கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tropical Agriculturist 1961.01-03

Page 1
TROPICA AGRICU
AGRICULT
VOLUME C.
ANUARY

AL LTURIST
RAL JOURNAL OF CEYLON
s
ce to
XVI NUMBER 1 MARCH, 1961

Page 2


Page 3
RC) C
The new saf for us
Enquiries to :
FISONS (Ceylon) LTD.
O. Box 69,
COLOMBO
Fisons)
2-R 20026-750 (10/6
 
 

toR
e insecticide
Se On
Stemborer on Paddy Agromyza fly on Beans Cucurbit fly on Cucurbits
Aphids on Cowpea
《 CONTROL

Page 4
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Page 5
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A N N O THE CEYLON CC
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vi
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Page 9
NEWEST ODOU
SYSTEMIC
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COLOMBO,

Page 10
NEW PUBLICATIO CENTRAL COCC
THE COCONUT PA
Compiled by Dr. K. P. Me Research Station, Kayangula Director, Central Coconut Re: Coconut Palm-A Monograph problems connected with the coc scientific information that has during the last two decades.
The book contains 384 pages and 19 colour plates. It has be within India, Pakistan and Ce (for foreign buyers) inclusive of
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of size 83" x 11" 150 illustrations 'n priced at Rs. 43/- (for buyers ylon) and at £ 4-10-0 and $ 13.00 postage, etc.
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Page 11
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Page 12
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Page 13
but More
The higher its sugar content the more valuable the cane. High yields take large quantities of plant foods from the soil. For nitrogen alone more than 200 kg. a hectare are removed. This removal of plant foods must continually be replaced if good yields are to be harvested. Experienced planters reckon to use 50lb. of nitrogen per acre and 1 lb., for every expected ton of cane. Thus 150 lb. of nitrogen should be used for a yield of 100 tons of cane per acre. Jamaica, where fertilizers have raised yields by 1309/o and more, provides an example of what can be achieved with fertilizers. This shows the scope for expansion that still remains in the world's sugar-cane plantations. With the use of fertilizers this potential
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Page 14

夔 התר

Page 15
ਏ
Vol. CXVII, No. 1
Ο ΟΝΤ
EDITORIAL
SOILS OF CEYLON-A NEW APPROAC CLASSIFICATION OF THE MOST IMPO. by Dr. F. R. Moormann, F. A. O., S Dr. C. R. Panabokke, Head, Lan Agriculture, Ceylon
ForeWord
Chapter II—
Introduction
Chapter II—
Great Soil Groups of Ceylon 1. Reddish Brown. Earths
. Noncalcic Bronvin Soils
Reddish, Brown, Lateritic S
Red-Yellovy Podzolic Soils
. Red- Yellou Latosols
Immature Brown Loams
. Rendzina Soils
. Grumusols
. Solodized Solometz . Louw- Humic Gley Soils . Meadouy Podzolic Soils . Bog and Half- Bog Soil8 . Alluvial Soils . Regosols
Laterite and lateritic form
Chapter III—
Classification of the Principal * Soil Classification, a Co. Approximation
Chapter IV—
Descriptions and Analytical Da
BIBLIOGRAPHY MAPs AND FIGURES
METEOROLIGICAL REPORT
Summary for January to Ma

MARCH, 1961
ENTS
Page
TO THE IDENTIFICATION AND iTANT SOIL GROUPS OF CEYLON oil Classification Consultant, and | Use Division, Department of
III
Voils - - 13 16
2.
24
26
27
29
3.
32
34
35
36
ations - - 3S
Soils of Ceylon according to nprehensive System 7th
a of Representative Profiles 46
65
66
'ch, 1961 . . - 7

Page 16

*ae

Page 17
EDITC
Soil. Su
THE identification, mapping and classi basic pre-requisites to formulating a classical studies of the early Russian pe porary systems of soil identificati refinements and modifications, have be the modern soil scientist. Such fundan to our understanding and efficient mana,
The first systematic studies of the soi Joachim and his colleagues during th state of development of soil science in work was indeed a significant contribu However, the vast strides that have be tropical regions have forced a re-apprai and knowledge of Ceylon soils.
Recent years have witnessed a succ the study of Ceylon soils, most notewort studies of some Dry Zone soils at Mah had a far reaching significance in for agriculturally valid principles of land ut soil landscapes.
A soil survey of fifteen river basins in north-western Ceylon, which was c: Resources Survey in collaboration wit ment of Agriculture during 1959-61, in and systematic surveys of the island's which the future programme could be
With mounting land pressures and i ture into marginal lands, empirical me can no longer be afforded. High in this country compel a careful and sy potentials of the regions which are to and the Walawe basin development

RIAL
rveys
cation of the island's soils is one of the national land use programme. The ologists from which derive the contemn and classification, with certain come a powerful tool in the hands of ental studies are therefore indispensable gement of the country's soil resources.
ls of Ceylon were those of Dr. A. W. R. a decade 1935-1945. Considering the the tropics at that period, Joachim’s tion to the knowledge of Ceylon soils. 2n made during the intervening years in sal and revision of the earlier concepts
essful application of modern concepts in hy being the fundamental morphological a, Illuppallama. This investigation has mulating scientifically sound as well as se over a greater part of the Dry Zone's
overing an extent of 7,500 square miles rried out by the Canada-Colombo Plan the Land Use Division of the Departarks the beginning of modern organised soils, and this has served as a model on leveloped and built on.
creasing invasion of subsistence agriculhods of land selection by trial and error estment costs on irrigation projects in tematic investigation into the land use e influenced by the Mahaweli diversion programmes. Basic findings at Maha
I

Page 18
TROPICAL AGRICUI
Illuppallama, in respect of arable få modern land use concepts, should pro of integrated agricultural developme
Unlike in the temperate regions o pedological research and soil surveys defined great soil groups, not much the science in the tropical regions. I that the Food and Agriculture Orgal available the valued services of D. Consultant) during this important p survey programme. This has contri the identity of the great soil groups modern concepts of soil classification, several countries and by the F. A. O.

URIST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
ming in the dry zone together with the ide the basis for evolving a sound system.
for these regions.
the world, where over half a century of have resulted in the acceptance of well ogress has been made in this branch of has, therefore, been singularly fortunate isation of the United Nations had made
F. R. Moormann (Soil Classification ase of development in the national soil buted towards establishing convincingly of this country in accordance with the leveloped in the U. S. A. and adopted by

Page 19
SOILS O
A NEW APPROACH TO TI
CLASSIFICATION OF
SOIL GROUP
Dr. F. R.
F.A.O. Soil Class
2.
Dr. C. R.
Head, Land Use Division, D
ܚ
3-R. 20026 (10/61)

CEYLON
HE I DENTIFICATION AND
THE MOST IMPORTANT
S OF CEYLON
By
MOORMANN
sification Consuitanti .
and
PANAIBOKKE
epartment of Agriculture, Ceylon

Page 20
IF O )
In accordатсе иvith the agreететt betureen cultural Organisation of the United Natio
Oογιsμίίαγιί αυere ργουιαίεά. Τον αρeriod ofίμα
Dr. F. R. Moormann undertook the assign, the Land Use Division of the Department of of the broad soil groups of the country in assumed duties in March, 1961, and visited island.
The author's cre aware that this study cou integration of numerous observations made b. cation. In particular, they wish to acknow provided much voluable information and a studies covering fifteen river basins in West Vries, soil Scientists of Hunting Survey Corp.
The senior author wishes to eacpress his g Head of the Land Use Division and its sta of the major soils of Ceylon. He also wish Institute and its Soil Chemist who enabled hip,
 
 

E WOR D
the Government of Ceylon and the Food and Agrils, the services of a F. A. O. Soil Classification
months in 1961.
rent of assisting the Government of Ceylon, through Agriculture, in the identification, and classification Brms of contemporary international systems. He
most of the important soil and climatic zones of the
ld not possibly have been carried out without the ly other research workers in the field of soil classifiledge the work of Dr. A. W. R. Joachin, which so the more recent soil survey and classification ern Ceylon carried out by W. Holland and L. de νογαίο ογο Ι.ίηγιοίρα.
ratitude to the Director of Agriculture and to the if for their assistance in carrying out the study es to thank the Director of the Rubber Research,
to study the soils in the rubber growing regions.

Page 21
華
SOILS OF
CHIAPT
JNTROD.
OUR approach in this study is based on fication in which the inherent morpholo are identified and studied in the field, w cal properties are determined in the labc have caused a soil to acquire its propertie classification proper*. Thus for instanc not acceptable since several morphologic montane grassland; namely, red-yellow and bog or peaty soils. Similarly, ter. rubber soils, etc., are not appropriate be different morphology, or else quite often soils With similar features.
The principal morphological features nature and arrangement of the genetics ture and consistence. Other diagnosti nature of organic matter, and the pres tions of different nature. The Water r, important diagnostic feature both in rel of a permanent or periodic water table.
Chemical and physico-chemical pro characteristics include the pH in water a base saturation expressed as the sum of tive of the amount of soluble salts; an diagnostic mineralogical features are th the nature and approximate content coarser fractions. Clay mineralogical although in a few cases the (SiOIR, fractions are quoted.
* This statement does not hold entirely true regosols, which groups are separated not so but or differences in geology and topography
4—R 20026—1,600 (10/61)

CEYLON
ER, I
CTION
he morphological system of soil classigical characteristics of the soils units ile their chemical and physico-chemiratory. Environmental factors which s do not enter into consideration in the e, the concept of wet patana, soils is ally different soils are found under wet podzolic soils, meadow podzolic soils ns such as paddy soils, coconut soils, cause these crops are grown on soils of some of these crops occur together on
used in defining the soil units are the oil horizons, their color, texture, strucc characteristics are the content and ence of lime, soluble salts and concreegime of the soil is also considered an ation to soil climate and to the presence
perties which are used as diagnostic nd IN KCI ; cation exchange capacity : cations; conductivity which is indicafree calcium carbonate content. The e nature of the clay minerals and both of minerals other than quartz in the lata are yet incomplete in this study, Os and SiO/Al2O) ratio of the clay
for the distinction between alluvial soils and luch based on differences in soil morphology
.5

Page 22
TROPICAL AGRICU
In this classification of Ceylon so accordance with the methods develo which have been adopted by several
In the morphological system of cl increasingly broader categories ; na soil groups, suborders and orders. be adopted. In this study, the cat great soil group as proposed by category of the subgroup is introd from the modal soils of the great soi ries higher than that of the great so this paper. Although the principle soils in the category of the orders ar standing the relation between soils scale, the implementation of these the scale of a country the size of Ce
In recognizing and naming the ourselves mainly on the classificatio the U. S. A. Which in turn derives from the classical studies of the Riu great soil groups of Ceylon could n system, other sources have been reso by Stephens (14) for Australian soils used by F. A. O. experts in tropical cc
Of great interest for modern so: developed in recent years by Americ several other countries. The results ed (12) in a 7th approximation*. In mined according to observable, and ill as these properties affect soil genesis the great soil groups of Ceylon, the I. tion have been followed as closely a an attempt has been made to group classification system. It will be obse torily arranged within the categorie cases it has proved to be incomplete system is yet an approximation and become known.
* In this paper this system is referred to
 

URIST, VOL. CXVIII, 1961
s, the diagnostic features are described in ed in the United States of America (12,13) Ountries and also by the F. A. O.
ssification, the soil profiles are classified in mely soil types, soil series, families, great Ometimes intermediate categories have to gory of generalization used is that of the horp and Smith (15). An intermediate ced in order to classify soils which differ group in one important feature. Categol group level have not been introduced in of Zonality which are adopted to classify d suborders may prove valuable in underand their environment on a continental principles become increasingly difficult on ylon.
reat soil groups of Ceylon, we have based in developed by Thorp and Smith (15) in both from earlier American work and also ssian pedologists. However, since all the lot find a place in the above classification ted to, notably the classification developed
3 and also the miscellaneous classifications untries.
El classification is the taxonomic system an soil scientists assisted by pedologists of of this new approach were recently publishthis system the taxonomic units are deterpossible, measurable properties in as much or result from soil genesis. In determining lethods of diagnosis of the 7th approximas possible. Furthermore, in Chapter III, the soils of Ceylon according to this new oved that most Ceylon soils can be satisfacs of the new system. Although in a few
it should be borne in mind that this new hat new units could be introduced as they
is * 7th approximation '.

Page 23
܀
SOILS OF
To illustrate the soil units which Wil descriptions and analytical data are give some of the subgroups. For readers w geography of the island, we refer to the
The authors wish to present this stud which might serve as a guide for recog Since several of the great soil groups a division at the subgroup and lower level taken, the nature of this paper is essent. vational and analytical data, the definit exact. Information from further soil su of other groups and also in the modificat of the present groups.
CHAPT.
GREAT SOIL GRO
Following great soil groups are describ
1. Reddish brown earths . Noncalcic broWIn soils
Reddish brown lateritic soils
. Red-yellow podzolic soils . Red-yellow latosols . Immature brown loams . Rendzina soils
. Grumusols
. Solodized solonetz 10. Low-humic gley Soils ll. Meadow podzolic soils 12. Bog and half-bog soils l3. Alluvial soils 14. Regosols
Furthermore, some remarks are mad observed in Ceylon.

EYLON
be discussed in this paper, detailed for most of the great soil groups and o are not familiar wifh the physical aps at the end of the text.
as a manual of the soils of Ceylon, lizing the main soils of the country. ; inadequately studied and their subof classification has yet to be underally provisional. With further obseron of the units could be made more rveys could result in the introduction On of the definition and nomenclature
ER III
UPS OF CEYLON
ed in this chapter::-
on the laterite and lateritic formations

Page 24
TROPICAL AGRICULT
1. REIDDISH
Profile description No. 1
Nomenclature
These soils are believed to be the ec of Australia, as described by Stephen mediterranean soils in Indonesia, by T. Nam and Cambodia by Dudal (2) ai Reddish brown earths on limestone : group is thought to cover most of the distinguished by Joachim (7) and also limestone. However, it does not inc area in the Jaffna, district.
Morphology
Besides the modal soils, a subgroup definite signs of wetness (gley) at some di
In the modal soils, the A horizon horizons. A transitional A3 horizoni from A to Bt is gradual. The A hor. only around 5 inches thick. The colori more reddish in cultivated soils thani texture is mostly sandy clay loam . . Structure may be weak crumb or wea heavy. More often, and especially in nearly so. Consistence is friable when
The Bt horizon can be subdivided it distinction between the three sub horiz a semi-recent colluvial material, wher. a much older, frequently somewhat layers are often separated by a stone can be termed polygenetic, the having started long before that in do not, however differ in their soils developed on a uniform residu. considered as a separate soil group. redder than in the A horizon. In the broWin to dark red. Soils on Archaea,
* Color names according to the Munsells

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
BROWN EARTHIS
rivalent of part of the red-brown earths (14). Similar soils have been called red udal and Soepra potohardjo (3) and in Viet
d the senior author (unpublished work). -
re Often referred to as terra rossa. The On lateritic red and reddish brownloams, his chocolate brown loams on (Archaean) ude his brick red loams of the limestone
with a predominant brown color and with 2nth, is recognized.
is never differentiated into Al and A2 s often found. Generally, the transition izon is usually less than 10 inches, often is dark brown to dark reddish brown and in soils under a natural vegetation. The less frequently sandy loam or clay loam. k subangular blocky when the texture is pultivated soils, the Al is structureless or I moist or soft to slightly hard when dry.
to Blt, B2t and B3t, with a fairly clear ons. Very often, the Blt is developed in as the B2t and B3t have been formed in transported, residual material. The two line (erosion pavement). Such profiles
Bt development in the residuum
the colluvial cover. These profiles inherent diagnostic properties from parent material and thus cannot be The color in the Bt horizon is distinctly 2t, the dominant colors are dark reddish
limestone are usually somewhat redder
Il color charts.

Page 25
SOILS OF
than soils on residuum from other rocks. No. 1 is slightly lighter and somewhat le. horizon, and especially of the B2t is distir and is mostly clay loam or clay. Thus t argillic horizon, which is confirmed by coatings on the structural units. The strong, fine subangular blocky; some prisms, which however are only visible in varies quite strongly with texture and m moist and hard to very hard when dry.
transitional to those of the Chorizon ; { a higher content of unweathered mine) In some cases, the B3t is calcareous or m tions. The C horizon consists of more usually residuum of rather diverse char: limestone, the B3t and Chorizons may they hardly can be observed in the field.
In the wetter part ofthezone ofreddis profiles are found in which the B3t and seasonal wetness, even to a stage wher. observed in which the red mottles becom
The one subgroup which has been rec in both A and Bt horizons. The color dark brown (7 YR 44). Signs of rec Pather an une vienness of colorinthe B2 inches and a more distinct gley in the lo tions and spots, which do occur in m erous in these profiles. These soils so so this subot seeette at of the zone
Chemical and Physie0-chemical Chara
The pH values in reddish brown eart general tendency to increase with dept line in the lower Bt and in the Chorizo parent rock. In areas with a higher ra but seldom falls below 5'5. The catio expressed in m.e. for 100 grams clay is t
Base saturation values are above 409 ing with profile depth.

EYLON
The color of the B2t horizon in profile s red than average. Texture of the Bt ctly heavier than that of the Ahorizon; he Bhorizon definitely is an illuvial or the presence of distinct clay skins or structure in the B2t is moderate to imes the peds are arranged in weak dry profile exposures. The consistence oisture status; usually it is firm when
The B3t has characteristics which are somewhat lighter color and especially als and decomposing rock fragments. ay even contain secondary lime concre; or less decomposed parent material, acter. In soils developed on Archaean be absent or at least be so thin that
h brown earths (e.g., Puttalam district),
the Chorizons show signs of recurrent e a weak groundwater laterite may be he irreversibly hard upon drying.
}ognized has a distinctly browner color often observed for the B2t horizon is urrent wetness are a light mottling or thorizon at medium depth (e.g., 15-30 wer horizons. Also manganese concreost of the modal soils are much nore do not necessarily have laterite in the h a weak groundwater laterite can be of the reddish brown earths.
Cteristies
ns are usually between 6 and 7 with a ... The soil may become slightly alkal, often dependent on the nature of the infall the surface pH tends to be lower exchange capacity of the Bt horizon, sually between 45 and 55.
, usually higher than 70% and increas.

