Phosphorus
und P“ analysis is of plant material after transplanting), because plant as lost during transport to Vienna.
concentration of nitrogen in plant trogen derived from the fertilizer
I).
nitrogen was in plants from plots laced at a depth of 15 cm. from the lifferent only from the broadcast relatively higher concentrations of fertilizer was placed at depth is grain yields in these treatments.
gen derived from the fertilizer was ere ammonium sulphate was placed 'face. This value was different only r was placed in rows on the surface.
ment had no effect on either the plant shoots or on the percentage tilizer phosphorus broadcast on the
placement of ammonium sulphate
ཀྱི་

Page 13
ஒ
STUDIES ON THE PLACEMEN
at 15 cm. depth resulted in the higi the shoots in comparison to other t) of the nutrient derived from the fe
CONCLI
The results of this investigation investigators (2, 3, 7, 8) that sub sulphate gives increases in yield fertilizer. This yield increase is asso of nitrogen in plants. (Only data a transplanting.) Among the yield C tion to yield was from the numbe
It is possible that losses of amn for the low yields and lower conce plots where surface applications we
ACKNOWLE
The authors acknowledge the a and permission to publish these r. Miss T. Shanmugam, Statistician, and to Mr. P. Ganeshan, Researc Illuppallama, for assistance throug
REFERI
1. KATHIRGAMIATHAIYAH, S., THENABAB, Utilization of nitrogen and phic and time of application of f Trop. Agric., CXIV, 1-3.
2. MIKKELESEN, D. S. and FINFRC ammonacal nitrogen to lowla placement. Agron. J. 49 : 296-3
3. MITSUI, S. (1954). Inorganic nutrit for lowland rice. Yokendo Ltd.
4. NAGARAJAH, S. and AL-ABBAS, A programme on the application cultivation in Ceylon. Trop. Agr

OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE
est concentration of phosphorus in eatments, although the percentage tilizer appeared to be the lowest.
PSIONS
substantiates the findings of other Surface placement of ammonium over surface applications of the ciated with a higher concentration vailable is for plants 40 days from omponents, the greatest contribur of panicles per hill.
nonium sulphate were responsible ntration of nitrogen in plants from are made.
DGEMENTS
ssistance of the I.A.E.A., Vienna, esults. Sincere thanks are due to C.A.R.I., for analysis of the data h Officer, Plant Breeding Maha hout this investigation.
ENCES
ADU, M. W. and AL-ABBAs, A. H. 1968 sphorous by rice as affected by form ertilizer nitrogen using N and P.
CK, D. C. (1957). Availability of Lnd rice as influenced by fertilizer 00.
tion, fertilization and soil amelioration, , Tokyo.
L. H. (1965). Co-ordinated contract of isotopes and radiation in rice c. 121 : 1-23.

Page 14
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
5. NAGARAJAH, S. and AL-ABBAS, A fertilizer placement studies C 121 : 89-103.
6. PEARSALL, W. H. (1950). The inve implication, Emp. J. Eacptl. A
7. RAMTAH, K. (1951). A. rational m to rice. Current Sci. 20: 227-22
8. SHIOIRI, M. and TANADA, T. (1954) Ministry of Agriculture and Fo

RIST, VOT. CXXV, 1969
H. (1965). Nitrogen and phosphorous 1 rice using N15 and P32 Trop. Agric.
tigation of wet soils and its agricultural ric. 18 : 289-298.
athod of applying sulphate of ammonia 3.
The chemistry of paddy soils in Japan. estry, Japan
ܪܡܝܢ

Page 15
STUDIES ON THE PLACEM)
TABLE I.--Characteristics of the
Illup
Depth (cm.)
Texture - -
pH (1 : 1-Soil ; HaO) . .
Ej. C. (1 : 5), (1 : 5) millimhosscm.
Organic Matter%
Total Nitrogen%
Available P.O. (Olsen's) (lbs POssacre)
Cation Exchange Capacity (me/100g.)
Exchangeable Cations (m.e. 100g.)
Calcium
Magnesium
Potassium
Sodium *ܢ
Total Exchangeable Bases (m.e. 100g.)
TABLE II.-Mean Monthly Climat
Тетperature
—ീ
- Makavimeam Min
1966
December - - 84
1967
January - - 84-5
February - - 85-8
March - - 94
April - - 93-4.
* Measured at 6 feet from ground.

ENT OF AME MONTUMI, SULPHATE,
Soil at Location of Experiment (
palama)
20 ضح0
... Sandy Loam ... Sandy Łoam;
6.7
0, 1260
2:39
0.127
20.90
15.2
806
4·83
0.2
0.76
1388
ological Data from Nursery to Harvest
oE Wind * Sunshire 一、 (m.p.h.) (hrs. 1day) ??ፃ፲}፮፻፵ገኔ
. . 0.48 . .
69.0 . . 0.74
688 . . 19
7-8 . . 148
73.5 . . 0.60
5'8
3
8.4
9.
9.9
6.6
0-1121
1.94
0.23
16.72
14.0
7-57.
4-21
0.8
0.74
12-74
Rainfall (ιηche8)
0.29
0.022
0.8
0.86
0.089

Page 16
TROPICAL AGRICULTURIS
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(%). Uossesse A. Jo quạsoļJø00 qądəp ouro gȚgo5T-─의 qądəp (ULIO OI ‘SAOI UIT—GI t{\dəp ouro g ‘SAO I UT–O əəBJūns ots! GO ‘SAOI LII–ķī
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LLLL LLLL LLL LLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLL LL LLLLL L LLLLLL L0LL LLLLL LL L LLLLL 0LL LLLLL
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Page 17
STUDIES ON THE PLACEME
TABLE IV-Effect of Treat
(Kg. ha.) (Me
Treatmetyt
A-Broadcast on the surface
B-In rows, on the surface
C-In rows, 5 cm, depth
D-Lin rows, 10 cm. depth
E-Iin rows, 15 cm. depth
Coefficient of variation (%)
* Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 5% le
Means not followed by the same letter w
each other.

T OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE
S:.
nents on Dry Matter Production
in of six replicates)
60 day early Final harvest 40 days harvest 122
from days from transplanting transplant
ing
920ab ... 101786
82Ια ... 888 at
ll. 95b , , 12336c.
, , 1033gხ ... 11849e ... 964ab ... 13286d
1988 ... 9.35
vel of significance.
ithin a column are significantly different from
l

Page 18
TROPCAL AGRICULTURES
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·90-29“”啡88... --
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000“ I „od sự642/M
80-8 LI-8
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T, VOL. CXXV, 1969
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Page 19
STUDIES ON THE PLACEMENT
TABLE WI.-Effect of Treatments on the Con Percentage of Nitrogen and Phosphorus derive
Transpla
-حیمسحصحصص --سم
% όη
፳Tፉeqtገገንeገ0ù8 T"?ss?
A-Broadcast on the surface ... 2.63
B-In rows, on the surface . . 2,77
C-In rows, 5 cm. depth ... 330
D-In rows, 10 cm. depth ... 2.98
E-In rows, 15 cm, depth ... 344
L. S. D. at 1% ... 0.68
Coefficient of variation ... 12.4%

OF AMMONITUM SULPELATE:
centration of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and ld from Fertilizer in Plants 40 Days from
inting
Nitrogen Phosphorus --------۸ - ار
%. Derived % όη % Deγινεα. Zé froт 4/I"მs sate from
Fertilizer Fertilizer
54·7 85 .. 71.
490 86. . . 726
54.5 89 . , 7.6
650 85 .. 75a
67.9 197 . . 67.8
38 N.S. ... N.S.
13.0% 80% . , 7.0%
R