Page 26
TROPICA AGRICULTU
The few data available indicate that low ; somewhat around 1.2% Cand the bokke (10) found that the dominant C illite and with montmorillonite in the analyses of the clay fraction indicate the Joachim (7, 6) found SiO, LAIO., ratic earths both on intermediate rocks and (
Oecurrence
In extent, the reddish brown earths They occupy by far the largest part of North Central, Eastern and Southern uplands around Teldeniya (Kandy dist
Environmental Factors
The reddish brown earths are the m they do extend however to zones of in areas. With less than 85 inches rainfall and 85 inch isohyets they may occur si or even be absent in some areas. Also 2,000 ft. no reddish brown earths were are between 79 and 82°F.
These soils are mainly developed on rocks, mostly of a sedentary but somet vary from fairly acid to highly basi brown earths seem to have formed on ferro-magnesian minerals.
Relief is not an important factor. A undulating to gently rolling mantled p well. Free drainage however is neces soil group is replaced by hydromorph soils).
The natural vegetation, most commo characterized by the predominance of deciduous species. Most of this forest been destroyed by shifting cultivation part of the Zone of reddish brown earth shrub With isolated trees is found. . Imperata cylindrica, and Cymbopogon area (Badulla district).
IO

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
the O.M. content of these soils is rather CN ratios are usually below 12. Panalay mineral is kaolinite, with traces of lower horizons (B3t and C). Fusion | ** non lateritic ” character of these soils. s of more than 2:2 for reddish brown :rystalline limestones.
are the most important soils of Ceylon. the lowland dry zone in the Northern, provinces. A small area occurs in the rict).
odal soils of the dryer part of Ceylon ; intermediate rainfall. They are found l. However, in the Zone between the 65 de by side with red-yellow podzolic soils in the dry upland Zone, roughly above : found. Average annual temperatures
parent material derived from Archaean imes of transported nature. The rocks c (crystalline limestone). No reddish rocks without an appreciable amount of
lthough most of these soils are found On lains, they do occur in hilly terrains as sary and in the depressions this great hic soils (alluvial soils, low-humic gley
nly found is dry mixed evergreen forest, evergreen species with an admixture of is secondary, the original forest having at one time or another. In the dryest s a vegetational type of low open thorny Anthropomorphic forest-savannah with confertiflorous is observed in the Bibile

Page 27
虚
it, of
lg st
hy th
SOLS OF
Present Land Use and Agricultural P
A greater part of the reddish browne regularly used for chena or shifting period of forest fallow varies with the approaching a three year period in som water is available, settled arable crop Successful dry farming is restricted to private holdings. In the transition. Z. zone more settled forms of agriculture coconut, and rubber are found. Fair ex quartzitic rocks and rough topography vation.
Research investigations at Maha Illu efficient Weed control and correct tilla could be brought under very produc cropping. The sluggish drainage of the effect on crops during seasons of heavy with phosphorus which therefore has to zers. Prospects for large scale irrigati with suitable topography. Flood irrig the brown colored subgroups and the which occupy the crests of the un for forestry.
2. NONCALCIC
Prie description No. 2
care
These solis are similar to the nomical United States (California). They hav by Moormann (9) in Viet-Nam. Joa loams include these as well as some ot
Morphology
Since only a few of these soils have morphological features are not as yet

CEYLON
tential
rths are un cultivated or else have been ultivation since medieval times. The opulation density of the region, often
areas. Where sufficient underground
are grown with supplemental water. he government farms and a few large nes of higher rainfall towards the wet including some plantation crop such as ents of poor grade soils associated with remain unused even for chena, culti
ppallama have demonstrated that with ge practices, the reddish brown earths ive and sustained systems of rainfed textural B horizon. Often has an adverse rainfall. The soils are poorly supplied be supplemented by phosphatic fertilion development are very good in areas ation should essentially be restricted to
alluvial associates. The shallow soils dulating landscape are best utilized
BROWN SOLS
ie brown or shantung brown soils of the a been described under the same name thim's non lateritic gray brown sandy er soils.
been studied and described, the general nown in full detail.
II

Page 28
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
In profiles developed on acid resic differentiation into an Al and A2 h grey brown color while the A2 is bro dominantly sandy loam. In cultivat A2 horizon resulting in a grey brown color when the surface dries out. T distinctly differentiates these soils fr occur in the same area.
The Bthorizon is yellowish brown has a distinctly higher clay content angular blocky and clay coatings or are present. The consistence is firm, saturation in this horizon is above 40 acid gneisses with a low content offe
Weakly developed noncalcic brown (terrace deposits) in the Polonnarus characteristics as above, except that than the Al and there is no distinct co
Some soils of the transition Zone b. red-yellow podzolic soils in the Putta to be classified With the noncalcic br logical characteristics of red-yellow higher (more than 40% in the Bt) the
Occurrence
The noncalcic brown soils are a gro occur mainly in the Batticaloa, and tered in the Zone of the reddish brow. towards the lowland Wet Zone.
Environmental Factors
The noncalcic brown soils are fou Ceylon with an average temperature
These soils seem to develop main Bintenne gneisses which have a low also on quartzitic transported materi
The transitional soils of the inter acid parent material.
12
 

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
uum under natural vegetation a distinct orizon can be observed. The Al has a wn to yellowish brown. Texture is pred soils the All horizon is mixed with the 'olor which assumes a lighter and greyish is “ leached character of the A horizon m the reddish brown earths which may
o brown or very rarely yellowish red, and than the A horizon. Structure is subclay bridges between the coarser grains ind slightly hard to hard when dry. Base (,. The Chorizon consists of decomposed Cro-magnesian minerals.
soils were observed on sandy old alluvium Va district. These soils show the same the Bt horizon is only slightly heavier lor differentiation between the A2 and Bt.
etween the reddish brown earths and the lam and Kurunegala districts may have own soils. These soils have the morphopodzolic soils but their base saturation is un permitted for this group.
up of lesser importance in Ceylon. They its adjacent districts and are found scatin earths, especially in the transition areas
nd in the intermediate and dry zones of between 79 and 82°F.
ly on acid parent materials such as the content of ferro-magnesian minerals and als which are derived from acid rocks.
nediate zone are found on somewhat less

Page 29
t
aS
he ind
ᎾᎦ8
SOILS O
Relief is not an important factor, b brown soils are not found in poorly C vegetation is dry mixed evergreen fore savannah on sandy soils in the Polonn
Present Land Use and Agricultural P
A greater part of the noncalcic bro occasional chena, cultivation which years. Settled forms of agriculture a on the transitional soils of the interm and Orchard crops are grown. Irrig extents of these soils under rice cultiva
The agricultural potential of this soil conditions. The rough, irregular topo soils occur limits large scale irrigation zone rainfall conditions is hazardous of these soils. Provided efficient soil could however be satisfactorily used fo
3. REDDISH BROW
Profile description No. 3
Nomenclature
These soils have been variably desc yellowish brown lateritic soils in tropic that there is no exact equivalence wit
The term lateritic does not impl rather that the material of the solun alumina ratios; usually below 15 an lateritic is not very satisfactory.
Some of the reddish to yellowish are described by Joachim (7) can be c lateritic soils.
Morphology
The A horizon is never differentia profiles a transitional A3 horizon i. forest the thickness of the A horizon
 

CEYLON
it the drainage definitely is ; noncalcic ained depressional sites. The natural which gives place to damana or shrubruwa district.
potential
rn soils remain uncultivated except for requires long fallow periods of 15–25 e rarely practiced on these soils except diate zone where permanent plantation ation development has brought some tion in the Eastern province.
group is fairly restricted under dry zone graphy of the landscapes on which these development. Dry cropping under dry because of the poor structural stability konservation measures are adopted, they r extensive pasture development.
VN LATERITIC SOILS
ribed as reddish brown lateritic soils and all soil literature. However, it is believed h either of the two groups.
y the presence of a lateritic horizon, but shows low silica-sesquioxide and silicad 20 respectively. The use of the term
ed lateritic loams of the Wet Zone which insidered equivalent to the reddish brown
2d into Al and A2 horizons, but in most observed. Under uncultivated natural is 12 inches or more. In cultivated soils
13

Page 30
TROPCAL AGRICULI
on slopes, the Ap horizon is very m erosion. On the other hand, on the horizon materials have accumulated In the modal soils, the color of the
brown and is always distinctly dark texture is mostly sandy clay loam; loam. Primary minerals most freq horizon. Structure is rather strong tion, with a definite loss of structure friable.
Transition to the illuvial Bt, horiz content increases regularly with dept or clay. Clay coatings, often strongly The thickness of the Bt varies conside profiles to more than 12 feet in normal ranging from red, reddish brown, ye. profiles developed on charnockite the those developed on the less basic paren is well developed subangular blocky, arranged into weak prisms. The cons slightly hard when dry. The B3t is content of Weatherable minerals than is gradual. The C horizon consists horizon is usually thick except in the it is thin (generally less than 15 inches
Some reddish brown lateritic soils (old slope Colluvium). These soils m tions, gravels or boulders from disinte, ation in situ is rarely observed.
Chemical and Physico-chemical Chai
The pH values of these soils are u higher values for the surface horizon increase in the deeper horizons or even higher than pH in IN KCl in all horize
Cation exchange capacity of the B2 25 to 40 m.e. per 100 grams clay. Bas lower than 40%, but values lower th reports a silica-alumina, ratio of lo 59 the A horizon of a reddish brown late
丑4
 

RIST, vo. CXVII, 1961
ch, thinner or almost absent due to soil ower aspects of the slope the eroded. A to a fairly thick, rather light colored A. A horizon varies from reddish brown to than in the underlying horizons. The 'ss frequently clay loam, loam or sandy ently micas, are always found in this cumb to granular under natural vegetain most cultivated soils. Consistence is
on or argillic horizon is gradual. Clay , the textures being generally clay loam
developed can be observed on the peds. rably, from less than 30 inches in eroded rofiles. Color in this horizon is variable, lowish red to strong brown colors. In olor is somewhat redder and darker than t materials. Structure of the Bt, horizon with a tendency towards the peds being istence is friable to firm when moist, and transitional to the C and has a higher the B2t. Transition to the Chorizon of residuum of decomposed rocks; this profiles developed on charnockite where
).
have developed on transported residuum ay contain transported lateritic concregrated older landscapes. Laterite form
cteristies
ually between 5'5 and 6 with slightly
There is no tendency for the pH to in the C. The pH in water is distinctly
S.
horizon is quite variable, ranging from saturation of the Bthorizon is generally a 15% are less common. Joachim (7) nd a, silical-sesquioxide ratio of 1 * 26 for ic soil near Kandy.

Page 31
SOILS O
Occurrence
The reddish brown lateritic soils ar the Kandy and Kegalle districts. N also encountered on the Eastern and highlands, but their extents have yet
Environmental Factors
Occurence of the reddish brown la climate and topography. They are rainfall isohyets. Below the 75 inch by the reddish brown earths and whe yellow podzolic soils are dominant. least sharply rolling. Most, if not : have been strongly incised by geolog on a rejunevated relief the reddish young soils. These soils are replaced narrow intervening valleys.
The parent material on which the mainly residuum or transported resic from the Khondalite series of Archa, more basic charnockites is also fairly
Hardly any natural vegetation is l vegetation is believed to have been a
Present Land Use and Agricultural
Typical of the mid-country settle such as bananas and fruit trees whic few tea, rubber and coconut planta found within this soil group. Veget shadow region immediately east of Ka
Almost the total extent of these so that further utilization has to be bas ly cultivated land. The excellent ( relatively high structural stability, I use with the aid of fertilizer. Simp. to a satisfactory degree, but further sary on the steeper slopes.

CEYLON
the dominant soils of a greater part of row zones of this great soil group are uth Eastern lower slopes of the central ot been adequately assessed.
eritic soils is distinctly related to both bst expressed within the 75 to 110 inch rainfall region they are largely replaced e the rainfall is over 110 inches the redThe topography is mainly hilly and at Il of these soils occur on terrains which cal erosion. Since they have developed brown lateritic soils are comparatively by wet alluvial soils (paddy lands) in the
eddish brown lateritic soils are found is Luum (slope colluvium) which is derived eam rocks. Residuum derived from the
Ο ΟΥΥYIYOY).
eft on these soils; the original dominant tropical wet evergreen forest.
Potențial
ments are the mixed home garden crops are grown on these soils. Apart from a ions, the best quality cocoa estates are ables and tobacco are grown in the rain ndy.
is are already under settled agriculture, so d on increased production on the present'ainage of these soils, coupled with their adily lend them to intensive agricultural terracing has been applied on these soils Inti-erosion measures appear to be neces
5

Page 32
TROPICAL AGRICULT
4. RED-YELLOW
Profile descriptions: No. 4. Moda
No. 5 Subgn
No. 6 Subgr
Nomenclature
This great soil group is the equivale South Eastern United States. Recer podzolic soils are a dominant group O Asia (3, 2,9). They are developed on a ultra-basic rocks. Stephens (14) rec and yellow podzolic soils in Australia. earths would also probably go with th this publication.
Soils belonging to this great soil gro loams and earths, and in some instanc a formation is present in the sub soil names as the laterites and lateritic rec and also as the reddish to yellow red dry patana (grassland) soils, kekila () patana (grassland) soils are all found to
Morphology
Besides a modal subgroup, the follow subgroup with soft laterite (cabook
subgroup with prominent A1 horizo
subgroup with dark horizon
More subgroups may have to be intr soil survey data.
In the modal soils under natural V differentiated into Al and A2 horizons. strongly pronounced or very humiferou
6

IST, voL. CXVII, 1961
PODZOLIC SOILS
subgroup
tip with prominent A1 horizon.
p with dark horizon.
t of the red-yellow podzolic soils of the work has shown that the red-yellow
soils in the wet tropics of South East ide range of parent materials other than gnizes separate groups of red podzolic
A part of the Australian lateritic red : red-yellow podzolic soils as defined in
up have been described as lateritic red es as ground water laterites when such Joachim (7) refers to them by such ldish yellow loams of the ultra wet zone
lateritic loams of the Wet Zone . His fernland) soils, and a part of the wet
belong to this great soil group.
ng subgroups are recognized :-
duced with further observational and
getation, the A horizon is distinctly The AI varies in thickness and is not Under cultivation the A2 horizon

Page 33
SOLS OF
tends to become less distinct as a rest horizon. This phenomenon is very co in the tea growing regions, where the or else a new Ap horizon is formed on
erosion, there is also the phenomenon ( the slope where a thick Ahorizon develo very dark coloured. Profiles which h young colluvium without a clear ho excluded from this great soil group and (
The color of the All horizon is dark minent color of the A2 is a strong brow colors persist under cultivation unless predominant texture of the non erode sandy clay loam or loam. Structure crumb or granular. Weak, subangula the A2, but it could often be nearly structure diminishes with cultivation,
Transition to the illuvial Bt, or the a but rarely abrupt; generally a Bll trans The thickness of the Bt horizon is hig 40 inches in profiles which have not horizon of 80 inches or even 120 inch group. The color of the Bt is much distinctly brighter (higher chroma). Il yellowish red, seldom red, but could be brown color. There seems to be no de colors and quite often reddish and y, side by side in a single profile exposur possibly be made on the basis of the co of the Bthorizon is usually higher than textures being either sandy clay loar coatings can be observed in all profil friable when moist or slightly sticky these profiles hardly dry out at any pa when dry is not very well known; but hard, or very rarely it could be hard.
Although there may be a few of the characteristics they need not be exclud those soils on the lower slopes which a

jEYILON
t of erosion and mixing with the AI hmon in the hilly terrains, especially A horizon may be practically absent he former Bt, horizon. In contrast to accumulation in the lower aspects of is, which is neither very prominent nor Ve more than 20-30 inches of this izon differentiation Will have to be assified with the regosols.
grey brown to dark brown; the predoin to yellowish brown. These brownish she A horizon is entirely eroded. The d A horizon is either a sandy loam, if the Al is usually weak to moderate blocky structures are predominant in structureless. The distinctness of the
Consistence is friable.
rgillic horizon is usually rather distinct, tional subhorizon can be distinguished. hly variable, but is usually more than been subject to strong erosion. A Bt Les is no exception among soils of this redder than that of the A and always in a majority of the profiles the B2t is quite frequently of a brown to yellowish inite pattern in the occurrence of these allowish brown colors can be observed 2. Thus, no subgroup divisions could lor of the Bt horizon. The clay content that of the Ahorizon With the dominant l, clay loam or clay. Prominent clay s of this group. Consistence is mainly and slightly plastic when wet. Since rticular time of the year, the consistence t it is believed that it could be slightly
e soils which may have certain aberrant; dfrom the modal group. As for example, e formed on slope colluvium of different
7

Page 34
TROPICAL AGRICUL
ages tend to be underdeveloped difference in clay content between A. around the peds of the B horizon.
a Bt, which shows the characteristic to the reddish brown lattosols on bai mann (9). In the ultra-wet zone
soils developed even on other parent to latosols in certain characteristics
Bt, a high degree of friability, a low of any appreciable quantity of weat)
Subgroup with soft laterite (cabook)
Many of the red-yellow podzolic
boulders or slabs are not necessaril of this subgroup should have hard l formed in situ at depths of less than less than 100 inches. When the soft this or is altogether absent, then the one other of the subgroups. Usual shallow depth; sometimes in the Al concretions may be partly decompos depth of 70 to 100 inches; very rarely be complete (cabook) in the sense t hard upon drying ; or else, it may be becoming hard upon drying.
|Sиbgroup with promiтетті (41 horizon,
Non cultivated soils of this subgrou very dark (10 YER, 3/2 or :2/2) All hoi A horizon of the modal soils. This shallower with cultivation and erosio towards the modal subgroup. It is apart from the prominent Al, may subgroup, i.e., have soft laterite at le presence of the dark All horizon is co,
Subgroup with dark horizon,
Soils of this subgroup show a dark with the upper part of the Bt. This di infiltrating from above. The horizon distinct. This dark color does not higher than in the overlying A2 as rev
8

URIST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
that there is only a relatively small nd Bt. and in having weak clay coatings Likewise, soils on basic charnockite have
of a latosolic or oxic B horizon, similar alt described by Dudal (2) and by Moorroughly more than 150 inches rainfall), materials show this transitional character such as a much weaker structure in the r bulk density and the apparent absence erable minerals.
soils which contain laterite concretions, y classified under this subgroup. Soils terite or lateritic concretions which are 50 inches and passing to soft laterite at laterite is present at depths greater than
soil belongs to the modal subgroup or y, the hard, in-situ laterite starts at a orizon, but more often in the B. These 2d. The soft laterite usually starts at a at less than 50 inches. This laterite may hat the whole mass becomes irreversibly
incomplete with only the red mottles
p have a deep (10 inches or more) and izon which is sharply contrasted to the All horizon could become less dark and n, so that the soil may gradually trend possible that there could be soils which, possess the requisites of the previous is than 100 inches. In such a case, the hsidered preferential.
Bolored horizon which coincides mainly ark color is apparently caused by humus is from 2 to 6 inches thick and is very necessarily indicate a humus content Baled in the analytical data for profile 6.