Page 20

* T

Page 21
Dithizone extractal
soils of
V. PAVANASASIVAMAND
Division of Agricultural Chemi University of Cey
SUMMI,
ZINC is an essential micro-nutrien rubber soils has been considered to pr heved attack. Results of preliminary in Zinc in Surface soils of the main rub reported. The extractable zinc content v. average value of 16 ppm. Soils of the I (40 ppm) and those of the Ratnapura
indicate that zinc deficiency is not likel predisposing factor in the incidence of dithizone extractable Zinc contents. Lov compensated by high amounts of extract possible in acid, ill-drained Deniya soils
INTRODU
In addition to the macro-nutrients essential for optimum plant growth
Plant physiologists have often d Zinc on plant growth as stimulation of corn (Viets, 1951) and roset shown to be due to zinc def abnormalities in twigs and leaves C Reduction of hormonal activity due of stem elongation. Zinc also func reactions in the plant.
The importance of Zinc in cacao gr & Hayfron, 1951). Zinc deficiency is Investigations on sickle leaf disease (1956) revealed zinc contents of 6 p. obtained from affected and healthy deficiency has become increasingly c. plantations (Tolhurst, 1962) and ren mended. Malayan workers (Bolle

ble zinc in rubber Ceylon
F. S. C. P. KALPAGE
stry, Faculty of Agriculture, lon, Peradeniya
(Received April, 1969)
ARY
t whose deficiency in Malayan edispose rubber seedlings to Oidium, nvestigation on dithizone extractable ber growing districts of Ceylon are aries from 2 ppm to 56.4 ppm with an Deniya series have the highest values series the lowest (9.5 ppm). Results y to limit growth of rubber or be a Oidium hevea in acid soils with high V availability due to high soil pH is Cable zinc. Excessive uptake of zinc is
CTION
, a number of micro-nutrients are . Zinc is one such micro-nutrient.
escribed the beneficial effects of L. Diseases such as “white bud.’ ting of fruit trees have been iciency. Woody plants exhibit lue to deficiency of this element. to zinc deficiency results in failure tions as a catalyst in oxidation
owing is well known (Greenwood s the cause of sickle leaf disease. of cacao in Ceylon by Vermaat pm and 20 ppm in mature leaves trees respectively. In Ceylon, zinc ommon in tea nurseries and young nedial measures have been recon!-Jones and Hilton, 1956) have
5

Page 22
TROPICAIL AGRICULTU
reported a striking relationship susceptibility of rubber seedlin deficiency resulted in rosetting,
leaves in the 3rd month; in the Oidium he ea was noted. Diseases to Zinc deficiency were noticed i in Ceylon, namely Nakiadeniya e watte group in Moneragala. Zinc samples from these areas was rei
In the present study, dithizone surface soils from the rubber gro According to Viets & Boawn (196 and water-soluble zinc are usual plants. However, the amounts of , unless complexing agents like di extracting solutions. In soils wi deficiency, Shaw & Dean (1952) could be interpreted better if soi
MATERIALS
Surface soils of three profiles recognised and described by Sil regions of Ceylon, were analysed Table 1. Soil samples were collec the laboratory, crushed with a w 2mm sieve. Demineralised disti contamination. Glassware was W demineralised distilled water.
pH was determined on 1:4 Cambridge portable pH meter. T colloid tester. Zinc was estimate (1952) using a Spekker absorptio)
RESULTS AN
Soil analytical data are given i
With the exception of the l (pH 8.2), the other samples stuc 4.1 to 5.7.
Zinc content varies widely, fi derived Parambe series soils of lying, water-logged Deniya soils
16

RIST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
etween zinc content of leaves and is to Oidium, heved attack. Zinc malformation and death of young 6th month, a severe infection of ymptoms similar to those attributed young hevea plants in two areas tate in Galle district and Kumarastatus of healthy and deficient leaf orted by Jeevaratnam (1958).
extractable zinc in representative wing districts of Ceylon is reported. 5) ammonium acetate-exchangeable ly regarded as being available for inc so extracted are extremely low lithizone are also included in the th histories of deficiency or nonshowed that extractable Zinc data l pH was also considered.
AND METHODS
from each of the seven soil series va (1968) in the rubber growing . The soils are briefly described in ted in polythene bags, air dried in ooden pestle and sieved through a lled water was used to prevent ashed with soap and rinsed with
soil: water Suspensions using a exture was determined with a soil i by the method of Shaw & Dean meter.
D DISCUSSION
Table 2.
mestone-derived Kirigalpotta soil ied have pH values ranging from
om 2.5 ppm in the biotite gneiss Dehiowita to 56.4 ppm in the lowif Kalutara, with an average value

Page 23
DITHIZONIE EXTRACTABLE ZINC
of 16 ppm. On an average, Ratnapu and Deniya series has the highes Zinc contents.
Mitchell (1963) reported a rang tractable by an appropriate diagn cluding the seriously toxic or defici indicated a value of 10 ppm as bei studied. On these criteria, with t zinc contents of the soils investigat
The high dithizone extractable Deniya soils may be explained in te conditions, the minerals in which break down more readily and prov ments (Mitchell 1963).
In the case of limestone-derived extractable zinc content may be sug as well. Kalpagé and Silva (1968 values in these limestone-derived S careous material associated with til It would, therefore, be interesting careous material is rich in the Oth
There is Wide variation within so 7.4 ppm, 2.5 ppm). Kalpagé and Sil tion in the total manganese conte buted this to the wide variability material.
Soil pH is one of the main facto city levels. Massey (1957) obtain zinc uptake and soil pH. As report deficiency symptoms are least likel and under these pH conditions dit of as low as 0.5 ppm will not proc other hand, at pH values above 6 unless dithiZone extractable zinc availability of zinc to plants is gre and highly alkaline conditions.
CONCIL
Zinc deficiency is not likely to factor for Oidium helped attack in tractable zinc contents. However

IN RUIBBER SOILS OE CEYLON
ra series has the lowest (9.5 ppm) t (40 ppm) dithizone extractable
2 of 1-10 ppm of zinc as being expstic agent from normal soils, exent ones. Jansen and Lamm (1963). ng high for most of the soils they he exception of three samples, the ed are generally high.
zinc content (25.5-56.4 ppm) of rms of drainage. Under ill-drained the micro-nutrients are bound up ide increased amounts of these ele
soils of the Matale series, the high ggestive of a high total zinc content ) observed high total manganese oils and suggested that the noncalhe limestone is rich in manganese. to ascertain whether the noncaler micronutrients as Well.
ils of the Parambe series (22.1 ppm va (1968) observed a similar variant of soils in this series and attri
in the composition of the parent
irs influencing deficiency and toxied a negative correlation between ied by Shaw and Dean (1952), zinc y to occur in the pH range 5 to 6.5 hizone extractable soil Zinc values luce deficiency symptoms. On the 5 deficiency symptoms may occur contents are above 2.5 ppm. The atly reduced under strongly acidic
USION
limit growth or be a predisposing acid soils with high dithizone ex, in soils such as the Kirigalpotta
17

Page 24
TROPICAL AGRICULTUE
soils of the Matale series, althoug extractable zinc amounts to as m may not arise.
These preliminary studies indica occur in most rubber growing dist however, is possible under acid contents are also high. This can C Deniya series.
ACKNOWL.
The authors are deeply indebtec valuable suggestions.
REFER
1. BOLLE-JONES, E. W. & HILTON,
brasiliensis as a predisposir Lond. 177, 619-620.
2. JANSEN, H. L. & LAMM, C. G., ()
Fertil ; Harpenden, 2205.
3. JEEVARATNAM, A. J. (1958). Zinc
Paper read at C. A. A. S. (S
4. GREEN wooD, M. & HAY FRON, R.
cacao in the Gold Coast. Soj
5. KALPAGE, F. S. C. P. & SILVA, C.
status of the rubber soils of J. 44, 8-15.
6. MASSEY, H. F. (1957). Relation
the soil and zinc uptake by 7. MITCHELL, R. L. (1963). Soil aspe and animals. J. R. agric. SO 8, SHAW, E. & DEAN, L. A. (1952). estimate the zinc nutrient Sta 9. SILVA, C. G. (1968). A provisior Ceylon and their relationshi Natural Rubber Conference, 10. ToLHURST, J. A. H. (1962). Zin
33, 134-137. 11, VERMAAT, J. G. (1956). Report
Paddy problem. Sessional pa 12. VIETs, F. G. Jr. (1951). Zinc di irrigated soils in Central Wa
13. VIETS, F. G. JR., & BoAWN, L.
American Society of Agron Black.
18

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
h the soil pH is high (8.2) since uch as 20.1 ppm, zinc deficiencies
e that zinc deficiency is unlikely to ricts of Ceylon, Excessive uptake, 2Onditions where extractable zinc ccur in the ill-drained soils of the
EDGMENT
to Dr. M. W. Thenabadu for his
ENCES
R. N. (1955). Zinc deficiency of Hevea g factor to Oidium infection, Nature
1963). Zinc status of Danish Soils. Soils
deficiency of young Hevea brasiliensis. Sect. B).
J. (1951). Iron and Zinc deficiency in ls Fertil, Harpenden, 14, 412.
G. (1968). Studies on the manganese Ceylon. Rubb. Res. Inst. Ceylon. Quart.
between dithizone extractable zinc in 2Orn plant. Soil Sci. 83, 123-129.
cts of trace element problems in plants
c. 124, 75-86.
Use of dithiZone as an extractant to
tus of the Soil. Soil Sci. 73, 341-348.
all classification of the rubber Soils of ps to Malayan soils. Paper read at the August, 1968.
: deficiency of tea in Ceylon. Tea Q.
to the Govt. of Ceylon on Soil and
ρer XIX, 30.
ficiency of corn and beans on newly shington. Agron. J. 43, 150-151.
C. (1965). Methods of Soil Analysis.
pmy Publication p. 1090. Ed : C. A.

Page 25
Soil Series
- l. Matale
2. Parambe
3. Ratnapura
4. Homagama
5. Agalawatta
6. Boralu
7. Deniya
-
DITHIZONE EXTRACTABLE ZINC
TABLE I-Some soil relationshi
Parent Material (or dis
features)
Limestone derived
Biotite gneiss derived
Garnetiferous granuli
Quartzite derived
Granite derived
Laterization evident
Low-lying, waterlogg

IN RUBBER SOILS OF CEYLON
ps (from Kalpagé and Silva, 1968)
tingusihing Great Soil Group
Reddish brown lattosolic and
immature brown loam
... Reddish brown lattosolic and
immature brown loans
te derived . . Red-yellow podzolic
Red-yellow podzolic
Red-yellow podzolic
Red-yellow podzolic
ed . . Low-humic gley
9

Page 26
TROPICAL, AGRICULTUR
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20

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Page 27
Forms and levels of
for flue-cured
dry zone C
E. JAYANETTI ANI
Tobacco Division, Department of
INTROD
FLUE-cured tobacco is exacting i application of nitrogen which has yield and quality of the crop produ Inadequate nitrogen results in toba An excess of this nutrient tends t cured leaf of undesirable colour, pc associated with low quality.
In an attempt to improve the yie from the irrigated ricelands of th are available, studies on nitroge out. The need to improve the from these tracts have recently sequent to some of the better tobac in the hill country of the Island ments of the export market. A flue-cured tobacco are also progres this crop is being extended into a
PRELIMINA
Preliminary trials were carried Special in Maha 1960-61, Yala 196 efficiency of 3 different nitrogeno phate, ammonium sulphate nitrate per cent. P-O at varying levels o

nitrogenous fertilizer tobacco in the
of Ceylon
} P. SABANATHAN
Agriculture, Peradeniya, Ceylon,
(Received April, 1969)
UCTION
in its nutrient requirements and
a marked effect on the growth, Lced needs to be carefully adjusted. acco low in both yield and quality. o retard maturity and produces a por texture and Other characterístic
ld and quality of the leaf produced e Dry Zone where large acreages in fertilisation have been carried quality of the leaf produced become further important concos produced from the limited land being utilised to meet the requires the domestic requirements of isively increasing the cultivation of reas of the Dry Zone.
RY TRIALS
out with the variety Harrison's 1 Yala 1962 to study the relative us fertilisers, viz : ammonium sul
and ammophos (16 per cent. N, 40 f nitrogen.
2.

Page 28
TROPICAL AGERICULTUR
In Maha 1960-61 the experimen conditions at the Agricultural Stat. of nitrogen were tried at 15 lbs. ai fertilisers were applied at the tim these experiments was Harrison's
Table I shows the cured leaf yie data demonstrate that fertilisation no fertilisation. At 15 lbs. nitrogen to ammonium sulphate and amm the higher level ammonium Sulph difference in yield for the two lev significant.
The experiment was repeated at during the 1961 Yala season. In thi showed that 30 lbs. nitrogen per a significantly superior to 15 lbs. nit. dicated that amophos and ammon yields significantly over ammoniun acre only amophos was significantl
It is evident from the results O. flue-cured tobacco production in th grown as an irrigated Yala crop in under upland conditions, provided
acceptable in manufacture. Subseq out in the Yala seasons.
In Yala 1962 a similar experime effects of split application of the fe application treatment consisted of the time of planting followed by a weeks later.
This trial was sited at two locati gurakgoda and Agricultural Stati data obtained for the two locatior The yield responses for 15 lbs. and significantly different at both the between the 3 fertiliser forms and also non-significant at both levels
22

EST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
was carried out under upland on, Hingurakgoda and the 3 forms ld 30 lbs. per acre rates. All the 2 of planting. The variety used in Special.
ld for the various treatments. The
improves yield significantly over per acre rate amophos was superior nium sulphate nitrate, though at ate nitrate was better. The mean "els of nitrogen was, however, not
, the same station in a riceland S experiment the results (table 2) cre in all the 3 forms tried was rogen per acre. The results also inum sulphate nitrate increased the n. Sulphate. At 15 lbs. nitrogen per y Superior to no fertilisation.
f the above two experiments that nese tracts is more profitable when the ricelands than as a Maha crop the quality of the leaf produced is uent trials were, therefore, carried
nt was carried out in which the rtiliser was also studied. The split half the fertiliser being applied at
top dressing of the balance half 3
ons, viz. Agricultural Station, Hinon, Malwatte (Gall Oya) and the is are presented in tables 3 and 4. 30 lbs. nitrogen per acre were not locations. The difference in yield the 2 methods of application were

Page 29
NTROGENOUS FERTIZER F
MAN EXP
After this preliminary work furth Gold which is the most acceptable v three varieties found to be superior out in Yala 1966 (1). In view of
variety of nitrogen over Harrison's modified and the experiment was c
Urea is becoming increasingly im with the replacement of amonium parts of the Island (2). In view of t the prospects of this fertiliser bein, was also included in the trial along nium sulphate nitrate and ammop)
MATERLALS A
The experiment was located at t goda in a well drained riceland. Th
Previous Crops an
Fertilis
--
Ammonium Saphic
Season Crop sulphate phosph
Yala, 1964. . Paddy (H-4) 224 . . 12
Maha, 64/65 Paddy (H-4) 224 . . 12
Yala, 1965. . Cigarette
Tobacco . . 100 . . ستصحبة
Maha, 65/66 Paddy (H-4) 224 . . 12
Yala, 1966. . Paddy (H-4) 224. . . 12
Maha 66/67 Paddy (H-4) 224 ... 2
Total . . .220 560
Trea
A. Forms of Nitrogen
Ammonium sulphate (20%N) -Fl - Ammonium sulphate nitrate (26%N -F2 Ammophos (16% N&40 % P205) -F3 Urea (43%N) -F4 Design : 4 x 2 factorial with control, hav Block size 135 x 30 Plot size : 15 x 30 (5 rows of 12 plants a
area after leaving a border row are)

'OR FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
ERIMENT
er research using the varity White 7arity to the cultivators among the to Harrison's Special was carried the higher responsiveness of this
Special the levels of nitrogen were arried out in Yala, 1967.
portant as a nitrogenous fertiliser sulphate by this for rice in many his, the economies of its usage and g manufactured in this country, it with ammonium sulphate, ammohos.
ND) - METHODOS
he Agricultural Station, Hingurake soil was a sandy loam.
ld Fertilisers used
3er applied (lbs.sacre)
حفار.
ps Muriate Conc. Super sulphatè Pota ate of potash phosphate of potash
392 . . . جےسےہے. . . ہے. . . 56 392 . . حسی۔ . . حیے ہے۔ . . 563
450 . . 150 .. 200 = ... حتی یے۔ 392 . . ہے. . . سبسے۔ ... 56 392 . . . صا۔ . . صاحب ... 56 56 . .. -- .. .. - . . 392
280 200 50 240
tments
B. Levels of Nitergen,
0 lb... Nitrogen per acre — N0 20 lbs. Nitrogen per acre -Nl 40 lbs. Nitrogen per acre -N2
ving 3 replicates
it a spacing of 3' x 2". The net harvested 7 of one plant all round was 30 plants-l/200
23

Page 30
TROPICAL AGRICULTUF
The plots received a uniform : phosphate (42 per cent. P.O) at 20 made in case of ammophos treatme cent. K2O) at 125 lbs. per acre rati treatments as a basal dose at the tir 6 weeks old seedlings were transpla 6 irrigations after planting. Standa were followed.
- RES The weights of the cured leaf ac treatments were recorded and vall for the grades for the year 1967. and 6.
The results clearly indicate that t of yield and monetary returns per no-fertilisation. There was no s different fertiliser forms.
DISCU
The results obtained from the applications of nitrogen at 20 lbs. growth and development of the cr value per acre over no-fertilisation in an earlier experiment carried ou shown that application of 40 lbs. ni quality of the leaf produced, there This is quite understandable becaus tobacco the quality of leaf is inv nitrogen which is conditioned by Gopinath (3) on a study of NPK f the fertile Soils Of Andhra Prades kg/ha nitrogen was detrimental to
Im regard to the different source (Yala 1967) has shown that there : ammonium sulphate, ammonium S in terms of the market value of the the highest yield of cured leaf in th Therefore, the use of urea for th cultivated as a Yala crop especial tions of Hingurakgoda appears fe have reported that urea form of n:
24