Page 35
les
the and 2nd ch,
OUS the
inly
US
tery Jent
SOILS OF
In some cases the humus content is hig case the dark color may be due to a part The dark horizons appear in profiles wit but the presence of the dark horizon has
Chemical and Physico-chemical Chara,
The pH values in these soils are ger with no tendency to increase with dep horizon. In the very wet zone, values argillic horizon. The pH values detern than those in the water.
Both cation exchange capacity (in m saturation tend to be lowest in the we eation exchange capacity may be less t the base saturation may be very lov increases with diminishing rainfall, but is to be included within this great soil g with a prominent Al is low to very l analytical data of profile 5. Fusion a silica-alumina ratios of less than 17, wh soils with prominent Al (soils under w of even less than l'4.
Occurrence
The red-yellow podzolic soils are the and also of the intermediate Zones at the semi-dry enclave of the Badulla. with laterite is mainly concentrated in and Western provinces. The subgrot the undulating plateau areas of the subgroup with dark horizon appears district at elevations of 5,500 ft. and O out the wet zone, but their largest e Ceylon.
Environmental Faetors
The red-yellow podzolic soils are th in the lowlands as well as in the centr; annual rainfall limit above which the

3YLON
Sr than in the A2, but even insuch a. bular combination of clay and humus. both a 'normal and a prominent AI, reference in classifying the soil.
teristics
brally below 6 and often below 5.5, h except in the weakly weathered C of less than 5 are often found in the ined in the IN KCI are always lower
e. for 100 grams clay) as well as base test zone of the country. Here, the han 10 m.e. for 100 grams clay, while ... Base saturation in the Bt horizon 5 should be less than 35% if the soil roup. The base saturation of the soils Dw throughout as may be seen in the nalysis of the clay fractions (7) show ile the soils from the ultra wet zone and at grassland and fernland) show values
lominant soils of the wet zone of Ceylon elevations over 2,000 ft. which include Bandarawela uplands. The subgroup the wet lowlands of the Sabaragamuwa, p with prominent Al is dominant on econd and third peneplains, while the to be confined to the Nuwara Eliya 7er. The modal soils are found throughktents are in the hilly areas of central
modal soils of Ceylon's wet zone, both | highlands. In the lowlands, the lower occur is around 80 inches, while in the
19

Page 36
TROPICAL AGRICUL
highlands over 2,000 ft. elevation t over 65 inches annually (Diyatalaw of 81°F in the Iowlands to less til highlands.
They are developed on a wide variet residuum from Archaean rocks (with limestones), colluvium derived from s of river terraces such as those found Ratnapura.
Relief, on the whole is not a ve conditions may vary from nearly fl. these soils are replaced by hydromo meadow podzolic soils and bog and subgroups other than the modal soi the subgroup with laterite is mainly f parts of the lower peneplain ; when the is only found on the footslopes of th All seems to be confined mainly to the g of the second and third peneplains. on the plateau of the third peneplain a
Proceeding from the lowlands to t vegetation types under which these soil. evergreen forest, the sub-montane tro temperate forest and the (degraded) C soils with prominent Al are found and also under Wet montaine grassla yellow podzolic soils seem to be cond grassland. It should be rememberedt has been cleared so that it is possible have been developed under other vege
Present Land Use and Agricultural P
The red-yellow podzolic soils are e. crops. Limited extents under wet p; are yet unused. Where these soils o is the chief plantation crop; rubber i intermediate elevations of the wet z which occur in the hilly regions of cent they occur in the semi-dry uplands o
20

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
ey occur in regions where the rainfall is Temperatures vary from an average in 55°F With occasional frosts in the
of parent materials. These are mainly he probable exception of the crystalline ch residuums, and old alluvial sediments in the valley of the Kalu ganga around
y important factor, and topographical t to mountainous. In the depressions phic alluvial soils, low-humic gley soils, half-bog soils. On the other hand, the s appear to be related to relief. Thus, pund in the undulating to gently rolling relief is more accentuated this subgroup e hills. The subgroup with prominent ently rolling, more or less stable plateaus The subgroup with dark horizon is found
an altitude of 5,500 ft. or more.
he uplands, the most important natural s are formed are the lowland tropical wet pical wet evergreen forest, the montane try montane grassland or patana. The mainly under fern vegetation (kekila) ld or patana. The dark horizon redined exclusively to the wet montane at a large part of the natural vegetation that the red-yellow podzolic soils may ational types as well.
tential
tensively used under a wide range of tana, and in some inaccessible regions 3ur in the Wet Zone lowlands coconut
grown both in the lowlands and in ne. Large extents of this soil group I Ceylon are mainly under tea. Where Uva, the best flavoured tea is grown.

Page 37
DIS
llut
up
eTe
VIII).
SOILS C
In this same region increasing exten highly productive market crops. V. rain shadow areas immediately east O Great potentialities for increased all crops have shown striking fertilizer) on these soils, the best example being 35% increase in yield over a ten-year correct fertilizer usage. Managemen Anti-erosion measures are necessary increasingly coming under cultivatic
5. RED-YEL
Profile descriptions: No. 7 Red la No. 8 Calcic
Nomenclature
The term latosol was first introduce deep, strongly colored soils of equa used in South East Asia (2, 9) and als from basic and ultra basic rocks, mai of Ceylon may differ considerably fro in other Asian countries and also from (14) in Australia.
Joachim has made no specific des calcic red latosol subgroup which derived from Miocene limestone (7, 6
Morphology
Three subgroups are recognized :-
Red latosols Xellont latOSOls Calcic red latosols
The red latosols are considered m
One of the most striking charact formity to a great depth with a dist

CEYLON
are being terraced and brought under 'etables and tobacco are grown in the Nuwara Eliya. oduction exist on these soils. Almost sponses to the major elements (N, P & K) that of tea, which has shown an average period which has resulted mainly from on these soils is fairly straightforward. specially on the steep slopes which are
LOW. LATOSOLS
fosol subgroup
red latosol subgroup
d by Kellogg (8) for the highly weathered, torial Africa. The term has since been o in Hawaii (II) essentially for soils derived nly basalt. Thus, the red-yellow latosols m the latosols which have been described the krasnozems as described by Stephens
3ription of these soils except that of the he has classified as the brick red loams
).
dal and will be described first.
ristics of these soils is their extreme uninot lack of horizon diferentiation.
2.

Page 38
TROPICAC AGRICULTU
The A horizon is fairly thin and its ( lying B or oxic horizon. The A horizo structure and of a loose consistence. has no indication of being an illuvia texture of the B horizon is the very horizon may continue unchanged to a or at most, very weak coarse subangular ed when dry. The color of the B horiz red (transition to the yellow subgroup),
The yellow latosol subgroup differs fr color of its B horizon is more yellowish, brown.
The calcic red latosols are shallow material which Overlies Miocene limesto underlying limestone has released base soil through the cyclic action of the vege thin A horizon which quite often is almo, adjacent to the limestone, a weak suban rupted weak clay coatings can be obser tional towards the reddish brown earths minimal amounts of clay liberated frol material of the latosol. Most of the ca i.e. the soil mass is interrupted by the li be at the surface, and then only a few fe the surface. These limestone outcrop. Special mention should be made of the where the limestone outcrops are dug ou rocks is uniformly spread on the levelled 1 for irrigated cropping.
Whereas the soils of the first two subg. less than 45%), the soils of the calcic sul pH values between 7 and 8 and sometin Soils in the Jaffna area show a silica-al the clay fractions as reported by Joachi
Occurrence
The red latosols and yellow latosols oc parts of the North Central province isolated small patch of this soil was f Hambantota. The calcic red latosols a
22

ST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
lor is hardly different from the underis loamy sand or sandy loam, without he B horizon though slightly heavier or argillic horizon. Typical for the ow fine silt (2-2011) content. The B much as 40 feet. It is structureless blocky ; and is loose or slightly cementn is red to dark red; seldom yellowish
om the red latosol only in as far as the arying from yellowish red to yellowish
ed latosols developed on transported ne. The gradual decomposition of the which have influenced the overlying tation. These soils have an extremely it absent. In the B horizon, especially gular blocky structure and some interved. Such characteristics are transi, and are mainly due to the mixing of m limestone weathering with the soil lcic red latosols show ruptic profiles; mestone rock which at one place may et away it may be at 4 to 6 feet under 3 are usually only a few yards apart. man made soils in the Jaffna penisula, t and the soil material in between the and so as to produce a suitable medium
oups are unsaturated (base saturation group are more highly saturated with es with secondary lime being present. mina ratio of approximately l, * 6 in h (7).
}ur in close association in the Western 2 tween Mannar and Puttalam. An und in the Southern province near pear mainly in the Jaffna peninsula.

Page 39
ar
SOILS O.
Environmental Factors
Although these soils appear exclusi not related to the present climate. T cene) formed under quite different cli being confined to the dry zone seems t from erosion in this region.
Topography of these soils is quite Near Hambantotal, these soils have as to the soil material having been rewol.
The parent material is believed to morphological position of these soils terrace. The parent material may all weatherable minerals have decomp
The natural vegetation is mainly lc shrub land around Hambantota, and .
Present Land Use and Agricultural
Very limited extents of settled ag. and the yellow subgroup ; and suci reliable source of underground water culture is practised on these soils d fertility. Coconut is grown in the in
The extremely poor water retentic chances of dry land cultivation. Cor on these soils due to their very rapid excellent physical status of these soil orchard crops with the liberal aid of
The calcic subgroup in the Jaffna cultivated soils of the Island. Sust by liberal use of bulky organic m pressure is now compelling farmers bouldery patches, by blasting out spreading out the retrieved soil on t mechanized to reclaim larger extent

CEYLON
ely in the dry zone, they are definitely ey are old soils (probably lower Pleistonatic conditions. The reason for their be the fact that they have been spared
flat with an occasional erosion valley. umed a dune topography, probably due ked by wind at some period.
be old coastal alluvium and the geowould thus be an old coastal shelf or ave been more sandy at One time, but osed to sesquioxides and clay.
w dry mixed evergreen forest with some affina.
Potential
riculture are found on the red subgroup h extents are restricted to areas with a Hardly any chena or shifting agriue to their very low inherent chemical Jermediate rainfall region.
in properties of these soils rules out any ventional flood irrigation is unpracticable infiltration characteristics. However, the s make them an ideal medium for raising fertilizers and sprinkler irrigation.
peninsula is one of the most intensively ained production on this soil is achieved anure and lift irrigation. Extreme land to reclaim small plots of land from the he Miocene limestone boulders and then he levelled land. This operation could be than being produced at present.
23

Page 40
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
6, IMMATURE
Profile descriptions: No. 9 suit
No. 10 sub
Nomenclature
The term immature brown loam has for young soils developed on mical scl the wet zone. In this paper, the con similar characteristics both in the wet parent materials.
These soils have also been described base saturation is high, and as “ sols br the base saturation is low.
Morphology
Two subgroups are distinguished acc
subgroup of the wet zone. Soils mc a period of less than two months (wet ,
subgroup of the dry 20me. Soils dr during the year (dry zone).
The morphological features of the tw so as to be described together.
The A horizon varies in thickness be brown to dark grey brown. The dry , than those of the Wet Zone. Texture m loam and is generally rather light. Th posed primary minerals,especially finer Structure is moderate to strong crum blocky structures may be found in the friable to loose, and the non cultivated with many larger channels and holes.
Transition to the B horizou is gradu: an argillic horizon; textures of the A although in some instances the A horizc the B as in the case of the profile descri
24

IST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
BROWN LOAMS
roup of the wet zone
roup of the dry zone
been introduced by Joachim (5) mainly ists at elevations of around 1,000 ft. in ept is enlarged to include all soils with and dry zones and on a wider range of
s (tropical) brown forest soils where the uns acides ” or “ acid brown soils * where
ording to the soil climate :-
ist throughout the year, or else, dry for zone)
y for a period of two months or more
to subgroups show sufficient similarities
5tween 5 and 15 inches. Color is dark one soils are usually somewhat redder ay vary from sandy loam to sandy clay e A horizon contains many undecomnicas if the parent materialismicaceous.
b, but granular and weak subangular
heavier textured soils. Consistence is soils usually show a high pore volume
1. The B horizon is not an illuvial or and B horizons are nearly the same, n may have a higher clay content than ed under No. 9. Clay coatings should
s
SO
O
at
th ab

Page 41
洲
re
eS
rk
er
ay
S.
ar
Yhe
le,
a.
ld
SOILS OE
mot be present in this horizon. The B ! sense that it is lighter and brighter co, it is darker than the C. In the 7th
called a cambic horizon. Texture is pri in the A horizon, numerous unweathere especially micas if the parent material i horizon varies from reddish brown to group, as a rule, has distinctly redder zone subgroup. Structure in this hori, sometimes weak subangular blocky. when dry. Transition to the C which 40 inches, is gradual to clear; quite C tongues and sacs penetrating the C. A hard rock. The Chorizon is either dec
Oecurrence
The Wet Zone immature brown loan Kegalle districts, where they occur in c. lateritic soils. In their local distribut patches while in the larger patches the with shallow reddish brown lateritic soi
The dry zone immature brown loams out the dry zone. They rarely occu frequent in areas having a marked relie: their local distribution they are closely the reddish brown earths.
Environmental Factors
The immature brown loams are ap which have been continuously expose where transported colluvium has had a is sometimes observed in the dry zone.
Topography is an important factor brown loams are always found on rat soils are observed on the slopes of hills not be excessive. North of Bibile for ate slopes in places where the original eroded after periods of intensive cult the anthropomorphic savannah with ai able surface of the soil to further eros

EYLON
rizon has been called color B in the red than the A and at the same time pproximation this type of horizon is lominantly sandy loam or loam. Like mineral particles may be observed ; more or less micaceous. Color of this yellowish brown. The dry zone subcolors in the B horizon than the wet on is indistinct, often weak crumb and Onsistence is loose to friable and soft is usually observed at a depth of less ten it is wavy or even irregular with times, the B horizon rests directly on imposed rock or colluvium.
is can be observed in the Kandy and lose association with the reddish brown ion, they are found scattered in small y occur in a complex pattern together ls.
: appear in scattered locations throughpy a large surface area and are most fas well as on the rock knob plains. In associated with the great soil group of
arently young soils formed on surfaces d to erosion or alternatively, in places chance to accumulate. The latter case but hardly ever in the wet zone.
n the wet zone ; for here, the immature er steep slopes. In the dry zone these and rock knob plains, but the relief need nstance, these soils are found on modereddish brown earths have been entirely ration several centuries ago, and where complete grass cover exposes a consider
25

Page 42
TROPICAL AGRICUL
The immature brown loams of the derived from mica, schists or othe phases of these soils can be found ov therefore be an important factor in t to be absent on materials derived frc range of parent rocks seems to in colluvium derived from such rocks.
This soil group appears to be f isohyet, while the limit between the where between 80 and 90 inches.
The natural vegetation of the wet to have been a lowland or sub-mo In the dry zone the natural vegetati while anthropomorphic forest-savan pogon confertiflorus is observed in th
Present Land Use and Agricultural
Present land use on the wet zone s of the reddish brown lateritic soils. than that of the reddish brown lateri the chemical nutrients. Further inc) based on improving their moisture re
The dry zone subgroup which is fo is unused and has no potential for a and less sloping phases could be used earths, with main emphasis on pastul
7. REND
Profile description No. 11
Nomenclature
These soils have been commonly cal
Morphology
These soils have an AC profile some horizon. Profile No. 1 which has The A horizon is usually more than grey brown in color; texture is vari
26
 
 

URIST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
wet zone are generally formed on material micaceous rocks shallow, or lithosolic r charnockite. The parent material may eformation of these soils, since they seem m more acid rocks. In the dry zone, the Blude most Archaean rocks and also the
und mainly below the 110 inch rainfall dry zone and wet zone subgroup is some
One immature brown loam soils is believed tane tropical Wet semi-evergreen forest. on is usually dry mixed evergreen forest, Lah with Imperata, cylindrica and Cymboe Bibile area.
Potential
ubgroup is essentially very similar to that
Although its water retention is poorer tic soils, it is better supplied with some of ceased production on these soils should be tention.
und on steep slopes and rock knob plains ny economic development. The deeper in the same manner as the reddish brown "e development.
ZINA SOILS
led rendzinas or rendzina, soils.
imes with a thin weak, color B or cambic een described does not have a color B. 0 inches thick and is dark or very dark able with clay contents higher than 15%.
SO ch (I.
a.

Page 43
SOILS OF
|
The structure is dominantly crumb, cor a very low cohesion with many holes a e ܓ and free calcium carbonate in a finely e - Soft limestone fragments are found mix the Chorizon is gradual and is marked l stone fragments. The Chorizon is sof θ- from the weathering of the hard crystal hard limestone to the soft material pern
ed ;t. Oecurrence st, Rendzina soils are of minor importar O- observed in the Matale and Polonnar other localities where the Archaean C Ocur in Close association With the reddi
hat Environmental Factors ΥΘΙ" The most important factor in the f 2 of material. They are formed only on
be innestOne. - The rendzina, soils are confined to LS rainfall approximately less than 80 inch 20er
Topography is not a very importar present in the low wet depressions.
Vegetation is dry mixed evergreen f
Present Land Use and Agricultural Because of their shallow and rocky ch Where they are sufficiently deep, dry la
8. GRT
Profile description No. 12
nbic Nomenclature r B. The term grumusol is taken from lark
59 soils are known under several name %. chief of which are black tropical ar India, Sudan), regur (India ; also use and gray soils of heavy texture (Austr
 

!EYLON
stence is friable and the soil mass has d channels. Base saturation is high, livided form is found at some depth. d with the All horizon. Transition to by a gradual increase of the soft limechalk like limestone which is derived ne limestone. This weathering of the ts the formation of a rendzina, soil.
2e and only a few such soils have been wa, districts. They may be found in ystalline limestone is present. They :h-brown earths.
ormation of rendzina soils is the parent soft limestone or on Weathered hard
she intermediate and dry zones with a
1ԹS. it factor, but no rendzinas seem to be
Orest.
Potential
aracter, rendzinas are hardly cultivated. nd tree crops could be grown.
MUSOLS
he recent American literature. These throughout the tropic and subtropics, subtropical clays, black cotton soils in Viet Nam (9)), margallite soils (Java) ia).
27

Page 44
TROPICAL AGRICULT
Morphology
These soils show an AC or ACg pro the color of the A is black or very da this dark color is not an absolute requ colours such as found in the brown (14) are possible. The A horizon is us more than 35%. Sometimes, a thin, b tongues to the lower horizon. The clay type as indicated by its high cation ex shrinkage characteristics. Cracks up soil dries out, and the alternate swel surface layer (self mulching soils). Thi or inclined flat to curved planes with a clay. With increasing clay content th become more pronounced. The cons. and very hard when dry. These soils low mounds with depressions a few ir surface area.
Secondary lime concretions are foun a definite horizon of these concretions between the A and the C or Cg.
The C material is not necessarily rel instances the II Chorizon is decompose
Oecurrence
These soils are best expressed over a and Mannar districts), and a smaller ext lam district). They may occur occasio
Environmental Factors
These soils are formed on montmorri seems to be recent or semi-recent pond appears as if the clays which have beer an ideal parent material for the format in Ceylon are therefore essentially soils situation is not a necessary condition confined to the dry zone where the annu
S
 

IST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
ile without a trace of a B. In Ceylon, k grey brown ; it should be noted that site for these soils, and that even brown soils of heavy texture in Australia tally a heavy clay with a clay content of bached surface sandy layer penetrates in f the Ahorizon is Of the montmorillonitic hange capacity and also its swelling and to 5 inches wide are formed when the ing and shrinking results in a mulchy s also causes the formation of slickensides polished appearance due to the Oriented se cracks, slickensides and the mulching stence is plastic and sticky when wet, show the characteristic gilgai relief of ches deep, and a few square yards in
d in the lower part of the A horizon and can be observed in the transition Zone
ated to the material of the A. In most d acid Khondalite rock.
limited extent near Tunnukkai (Jaffna, ent is found near Kottukachiya (Puttanally throughout the dry zone.
lonitic parent material which in Ceylon d alluvial clay. In one case at least, it deposited in now abandoned tanks are on of these soils. The grumusols found of depressed areas; however, this low for their formation. These soils are l rainfall is less than 70 inches.