IST, vOL. CXXV, 1969
application of concentrated Super) lbs. per acre rate (adjustment was int) and sulphate of potash (48 per e along with the different nitrogen ne of planting. On 16.5.1967 uniform inted on ridges. The crop was given urd cultural and curing practices
JLTS
cording to grade from the different led on the basis of the prices fixed The data are presented in tables 5
here is significant response in terms acre for nitrogen fertilisation over significant difference between the
SSION
experiment firstly indicate that Der acre has a marked effect On the op resulting in significantly higher . This is supported by the findings t at the same station (1). It is also trogen has distinctly depressed the eby giving a lower value per acre. se it is well known that in cigarette ersely related to the level of leaf
the nitrogen fertility of the soil. ertilisation of flue-cured tobacco in h has reported that more than 20 ) leaf quality.
s of nitrogen, the main experiment is no significant difference between Lulphate nitrate, ammophos or urea crop, although ammophos has given is trial as in the preliminary trials. a fertilisation of cigarette tobacco y under the environmental condiasible. Massantini and Favilli (4) . trogen appears to perform well on

Page 31
NITROGENOUS FERTILIZER FC
tobacco and that quality characteri Atkinson (5) working on lurramite, material, has found that for
at equivalent amounts of nitrogen d relation to ammonium nitrate. Jun tobacco does not react unfavourably cent.). It would, therefore, appear suitably and be replaced by urea as cured tobacco under conditions obtai
SUMMARY AN
A number of experiments were co naruwa District) and at Malwatte of years to study the responses of flu gen in different forms. The results the following conclusions :-
1. On the basis of equivalent
sulphate, ammonium sulp did not significantly differ yield, quality and value urea which is likely to future and which is bein rice could be considered
tobacco. ۰ می -
2. From the point of view of profitable to the farmer crop, provided the qu acceptable in manufactu.
3. The income per acre is higher
than at Gall Oya. The evidently richer.
4. Application of inorganic nitr
yield and improved leaf ment.
5. The optimum level of nitrog would be 20 lbs. per acre of nitrogen may be desir
6. Application of all the nitrog satisfactory at Hingura respect are necessary fo)

OR FLUE-OURED TOBACCO
stics responded similar to yield. a synthetic nitrogenous fertiliser burley tobacco this fertiliser lid not differ in yield or value in germann (b) has reported that y to urea (biuret content 4.7 per that ammonium sulphate can a nitrogenous fertiliser for flueining in the Dry Zone of Ceylon.
D CONCLUSIONS
inducted at Hingurakgoda (Polon(Gal Oya Valley), over a number e-cured tobacco to fertiliser nitroobtained from these studies permit
ܕܐ - -ܐ
amounts of nitrogen, ammonium hate nitrate, ammophos and urea from each other in respect of the of the leaf produced. Therefore, be produced locally in the near g used extensively for fertilising suitable for use in flue-cured
yield, flue-cured tobacco is more when grown as an irrigated Yala ality of the leaf produced is e and trade. under conditions at Hingurakgoda lands in the former area are
ogen at 20 lbs. per acre increased quality over the no-nitrogen treat
en under Hingurakgoda conditions whereas for Gal Oya higher doses able.
gen at the time of planting seems akgoda. Further studies in this r Gall Oya.
25

Page 32
TROPICAL AGERICULTU
ACKNOWL
Our thanks are due to Messrs.
A. Ratnayake Farm managers Hin ly for providing the necessary fa also thankful to Mr. V. Navaratna ticians for their assistance in the a
26
REFER
1. JAYANETTI, E. and SABANATHAN, in the Dry Zone Ricelands O
2, WEERAWICKREME, S. K. A. and C ser Project ”. 7th Field repo:
3. GoPINATH, D. M.- (1965). “ Reis, cured Tobacco. ” Fert. Neuvos 29 (4), No. 2908. Aug. 1966.
4. MASSANTINI, F. and FAVILLI, R. Forms of Nitrogen in the PI of Tobacco. ' Corseta Inform
(Istitute di Agronomica Ge Universita di Pisa, Italia. P. Tobacco Scientific Congress,
5. ATKINsoN, W. D.— (1966). “ Ni Tobacco, Ky. Agr. Eacp. St.
6. JUNGERMANN, K.–(1964). "Biur Forsch. 17 : 93-9, 1964 (Ger

RIST, γOL. OXXV, 1969
EDGEMENTS
K. H. N. S. Seneviratne and the late gurakgoda and Malwatte respectivecilities during the trials. We are Im and Miss S. Shanmugam, StatisLnalysis of the results.
ENCES
P- (1967). 'Flue-cured Tobacco Trials f Ceylon". Trop. Agrist. 123 : 111-123.
ONSTABLE, D. H.- (1968). 'Ceylon Fertirt to the Government of Ceylon.
ponse to N. P. K. fertilisation in Flue. 10 (12) : 131-6, 1965 : Soils. Fert.
- (1966). “Effectiveness of the Various roduction, Quality and Nicotine Content , Bull. Spec. (3) : No. 3013.
nerale c' Coltivaziane Erbacce della aper presented at the 4th International
Athens, 1966.)
trogen Sources for Fertilising Burley a. Anna. Rpt. 79 : 31.
et in Urea and Plant Growth. Landw. man).

Page 33
NITROGENOUS FERTILIZER F
TABLE I.-Effects of different forms and level cured tobacco in Maha, 1960-61 ;
%477ر Sulpha
0 lb. Nisac. - - 15 lbs. Niac. - ... 487
30 lbs. Nsac. 484
Mean - - - - 484
L. S. D. (5%) 76.2 C. V. 14.62%
TABLE II.-Effects of different forms and le fluecured tobacco in Yala, 1961 :
Ann. sulpha
0 lbs. N. fac. . . - -
1.5 lbs. N. lac. ... 1520
30 lbs. N. Jac. 74
Mean - - 1630
L. S. D. (5%) 137.5
C. V. 5.17%
TABLE III.–Effects of different forms, leve. cured leaf yield of fluecured tobacco in Yal
Am. Sulphate A.
Single Split Single Appln. Appln. Appln.
0 lb. N.sac. 2162 I
15 lbs. N. sac. ... 800 . . 22.37 . . .2312 .
30 lbs. N. sac. ... 241.2 ... 1977 . . 1925 .
Mean . . 2106 . . 2107 . . 2118 .
L. S. D. NS.
C. V. 13.82%

OR FLUE-OURED TOBACCO
s of nitrogen on the cured leaf yield of fluet Hingurakgoda-(lbs, per acre)
Am. Атторh08 MeQፃጌ 妃 sulphate
nitrate
- . . 397 - - سيبس 450 ,615, 517
662 .. 562 . . 569
556 . . 588 . . -س
vels of nitrogen on the cured leaf yield of at Hingurakgoda-(lbs. per aere)
Am. Ammophos Mean ίe sulphate
γιίίγαίe
- - - - 404
. . 538 . . 616 . . 558
900 . . 970 . . 1870
) . . 719 . . 1793 . . -
is and split application of nitrogen on the 3, 1962 at Hingurakgoda-(lbs. per acre)
mimonium Ammophos Mean sulphate nitrate
Split Single Split Single Split 4ppln. Appln. 4ppln. Appln. Appln.
587 1825 1891
2350 . . 2037 . . 1912 . . 2049 . . 266
2075 。。2050 。。2325 、、2129 、、2125
22.2 . . 2043 . . 28
27

Page 34
TROPICAE, AGRICULTU
TABLE IV.-Effects of different forms, le
cured leaf yield of flue-cured
(Gal-Oya)-
Amauliphate
Single Split Sing Applin. Applin. Appl.
0 lb. N. /aic. 525
15 lbs. N. sac. . . 600 ... 1012 .. 712
30 lbs. N. sac. ・・ 987 .. 900 .. 825
Mean ... 793 . . 956 . . 768
L. S. D. 5%, 256
C. V. 22.44%
TABLE W.-Effects of different forms and flue-cured tobacco in Yala, 1
Aηνητογείμ 8ulpha
0 lb. N. fac. - కాజ=
20 lbs. N. Jac. ... 1320
40 lbs. N. lac. ... 1145
Mean . . .233
T. S. D. 5%, 459 C. W. 864
TABLE WI.-Effects of different forms and tobacco in Yala, 1967 at H
Атоти sulphate
0 lb. N./ac. - 20 lbs. N./ae. ... 3455
40 lbs. N. sac. . . . 2922
Mean ... , 388
5%一459 L. S. D.
1%一632
C. V. 8.64%
28