Page 45
ind
ԾՈe
Ost
fina,
tal
rilon b, it
ae Lund low
are
SOIES OF
Vegetation around Tunnukkai is a and a few trees, while at Kottukach hardly different from that which is foun
Present Land Use and Agricultural
Despite the good chemical characteri management problems which arise o extreme stickiness when wet, and the h of these soils very difficult. Where wa system of dry land cultivation on ridge
9. SOLODIZE
Profile description No. 13
Nomenclature
This group includes both solonetz : literature. It however excludes the without distinct profile development, soils.
Morphology
No attempt is made to separate th It is believed that most Ceylon soils horizon as well as a low content of free eistic of the solodized solonetz.
The diferentiation into an eluvia horizon is very marked. The A hori: nearly 20 inches thick, is clearly subd texture of the A horizon is sandy, i.e., is structureless and has a loose consis the A2 and is dark brown in color. T. in its upper part and has a distinct penetrates in tongues into the Bt h albic horizon). These horizons gene is neutral or even slightly acid. The teristically abrupt.

ΕΥΤΟΝ
ussland with scattered thorny shrubs a the dry mixed evergreen forest is on the adjacent reddish brown earths.
otențial
ics of these soils they present difficult b of their physical properties. The rdness when dry make the cultivation er is not available for irrigated rice, a
land may be resorted to.
D SOLONETZ
und solodized solonetz of the Russian solonchaks, i.e., saline and alkali soils which are grouped with the alluvial
e solonetz, and the solodized solonetz. of this group have the leached or albic salts in the A horizon which are charact
A horizon and an illuvial (natric) Bt on which may be from a few inches to vided into an Al and A2 horizon. The loamy sand to sandy loam. This horizon ence. The Al is distinctly darker than e A2 is brown to yellowish or grey brown mottling (gley). The lower part which rizon is lighter in color, i.e., light grey lly do not contain free salt and their pH ransition from the A to the Bt is charac
29

Page 46
TROPICAL AGRICUL
The Bt horizon which is texturally clay loam texture. Color of the Bt grey and is strongly mottled with ye ture is angular blocky, but the ped typically rounded caps. These colu by tongues or thin layers of sandy in the Bt is very firm to very hard whe wet. This horizon has a high excha free salts.
The C material has nearly the sam
over to sandy material at some dep depth.
Occurrence
Solodized solonetz occur along the and may therefore cover a significant
Environmental Factors
The occurrence of solodized solonet salts in the parent material. Thus th the tidal flats and the estuary deposits while others which are situated as hi. ganga estuary, may be much older; pl €Fa,
The solodized solonetz are distinctl, rainfall limit within which they occur
Vegetation is predominantly grassla trees. Halomorphic plants are found more saline soils, and at times eventh bare spots. The older solodized solo) with more bushes and trees ; halo example of such vegetation is the da terrace of the Mahaweli ganga.
Present Land Use and Agricultura.
These soils are hardly used at presen
Some of these soils could be reclai drainage and use of the correct qualit requisites. In the reclamation of tho the average sea level, more expensivet
30

JRIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
strongly contrasted to the A has a sandy varies, but it is usually dark or very dark owish brown and blackish spots. Struc
are arranged into coarse columns with mns are often separated from each other literial of the A2 horizon. Consistence of dry, and slightly plastic and sticky when geable sodium content and may contain
2 texture as the Bt. and it gradually goes h. It always contains free salt at some
seacoast in all provinces of the dry zone extent.
Z appears to be related to the presence of ey are found on the more clayey parts of
Some of these deposits are semi-recent, gh as around 100 ft. like in the Mahaweli robably dating from the upper Pleistocene
y soils of the dry zone and the maximum is about 75 inches per annum.
nd with thorny shrub and a few scattered on the younger and therefore probably e grass cover is interrupted by numerous netz have a more continuous grass cover morphic plants are absent. A typical mana grassland on the lower right bank
Potential
other than for some extensive grazing.
ned by modern techniques. Intensive irrigation water should be the foremost e lands which are only a few feet above 3hniques may have to be resorted to.

Page 47
LS
ul
SOILS OF
10. LOW-HUM)
Nomenclature
These soils have been described as l horizon in the American literature. Th inadequately defined hydromorphic soil literature. They are comparable to the Nam (9).
Morphology
Only those hydromorphic soils which are grouped with the low-humic gley soil this soil group since these soils have not
The Ahorizon generally shows a differ horizons are very often mixed due to c All or the Ap is dark grey to dark grey usually pale brown and possibly strongly a distinct textural difference between th being clayey.
Due to the recurrent wetness, the mottling may be lateritic in nature if th In the wet zone, ground water laterite presence of this material may necessitat
A further subgroup division could be of the Bt horizon ; the low-humic gle saturation, while those of the wet zone
Occurrence
The low-humic gley soils are foun usually in the lower topographic sites. ally on the plateau areas, but are not fo mountainous relief. These soils are as: especially the red-yellow podzolic soils associations, they are usually the lowe they are replaced by hydromorphic all
Environmental Factors
The dominant factor which governs cally high groundwater level; this I

EYILON
GLEY SOILS
W-humic gley soils with a textural B term apparently covers a part of the which are so often mentioned in soil low-humic gley soils described in Viet
have an illuvial Bt or argillic horizon 3. No detailed description is given for een studied in sufficient detail.
ntiation into Al and A2, but these two ultivation (e.g., rice cultivation). The prown in color, while the A2 is lighter, I leached and thus very pale. There is e A and the Bt horizons with the latter
Bt horizon is strongly mottled. This Le red parts become hard upon drying. ; (cabook) is common in these soils; the 2 the distinction of a separate subgroup.
made on the basis of the base saturation 7s of the dry zone having a high base are highly unsaturated.
throughout the lowlands of Ceylon They may occur in the uplands, especi(nd in the hilly terrains or in regions of pciated with the main great soil groups, und the reddish brown earths. In such members of the drainage catena, unless Vial Soils.
e expression of these soilsis the periodiay be the true groundwater or a water
3.

Page 48
TROPCAL AGRICUL.
table which develops on an imper. These soils are therefore generally fou in the border zone of the depression.
This soil group is found on alluvi. residuum (colluvium) of varying lithic In the dry zone, the vegetation is distinguisha ble from the forest on 1 drainage catena. The vegetation in t
Present Land Use and Agricultura
In the wet zone regions, rice and C soil group, while in the dry zone this s from traditional village tanks is availa
There is yet a fair extent of these so ment. Where irrigation water will very successfully. Intensive pasture an occasional supplemental irrigation C
11. MEADOW
Profile description No. 14
Nomenclature
These soils are named after similar so podzolic soils in Australia by Stephens of the humic gley soils, or wiesenbo American and European literature. Hic meadow podzolic soils as described for C. usually have a high base status.
Morphology
The meadow podzolic soils have a pro
argillic horizon. An A2 horizon whic observed.
The All horizon is thicker than 10 in thickness; it is dark grey to very dar content is high, and at times can be so
32

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
able stratum during the rainy season.
d inflat or depressional areas; quite often
material; occasionally on transported gy. mixed evergreen forest which is hardly e dryer, well drained members of the e wet zone is not sufficiently known.
Potential
conut are the chief crops grown on this
ame pattern is observed where irrigation ble.
ls in the dry zone which awaits develope made available, rice could be grown production is possible on these soils with uring the dry periods.
PODZOLIC SOILS
ls which have been described as meadow (14). They are closely related to some en which have been described in the wever, it should be pointed out that the ylon are acid, whereas the Wiesenboden
linent All horizon and an illuvial Bt, or may be strongly bleached is usually
nes and generally around 20 inches in brown in color. The organic matter gh that it may be transitional to peat.

Page 49
SOLS OE"
The A2 horizon when present, shows di has a low organic matter content. Col leached, lightgrey subhorizon (albic ho the Bt is abrupt.
The Bthorizon is distinctly heavierth in texture. This horizon is vividly mott brown matrix and yellowish red ferrugi a thin iron pan is found in the upper some of the red spots are concretionary
The Chorizon is light grey in color a variable texture.
These soils have a low pH and a low C/N ratios of the organic material are his
Oecurrence
These soils have been observed only Nuwara Eliya. They are distinctly a red-yellow podzolic scils one of which h. a dark horizon.
Environmental Factors
Two main factors governing the expr: high groundwater and the cool hum developed only in the higher altitudes (E of 80 inches per annum.
These soils are found in the depressi the zone bordering the deeper parts of
Parent material is colluvial or alluvia
Vegetation is wet patana, grassland thicket and giant fern.
Present Land Use and Agricultural
Very little use is made of these soils a ence, these soils have a high potenti adequate drainage is provided.

EYLON
stinct signs of wetness (mottling), and r is grey brown to grey. A strongly izon) may be present. Transition to
in the A and is usually sandy clay loam ed with a pale brown or light yellowish nous mottles or bands. Occasionally, art of the horizon; quite frequently, (lateritic.)
ld is more or less reduced material of
base saturation throughout the profile. th.
in the highland plateau area around ssociated with the two subgroups of the as a prominent. A horizon and the other
2ssion of these soils are the periodically td climate. These soils are therefore ,000 ft. or more) with a rainfallin excess
nal areas of the high plateau, usually in he depression.
valley fill of variable texture.
with Chrysopogon sp. Rhododendron
Potential
present. Despite their limited occurrfor intensive pasture management if
33

Page 50
TROPICAL AGRICUL
12. B0G AND
Nomenclature
This name is taken from the Amel soils which have been described unde mcor soils; or, in more general terms
Morphology
Bog and half-bog soils have an org: and containing a minimum of 25 to 30% carbon. The bog and half-bog soils peat which rests on marine alluvial má
Oecurrence
The majority of the peat soils occi district; very limited extents are foun
Environmental Factors
Peat formation takes place in wet, tricted to the wet zone of Ceylon. Th been formed in backswamp areas whicl an absolute deficient drainage. In t to the lowest part of some of the flat peneplain. The valley bottoms have receive an excess of Water from the evaporation at this cooler altitude has these valleys.
Vegetation of the lowland is a mar is wet patana grassland.
Present Land Use and Agricultural P
Most of these soils both in the lowlanc
The lowland bog soils can be recl and maintaining a permanent ground drainage should not be practiced sin irreversibly when deeply drained.
34
 

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
BALF-B0G SOILS
an literature (II) and it includes those such names as peat soils, muck soils and ave been named organic soils.
nic surface layer at least 12 inches thick organic matter, or 145 to 175%, organic of Ceylon are mainly composed of acid terial or alluvial valley fill.
r in the wet lowlands of the Colombo d in the Nuwara, Eliya district.
depressional sites and is therefore rese bog soils of the Colombo district have are barely above sea level, thus having he uplands, peat formation is confined alleys in the plateau areas of the third a deficient drainage and they also surrounding high land. The reduced also helped in the formation of peat in
hy swamp, while that of the highland
tential
and in the uplands are wasteland.
med by regulating the hydrography ater table at a shallow depth. Deep these soils tend to subside and dry up

Page 51
SOLLS OF
Horticultural gardens around the how these bog soils could be trans cropping. Minor element investigatio
13. ALLU' Morphology
Alluvial soils are restricted to soils in which no profile development other matter in the surface All horizon has alluvial soils and regosols is quite oft regosols on water-deposited slope co soils are mainly restricted to those soil sited on more or less flat flood plains excludes most of those soils found on sl
The pedological horizons are restrict these soils show a considerable variatic heavy clay to coarse sand with cons profile itself. Medium to medium he common in Ceylon. Natural drainage range of characteristics. Those form Bibile area are fairly dry and hardly 60 inches or more. At the other extr a slight organic surface layer and ar. year show blueish or neutral grey redu are usually medium hydromorphic s the reduced horizon occuring at a dep logy of these soils is complicated by th cally innundated for rice cultivation. an inverted gley with stronger m (eventually blueish during innundati to the underlying zone.
Oecurrence
Alluvial soils occur all over Ceylon and in the flood plains of rivers. Th 1 million acres.

CEYON
elani bridge in Colombo demonstrate ormed into excellent land for truck is may be necessary on these soils.
AL SOLS
formed on recent water laid deposits than an accumulation of some organic taken place. The distinction between an arbitrary, especially in the case of luvium. In this publication, alluvial s which have formed on aluvium depoand in valley depressions, which thus ope colluvium.
led to Al or Ap and C or Cg; however, in in morphology. Texture varies from iderable texture variation within the avy textured soils seem to be the most 2 of the alluvial soils show a very wide ed On the semi-recent terraces in the any gleying is observed to a depth of eme, the very wet members which have 2 saturated with water throughout the tion colors. The alluvial soils of Ceylon oils with gley throughout the profile, th beyond 40 inches or so. The hydro: fact that most of these soils are periodiThis often leads to the formation of titling and more neutral gley colors. n) in the surface horizons, in contrast
usually in narrow strips in the valleys ir total surface is believed to be around
35

Page 52
TROPICAL AGRICU
Environmental Factors
Time is an important factor in r of recent age, no genetic soil horizons
Parent material is water transport of the flat to slightly concave flood p
Natural vegetation is usually ab; variable and related to the hydrogra Dry mixed evergreen forest is found dry zone, swamp forest in the bac plant covers including mangrove swa,
Present Land Use and Agricultural
A large proportion of the alluvial se and indeed these are the main rice pi what better drained members are use conditions permit. A small proportic factors. For example, most of the concentration and have drainage p recurrently affected by flash floods.
Further exploitation of these soils sl the already cultivated land. To th more efficient use of fertilizer, use O. plant protection are the main techniqu
14 R Morphology
Regosols are those soils without prof of an All horizon which are not inclu In this publication, they are mean over hard bed rock; bare rock outc have been described as lithosols or lith
Like the alluvial soils, regosols sho However, no clayey or very wet regos(
Two main kinds of regosols can be d Origin:
(i) The sandy regosols of the du
area.
36
 

TRIST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
pect of these soils. Since these soils are ave had a chance for sufficient expression.
land sedimentary. Topography is that ins and valleys.
nt due to cultivation, but is extremely hy, texture, and salt content of the soils. On most of the Well drained soils in the wamps of the rivers, and salt tolerant. ps on the tidal flats.
Potential
ls of Ceylon are used for rice cultivation oducing soils of the country. The somefor growing coconut where the moisture n is uncultivated due to several limiting tidal flats are affected by a high salt. oblems, while some river valleys are
hould be based on an increased output on is end, improved irrigation practices. improved seed material and organised es that have to be resorted to.
EGOSOLS
le development other than the formation led with the group of the alluvial soils. to also include shallow, skeletal soils ops are excluded. These shallow soils solic soils in the literature.
considerable variation in morphology. s have been observed.
stinguished on the basis of their geologic
es and elevated beaches of the coastal

Page 53
SOILS OF C
(ii) The medium textured, often stic deposited erosion products, i.e
The sandy regosols, though usually table at medium or shallow depths. A to the state of weathering of the sand. dunes are yellowish, and contain a fair ments. Others are composed almost en bleached and whitish ; or which may ber coating around the individual grains, i.e.,
The colluvial regosols vary strongly ir gravels, and also in color. The color ( from which they are derived.
Oecurrenee
Sandy regosols occur in more or less Ceylon. Colluvial regosols are mainly foi in hilly areas.
Environmental Factors
Time is an important factor for thes soils, regosols being usually so young that have formed.
Man’s activity is an important factor ir since these are mainly erosion produc slopes.
Present Land Use and Agricultural Po
Sandy regosols are hardly cultivated lenses of fresh water occur, where co, These are usually the regosols which O topography. Those with a dune topog Increased production on regosols will fertilizer.
The land use pattern on the colluvi same as that of the soil higher on the sl production on these could be obtained applied to the associated soil higher on
5—R 20026 (10/61)

LÖNF
or gravelly regosols on recently slope colluvium.
y, may show a fluctuating water distinction can be made according Regosols from young beaches and mount of weatherable mineral fragrely of quartz sand, which may be l to yellow due to a thin ferruginous atosolic regosols.
clay content, amount of stones and ten reflects the color of the soils
narrow strips in all coastal areas of und on the lower aspects of the slopes
e soils as in the case of the alluvial t no genetic horizons cound possibly
the formation of the colluvial regosols is resulting from the cultivation of
entia I
xcept those on which Gyben-Herzberg Onuts have been successfully grown. cur in flat to very gently undulating aphy have a very low potential value. lepend mainly on an efficient use of
regosols of the wet zone follows the pe from which it is derived. Improved by the same methods which would be he slope.

Page 54
TROPCAL AGRICC
LATERITE AND
In the original concept which soil material with reticulate, stron irreverisbly hard upon drying an According to this definition, the O true cabook. Subsequent author laterite and lateritic formations t becomes hard on drying, but also present in the soil as boulders or mottles become irreversibly hard while the hard forms of these late cretions and lateritic gravels. Se extended the concept yet further, laterite to soils rather than to the so have a silica-alumina ratio less than
In this publication, the definition 7th approximation has been adher thite is the sesquioxide rich, huml other diluents which commonly oc, reticulate patterns and which mas pains or irregular aggregates. In th is further characterized as a highly be untrue as a general statement. and at times even free lime may concretions.
In Ceylon and probably in the Wh s observed in those horizons which a by periodically high water tables. are strictly hydromorphic formatio of soil features as, e.g., gley-phen to any particular kind or direction ( can be found in practically all soils in for their formation exist. A typic: ban total coastal area where lateriti in soils on semi-recent alluvium whic the concretions are presenti in the lo on less permeable residuum on whi the rains. Nevertheless, it can be ol in the wet zone under acid soil condi yellow podzolic soils.
38
 

URIST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
TERITIC FORMATIONS
is proposed by Buchanan, laterite is the mottling that is usually soft, but becomes
can be then used as building material. y laterite present in Ceylon would be the
have extended the definition of both include not only the soft material which he hard forms of the material which are sheets. Materials in which only the red upon drying have been called lateritic, tic mottles have been called lateritic Conreral authors, including Joachim have when they applied the terms lateritic and material. They have classified soils which 8 in the clay fraction, as lateritic soils.
of laterite or plinthiite as developed in the od to. According to this definition plins poor, mixture of clay with quartz and ur as red mottles in platy, polygonal or be soft or irreversibly changed to hard
le 7th approximation, plinthite or laterite :
weathered material, but this appears to Indeed, quite frequently primary minerals be observed within the hard laterite
ole of South East Asia laterite formation e being presently, or have been influenced, Thus, laterite and lateritic formations ls which fall within the same category mena. Laterite formation is not related soil formation ; and lateritic concretions the country if the hydrological conditions example can be observed in the Hamconcretions formed in situ, are present is calcareous in spots. In these profiles, rer part of the alluvial cover which rests a ground water table builds up with erved that laterite formation is strongest ons such as those which occur in the red

Page 55
e
SOLLS OF
Laterite in Ceylon is best expressed in where relief and high rainfall satisfy the ting water tables. In the hilly uplands rejuvenation of the relief and the soils part of the country are not favourable fo
CHAPTE
CLASSIFICATION OF THE PR
ACCORDING TO * * SOIL CL.
hensive System '', 7th
In classifying the Ceylon soils accordin category to which subdivision is carried roughly equivalent to the former great so available to make a satisfactory subdivis level of the new system. It appears th introduced at this level in order to satisf. soils of Ceylon. Further detailed studie can be correctly identified.
For each unit in each category a sum) as they apply to the soils of Ceylon, is give 7th approximation. For each great grc described in Chapter II is mentioned.
1, ENTISOL ORDER
Soils exclusive of vertisols and mollisol an Al or Ap (ochric or histic epipedon).
1* 1 AQUENT SUBORDER
Entisols that are saturated With wat peaty surface horizon (histic epiped approach the grey or blue or both
1*12 Psammaquent great group
Aquents that have a sandy Wet sandy alluvial soils an with this great group.
 

EYILON
the flat and undulating wet lowlands conditions for the presence of fluctuathe laterite is scarce because of the The hydrologic conditions in this r a renewed laterite formation.
ER III
INCIPAL soILS OF CEYLON ASSIFICATION, A Compre
APPROXIMATION
g to the 7th approximation, the lowest but is that of the great group, which is il group level. No sufficient data were ion of the Ceylon soils at the subgroup at several new units may have to be y the classification requirements of the ss will be necessary before these units
mary of the diagnostic characteristics, in. The numbers used are those of the pup the equivalent great soil group, as
s with no diagnostic horizon other than
er at some season, having in addition a on) or colors of the soil matrix which hese characteristics.
texture to a depth of 20 inches or more. d wet sandy regosols of Ceylon would go
39.

Page 56
TROPCAL AGRICULT
1913 Hydraquent great grou
Aquents with very high In Ceylon some alluvi swamps) are believed to
1°14 Haplaquent great ցTOայ
Aquents with a texture the upper 20 inches and the 13 great group.
the alluvial soils of Ce fine textured members C
1*2 PSAMMENT SUBORDER
Entisols, sandy to a depth saturated completely with wal
121 Quartzopsamment great
Psamments that have m. resistant to weathering. In Ceylon, this group WC of the area between Putt soils; and possibly so Willipattu.
1*22 Orthopsamment great gI
Psamments that have minerals such as felds minerals etc : The majority of the sa great group.
2. WERTISOL ORDER
Soils with a high percentage of expal in the All horizon); with cracks in the middle of the All horizon, with tilte aggregates, with gilgai or slickensides,
0

RIST, VOL. CXVI, l 96l
water content and low bearing capacities, soils of the tidal marshes (mangrove be hydra quents.
finer than loamy sand in all or part of that do not have the characteristics of This great group covers the majority of lon; notably, all the wet, medium or
this great soil group.
f 20 inches or more and that are not er at any Season.
group
ore than 95%, quartz and other minerals
uld cover the strongly bleached regosols
alam and Chilaw, i.e., so called cinnamon me red sands, i.e., latosolic regosols in
Oup
more than 5% soluble or weatherable pars, micas, calcite, ferro-magnesian
indy regosols of Ceylon belong to this
ding clay (35% or more at some depth dry season going down to at least the
wedge or parallelopiped structural both.

Page 57
SOILS OF
2-1 AQUIERT SUBORDER
Vertisols with gray or black col
ՏՕՈ16 S63)ՏՕՈ,
211 Grumaquert great group
Aquerts which, when dry Most of the grumu sols of C
212 Mazaquert great group
Aquerts lacking a porous cover of lighter textured which tongues into the un A few of the grumu sols, cover are maza querts.
3. INCEPTISOL ORDER
Soils that have an Al horizon which is that have a color B horizon (cambic hori of clay illuviation. In Ceylon, these s weatherable minerals in the sand and silt
3-4 OCH REPT SUBORDER
In Ceylon, this order is defined order.
3'44. Dystochrept great group
Ochrepts that are usually periods of more than 60 di B Or cambic horizon Of le The wet zone subgroup classified with this great
345 Ustochrept great group
Ochrepts that are entirely The dry zone subgroup classified with this great
 

EYLON
Drs which are saturated with Water at
ave a loose, porous surface mulch. eylon go with this group.
Furface mulch, when dry, having a thin material with bleached sand grains lerlying blackish or dark gray horizon. especially those with a thin sandy
s not prominent (ochric epipedon) and zon) which shows no appreciable signs oils contain considerable amounts of fractions of all horizons.
by the characteristics of the inceptisol
moist and do not dry out entirely for ays, and with a base saturation in the ss than 80%.
Of the immature brouyn loams can be
gТОup.
dry for periods of more than 60 days. of the immature brown, loams can be
grOup.
4.

Page 58
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
5. MOLLISOL ORDER
Soils that have a prominent, thick epipedon), and that do not have th soils may have a color B or cambio hori
5-1 RENDOLL SUBORDER
In Ceylon this suborder is def Order. Rendolls have develo more than 40% calcium ca distinguished.
The rendzina, soils are rendol
7, ALFISOL ORDER
Soils without a prominent, highly bas with distinct evidence of clay illuviati horizon) and with a base saturation of r
7-1 AQUALIF SUBORDER
Alfisols that are saturated with distinct mottling, or grey colo)
7-13 Ochraqualf great group
Aqualifs without a high horizon and without sc inches depth.
These soils are the high soft laterite at shallow d
716 Natra qualf great group
Aqualifs with a textural E structure and With more sodium at some depth.
The solodized solonetz of (
 

IST, VOL. CXVII, 196l
nd highly saturated Al horizon (mollie characteristics of the vertisols. These OO.
led by the characteristics of the mollisol ped on parent material which contains bonate. No great groups have been
} saturated Al horizon (mollic epipedom on in the Bt horizon (argillic or natric more than 35% in the Bt horizon.
l water at some season, thereby showing 's, or both at shallow depth.
sodium content in the Bt or argillic ft laterite (plinthite) at less than 50
base status low-humic gley soils without pth.
horizon (natric horizon) with columnar han 15% saturation with exchangeable
ylon belong to this great group.

Page 59
SOILS OF
7-17 Plintaqualf great group
Aqualifs with soft laterit 50 inches depth.
These soils which are sp of Ceylon, are the high b laterite at shallow depth
7•4 USTALF SUBORDER
Alfisols in which some part or a more, unless irrigated, and whi or both at shallow depth.
7.43 Rhodustalf great group
Ustalfs with a dark re. illuvial Bt or argillic hor 4 or darker; having a
40 m.e. per 100 grams cl These are the reddish, b subgroup with a predom
7:44 Ultustalf great group
Ustalfs with an argillic capacity is less than 40 in The noncalcic brown soil
7'45 Typustalf great group
Ustalfs with an argillic the rhodustalfs, and
more than 40 m.e... per li( The subgroup of the re brown color canbe classi
8, ULTISOL ORDER
Soils without a prominent, highly bas with distinct evidence of clay illuviation with a base saturation of less than 359 minerals are present in the sand and sil
* This is a proposed great group which is

CEYLON
2 in the form of red mottles at less than
oradically encountered in the dry zone lase status low-humic gley soils with soft
ll of the solum is dry for three months or ch do not show mottling, Orgrey colors,
ddish brown to dark red color in the izon, i.e., hue of 5 YR or redder, value of cation exchange capacity of more than lay. rown earths, with the exception of the inant brown color.
horizon in which the cation exchange n.e. per 100 grams clay. is go with this great group.
horizon, browner or lighter colored than
having a cation exchange capacity 00 grams. clay. ddish brown earths with a predominant fied as typustalfs.
se saturated Al horizon (molic epipedon) n in the Bt horizon (argillic horizon), and (, in the Bt horizon; some weatherable tfractions.
not mentioned in the 7th approximation.
43

Page 60
TROPICAL AGRICULTUF
8-1 AQUULT SUBORDER
82
Ultisols that are saturated distinct mottling, or grey colors
811 Plintaquult great group
Aquults that have at de laterite that has not h status louv-humic gley Soi soft laterite at less than 5
812 Ochraquult great group
Aquults without soft lat thin or Weak All horizon The low-humic gley soil. laterite at less than 50 in
813 Umbraquult great group
Aquults that have a pro (umbric epipedon), and W The meadow podzilic soil inches can be classified as
OCHRUILT SUBORDER
Ultisols which do not have the the aquults and which do not (umbric epipedon).
8-22 Rhodochrult great group
Ochrults. With dark bro darker) throughout the the Bt, and C horizons. recognized in Ceylon, bu dark reddish, broup, later kite may go with this gr.
8-23 Typochrult great group
Ochrults with lighter col dark horizon as in humo

IST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
fith water at some season, showing , or both at shallow depth.
pths of less than 50 inches, plinthite or ardened. In Ceylon, those low base S and meadow podzolic soils which have 0 inches go with this great group.
Brite at less than 50 inches and with a
(ochric epipedon).
of low base status and without soft ches are ochraquults.
minent Al horizon of low base status ithout soft laterite at 50 inches. s without soft, laterite at less than 50
umbraguults.
characteristics of wetness, diagnostic for nave a prominent Al oflow base status
wn to dark red colors (value of 4 or profile, including the transition between
No such soils have been definitely t it is believed that at least part of the ic soils which are developed on charnocat group.
irs than the rhodochrults and without a ohrults.

Page 61
SOILS
This great group inclu soils and the reddish exception of those soi the humochrults or \ status (umbric epipei seems to be too all-inc. reddish, brown, lateritic group based on the pre able minerals in the A Sufficient data are not quantitative basis.
8-25 Humochrult great gro
Ochirults in which the argillic horizon shows above or below (hue C chroma of 3 or less).
always distinctly high necessarily higher tha) The red-yellow podzol prominent All of low with this new great grc
8.3 UMBRULT SUBORDER
Ultisols with a prominent
and Without the characteris In the provisional definitic should not have an A2 hor. however do have an A2 hO No great groups are descri at least two great groups red-yellov podzolic Soils Wi ‘red-yellou) podzolic soils whi It is suggested that the pr horizon) is recognized at ti it might be better to enlar include the present umb
(umbric or mollic horizo
group, or even the subgrou
* This is a proposed great group wi
 

E CEYLON
es the majority of the red-yellouvy podzolic rown, lateritic soils of Ceylon, with the
that go either with the rhodochrults or nich have a prominent All of low base Dn). The typochrult great group thus sive and it is therefore suggested that the soils be recognized as a separate great 2nce of an appreciable amount of weatherhorizon, i.e., under the name etitochrult. yet available to make this separation. On a
up *
upper part (at least 4 inches) of the Bt or a distinctly darker color than the horizon E 7-5 or 10 YIR, value of 3 or darker, and The humus content of this horizon is er than that of the horizon below, but not
that of the horizon above. c soils with dark horizon, but without a 7 base status (umbric epipedon) would go
DUP.
All of low base status (umbric epipedon) tics of wetness, diagnostic for aquults. n of the 7th approximation, the umbriults zon. The umbrults, recognized in Ceylon, rizon. ed in the 7th approximation. For Ceylon, Vould be necessary to accommodate the h a prominent Al and those dark horizon sh have a prominent Al as well. sence of a prominent Al (umbric or mollic o high a level in the classification and that e and rename the ochrult suborder so as to ults. The presence of a prominent Al should then be recognized at the great level.
ch is not mentioned in the 7th approximation.
45

Page 62
TROPICAL AGRICULTUF
9. OXISOL ORDER
Soils without or with only a weak illu sub surface horizon that has been called characterised by a weak blocky structu fifteen percent or more clay sized mineral feldspars or ferro-magnesian minerals in
The tentative subdivision of this orde
provide for a satisfactory way to accomn on the suborder or great group level.
10. HISTOsoL ORDER
Soils with an organic surface horizon o minimum of 25 to 30 percent organic matt
No subdivision of this order has been in bog and sOme of the half-bog soils of Ceylor
CHAPTER
DESCRIPTIONS AND A. OF REPRESENTAT
All profiles described in this chapter w staff of the Tand Use Division, except p the profile description by Holland et ali observed, though not described in detail are indicated on the location map.
The descriptive terminology is in accor (13) and the 7th approximation (12). from the Report of the Director, Departime graphic terms such as mantled plain,
the land-form studies which have been ( Corporation Limited.
The following analytical methods we Mechanical analysis : the Internation
hydroxide as dispersing agent. The st all mineral particles failing to pass a 2
* Soil analysis were carried out under the T. B. Gamagedera and H. Dissanayake. Resu. except for organic matter which is on the air-dry
46
 

T, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
l Bt, or argillic horizon, and having a latosolic B or oxic horizon which is or no structure at all, many pores, and no more than one percent micas, e sand and silt fraction.
in the 7th approximation does not date the red-yellow latosols of Ceylon
at least 12 inches, and containing a r (or 145 to 175 percent organic C). ade in the 7th approximation. The belong to this order.
IV
NALYTICAL DATA IVE PROFILES
ere studied by the authors and the rofile No. 7 which is adopted from a (4); profiles similar to this were
by the authors. Profile locations
lance with the Soil Survey Manual limatological data were obtained it of Meteorology, for 1956. Physioock knob plain, are adopted from irried out by the Hunting Survey
e used:-
| pipette method with sodium Le ând gravel' fraction comprises tim sieve.
rection of T. Sivakumaran, assisted by
are reported on the oven-dry basis, 18Տ1S

Page 63
SOILS OF
pH : glass electrode on a 1: 1 soil-wa mixture.
Conductivity: Type RC Conductivity Organic carbon : Walkley and Black Total exchangeable bases : Bray and
Cation exchange capacity : Sodium displacement with l N ammonium aceta displaced sodium.
Exchangeable eations : Sodium and * Lange o model flame photometer, while mined by the “ versenate “ titration m
Total nitrogen : Kjeldahl method.
(Profile No. 1) REDDI:
Area. : Ratnapura district, Timbolke Wegetation : Tropical mixed evergre
Parent material : Semi-recent colluvil (Khondalite series).
Topography : 2-3% slope on the side plain ; 250-300 ft. elevation.
Climatic data : Temperature : Hamb
J F M A. M υ
Mean tempera- 79 .. 79 ... 81 .. 82 .. 82 .. 8
Ꮏure ( 1928-195Ꮾ) °F
Mean rainfall- 4:6... 30... 6.75. , 7.0... 46. . .
(1915-1956) inches
Profile Description
Al 0 - 4 inches; dark brown (7:5 gravelly, mica fragments ; s fine to coarse tubular and in gradual transition to :
Blt 4 - 15 inches ; reddish to da loam, somewhat fine gravelly, blocky; weak clay coatings; inped pores; many roots;

}EYLON
er mixture and a II : Il soill-IN KOCI
oridge, l ; 5 soil suspension at 25°C.
method.
Will hite method.
saturation at pH 82 followed by te of pH 7 and determination of the
potassium were determined using a calcium and imagnesium were deterethod.
SE BROWN EARTH
tiya.
en forest and shrubs.
um over residuum from mica schist
of a low ridge; undulating, “mantled
antota, Rainfall: Embilipitiya.
J. A. S. O N D Υ 2 ... 82 .. 815.. 81 .. 81 .. 80 .. 80 ... 81
*6. , 2-1... l'4... 3-0... 8:8.. 9.95. 8-2... 61.
YR 373) sandy loam, somewhat fine tructureless massive; friable; many erstitial pores; many roots; smooth,
k brown (5-7.5 YR 413) sandy clay mica fragments; weak fine subangular irm; many fine and very fine tubular vavy, abrupt transition to :
47

Page 64
III B2t
II B3t
III C
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
15 - 41 inches; yellowish re. sandy clay with angular qu fragments, mica, fragments; 5 inches which layer contain moderate fine subangular bl firm, hard when dry ; many fi and thinner roots than in for
41 - 51 inches; yellowish red loam, many decomposing feld numerous mica fragments , , subangular blocky : fewer cla roots ; wavy, gradual tra] 5l inches —ll— ; multicoloured ] decomposed mica schist, stra layers somewhat stronger we friable ; few pores and roots
Analytical
Particle size distribution
汞
0-: 4. || AI
4-15 BIt
15-41 || III B 2 t || 288 53-0 12.6 4.735-6, 6-5 5-2 41-51 || II B 3 t || 8-4 || 51 -1 || 2:1-0 || 7-4 || 28:2 || 6-2 || 5-0 || (
51 — - || IIIC
11458,025.2 7.118-0 7.1, 6-1 ( 8・9|52・6|23-0| 6・2|23・1| 6-8| 55|{
14-576-718-9 3-3 47 6- 6 4.9
Area :
(Profile No. 2) NONCA
Batticaloa district, Padagoda
Wegetation : Tow tropical mixed ever
trees.
Parent material : Residuum from ac: content of ferro-magnesian minerals.
Topography : 2 - 4% slope; low ridge alternating low hills and alluvial plai
48

EST, VOL. CXVIII, 196l
(5 YR 4/6) gravelly and fine gravelly tiz gravels and decomposing feldspar ry stony (erosion pavement) in upper some potsherds of primitive pottery; sky; strong, continuous clay coatings; e to very fine tubular inped pores; less going; wavy, gradual transition to :
(5 YR 5/6) fine gravelly sandy clay par fragments, angular quartz gravels ; ellowish lighter spots; weak medium coa tings ; friable ; some pores; fewer sition to :
amy sand with yellowish (10 YR 716) ified, very micaceous in layers; some thered; massive, structureless; very
Data
日 Exchangeable Organic S 2 cations, met 100g matter
- Օ
Ծ() 菲 총 || || .
E || E || > O ব্রিট" | ই- .ܚܕܘ ܘܒܛܢ 目| 目| 宏 | | 器 ー | この 5}}| g d 2. සප් b | E යටි - 용 || || || || || || 용 || || || 중
06 007 0-82 6.2 23 9-8 12.7 77 1-2 1-04-0-06 0-41 4-4 2-3, 7-4 14-4 51 0-5 5
·04|| 0.09|| 0.35 5.2| 3·1 || 9·1 || 17.4|| 52 || - || -
·03|0-13|045| 7‧7| L·且| 9.8|184| 53 一 |一 07 0-130-22 3-7 1-5 6-0 8.174 - -
CIC BROWN SOIL
reen forest and shrubs; some planted
gneiss (Bintenna series) with a low
a mantled plain; undulating with ; 200 - 300 ft. elevation.