RIST, voli. CXXV, 1969
vels and split application of nitrogen on the obaeco in Yala, 1962 at Mal Watte lbs. per aere)
Amsulphate Аторhos Meап,
ገጌátraùe
le Split Single Split Single Split
n. Appln. Appln. Appln. Appln. Appln.
72 562 599
O75 .. 750 . . 962 .. 687 ... 1016
987 . . 962 . . 925 . . 924 . . 937
... 103 .. 856 . . 943
levels of nitrogen on the cured leaf yield of 967 at Hingurakgoda (lbs, per aere)
т Атоплит. Аторhos Urea Mear le sulphate
ntrate
- - - 914
1326 146 4.08 367
185 1283 1160 193
1255 1349 1284
levels of nitrogen on the value of flue-cured ingurakgoda (Rs.” per acre)
n Ammonium. Amonpohos Urea Mean
sulphate ntrate
mmmmm - - 2289
3265 3483 8373 3394
2809 3.2 2862 2926
3037 3.297 37

Page 35
influence of pre-treal on the rhizosph of the se
G. RANG
University of Agricultural Sci
AS early as in 1904, Duggeli reporte fic bacterial fiora in respect of in innumerable reports have appeared in the quality and quantity Of m different plant species, both health Bloomberg 1966, Ordin 1966, Jack many plant diseases are known to and/or externally seed-borne infe and/or post emergence rot, Systemic ing upto plant maturity, etc. To e carried by the seed both physical tried; hot-water treatment has be internally borne infections of cer Organic and in Organic substances Surface of the Seed have also be certain anibiotic Substances have against internally and externall bacterial pathogens. These recom use all over the World.
The role Of the normal fora Of mi and subsequent plant growth has b It has been shown that certain or the seeds because of their certain workers have also reported on the the time of germination, which g quantity of the microflora on the s (Picci 1959 a, b, Flentje 1959, Vag Pearson and Parkinson 1961 Sch Toussoun, and Snyder 1963; Sch Lasik 1965, Parkinson 1965, Cook a the seed of certain antimicrobial Su
8--J8788 (6.169)

tment of some seeds ere microflora 'edlings
ASVAIMII
ence, Hebal, Bangalore, India,
(Received May, 1969)
d that healthy seeds contain speciumber and species. Since then, | in the literature on the variations icroflora carried by the seeds of y and diseased (Chiranowska 1965) son and Press 1967). At present be transmitted through internally ctions which cause pre-emergence : infections of the seedlings spreadIradicate the pathogenic organisms I and chemical agents have been en recommended to eliminate the tain organisms; treatments with to eliminate the pathogens on the en recommended; more recently been recommended for treatment y borne Organisms, particularly mendations have conne into Wide
icro-organisms on seed germination een investigated by a few workers. ganisms cause beneficial effects to biochemical characteristics. Some 2 excretions from the seed coat at greatly influence the quality and seed and in the immediate vicinity gnerova, Macura and Catska 1960, roth and Snyder 1961, Schroth, roth and Cook 1964, Stanek and and Flentje 1967). Secretions from bstances have also been reported by
29

Page 36
TROPICAL AGRICULTUE
some workers (Osborn 1943, Ivano Harper 1951, Frenczy 1956, Ark an 1959, Garber and Houston 1959, Th
For the past two decades, atte workers, particularly in U. S. S. bacteria like Azotobacter and influence the growth of the seedl have been obtained. However, th to bacterization of the seed have n
Some workers have reported tha seed coats, when added to soil form tion by certain groups of soil micr believe that certain micro-organis) the added organic tissues and produ inhibitory to other organisms in th ones (Wright 1954, 1955, 1956a, b, 1960, Krassilnikov, Kuchaeva and Wood 1962, Lockwood and Linga Lockwood 1965).
The changes in the normal seedand physical seed treatments hav (Sowell 1965, Batra and Bajaj 196 1966).
It has been established through the rhizosphere effect is initiated after germination and the rhizosph are mostly related to the seed-mic seed1 borne organisms are carried t Wallace and Lochhead 1951, Rovi (1959) and Parkinson, Taylor and the Seed-microflora did not materia Bacterization of seed and its effect been studied by some workers (Jer Maska and Fabian 1952, Cooper 19 authors, however, are inconclusive lishing in the rhizopheres,
In our laboratory we have been i to examine the possibility of all through pre-treatment of the see principles involved and the inter earlier are presented.
30

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
Vics and Horvath 1947, Osborn and d Thompson 1958, Jacobs and Dadd hompson 1960, Bowen 1961).
*mpts have been made by several R., to treat the seeds with some Phosphobacterium, to favourably ings and very encouraging results e reasons for beneficial effects due ot been investigated in detail.
It the organic tissues, including the an excellent medium for colonizaO-organisms. There are reasons to ms utilize the nutrients present in uce anitibiotic substances which are e vicinity, including the pathoganic c, Grossbard 1948, 1952, Lockwood Skryabin 1959, Lingappa and Lockuppa 1963, Lloyd, Neverorke and
microflora due to various chemical e been reported by Some workers 56, Maude 1966, Rao and Durgapal
the Studies of some workers that in the seedlings within a few days here Organisms in the initial stages roflora, thereby indicating that the o the rhizosphere (Borodulina 1941, ra 1956, Rouatt 1959). Patterson Pearson 1963), however, found that lly alter the rhizosphere microflora,
On rhizosphere microflora has also lsen 1942, Federov and Tepper 1945, 59). The results obtained by these as to the added bacterium estab
interested during the past five years tering the rhizosphere microflora !ds. In the present paper certain pretations of the results reported
f

Page 37
TNFLUENCE OF PRE-TREATMENT OF
MICROFLORA OF .
EXPERIM
Bacterization and plant growth (1963) reported on the general inc when rice seeds were pre-treated Such an effect was significantly m sown in semi-dry soil as compared (1964) examined the effect of bact the germination, rate of growth an sorghum, bajra, ragi, setaria, bhen was an increase of more than 10 treated seeds than the respective ( whereas in the other crops there w, arising from the treated seeds grew after sowing and they were tall, v pared to the respective controls. treated plants over control was s stages in sorghum, and to a lesser and amaranthus, and not significant varying increases in dry weights at the end of 60 days after sowing was 8.7, sorghum 34.7, bajra 6.7, tomato 5.1 and amaranthus 6.3. ( weights of rice, sorghum and ragi were obtained with some crop plan devan and Rangaswami (1967).
Seed coat eacudates and Seed study Balasubramanian and Ranga tion percentages of Sorghum, Sunnh in normal and steam-Sterilized SO average shoot lengths and dry wei, the Seeds Sown in the normal and ficantly, thereby indicating the rol encing germination of seed and su The same authors (1967b) reported cal inhibitors of fungal spores in t tomato. The Seed coat leachates caused delay in germination of Sp Breda de Haan, malformation an of the fungus and considerable inhi 80 per cent. These studies indica ships between the seed-microflora the time of seed germination.
 

SOME SEEDS ON THE RHIZOSPHERE
THE SEEDLINGS
MENTAI.
: Rangaswami and Mahadeviah 2rease in the rate of plant growth With Al2Otobacter chroOCOcClim. ore when the pre-treated seed was to water-logged soil. Neelakantan erilization. With A. chroococcu.m. On d the wet and dry weights of rice, di, tomato and amaranthus. There per cent. germination of the precontrols of bajra, ragi and tomato, ere no large changes. The seedlings v more rapidly for about 8-10 days igorous and darker green as comThe increased growth rate of the tatistically significant at various extent in rice, bajra, ragi, setaria, in bhendi and tomato. There were of treated plants over the control, 2 ; the percentage increase in rice ragi 17.0, setaria 10.6, bhendi 1.2, Df these, the increase in the dry
were significant. Similar results ts by Gopalakrishnamurthy, Maha
and Soil microflora . In another swami (1967a) found the germinahemp and tomato seeds when sown ils varied considerably. Also, the ghts of the seedlings arising out of stream-sterilized soils varied signie of soil micro-organisms in influbsequent growth of the seedlings. on the presence of certain chemihe seed coats of sorghum, ragi and from the three varieties of Seeds pores of Helminthosporium, Oryzae ld subsequent lysis of germ-tubes bition of germination ranging upto ted certain types of inter-relation
and the seed that might exist at
3.