Page 65
SOILS C
Climatic data : Temperature : Bat
Mean
Mean
F. M A. M
tempera- 78 .. 78 ... 80 .. 82 ... 84. ture-(1928-1956).F
rainfall-14-15, 4-9. 3-8. 3-55.. 35. (1875-1956) inches
Profile Deseription
AI
A2
Blt
B2t,
B3t
0 - 8 inches; dark gray brow weak granular and weak f common fine interstitial por many roots ; wavy, abrupt
8 - 10 inches ; ruptic horizo (10 YIR, 5/3) fine gravelly sar friable; many fine tubular i transition to : 10 - 14 inches; yellowish b) clay loam; Weak fine subar clay bridges between coarse inped pores; less roots ; is I4 - 26 inches; brown (75-1 moderate fine and medium Sl and clay bridges between co: inped pores; some roots ; s 26 - 38 inches; reddish yello loam ; weak medium subang common fine tubular inped to :
38 inches -- ; decomposing some stratification still Vis
Analy
Particle size distribution ܡ
S_
V
翁
10-14.
14一26
26-38
AI
B2t.
Bt,
2丑·7|64·3|23.4|13·2|140| 6、4 125|482|267|148|274| 64 10,448-9 22:411.929.0 6-2 17.5, 51.923.9144, 23.7 6-4

CEYELON
3aloa, Rainfall : Amparai.
I A. S O N D Y 00S 00S 00SSSS00SSS00S SS000SSS000SS 0LS0Y
1・7.. 1・7.. 2・8.. 3・6。。7-1。。10-9。。14・45。。72・4
(10 YR 42) fine gravelly sandy loam; he subangular blocky; slightly hard; s and many fine tubular inped pores; transition to :
with Al horizon penetrating; brown dy loam ; weak fine subangular blocky ; ped pores ; many roots ; smooth, clear
own (10 YR 514) fine gravelly sandy gular blocky , weak clay coatings and grains; friable; common fine tubular mooth, clear transition to : 0 YR 514) fine gravelly sandy clay loam; ubangular blocky ; distinct clay coatings arser grains; firm; common fine tubular imooth, gradual transition to : w (75 YR, 6/6) fine gravelly sandy clay ular blocky ; weak clay coatings ; firm ; pores; few roots ; wavy, clear transition
feldspar-quartz gneiss with few micas, ble.
caill Data;
s Exchangeable Organic 卷 cations, m.e/100g matter
d 目 ||
ప్రిని C)
○ ہتہ -- 日 目 笼 莒 ー | ○ | 空 | ゞe E || a 0 丞 è 本 3 | > | 2 | 空 | 。 国 병 || || . 6
5.0-04-0-040-37 4-4 1-5 6-9 9.4 73 13 O 0|0・03|0・04|0-33| 2・5| 1・7| 4・5| 8・2| 55 0.5 7 80:03 0-040-32 2-4 2-2 4-9 8-8. 56 - I - 8 0:02 0-040-30 2-4 1-2 4-3 7.359 -
49

Page 66
TROPICAL AGRICU
(Profile No. 3) REDDI:
Area : Kandy district, Kandy.
Vegetation : Tropical wet forest thinned out considerably and part
Parent material: Slope colluviun (Khondalite series).
Topography : 40% slope on the si valley, landscape ; 1450-1550 ft. ele
Climatic data : Temperature and
F" 影【 A. M
Mean tempera- 74. .. 75 .. 77-5. .. 79 .. 78
ture (1928-1956) F
Mean rainfall- 6-2... 2-3.5-55, 6-0.7-05.
(1926-1956) inches
Profile Deseription
O 0.5 - 0 inches; partly decom Al 0 - 6 inches; reddish brown
fine mica fragments; moder friable; many find and very f
many roots; smooth gradual
A3 6 - 10 inches ; reddish brown
clay loam, some quartzites, strong fine crumb and gr: friable; many fine and very f many roots; smooth, gradual
B2t 10 - 5 inches ; reddish brow, clay, some quartzites, some subangular blocky , weak, firm; many fine interstitial less roots; smooth, gradualt
II B2t 15 — 37 inches ; red (2.5 Y moderate content of fine an fragments; moderately stro composed to weak coarse pris distinct to strong continuou dry; many fine tubular in transition to :
 
 

IST, voL. CXVII, 1961
BROWN LATERITIC SOIL
some bamboo. The forest has been the undergrowth has been cleared.
over residuum from micaceous schist
of a hill in a deeply incised ridge and bion.
Rainfall: Kandy-King's Pavilion.
υ , A S o N D Y 7 . . 75 . 7 75 . 77 75 . 74 . 76
8.1, 6-9. , 5-0... 61.. 10.1 ... 10-6. , 8.1. 82
posed litter of forest leaves.
5YR 4/3) fine gravelly clay loam, some ately strong fine crumb and granular ; ine interstitial and tubular inped pores ; transition to :
(2.5 YIR, 5/4) fine and coarse gravelly some fine Illica fragments; moderately nular, subangular blocky in spots; he interstitial and tubular inped pores; transition to :
(2.5 YER '5/5) fine and coarse gravelly fine mica fragments; moderate fine pntinuous clay coatings; friable to ind tubular inped porse ; Somewhat nsition to :
5/6) fine and coarse gravelly clay, ar quartz gravel, frequent fine mica ܦܝ
fine subangular blocky structure tic units in the dry profile exposure ; lay coatings; firm and hard when pores; few roots; smooth, clear

Page 67
SOLS OF C
II B3t 37 - 51161 inches; red (2.5 YE loam, increasing content of fin decomposed rock fragments: blocky; distinct clay coatings; tubular pores; few roots; irregu
III C 5l. 161 inches -- ; mixed horizor and decomposing rock in whi visible. The weathered part i. YR, 6/6) micaceous loam. ; struct
Analytical
Particle size = s
పైS distribution ہ|**|S
. || - ||
جھ | ss || 5$تلي ہو | نتیج|سچے| س
중 ཕྱི| ཚེ|ཀྱི་||ཉི་ 5 |
E E | A | ద | 3 C(||ی C) N 密 Z تتعر
- تلا | يح جهن s 2 g ܘܛ
酸 s 堡 丢 菇|涯|巽|日 田 目
A 口 びの | ? | び2 | ー "| ○ ,ெ இ | C
2
4.
5
0一6 A1 20.937.7 29.8 31-7, 6-4 55 0:1 -10.A8. 69.534-624.01.9-840.3 6-6 5.70.( 10-15 B2t 55.830-514-511056-3, 6-0 5.20( 15-37 || II B2t || 23-8 || 26:1 || 19-4| 155 || 54:1 || 5-8 || 5-3 || 0-0 37-51 || II Bat || 7:2 || 31:2 || 32-5 || 20:5 || 34-9 || 5-5 || 4-3 || 0-C
6. 5181 III C 0•6| 86፡9| 51•1 | 25•9| 18•8| 5• 7 | 4:2 | 0•(
(Profile No. 4) RED-YELL
Area: Ratnapura district, Pelmadulla
Wegetation : Rubber garden, local the
Parent material : Slope colluvium w from garnet-sillimanite schists (Khondal
Topography : 10% slope; lower slope to hilly ridge and valley landscape; a
Climatic data : Temperature: Ratnap
J R M A. M J Mean tempera- 80 ... 81 .. 82 .. 82 ... 82 .. 81
Ꮏure-Ꮯ1928-195Ꮾ)ᏉᎬ
Mean rainfall- 6:4. 4-8.. 9-1... 10.4...15.6., 15
(1870-1956) inchaes

/YILON
5/6) somewhat fine gravelly clay
mica fragments and some nearly moderately weak fine subangular ightly hard ; common fine random
ar, clear transition to :
with somewhat weathered material ph original rock structure is still light red to reddish yellow (2.5
reless; very friable.
Data
Exchangeable cations, m.es/100g
皋
Organic Imatter
형
60-19 0-380-4
8 0.030-37
5.0-030-2
3 0-02. 0-11
}2|0-04|0-10
2007 0-09
4-1 10
-5 8
0.9 S.
OW PODZOLIC SOIL
rny brush and grass.
th lateritic gravels over residuum
te series).
of a low ridge in a sharply rolling
prox. 500 ft. elevation.
ıra, rainfall : Pelmadulla.
εν
... 0-5.
A. ... 80-5. .805. , 80-5, 80 ...
9-5。。11·型。。14°1。。13·5。。
D Y 80 ... 8
9-6。。129、敬
历翼

Page 68
TROPICAL, AGRICUL
Profile Description
Ар
A2
Blt
II B2It
0 - 3 inches ; dark brown lateritic pebbles, bleache friable ; common intersti clear transition to :
3 - 15 inches; yellowish br lateritic pebbles; very
common fine and mediur smooth, clear transition to
15 - 23 inches; strong bro lateritic pebbles and quartz clay coatings ; friable to fi clear transition to : 23 - 39 inches; yellowish 1 With some decomposing subangular blocky; distinct fine interstitial and tubl transition to :
II B22t 39 — 62 inches ; yellowish r
rock fragments which giv moderately strong fine si clay coatings; firm ; com. transition to :
I B3t 62 inches -- ; strong brown ( sing rock fragments, mottle blocky; clay movement and weathered parts; friable (description discontinued at
Analy
ప్రిని Particle size
distribution | ཐོ།
药 ++ || ''
悉 5 || - || - 二 | ・・| 「 ཕྱི| ཚོ། སྤྱི་སྟེ། ཉེས་པ་རྒྱ་ 를 || || || 2 || || || || || res rs تھ۔ 蛋 匪 星|翡|芸|鳍|鲨| 龚 A. 国 | 宏 | リ | 宏 | 臣"| 5 | E | 。
0= 3 || Alp 33・2|55・1|10・6| 4・4|33・5| 5・3| 4
3-15 A2
684|47-7|卫-6 49|409| 55| 4
15-23 Bit 63·2|45、4|重2-2 5-9|蟹3·露| 荡、7 23-39 |IIB21t |31・5|37・4|14・4| 7-8|47・9| 5-7
39–62 EIB22t 17:040-2 15-3 8-246-i oo 4
4.
52
 

JRIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
0 YR 4/3) fine gravelly sandy clay loam, white sand grains; moderate crumb : all exped pores; many roots; smooth,
wn (10 YR 515) fine gravelly sandy clay, eak fine subangular blocky; friable; interstitial exped pores; many roots;
n (7.5 YR 5/6) fine gravelly sandy clay, gravel; moderate fine subangular blocky; m; pores as above; less roots; smooth,
2d to strong brown (5 - 7.5 YR 5/6) clay ock fragments ; moderately strong fine continuous clay coatings; firm; common lar pores; few roots; smooth, clear
ed (5 YR 5/7) clay with decomposing e more yellowish and more red spots; bangular blocky : distinct, continuous mon fine tubular pores; diffuse, wavy
7' 5 YR 517) clay with numerous decomp
il with red and yellow ; weak subangular coatings in the matrix but not in freshly ; few very fine tubular exped pores 80 inches).
ieal Data
S Exchangeable - Organic is cations, me/100g matter
||下| 용 || 菲 三 | 三 | >ミ
=r ↓ܚܕ 自 ব্লষ্ট | কীটী | ম‍ই 윤 目| 圭| 差|。| 選 Fe 的 O 别 SS
3 তেঁ 20 ন- 3 リ ご | ー | ビ | だ | 字 - | ー | ー | ご | ご
0|| 004|| 003|| 0.12| 0.56|| 12| 20101|| 20 || 16|| 10 10-02 0-04 || 0-09 0-39 0-3 O.S 9.0. 9 0-8 10 0.02 0-04 0080:17 O. 4 0.6 9-0 || 7 || 0-6 9 | 0.02| 0.03|| 0.07|| 0.09|| 0-4 || 0.6|| 10-2| 6 || - || - | 0-02. 0-02. 0-09 0.17 0.4 0.6 9.1, 6 . . . . . 00S00S 0S000SS0S000S0S0000S0S0SS0S0S S 0SS00SS0SSSSSSSASSA

Page 69
SOLS (
(Profile No. 5) RED-YELL
Subgroup with p
Area : Ratnapura district, Kalawa Vegetation : Young rubber garden.
Parent material : Residuum from and feldspar rocks; somewhat transp
Topography : 6% slope; low ridg 800 ft. elevation.
Climatic data, : Temperature and r;
J. F. M. A. M.
Mean tempera- ... 81 .. 82 - 82 ... 82,
80 ture (1928-1956).F
LLLCLLLLL S LLLLS S0S0S00SS00SS000SS000SS000S0SS
(1868-1956) inches
Profile Description
Al 0 - 10 inches ; very dark, gra clay loam, lateritic concre rock fragments; moderate random interstitial pores;
A2 10-21 inches; brown (10 laterite concretions ; stru some signs of clay or cla clear transition to :
Bt 21-32 inches; brown (7.5
weak fine subangular bloc roots; smooth, clear transi
B2t 32-50/70 inches; yellowis
laterite concretions, thin moderately strong fine su coatings and distinct cla. slightly plastic; very fev
uജ്ഞ 50/70 inches -- ; horizon
exposure ; B3t, C or Con. ritic red mottles. The Ci
 

CEYLON
W PODZOLIC SOIL
Dminent Al horizon,
a. in previous fernland (kekila).
biotite schists, garnet sillimanite schists rted in the upper part.
in a rolling upland plateau; approx.
infall: Ratnapura at 130 ft.
J J A. S Ο N LO Υ S1 .. 80-5. . 80'5.805. , 80 ... 80 ... 80 ... 81
。18·5,,12·7。。11·4。.14·5,。18-0。。148.,9·1..152-9
by brown (10 YR 3/2) fine gravelly sandy tions, fine angular quartz gravel, some fine granular ; very friable ; many fine many roots ; Smooth, clear transition to :
YR 4/3) fine gravelly clay loam, less tureless; friable; common fine pores; y-humus movement ; few roots; smo oth,
R 5/5) fine gravellyclay loam; moderately Ky; distinct clay coatings; friable; few ion to :
a red (5 YR 5/6) clay; some gravel and
Driented angular quartz gravel layers;
angular blocky; strong, continuous clay movement in pores; slightly sticky, roots; variable, clear transition to :
which varies strongly within the profile The Con is a mottled clay with soft latedecomposed rock.
53

Page 70
TROPICAL AGRICULTUR.
Analytic
- - - sS? | Particle size - s distribution is 藻 3 52 ܚ↓ ర ඤ - - ܚ 중 ཀྱི|}|| འ། མེ་བྱ། བློ་ 露 瑟 匪 瓷 A 霹|蒜 v 圣|姥|目 。て بس 注 Q 5 A エ ܡܛ 24 R- 32 -يح | اجته 釜 é 至 ä 若 |垂|荃 日 |日 引 2G エ | 宏 | 宏 of O ெ G | ()
0-10A 50.259-915-2 5,726.2, 5.6 4.8 0:0 10-21A2 54-644-816.7 6.838-8 5-5 5-200 21-32B1t 28-636.724. 413-837-2 5.7. 550-0
32- B2t 16:127829,019, 4460 6-1 5:800 50/70
(Profile No. 6). RED-YELI
Subgroup with a
Area : Nuwara, Eliya district, Pattipo)
Vegetation : Eucalyptus, introduced Ol Chrysopogon sp. rhodondendron, giant :
Parent material : Slope colluvium ove schist (Khondalite series), separated by d
Topography : 5.7% slope, on the side o plateau; approx. 6,350 ft. elevation.
Climatic data : Temperature and rainf
J F. M A. M
Mean tempera- 57 . . 57 .. 59 ... 61 .. 62 .. 60
ture-(1928-1956).F
Mean rainfall- 6-9... 20... 4:1. 5-0. , 8.5., 10.4
(1868-1956) inches
Profile Description
Al 0-1 inches ; dark brown (10 YR : some bleached sand grains at t clear, smooth transition to :
A2 1-22 inches; yellowish brown (l weak fine subangular blocky ; ver clear, smooth, transition to :
54

T, voIL. CXVIII, 196l
Data
Exchangeable Organic
cations, me/ 100g b{ Շ() matter SS d d C -
E || E >
বৈট | এটা C
目 目 苓 E
CA) 3
ー | ○ 别 豪
b | E ~
초 || - さ | 率 |。 蚤 c
0-040-21 0-2 01 0.615.5 4 18 18 0-04 || 0-12 0.1 0-2 0.5i 11.0 5 0.7 18 0.04 0:1 || 0:1 11.9 4 0-6 15 0.09 0.1 0.1 0.4 11.7 4 - -
OW PODZOLO SOL
αγk Iιογί2οη
а.
n wet patana grassland; fern (Pteridium aquila).
r residuum from garnet-silimanite listinct stone line.
a low ridge in an undulating upland
ull : Nuwara Eliya.
J. A. S. O. N. D 60 ... 60 ... 60 ... 60 .. 59 .. 58 .. 59-6
S000S00S000S 0S0S 0S0S0S00S 0000
13).loam ; weak fine crumb; loose; e surface ; few interstitial pores;
YR 5/6), sandy-clay loam. ; very friable ; few fine tubular pores;

Page 71
SOILS OF C.
Bth 22-29 inches; (dark horizon) da ately weak fine subangular block friable; common fine tubular inpe
B2t 29-37 inches : yellowish brown
angular blocky ; distinct clay fine random tubular inped pores;
II Blt 37 inches —||—; separated from pre colored gravelly clay (description
Analytical
పైకి Particle size
distribution r颈 s s . . .
통 || 좋| || || || || 2 圭 < A 忌 |丢 Y 系 影 -江 C) re 口 r ت+ 궁 8 圭 涯 ± 连 穹 日 ± A 注 | 宏 | 発|琉 |露"| 5 | 牟 | 学 |
IA 6.251-431-617-016.5 4-6, 4:00.
1—22 |A2 0.547.7 168 7-832-1 4-3 4-10. 22-29 || Bith || 12:3 || 41-0 || 15.1 6-9 || 42.4 || 5-0 || 4:1 || 0.
29-37 B2t 22,641.4 7.042.9 5-3 4-2 0.
(Profile No. 7) RED
(Description adopted from Holland, de V
Area : North-Central Province, Manr
Wegetation :
Parent material :.
Low tropical evergreen
Old (early Pleisto
Topography : Flat to slightly undulat tion somewhat over 100 feet.
Climatic data : Temperature : Manna.
Ꮧ
F. M 4ر
Mean temperature 79 ... 80. 82 ... 84 ..
--( 1924--195Ꮾ)° F
Mean rainfall
(1922-1956) inches
奥·8。。
2:15. 3-5, 49.
85 . .
25, .
J.
8
C

EYI.ON
rk brown (10 YIR 3/3) clay; moderky; clay and humus-clay coatings; 2d pores ; clear, smooth transition to :
(10 YR 5/6) clay ; moderate fine subCoatings : friable to firm; common
smooth, abrupt transition to :
vious horizon by a stone line; multi
discontinued at 50 inches).
Dakta
Exchangeable Organic ܚ
cations, m.e/100g matter
|
C ՇD
菲 S C
ܓܒ” -ר
菲|霍|荔
ご š S 别 s 奥
등 || 。| e | 脳 | 法 | 劉 | * | *
ジ | ー | ビ | ご | 三 | 曰 | 5 | ー | ○ | ○
09|0.09|0*20| 2、9| 量·3 4·5|34·3 13 9·4 4直
07 0.050.10. 0.6 0-2 09 17.9, 5 3-0 11.
020.03 0-05. 0.5 0-1 0.715-5 5 0.9 9
00SS 00S00S 00S000SSS 0S0S0S0S00S00000SSSS0SSSSSSSASASS
YELLOW LATOSOL
ries and Panabokke (4).)
lar District.
forest and shrubs.
cene) coastal aluvium
ing terrace or old coastal shelf; eleva
, Rainfall: Madhu road.
S0S 00S0S00S00SSS 0S0S00S0S000S00000