Page 38
TROPICAL AGRICULTUR
Seed treatment and rhizospher experiments the possibility of se Sphere region of the plants was ex that when seeds of rice Were treat of about 7,000 cells/g of seed and population increased upto about : 5C days and declined thereafter a Soil it increased to 12.3 million/g C declined later on. In the case of Seed Vere added, the rhizosphere p in 60 days in sterile soil and 10.8 sterie Soil. Such treatments also bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi namurthy, Mahadevan and Range in the rhizosphere microflora of growth, when the studies were Phosphobacterium sp. and Helmi different combinations. When the chroococcum, or Phosphobacteri readily got established in the rhi, up to 70-80 days, whereas the path Seed increased only slightly.
in a further attempt to alter t seed-treatments, cotton seeds we phuric acid, Agrosan GN, and sti phere microflora was studied bo (Prasad and Rangaswami 1967). sown in Sterile soil there Was rea by the epiphytic microflora by ab unsterile soil the epiphytic flora co time and in about 15 days it decli tion of the region by the Soil mi of the bacteria, actinomycetes ar. phere of Seedlings arising from th significantly.
DISC1
The works of Picci (1959a, b) a ence of Seed on the seed-microf. vicinity of germinating seed, wh phere effect. That the spermos
32

IST, VOT. CXXV, 1969
2 microflora : In another series of Bed-microflora entering the rhizo(amined. Neelakantan (1964) found ed. With A. chroococcur at the rate Sown in Sterile Soil the bacterial 20 million/g rhizosphere sample in ind when Sown in normal unsterile lf rhizophere sample in 50 days and phendi when about 16,000 cells/g of population increased to 7.5 million/g million/g in 40 days in normal unmaterially altered the quantities of in the rhizosphere. GopalakrishSwami (1967) studied the changes rice plants at different stages of pre-treated with A. chroococcu.m., 12th Osporium, Oryzae, alone and in Seeds Were treated. With either. A. um sp. the respective bacteria Zosphere and multiplied in number ogen, H. Oryzae, when added to the
he rhizosphere microflora through re treated With concentrated Sulreptomycin Sulphate and the rhizoth quantitatively and qualitatively
When untreated cotton Seeds were dily colonisation of the rhizosphere hout the fourth day; when Sown in intinued to be predominant for some ined, giving place to slow colonizacroflora. The quantity and quality ld fungi establishing in the rhizoLe different pre-treated Seeds varied
USSION
ind others brought to light the influlora and the Soil microflora in the ich influence is termed - spermosphere effect would vary with plant
*

Page 39
INFLUENCE OF PRE-TREATMENT OF S MICROFLORA OF T
species, soil and various other envi nized in analogy with “the rhizos crop plants are treated in different
normal relationships between seed phere effect. For nearly a ce. advised to pre-treat the seeds with gens. Such treatments not only k other organisms carried by the seed changes in the quantity and quality ing in the rhizosphere of certain p has been brought out through our
Bacterization of Seed to obtai growth and the resultant crop yield in many parts of U. S. S. R. The also substantiate these results (S: Sinha 1963, Sundara Rao, Bajpal S wami and Mahadeviah 1963, Nee 1967, Gopalakrishnamurthy, Maha Furthermore, our studies also indic with A. chroococcu.m. and Phospho transported to the rhizosphere regic quantity and quality of the microft
There are also many reports in effects by way of better seed germi and increased wet and dry weights the seeds with certain chemicals (Cristensen and Stakman. 1935, Ja 1963). There are also some repo! treatments on the seed germinatic Timonin 1964). In the light of the the various Workers On the role of microflora on seed germination an ling, re-examination of some of the ers to understand the role of Va
appears necessary.
SUMIM
The various internally and exter) influence the percentage germinati plant. The different physical and treatments given to the seed not ( flora on the seed but also cause ce. growth. The normal microflora C

3OME SEEDS ON THE RHIZOSPHERE
HE SEEDLINGS
ironmental factors is to be recogphere effect. When the seeds of ways, we are interfering with the , its microflora and the spermosntury agriculturists have been chemicals to get rid of the pathoill the pathogens but also most l. That these treatments bring in of the micro-organisms establishlants at various stages of growth
Studies.
n better seed germination, plant has become an approved practice a results obtained in this country ankaram 1963, Sundara Rao and harma and Subbiah 1963, Rangaselakantan and Rangaswami 1965, devan and Rangaswami (1967). ate that by pre-treating the seeds obacterium sp., the organisms are on, where they materially alter the
Oa.
the literature on the beneficial nation, rapid growth, robust stand ; of seedlings through pre-treating , particularly organo mercurials malainen 1962, Clark 1963, Kukin its on the adverse effect of such on (Dempsey and Chander 1963, more recent observations made by seed-microflora and spermosphere d Subsequent growth of the seeda results reported by earlier workrious groups of micro-organisms
TARY
nally borne seed microflora greatly ion and subsequent growth of the di chemical as well as microbial Dnly alter the effect of the normal rtain beneficial effects to the plant if the seed is also carried to the
8ጸ

Page 40
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
rhizosphere of young seedlings of physical and chemical pre-treatn alter the rhizosphere microflora, a earlier Works of the author and
mnOre Work in this directiOn is re( altering the rhizosphere microflor ment of the Seeds With different
34
REFE]
ARK, P. and THOMPSON, F. (1958)
BALASURRAMANIAM, A. and RANGA
1 : 1.
BALASuUBRAMANIAM, A. and RANG
BATRA, S. K. and Bajaj, B. S. (19
BALOOMBERG, W. J. (1966), Can.
BoRODULINA, V. S. (1941), Microb
Bow EN, G. D. (1961), Plant & SC
CHRANOWSKA, H. (1965), Reffrat.
CHRISTENSEN, J. J. and STAKIMIAN,
CLARK, R. V. (1963), Plant Dis. S
Cook, R. J. and FLENTJE, N. T. (
CooPER, R. (1959), Soil & Fert. 2
DEMPSEY, A. H. and CHANDLER, W
DUGGELI, M. (1904), Cent bil. Bakı
FEDEROv, M. V. and TEPPER, E. S. Acak. Timiziazeva, Dok., 1 !
FLENTJE, N. T. (1959), In Plant P
C. S. Holton et al., Univ.
FRENCZY, L. (1956), Acta Biol., 6
GARBER, R. H. and Hou STON, B.
GOPALAKRISHNAMURTHY, A., MAH. Indian J. Microbiol. 7: 21
GROSSBARD, E. (1948), Rept., Eac
GROSSBARD, E. (1952), J. Gen. M

RIST, vo. CXXV, 1969
certain plant species. The various lents given to the seed therefore und this has been confirmed by the his associates. It is suggested that Juired to examine the possibility of a in desired lines through pre-treatchemicals and micro-organisms.
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crobiol., 6 : 295.

Page 41
INFLUENCE OF PRIE-TREATMENT OET SI
MICROFILORA OF T
IVANoVICs, G. and HoRVATH, S. (194'
JACKSON, C. R. and PRESS, A. F. (1
JACOBs, S. E. and DADD, A. H. (1959
JAMALAINEN, E. A. (1962), Ann. Ag
JENSEN, H. L. (1942), Austr. J. Sci.,
KRASSILINIKov, N. A., KUCHEVA, A. (
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PICCI, G. (1959a), Agricoltura Ital.,
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ܬ ̄ܐ̄ܥܠ

Page 43
Drought inciden rainfe
W. S.
Research Officer, Centra
Institute, Pera
INTROD
DURING the active growth stages o is necessary in the tissues for the which exists in a field crop at a par of several variables, namely the a zone, the evaporative demand of controlling influences which may e general, if the soil is drier than p. moisture stress and consequently g atmospheric humidity is exceedin, attempt to use available informatic tions, to estimate the number of di zones have been drier than pF 4. Agricultural Drought Days.
There is no published work on c takes account of soil moisture. Dr. alone is considered in meteorolog is published in the annual repor Drought in an agricultural sense do rather when soil moisture is dimi longer absorb water from the soil. by the shoot to the atmosphere. T widely used in the work of Tho: Weihmeyer (1956), Weihmeyer and Van Bavel (1953), and others. The (1956), is particularly useful as i drought incidence from meteoro
(6/69) 3788 J.---------اے-4
 

ce in relation to di rice
ALLES
El Agricultural Research deniya, Ceylon.
(Received June, 1969)
UCTION
f a plant, a high state of turgidity ir normal growth. The turgidity ticular instant of time is a function vailability of moisture in the root the shoot environment and any xist within the plant itself. But in 4.2, plants would be subjected to rowth activity reduced, unless the gly high. The present study is an in of meteorological and soil condiays on which certain selected root 2. Such days are designated as
lrought incidence in Ceylon which Ought defined in terms of rainfall, ical records and this information ts of the Colombo observatory. oes not begin when rain ceases, but nished so that plant roots can no rapidly enough to replace that lost his concept has been adopted and rntwaite (1955), Penman (1961), Hendriksen (1955), Zahner (1956), work of Van Bavel and Verlinden it provides a means of estimating logical records, of rainfall and
37

Page 44
TROPICAL AGRICULTUR.
evaporation, and the moisture hold tations are however subject to the
(a) moisture above field capac
tion or as run-off.
(b) moisture below wilting pel
(c) all moisture between field is equally available thro transpiration proceeds at percentage and when th further evapotranspiratic
Although these assumptions are no practical alternative at the pre: term past record, and where elabor available.
In the present study drought i 63 years, and from this informat drought conditions has been derive bined with available data on th prevalent during seven seasons of Illupallama to determine the long.
Drought day information may s yield pattern of other crops, as well in order to obtain consistently hig
PROCE
Drought days have been calculat of three selected root zones, for root zones are specified in terms O. moisture rather than in terms of drought information would be app base amounts of available soil moi been calculated are one, two and til is defined as the amount betwee wilting percentage. When these tw soil are known, the particular roc amount of available soil moisture soil of field capacity 20 per cen 10 percent and bulk density 100 lb
38

ST, VOL. CXXV., 1969
ing capacity of soil. The compu
following assumptions :-
ty is rapidly lost as deep percola
centage is not available to plants;
capacity and wilting percentage ugh the whole range, and evapothe potential rate down to wilting le base, amount is exhausted no
) OCCULÉS.
2ontroversial, nevertheless there is sent time, for dealing with a longate computational assistance is not
incidence has been calculated for Lion the statistical expectancy of d. This information has been come yield and drought conditions rainfed rice cultivation at Maha -term yield.
imilarly be used to determine the L as their requirement of irrigation, h yields.
XDURE
ed for Maha Illupallama in respect she period 1905-1968. The selected f the base amount of available soil
depth of soil in order that the licable to all soils in a region. The sture for which drought days have hree inches. Available soil moisture in field capacity and permanent o values and the bulk density of a it zone associated with any base
can readily be found. Thus for a 5, permanent wilting percentage . per cubic foot, a base amount of
1 - ܐ

Page 45
DROUGHT INCIDENCE IN R
one inch refers to the root Zone co. soil conditions are uniform, a bas foot depth of soil and three inches
If the actual moisture percentag particular date, the subsequent si the accretions from rainfall an evapotranspiration losses.
Daily rainfall records were ava January 1905, while June and July Hence it could be reasonably as amounts of soil moisture, the soil w On August 1st 1905. This date was t for the computations.
Although daily rainfall measu. transpiration values are not avail Pan evaporation measurements w the present study, the average m were divided by the days in each daily evaporation in respect of ea assumed to be equal to the poter this is not strictly valid, neverthel particular use made of the data in in future work it is proposed to us franspiration in order to make til reliable and widely applicable.
RESU
During the maha seasons 1962/6 at the Maha Illupallama Researcl same land under more or lesS simila varieties sown, fertiliser applicatio disease control, etc. remaining th variations may be reasonably attri factor. The period of drought sus three-month period October 15from which moisture is drawn has inches of soil. In tables I and II ai during the seven maha seasons c tables III and IV are given the lo
 
 

'ELATION To RAIN FED RICE
nsisting of the top six inches, and if 2 amount of two inches refers to a
to 13 feet of soil.
e of a soil can be determined for a oil moisture conditions depend on d the depletions of water by
ailable for Maha Illupallama from 1905, were completely without rain Sumed that for all selected base as at permanent wilting percentage herefore taken as the starting point
rements exists, measured evapoable and requires to be estimated. ere available for several years. In onthly values of pan evaporation month to obtain a value for the ch month. These values have been tial evapotranspiration. Although ess, it is not a disadvantage for the relation to rainfed rice. However, e more refined estimates of evapohe drought day information more
JLTS
3 to 1968/69, the rainfed rice crop in Station has been grown on the ar conditions, with tillage practices, n, weed control methods, pest and e same. Hence most of the yield buted to variation in the moisture :ceptibility has been taken as the January 15, while the root zone been taken as the top six to nine e given the drought day incidence sonsidered, while in Figure I and ng-term drought day expectancies.
39

Page 46
TROPICAL AGRICULTUR
TABLE I-Drought Days and Yi
Season,
1962/63 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69
Average of seven seasons (not weighted for acreage)
TABLE 2.-Number of periods of consecutive than specified below, during the pe
Seasom, 5 Da
1962/63 - - - 2 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69
TABLE 3.-Long-term expectancy in percen periods of duration equal to or greater tha
15-Jan.
Specified With at IOαμη αίτιογη least in Days Oገ06
period
5 - - 89
7 75
10 51
15 19
TABLE 4.-Long-term expectancy, in perce periods of duration equal to or greater th
15-Dece
Specified With at IDμηαίίοη leasi in Days Oገ06
period
5 66
7 - 51
10 32
15 14
40

ST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
eld in Seven Seasons of Rainfed Rice
Acreage Yield in Total
Bushells sacre Drought
Days
25 - - 30 - 18
24 71. - - 8
10 8 - - 23
12 - - 40 - 19
20 40 - - 19
24 25 - - 22
20 - - 12 - - 21.
32
drought days of duration equal to or greater riod October 15-January 15
ys 7 Days 10 Days 15 Days
- - Ni - - Ni
Nil Nil - - Nil
2 l - - Nil
I 1. Ni
I - - Nil
l - - Ni
I Nil Nil
tage of years, of consecutive drought day in specified below, for the period October 1агу 15
γγοί ή αί With at
least least tuUO three periods periods
64 - 38
38 I6
l Nil
Nil Nil
ntage of years, of consecutive drought day. an specified below, for the period October mber 31
With at With αί
least least tuvo ίλιγee periods periods
30 - 6
15
4 - Nil
Nil - - Nil

Page 47
DROUGHT INCIDENCE IN E
DISCU
In this study rainfed rice yields of the moisture factor, namely the the occurence of drought days durations.
In the seven seasons of data av was in 1963/64, while the most u
Tables III and IV and Figure I sh as well as conditions more unfavo in some years. The percentage of the 1963-64, season when the hig total drought days was eight and secutive drought days, but none o per cent. Of the years, conditions i.e., without a single period of five than a total of eight days. Therefo acre in about ten per cent. of the 80 bushells/acre.
In 1964-65, when the lowest yie days was 23 and twelve days occ cutive drought days did not occl. study. But such an event is likely in 40 per cent. of the years the tC It may be concluded therefore tha rice yields would be less than 10 k
Extremely high variability is to vation in Dry Zone locations su possible to deduce the exact lon available information, but it is cle long-term average yield is unlike value of the Seven seasons of infor it may be slightly lower. A figure tentative value for the long-term age class varieties that are availal
At these yield levels it is hard The cost of cultivation of a rainfe mendations of the Maha Illupal estimated at Rs. 420 per acre. T

ELATION TO RAIN FED RICE
SSION
have been viewed from two aspects total number of drought days and on successive days for specified
ailable, the most favourable season nfavourable was in 1964/65.
low that conditions more favourable ourable could be expected to occur
such years can be ascertained. In hest grain yield was obtained, the
there was one period of five conf seven or more days. In about ten
Would be even more favourable; } consecutive drought days and less bre yields would exceed 70 bushels/ 2 years and possibly average about
ald was obtained the total drought urred consecutively. Fifteen conseur in any of the seven seasons of
in 19 per cent. of the years, while otal drought days would exceed 23. it in about 20 per cent. Of the years pushells/acre.
be expected in rainfed rice cultiCh as Maha Illupallama. It is not g-term pattern of yield from the ear from the present data that the aly to be higher than the average mation. In fact indications are that of 30 bushells/acre is a reasonable average yield of the four month ple.
ly profitable to grow rainfed rice. di rice crop according to the recomlama Research Station has been This is equivalent in value to 30
4.