Page 72
TROPICAL AGRICUL
Profile Description
Al 0-15 inches; dark red (10
to very weak subangular blo when wet : numerous roots ;
B 15 inches -- (observed to 15 sandy clay loam with very lit massive; no clay coatings; f when wet; porous; diminis.
Analy
ప్రస్
Particle size
distribution སྟ > - ee
蜀 || 3. - - -8 || - 09 ඊ | බු ༽། ༽ CN 쿠 || = || || 7K || || || V || || ー C) 3 || 莒 器 当 ܒܛ d > 日 ܕܼ
3 || 兰 空
蚤 菲|瑟|瑟|瑟|翡|翡|吉
0-15 || AI || Ni I || 65 -1 || 2:1-3 || 1:2 || 141 || 6-8 || 15—32 В , 46-2 248 0-8 299 5-5 : 32-72 B , 49・4| 19・1| 1・6|31・0| 5・6| ま 72-95 B , 45-4. 25.3 1:029-0 5.7 5 95-140|B || .., || 46.2| 246|| 28||28.3 || 5.9 || 40-150 B 44-6 21.7 1-8133-3, 6-0 5
t
(Profile No. 8) R.
Subgroup
Area. : Jaffna District, Achchuvel Vegetation : Low open shrubs and
Parent materia : Remnant of old (Miocene vacuolary limestone).
Topography : On a micro-mound . with numerous limestone outcrops (t
Climatic data : Temperature and
J F. M A. M
Mean temperature 78 .. 79 .. 82 ... 85 .. 85 .
( 192Ꮾ-Ꮨ95Ꮾ)° F
Mean rainfall- 4.4... 1-5. . 1-6... 2-2. 2-0.
(1870-1956) inches

JRIST, vo. CXVII, 1961
3/5) sandy loam. ; structureless massive ky; very friable, non sticky, non plastic Smooth, gradual transition to :
inches) uniform dark red (2.5 YR 316) ble variation in clay content with depth ; iable when moist but slight cementation ing roots.
ical Data
s Exchangeable Organic cations, mel 100g Imatter
* | さ 봉 ! || e.
O SS ○ نگ
|| C) g) pu |}| 自 |酯|荔
釜 |翠 第| |亭 කෆි. 5 || E --ܓܢ || || || || 용 || || || 명 || || || 용
| -7 || 0-04 || tr || 0-19 || 0-8 || 0-4 || 1.5 || 4-3 || 35 || 0-4 || 7 | -0 || 0 - 03 || tr || 0-26 || 0-6 || 0-3 || 1-0 || 3.5 || 30 || 0-1 2 1:2 || 0-03 || tr || 0-31 || 0:6 || 0-8 || 1:5 || 7-6 || 20 || — | — | 1 || 0-03 || tr || 0-32 || 0:6 || 0:8 || 1-7 || 47 || 36 || — | — *4|0-03|0.0且|0-27|1·1|0.6 l、7|44|39 一 一 - 40-030.01024 13 0.6 19 4.3 44 - I -
T = trace.
ED-YELLOW LATOSOL
Calcic red latosol
graSS.
Llluvium, mixed with limestone fragments
2-4 feet above a flat limestone plain arrocal relief); elevation 20-30 ft.
'ainfall : Jafna.
J A. S. Ο N LO Υ 84. . . 83 .. 82 .. 83 .. 82 .. 79 .. 78 ... 81-6
G-4。0-5.。1-1.。。。-垒、。17-3.,10-4,,53、重

Page 73
SOLS OF
Profile Description
B. 0-0.5 inches; red to yellowish
stone fragments; some bleached structureless; soft; few pores tion to :
B2 0.5–6/8 inches ; ruptic horizC from 3 to 7 feet ; red (2.5 YR, 4/ very weak subangular blocky; When close to the limestone rock pores; many roots ; wavy, cle B3 618-18 inches ; ruptic horizon; red (2.5 YR 4/5) loam. ; very celium of secondary CaCO3 in t ments; soft; many pores and (
R 18 inches -- ; vacuolary limest
Analytiea
0 Particle size ప్రS distribution - 它 - 经 || 공 || - || - || - || || ب: || || ۳ t'' | T1'' || 3 | :# بیعی C 5 C | Qo W C
二 N ls GN ○ 圣 ○ d N 崇 お 注 当 re تھی۔ 芝はE | 。 口 tరD 三 至 ä 在 主引堡 E E A 三 び2 |二びな | ? | ー O a
0-0.5 B1 Nil 32-828-6. 0-935-38.1 7.0 0.5-6/8B , 34-0 23-4 1441:38:2, 7-1 618-18B3 , 32-4 27-4 2-3 40-0 8.3 7-2
(Profile No. 9) IMMA'
Subgroup of
Area : Kegalle District, Mawanella.
Wegetation : Coconut and banana patches of Imperata cylindrica.
Parent material : Residuum from m.
Topography : 10% slope on an isol and Valley landscape; elevation app
 

}EYLON
ted (2.5 YR 4/5) clay loam with limesand grains at the surface; massive many roots ; clear, smooth transi
in with limestone rocks at intervals ) clay loam with limestone fragments; some clay films in pores, especially ; : soft; many fine and medium tubular
Ir transition to :
limestone gravel bedded in soil mass; Weak subangular blocky; pseudomihe soil film around the limestone fraghannels; wavy, abrupt transition to :
)Ι1θ.
Data
8 Exchangeable Organic cations, me/100g Imatite هت 癸 bp e
d C) 菲 E || E || 초
-P 으 s 自 蹈|杀 re ー | ご d) d
- Sে ზefე SS 空
○ | ○ | ー | ح 5 ހ{ | 2 | 8
0.09|0.12|0.30| 4·5| 0.2| 5、1|量7.0排30 ... 8
0.12 0.100.23 6.9 0.3 8-0 17-047 - 9
-
0.10-0 0-14 0-2 9-0 190-48 || -
URE BROWN LOAM
the vet zome.
grove, abandoned; grasscover with
ca schist (Khondalite series).
ited knoll in a strongly incised ridge OX. 800 ft.
57

Page 74
TROPICAL AGRICUL
Climatic data : Temperature : K.
J F' M 4ر
Mean temperature 74 .. 75 .. 775... 79 .. 7
(1928-1956) °F
Mean rainfall- 4-65. 2-8. 7.9. 9.6., 10.
(1912-1956) inches
Profile Description
Ар 0-5 inches; dark brown (10
and weak subangular block few random tubular pores; I smooth, gradual transition
B 5-15126 inches; yellowish bi loam with lighter spots of C integrated in the horizon; pores; holes and channels; in
C 15|26 inches -- ; decompose visible; loamy sand, finely m
and many blackish points fr fine holes and channels; less
Analytical
d Particle size ܗܕ↓ ཚེ་ distribution .. g
颈 2 is s. s. s.
통 || 출| || || 5 | || w || || s 日حتخڑ )C | التي
ది お O | لیت | اتھ
40 تھا۔ 釜ー| 三 | E宏| 至 | E | 王 Բ エ | 云 5 | y | E"| C | ps | 's
0-5 || Alp Nil 54,027.713.320.1, 6.6 4. 15/26B ,|74·7|175| 48| 6-5 6-4 4... 1526 C , 80.3 15-0 2-4 2.7 6-8 4.
(Profile No. 10) IMM
ASμόgrouρ
Area: Badulla District, Alutnuw
Wegetation : Short grass savannah (park savannah).
58
 

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
dy, 1,600 ft. rainfall. Kegalle, 550 ft.
J J 4ر S Ο N D Υ 76 .. 75 .. 76 .. 75 .. 77 .. 75 .. 74 .. 76
S 0000S0S00S00S00S000S 000S0S000S00S0S0S000S0S
R. 413) micaceous loam; moderate crumb ; friable ; frequent holes and channels; ycelium around some peds; many roots; JO wn (10 YR 514) very micaceous sandy 2composed rocks which are not entirely structureless; loose ; many interstitial any roots ; clear, irregular transition to : di micaceous schist ; rock structure still titled with light gray (10 YR 712) matrix om dark minerals i structureless i many roots.
Data
Exchangeable Organic is cations, mel 100g matter
|-|| 봉 || 봉 ご | 三 | >ミ ܒ s བཀྲ། བྱང་ C GD ○ نہ۔ c | -- s = |串 瑟|*|毒 re | || || 국 || s || a 劉 |ご | 空。 さ 2 C ޔ{ | 2 | 8 | 004 0.08|| 0.18|| 46|| 36|| 90|| 189|| 49 || 10|| 10 0.02 0.09 0.18 17 2-4 4-3, 7-6, 57 0-3 || 8 0.02 0.120-17 3-2 2-6, 6-0 8-5 70 - I -
TURE BROWN LOAM
the dry zone
Ca.
th scattered brushes and trees in clumps

Page 75
SOILS OF CIE"
Parent material : Residuum from micac
Topography : 2-6% complex slope; foo plain with rock outcrops and boulders ; ele
Climatic data : Temperature: Battical 300 ft。
F. M A. M
Mean temperature 7s .. 7s ... so .. 82 ... s.4 ... s5.
( 1928-195Ꮾ)°Ꭼ
Mean rainfall- 1655. 5.7. 5-65. 5-8. 3-4... 0-55.
(1899-1956) inches
Profile Description
AI 0-4 inches ; dark brown (10 YR
decomposing rock fragments; fine medium interstitial pores ; many ro
B 4-48 inches; dark brown (7: 5 YR loam with decomposing rock fragme soft; many interstitial pores an gradual transition to :
C 48 inches -- ; decomposing rocks; yellowish brown matrix (10 YIR, 6 of mica, with diameter up to 0.5 incl
Analytical D
Particle size
SR C distribution T 目 到 | - ཕྱོ
A. 路 | 홍| || || - || g| 部 Asad 斐 目 |< 7 ä |亲 V G|烧| é 莓 漆 当 = ర) | ھ | 궁 玺 莲|涯| |蓋|室 ° ° 莹 A. 口 あ | 宏 | デ |国"|5 a | za | O
0—4 A夏 3-563-122-3 9:2153. 6-8 5.7 0-05
4-48 B 43·8|64‧8|20.3| 7-9|15-2 6‧4| 4·6|0.02
4S-- C 2-1750 18.4 5-0 6-1 6-5 3-90-01
(Profile No. 1 l) RE
Area: Polonnaruwa District, Habarana,
Wegetation : Dry mixed evergreen fore hushes.
 

"LON
ous gneiss (Bintenna series).
, of a low hill in rolling mantled ration somewhat over 500 ft.
oa, 20 f*. ; rainfall : Alutnuwara,
J A. S Ο N LO Y
84 ... 83 ... 83 ... 81 .. 79 ... , 78 ... 814
11. 205. 32.111... 14.2.18:15., 87.5
3/3) micaceous sandy loam with
crumb; loose ; many fine and ots; smooth gradual transition to : 3/4) fine gravelly macaceous sandy ints; structureless, crumb in spots; di channels ; many roots ; wavy,
micaceous sandy loam with light 14) and many dark points; books n; stuctureless; loose; less roots.
ata
Exchangeable Organic cations, me/100g matter
SS bf) —
용 || 흥 || ss
○ ત્રણ | | : S E || 초 || ー | につ 差 š 艺 සත්‍ය b0 তে ¬ܢܓ 孝|-|3|*||||-|。
0.04 0.52 6-0 19 9.0 11-877 17, 12
0.03 || 0.18| 2:2 || 1.4 | 4.0 | 11:0|| 39 || 0:6|| 10
0.04|0·14| 2·6| 1、7| 4·5|10、7|41|一 一
NDZINA SOIL
st with dense scrub and thorny
59

Page 76
TROPICAL AGRI
Parent material : Residuum weathered to soft, chalky limes
Topography : 4 - 6% slope; elevation 500-550 ft.
Climatic data : Temperature:
J F" M A.
Mean temperature 76 .. 78 ... 81 .. 83
(1948-1959) F
Mean rainfall - 112... 3-0. , 4-6. , 5-S
(1940 - 1956) inches
Profile Description
All 0-6 inches ; dark brow with HCl, strong fine Cru holes and channels ; litt abrupt transition to :
AI2 6-33 inches ; dark brow Hol; same characteristic
A-H-C 33 inches -- ; chalky limes With Al material in betw feristics as above.
Ana
ప్రస్
Particle size distribution 。 - - ح. 当 Y SiSiSSSSSSiSSSSSSAA 吕 || 좋| || ||
령 || || A || 윤 || || V || 않 5 S g ܘܛ.
| E 三安 娶 -ܛ- A 口 A. 2 a El C o
0- 6 A11 |Nil 34-229-1136||37. 6-33 |A12 Nil 31 2 | 29. 9 13-3 40-9 33 - A -- C - 28-324-5 10-936-1
(Profile N.
Area : Jaffna District, Tunna Vegetation : Short grass savan
Parent material : Ponded sul quartzitic Archaean rock (Khon
60
 
 

JILTURIST, VOL. CXVIII, 1961
om crystalline limestone (Khondalite series) Ոe.
llow ridge in an undulating mantled plain ;
Maha Illuppallama, Rainfall: Hingurakgoda.
M J. J. A. S. O N D Y 84.88.888888.81.79.79.81.
40... 0-3. 12. 2-2... 3-2. 9-6. 12-5. 13-6. 71-3
(7°5 YR, 3/2) clay loam. ; no effeversence mb; friable; extremely porous with numerous 2 cohesion in soil mass; many roots ; wavy,
n (7: 5 YR 3/3) clay loam ; effeversence with S as above ; abrupt transition to :
tone fragments from 0.5 to 3inches diameter Veen. The Al material has the same charac
lytical Data
S Exchangeable Organic ]ܚܕ " | བུ་ cations, m.e/100g matter T || || || ||
를 CD (1) ans : | ཐོ་ 誰|誰|誘|。|器 莒 ° O 别 ప్రS 2.
ণ্ডে 50 | E || || || - || 초 || || || || || 용
4 6-10-09 || 0-070.2230-1 6-S 39:263.3 63 1.7. 9 1|| 67|| 0.12| 008|| 0.18|| 377|| 24|| 462655| 71 || 15| 10
3| 6.9 0-1800s 0-20|| 37-1|| 2·2| 43.0|| 50-2| 86 || - || -
. 12). GRUMUSOL
kai.
ah. With thorny scrubs and scattered trees.
ecent clayey alluvium over decomposed alite series).

Page 77
SOILS OE CE
Topography : Flat, slightly depression elevation 250 - 300 ft.
Climatic data : Temperature: Mannar,
J Fo M A. M J
Mean temperature 79 ... SO ... 82. - 84.85 ... 84.
(1914-1956) F.
LL0LL S LLLLLLLLSMAA S 00S0S0S0SS 0SLLSSYS0S00S00SSS 000
(1884-1956) inches
Profile Description
All 0-3 inches; black (10 YR 211) cla granular; sticky and plastic; p trainstion to :
Al2 3-30/50 inches; black (10 YR : blocky, disturbed by numerous pal churning surfaces with extreme very firm; secondary lime concil in the lower part of the horizon the sides of the cracks; clear
Cca 30/50-33/53 inches; dark gray (l material from underlying horizon lime concretions ; wavy abrupt
IT Cg 33/53 inches -- ; decomposed s lime concretions in the upper 2
Analytica
ప్రిన్ Particle size
distribution で
经 홍 || 용 || || || || T GN GN Q H - تحكم ඊ || 16ක لے | لے C 三 三 | 勇 | A | 幸|浜 |V| > | ー s C) 吕 名 تعبر 注 圭 三 99 ܚܕ محل | جتہہ↓ gd 三 | E | | 法 |毛壱| 姿 | ロ | 王 白 左 | 云 | 宏 | 空 "| 5 | 三 | 三
0- 3 A11 Nil 27.841.725-732.7 6-4 5-S 3-50. A 12 Ni} 27,3 | 25-3 141 46-3, 6-2 5-5
50-53 C. ca. 53-2|15咀| 4·里|30、2| 8·2| 7-0
 

LON
plain with distinct gilgai relief;
Rainfall: Vavuniya,
J A. S. Ο N D Υ 83 ... 83 ... 83 ... 82 ... 80 .. 79 .. 82
S0S0S00S 0ES0SL0S0S00S0S00000S00L
y loam; mulched horizon; moderate prous; many roots; smooth, clear
s/1) clay; moderate coarse angular allel and crossing inclined and curved ty strongly developed slickensides; etions starting at a varying depth l, vertical cracks; few roots along wavy, transition to :
0 YR 4/1) loam, mixed with sandier ; structureless; numerous secondary
transition to :
ratified quartzitic rock; secondary -5 inches.
Data
s Exchangeable Organic 5 cations, me/100g matter g ᏋᏪ0 bg
* Cl >
초 || 총 ||
こ | ご ○
-- تبھہ 垂 酯 爱 。 接 SS *{ S 3 Ե0 肇 圣 ; | > | 4 | さ | 三 | E | 5 | | ご | ご
09 0.120. 42.33:1. 5-8 40-0 58.9 68 2-0 12 O60-500-19338 5-8 41-261-367 0-615 110-150.1122-0. 1-725031880 - I -

Page 78
TROPICAL AGRICU
(Profile No. 13)
Area : Jaffna District, Parantha
Vegetation : Short grass with m and scattered trees (Manilkara hex
Parent material : Semi-recent ma
Topography : Flat tidal plain; I. distinct gilgai relief; elevation appr
Climatie data : Temperature : Jaf
J F. M A. M Mean tempera- 78 .. 79 ... 82. 85 85
ture-(1916-1956) F Mean rainfall- 5.4.。1.8。。1.9。。2.8。。2.6
(1927-1956) inches
Profile Description
Al 0-15 inches ; dark brown ( threads alongs former root subangular blocky ; loose ;
A2lg 15-6 inches; brown (10 Y fine distinct dark brown tC along former root channels; wavy boundary to :
A --B 6-15 inches.
A22 (albic) horizon in tong diminishing in width with 5-8 inches; light brownish structureless ; loose ; few ru
Btig (natric horizon) in coll fine layers of bleached san very many dark brown and blocky, composed to strol clay or clay-humus coatings extremely hard when dry;
Сg 15 inches -- ; light gray ( mottled with brownish yell structureless, massive; firm
62

JRIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
)LOIDIZED SOLONIETZ ܦ
ny bare spots, some halomorphic species dra).
ine clayey alluvium.
more inundated by the sea ; slight but
x. 20 ft.
na, Rainfall : Paranthan.
J J A S O N D Y 84 .83 ... 82 .. 83 .. 82 .. 79. , 78 .. 81.6
0.6 ... 1.05... 1.4 .. 2.4. , 8.1 ... 18.9. , 13.8. , 60.8
10 YR 4/3) loamy sand; indistinct rusty channels; structureless to weak coarse few roots; clear, smooth transition to : R 513) loamy sand; mottled with many dark reddish brown spots and threads structureless; loose ; few roots ; abrupt,
ues, maximal 3 inches wide at the top,
Lepth, average distance between tongues gray (10 YR 612) loamy sand, bleached; ty spots; very few roots.
; gray (10 YR 51) sandy clay loam; lackish spots; moderate medium angular
coarse columns with rounded tops; * most of the blocky peds; very firm and ry few roots ; clear transition to :
mns, separated by A22-tongues or very
5 Y 6/1) sandy clay loam ; strongly V (10 YR 6/5) and some black spots; (description discontinued at 30 inches).