Page 48
TROPICAL, AGRICULTUR
bushels of paddy at Rs. 14 per b margin. However, at lower levels such as under chena conditions, profitable although yields also wou
The adverse effects of drought growing a good 3 1/2 month variety IV. Jin this case the proportion O consecutive drought period is 35 p month varieties, while the propor with a 15 day drought period is 14 possible to achieve a long-term yi with a 3 1/2 month variety whose of the existing four month v. programme in rainfed rice agro Venture.
Lastly, the type of land on whi Illuppalama deserves mention. Th Reddish Brown Earth catena and r soil series. Drainage is described : slope is about three to four per ce constructed on the land but other is unimpeded. Ponded water does r
Rainfed rice would grow much form 'liyaddas SO that ponded irrigated paddy lands with provisi necessary. Under these conditions t periods may be considerably de terracing the lands would be amp that would be obtained.
SUMI]
The concept of a “Drought D moisture stress suffered by plants, has been calculated for a period logical records of Maha Illuppallau study has been used to determine
ACKNOWLE
The co-operation of the Directo obtaining daily rainfall data, and laboratory assistant in carrying acknowledged.
42

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
ushell and thus there is no profit of management with lower inputs rainfed rice cultivation may be ld be lower.
can be considerably reduced by . This is clearly indicated in Table f seasons without even a five-day er cent. as against 10 for the four tion of very unfavourable seasons
as against 19 earlier. It should be eld level of about 50 bushells/acre yield potential is similar to that arieties. An intensified research nomy is therefore a worthwhile
ch rainfed rice has been at Maha e land is a l'OW er member in the napped as the Talawa and Manewa as moderate to poor, and the land nt. Broadbased terraces have been wise the natural external drainage lot occur except is isolated patches.
better if land is bench terraced to Water may remain, as in typical On to drain off excess Water When he onset of drought during rainless slayed. The extra cost of bench ly justified by the increased yields
MARY
ay ” has been used to study the
and the incidence of drought days of 63 years, based on the climatoma. Relevant information from this the long-term yield of rain fed rice.
EDGEMENTS
or of Meteorology and his staff in ihe assistance of Mr. J. Amarasena, out the calculations is gratefully
*

Page 49
亨、
DROUGHT INCIDENCE IN R
LITERAT
... Annual Reports of the Colomb
. PENMAN, H. L., (1961) The Mg
Soils and Fertilizers, Comm
. THORNTWAITE, C. W., (1955). TI
Technology. Publications in New Jessey.
. VEIHMEYER, F. J., (1956) Soil I
logie 3 : 64-123.
. VEIHIMEYER, F. J. and HENDRIK
Decrease as Soil Moisture I 36: 425-428.
. VAN BAVEL, C. H. M., (1953) A
in Evaluating Drought I 45 : 167-172.
. VAN BAVEL, C. H. M. and VERLIN
in North Carolina Agric. Ea
. ZAHNER, R., (1956) Evaluating
Forest Eacpt. Sta. U. S. D. A
... Reports of the Rainfed Rice F
Mahaliluppallama.
 

ELATION TO RAINEED RICE
RE CITED
Observatory.
vement and Availability of Soil Water
Bur. Soil Sci 19: 221-225.
he Water Balance, Drexel Institute of Climatology Vol. II, No. 1. Centerton,
Moisture, Hanbuck der Pflanzenphysio
SEN, A. H., (1955) Does Transpiration. )ecreases 2 Trans. Amer. Geoph. Union
Drought Criterion and Its Application. ncidence and Hazard Agron Journ,
TIDEN, F. J., (1956) Agricultural Drought Cpt. Sta. Tech. Bul. No. 122.
Summer Water Deficiencies Southern . Occasional Paper No. 150.
tesearch. Section, Agric. Research Sta.
43.

Page 50
TROPICAL AGRICULTURIS
S_SP
VJ7Q
형
*TFT劇的T정T정T정T&To 「&o go wóo Percentage of years in which the number of drought days was equal
to or løss thon the value in the ordinote
 

T, voL. Cxxv, 1969
days
45
40
Figure I–Cumulative frequencydia。hos total drought days occurring between October 15-January 15, based on 63 years record.
, !
→

Page 51
*
s
METEOROLOG
Quarterly weather summar
JANUARY : The rainfall during Jan weather alternated with short spells of no rain from the 1st to the 3rd and on from the 24th to the end of the month. the South Bay of Bengal on the 9th d near latitude 4° North longitude 88° E up by the 15th. This strengthened th in the East during this period, with ev Noteworthy features of the weather du storms in Colombo on the 13th evening night temperatures in the North from thunderstoms on the 13th was accompa about 60 m.p.h. over parts of Colombo The low night temperatures in the No. being drawn over the Island due to a larger monthly totals of rainfall (tot along the north-eastern slopes of the In parts of the Nuwara Eliya and Badu 15 and 20 inches, while over the adj between 5 and 15 inches. In the Southwas mainly below 5 inches, except for where the rainfall ranged between 5 average over practically the whole Isl mainly in the south-west. Day tempe Night temperatures were well below r at Nuwara Eliya and about normal 63 per cent. to 80 per cent., while nig to 95 per cent. The air was unusually 2nd, 3rd, 26th and 31st. On the 3rd an of 16 per cent. and 18 per cent. were Values. Cloud amounts were about nor below normal. Wind mileages were generally above normal elsewhere, w
FEBRUARY : The rainfall during F over the greater part of the Island. I over the Island at the beginning of the the first Sour days. A moist easterly will light rain was experienced in the No with scattered evening thundershowe the 14th and from the 20th to the 26 remaining days generally light rain v With scattered thundershowers in the of rainfall (totals over 10 inches) we eastern Slopes of the central hills, par the adjoining regions and over parts

[CAL REPORT
y-January to March, 1969
uary was below normal. Spells of dry rainy weather. There was practically the 8th, from he 16th to the 18th and A low pressure area which formed in eepened into a depression on the 11th ast, but remained stationary and filled e easterlies and rain was experienced ening thunderstorms in the southwest. ring January were the severe thunder(which gave 4.91" of rain) and the low the 25th the end of the month. The nied by strong gusts of wind, probably city, where some roofs were blown off. rth were due to Indian continental air deep depression near Gan Island. The als Over 20 inches) were experienced central hills in the Gammaduwa area. Illa districts, the rainfall ranged between oining areas, the rainfall was mainly west quarter and in the North, rainfall isolated areas in the Colombo district and 10 inches. Rainfall Was below and, except for a few isolated stations ratures were generally above 11ormal. normal at Kankesanturai, above normal elsewhere. Day humidity ranged from ght humidity ranged from 78 per cent. dry at Nu Wara Eliya on several days, d on the 26th, extreme humidity values recorded, which are exceptionally low mal and the mean air pressure slightly below normal in the north-West and hile the direction was north-easterly.
ebruary continued to be below average Due to a dry north-easterly air stream month, no rain was experienced during ld stream set in on the 5th and generally rth and East from the 5th to the 11th, S in the South-West. From the 12th to h, dry weather prevailed, while on the 7as experienced in the North and East,
south-west. The larger monthly totals re experienced mainly along the northticularly in the Gammaduwa area. Over
of the south-west, the rainfall ranged
45

Page 52
TROPICAIL AGRICULTU.
mainly between 5 and 10 inches. In t mainly between 2 and 10 inches. Raj the Eastern Province and the central were generally above normal. Night Kankesanturai, above normal at Nuw Day humidity ranged from 59 per cer ranged from 74 per cent. to 93 per cen Eliya on the 12th, being 17 to 19 pe extremely low. Cloud amounts were : pressure was a little above normal. on the 27th morning, the highest val mileages were generally below norm north-easterly.
MARCH: March was dry and v month this year, rainfall was beli from the 4th to the 12th, when the over the Island. Absolute droug stations, particularly in the nor provinces. Even though there wer the month, the rainfall was isola monthly totals of rainall (totals mainly in Sabaragamuwa. Over th quarter, the rainfall ranged betw. the north-Western, northern and below 2 inches, many stations rec below average over practically th isolated Stations in the Southwes tures were well above normal, Eliya, Kurunegala and Anuradhap temperature were more than 4 de; tures were mostly a little above r 53 per cent. to 70 per cent., while per cent. to 95 per cent. The air v during the mornings of the 7th, 8t ties of about 20 per cent. were recc a very dry day on the 6th, when a recorded Cloud amounts were a air pressure slightly above normal in the South-east, north and north the direction being variable.
Department of Meteorology, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, 15th May, 1969.
46

IST, VOL. CXXV, 1969
he North and East, the rainfall ranged infall was below average over most of region of the Island. Day temperatures
temperatures were below normal at ara Eliya and about normal elsewhere. t. to 72 per cent. while night humidity ... The air was unusually dry at Nuwara cent, during the afternoon, which is little below normal and the mean air Air pressure over the Island was high ue being at Mannar, 1017.1 mb. Wind al and the wind direction was mainly
Varm and for the third Consecutive ow average. There was a dry spell 'e was practically no rain anywhere ht conditions prevailed at many th-western, northern and eastern a 17 days of thunderactivity during ated and mainly light. The larger Over 10 inches) were experienced e adjoining areas of the south-west een 2 and 10 inches. Over most Of eastern provinces, the rainfall was ording no rain at all. Rainfall was he whole Island, except for a few t and at Vavuniya. Day temperabeing appreciably so at Nuwara pura, where the average maximum grees above normal. Night temperanormal. Day humidity ranged from the night humidity ranged from 73 7as unusually dry at Nuwara Eliya h and 9th, when very low humidirded. Also Katugastota experienced In extreme value of 22 per cent. was little below normal and the mean
Wind mileages were above normal -west and below normal elsewhere,
TL. A. D. I. EKANAYAKA, Director.

Page 53
METEOROLOGI
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Page 54
TROPICAL AGRICULT
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METEOROLOGIC
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