Page 79
SOLS OF C
Analytical
ప్రS Particle size distribution
○ r 经 荃 ± 主|三 |± ’ g ཉི|| ༡ || -- ゴ ܡ ○ 垂 美 莺 ^ ° ° 吕 穹 莒 下 室 | = | 空主|。 ܐܼܲܗܕ g ○ 요 歪 | 三 | 日零|芸 | ロ | ロ A. 口 び2 | T | || KO
0-15 || AI Ni 80.7 13-6 4-9 7.2 5-9 (
1.5-6 A21g 78-3 15-0 0-4 4-8 7.1 57 ( 6—15,排A22 , | 80-3| 15:0 | 0.4 | 2-7 || 8.0 | 6.9 | {
(Alb) -
6-15 || Btig 、 |64・8|12・4| 0・9|24・5| 6・5| 5・5| ]
(nat) 15 - ca. - - - - - 8.1, 7.11
* Extractable ca
(Profile No. 14) MEDO
Area : Nuwara Eliya, District, Pattipe
Wegetation: Wet patana, grassland v thicket and a few giant fern.
Parent material : Colluvial valley-fill
Topography : 1-2% slope, on the bo upland plateau; approx. 6300 ft. elevat
Climatic data : Temperature and rain
J M رA
Mean temperature 59 . . 57 .. 59 . . 61 .. 62 ...
(1928-1956) F
Mean rainfall- 6'9, 2-0... 4:1. 5-0... 8:5... 1
(1868-1956) inches
Profile Deseription :
All 0-1 linches; dark brown (10 Y non sticky, non plastic; mar
II A12 Il-17 inches; very dark gray
loam ; structureless; non stic do not go below this horizon;

ΕΥΤΙΟΝ
Data
Exchangeable Organic s cations, me/100g matter s || 봉 || 송 - C GÓ ཁ is C E. g >ST | چھچھ t 日 |目 |差 。 至 ä E 荔 |*|岑 তে 三 |柔 | 4|さ |率|茎 | 5 | 産 |ご |。
:09| 0:15 || 0:34 || 3:4 || 1.8 | 5.7 | 6.8| 80 || 1:2|| 15
-230-550-15 13 0.7 25 3.6 65 || 0:414
48 0:20 0-06 0.7 OS 1.7 22 74 - -
本 本 来 S01-72 0.34 13 3-5 6-9 12.9 51 - I -
率 事 事
474:59 0.57 2-1 4-2 11-4 15.1 78 - I -
tions
W PODZOLIC SOIL
bla.
with Chrysopogon sp., rhodondendron
of varying texture.
rder of a flat valley in an undulating ion.
fall : Nuwara Eliya.
r J A. S O N D Υ
0 . , 60 . , 60 . . 60 . . 60 . . 59 . . 58 . . 5968
)・4。。11・0.。7・5.。8・2.。9・7.。9・2.. 7・85.. 90・4
R. 3/4) fine sandy loam; structureless; y roots; smooth, clear transition to :
brown (10 YR 312) fine gravelly sandy ky, slightly plastic ; less roots which smooth, clear transition to :
63

Page 80
TROPICAL AGRICULT
III A 2il 17-22 inches ; dark yellowi.
sand; weakly mottled; smooth, clear transition to
II A22g 22-26 inches ; brown (10 Y.
DI A23g
Il Btig
fine mottles; structureless; transition to :
26-29 inches ; albic horizon sandy loam ; no mottling; smooth, abrupt transition tC
29 inches -- ; fine gravelly C with yellow (10 YR, 8/5 ) I. YR, 518) mottles, part of iw subangular blocky ; slight discontinued at 45 inches).
Analytica
పైకి Particle size th
distribution - 窗 -
路 స్లో | 3 || 3 || 3 | 3 雷 ཉི། སྤྱི་||ཉི|| | ཚུ|| A|འོ|འོ| V|| {- 日 ہ<ھ | جہا۔ 949 S 当 re تھ۔ 蜜 š 医|涯|当|蛙|窦 E|臣 A 曰 云 | 宏 | 云 | km"| 5 24 || 24
0-11, A11 29.3|75·3|14·4| 7-l|124| 4·5| 3·9 11-17 || III A 12 || 34-8 || 77-3|| 9-8 || 4:2 || 13-9 || 5:1 || 4-1 17-22 ΙΙ Α21 52-1 81 - 9 7-1 4-5 10-7 5-3 4-2 22-26 || III A 22 g || 456|| 78-2 || 10* 4. || 7-6 || 10:9 || 5*4 || 4*3 26-29 || II A 23g || 418 | 67.5 || 26 -9 || 1:2-3 || 6:1 || 5-4 || 44 29+ IIB tg | 34,6 || 31.237.11 17:3|| 29.71 5-4 4-3
64

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
. brown (10 YIR, 4|4) fine gravelly loamy
uctureless; non sticky, non plastic;
5/3) fine gravelly sandyloam ; distinct,
On sticky,
non plastic;
smooth, clear
; light gray (10 YR, 7/2) fine gravelly structureless; non sticky, non plastic;
ay loam ; few mica fragments; mottled atrix and very distinct, large, red (2.5 hich are concretionary (laterite); veak y sticky, slightly plastic (description
Data
ー Exchangeable Organic cations, m.e/100g matter 各 Տ0 | 50 O C C) GS تتلم 日 E || 3
으 s 自| 自| 宏 |。| 器 类 茎 魏 *|考 භු | සිටි යට *ܓܙܖ 選|2||4|さ| 署| 国 | 5 | 密|ご | 5
0-160- 08 0.28 1-9 0-4 2-7 17:116 45 18 0.0ვ | 0-07| 0-15|| 0-8| 0-5|| - 1-5 | 10-8 | 13 | 2-8 | 16 0.02 0-07 0.08 0-4 01 07 4-017 - || - 0.02 0-050-06 0-3 0-2 0-6 4' 015 - I - 0-02 | 0-08 | 0-05 | 0•4| 0*2 | 0•ሽ | 2*4| 27 | – | – 0.05 0.15 0-06 0.5 01 0-811-2 7 |

Page 81
0.
1.
2.
3.
丑4。
5.
SOLS OF C
BI BILI O G I
. CLINE, M.G. et al.; Soil survey of the territo
Service, Series 1939, No. 25, 1955.
. D'UDAT, R : Les sols du bassin du Mekong
24-47, Gand 1960.
. DUDAr, R. and SoEPRAPToHARDJo, MI : S
Agr. Res. Station, 148, I-16, Bogor
| HoLLAND, W., -DE VRIEs L. and PANAB
... JoACHIM, A.W.R.; Studies on Ceylon soils
1935.
. Jo ACHTIMI, A.W.H. and KANDIAIBI, S ; Stua
IXXXVI, 67-77, 1935.
... JoACHIM, A.W.R. ; The soils of Ceylon. T
KELLOGG, C.E.; Preliminary suggestions
of great soil groups in tropical and equatorial 46, 76-84, 1949.
. MooRMANN, F.R. ; General soil map of t,
teact Saigon. 1961.
PANABOKKE, C.R. ; A study of some soils 67-74, 1959.
Soils and Men. ; U.S.D.A. Yearbook
Soil Classification a comprehensive syste,
Soil Survey Manual ; U.S.D.A. Handb
STEPHENs, C.G., A. Manual of Austral
THORP, J. and SMITH, GUY D ; Higher ca and great soil groups ; Soil Science 67,

YLON
A PHY
y of Hawaii, U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation
inférieur et leur utilisation ; Pedologie, X,
il classification, in Indonesia, Contr. Gen 957.
KIKE, C.R. (to be published).
I; Trop. Agriculturist, LXXXIV, 254-275,
ies on Ceylon, soils V Trop. Agriculturist
'rop. Agriculturist, CXI, 161-172, 1955.
for the classification and nomenclature regions Comm. Bur. SoilSc., Tech, comm.,
he Republic of Viet-Nam, u ith eacplanatory
in the dry zone of Oeylon, Soil Science, 87
1938.
7th approximation; U.S.D.A., 1960.
bok No. 18, 1951.
an soils C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne, 1953.
egories of soil classification : order, suborder | 17-126, 1949.
65

Page 82
TROPICAL AGRICUL
PROFILE LOCATIONS,
AND DISTRICT AND
A NUR A D HA PURA Ao T*'''N
‘.
ܚ.܆=ܫܬ
s (φ
YI POLONNA F
r^
MAP
 

TRIST, VOL. CXVIII, 1961
RAIN FALL
PROVINCIAL
Province
Northern
North Centro
Eostern
Cent r of
Սwo
Southern
Saboragom uwo
Western
North Western
ONARA GALA
2 O 24
Mies Miles
DISTRIBUTION,
DIVISIONS
Provincis Bound or y District Bound of
Profile ioctorior and No.
Annulot overage rome foi
district
of no Monmor Vow un iy6
Anurodhodouf o Polonnot uwd
Bottico o o Trin como le a
Motoi e Kondy Nuvoro Eli, o
Bodulo mon of ogors
Hombo mtoto Motoro Gotte 臀
Kegatie Roten op u ro
Ο οι οπη b ο Koluto ro
Kur u ne go o Putt glorin

Page 83
SOLS OF
PROVISIONAL GEO LC
(After F
M為NNAR
COLOMBO :
MAP 2
 
 

CEY LON
) G|CAL
Fernorado)
RECENT
PLEISTOCENE MOCENE E JURASSIC CH
Ν
をNく。
BOUNDARES
GRAN川晋ES
N Zoot ERTE {QYリAGE 切リA榴 ԻԳ- ܠܐ
TRINCOM
をC&、窓

Page 84
TROEICAL AGRICULTU
አለAP 3
PHYSICAL
AND SOUTHWEST
 

RIST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
FEATURES
NORTHEAST SECTION
O - 3 OO fit E 3oo – 12 oo f; H 12oo - 3ooo fι IIIIIIIII above 3000
SCALE
24 2
O
st Peneplain lill 2nd Peneploin 3rd Pene plain

Page 85
SOILS O
GENERAL RA
INTERM E DATE
NM AP 4
6-R, 20026 (10/61)
 
 

CEYLON
NFALL ZONES
BY Courtesy Hunting Survey Corporation ltd.

Page 86


Page 87
METEOROLOGI
Sиттary for Јапиа.
Two low pressure systems interrupted the ot that prevailed over the Island during Janua from East to West caused rainy weather in from 9th to llth, a few stations recording rain second Which lasted from 14th to 6th caused worst affected being the North-Central and Valley and the North-Eastern hill-country. A were recorded on the 14th and 15th and flood and Polonnaruwa, area. From the 20th on War cally no rain. The greater monthly totals of north-eastern slopes of the central hills and in rainfall, with totals below 2 inches, was found and in the west central region. Rainfall was a deficits being generally confined to the centra over 65 daily falls of over 5 inches, the highes Martin's Estate (Upper Division).
Weak north-east monsoon conditions, with south-west quarter, prevailed over the Island the second half two spells of unsettled conditi for February, with gloomy skies, cold days and 20th concentrating into a depression on the 16 The rain was fairly heavy in Gal Oya area, and in the area recording falls over 5 inches. This The second spell which lasted from 21st to 23r of Ceylon and the resulting rain, though wid monthly totals of rainfall (totals over 15 inche of the central hills and in the Eastern Provin in the Jaffna District, where the totals were be except in parts of the south-west quarter a over 20 daily falls over 5 inches, the highest b
At the beginning of March the weather wa temperatures were unusually low. Intermons or evening thundershowers chiefly in the sol and continued till the end of the month. has resulted in a feW deaths. On the I 2th til stations particularly in the southwest and a The seasonal spell of warm weather set in to monthly totals of rainfall were found in the sol eastern slopes of the central hills and were of was least (totals below 2 inches), in the no in Puttalam and Vatale areas, a few stations normal in the eastern parts of the Island and normal elsewhere. There were five daily falls on the 12th at Kubukkan.
Department of Meteorology, Bullers Road,
Colombo 7, 17th May, 1961.
7—R, 20026 (10/61)

CAL REPORT
y to March, 1961
herwise mild northeast monsoon conditions ty. The first which moved across Ceylon the north-central and north-eastern parts all over 5 inches on the 9th and 10th. The
heavier and more extensive rain, the areas Eastern Provinces including the Gal Oya. large number of daily falls over 5 inches ls were experienced in the Gal Oya Valley ls the weather was mainly fair, with practirainfall (over 20 inches) occurred along the the north-central and eastern parts. Least along the south-western slopes of the hills Dove normal over a major part of the Island, hills and west central areas. There were Es one being 10 * 63 inches on the 14th at St.
occasional evening thunder showers in the during the first half of February. During ons resulted in the most unusual weather | heavy rain. The first lasted from 15th to th about 300 miles to south-east of Ceylon. Batticaloa District on the 16th, all stations rain resulted in floods in Batticaloa, District. d was caused by low pressure area to south espread, was generally light. The greater s) were found along the north-eastern slope ce, while the least rainfall was experienced low two inches. Rainfall was above normal ld in the Northern Province. There were eing 10" lis inches at Kalmunai on the 16th.
s dry throughout the Island and the night soonal conditions, with scattered afternoon thwest quarter, commenced about the 6th hunder has been servere occasionally and e thundershowers were widespread, several mong the hills receiving fairly heavy falls, wards the end of the month. The greater uthwest quarter and along the eastern souththe order of 10 to lij inches. The rainfall thern parts of the Island, and in places eceiving no rain at all. Rainfall was above in the Colombo District and generally below over 5 inches, the highest being 5' 60 inches
D. J. JAYA SINGHIE,
Director.
71.

Page 88
TROPICAL AGRICULTU
METEOROLOGICAL RE)
JANUARY
TEMPERATURE E STATION SSSMSSSSSSS LSL S SS
Mean Mean Max Offset, Min Offset D:
d C 9. Anura dhapura 84.3 || +0.9 || 71·1 || - 19 Badulla ... 78-0--18 64'2 || -- 0:4 k Battical Oa, ..|| 82.5 || +-1.0 7·8 || -1·2 Colombo ,87.8 十1·4 72.6 || - 0.8 Diyatalawa, . . || 73-0 || — — 1:2 || 58-0 || –||– 0:3 || Galle ... 84.1 -- 0-3 73.8 || =-08 Hambantota, ... .. | 85-6 || 1 + 0-7 | 73-7 | -4-1-11 J affîna . . || 83·3 || -+0·3 || 737 || +-1·6 Kandy ... 84-0 --1-8 66.5 --1-6 ( Kankesanturai 832 -- 0:4 746 -0.3 Kurunegala . . || 87-9 || — ||— 15 || 70-0 || -- 0:2 ( MT’Illuppallama 853 || - 18 || 70.0 || -09 Mannar . . || 83 4 || + 0:1 || 75:2 || -- 1:0 Nuwara, Eliya || 68:1 || –||– 0:3 || 48:7 || -1-1-6 Puttalamh . . 86.7 || - 1·2 || 71·3 || - 1·3 ( Ratmalana . . || 88-2 || — ||—1:2 || 72:8 || -1-1-4 s Ratnapura . . ! 91-8 || –||– 2:5 || 713 || –||– 0:2 6. Tala Wakele ... | – - - - Trincomalee ...| 82-7 |-|-22 || 76-6 |-|-1-3 7 Mulla,ittiWu . ... || – 82• 5 - 750 8 Vavuniya ... 83-9 - 69.9 Katunayake . . I SSS - 72-0 6
TEMPERATURE HU STATION ത്തn— —
Mean Mean Max Offset Min Offset Day
○ О % Anura dhapura, S5: 4 - 70.4 || - 1·1 7. Badlla ..., 78-2-07 || 62.8 -0.3 Batticalioa S2-2 -0.7 73-5 -0-2 7 Colombo 85.6 |-1.5 72-7 --07 7. Diyatalawa 74.5-0...4 57.4 -- 0:5 7. Galle S3-4-1774-0--0.4 7. Hambantota, S4:1-18 72-8-02 7. Jafína ... 85 4 1-0-2 73、7 |十1·5 7. Kandy ... 826 -28 65.2 --0.9 6. Kankesanturai 85-0 || -- 0-3 || 737-03 7. Kurunegala . . || 87-3 || —2-6 69:9-1-0.4 6. M’Illuppallama || 85-0 || —2-5 || 69-2 || –||– 1:2 7 Mannar ... 848 -13 746 --08 7. Nuwara Eliya 68.4 || --1-2 49:6 -- 4:3 7 PUttalam S6.5 -L-S 71-1 --0.9 6 Ratmalana S5.9 || --5 728 -- 1:5 6. Ratnapura, 89.2 I-24 70-8-0-5. 6. Tala Wakele 71-2-5-2 54·I || -0·3 7, Trincomalee 83-2 || -- 0.7 760 -- 0:2 7. Mulajtitiyll SB-6 - 75. - 7. Vavuniya S5.9 - 69.5 - 7 Katunayake S6-0 - 71.7 - 7.
72.
 
 
 

IST, VOL. CXVII, 1961
DRT FOR THE QUARTER IARCH, 1961
January, 1961
MIDITY RAINETATEL ~-- SS Amunt |
Night Rain
on Cloud Amount offset isys offset Min)
Inches 3. 98 4、3 12:33 +-653 -5 94 5-4 S-55 18 1.77-۔ O 90 5-0 15:02 +-214 15 -1. SS 4、0 1-19 -2.77 -3 94. 6·3 5·37 -1-27 10 -6 5 86 42 3.60 -0:28 13 十l SS 3.7 3-50 -0.50 -1. 7 93 4-6 9.04 - 463 12 + 4 5. 84 4-3 3:67 -3-07 6 -5 3. 86 4·4 8、44 +-503 12 +-7 7 95 3.8 1.70 -3-41. -3 2 90 47 8:40 +-286 S. -1. SS 4.6 S-62 十4、78 O +-1 S. 87 5-0 5・17 |ー1・79 -5 7. SS 4·丁 4、40 +-0.97 6 -3 S. SS 4·I 2.46 -1.69 - 2 85 4·9 413 -2·13 14 0 7 S2 5.2 10-88 +-257 11 -2 O 86 4·2 11:23 -— 14 - 6. 93 4-S 16:30 --986 14 - 8 09 37 4·39 - 8
February, 1961
MIDITY RAIN FALL
Anapunt Night Rain (from Cloud Amount offset Days offset Min)
% I|nches
95 56 4:47 十2·75 9 十4 94 6.2 7.42 十4·25 11 十3 90 6.0 1491 - 10.70 10 十3 S8 5.7 1-92 -0.68 9 +-3 91. 6:3 6.62 +- 4·25 13 十5 84 62 2-53 -0.76 12 十岳 88 6.2 5.31 +-3.85 14 +-9 90 48 0.04 -142 -2 87 6:0 3.55 -- 1:16 S 十4 S8 4.8 0.02 -1.06 1 - 93 5.3 5:21. -- 3:22 8 十4 90 6-0 4.67 +-2.76 9. 十6 86 5-0 0.46 -1:24 3. O 77 6. 4·62 --263 12 --5 S5 5.8 1.65 十028 S 十4 S8 5.9 4·99 -I-63 9 - 畿 6.4 2.98 -232 17 十6 S4 6:S 3-34 十0、69 S -+-3 S4 5・2 0.54 一0・79 3. - 93 5-5 2.54 -- 0.8 7 - 90 54 2-72 - || 9 || -

Page 89
METEOROLOGIC
TEMPERATURE H STATION -
Mean Mean
Max | Offset - Min Offset. Da
О Ο %
Anuradhapura 90'S -0.7 72-9 --1-3 6. Badulla ... 83.2 -- 0:8 639 -0.4 Batticalloa, - - - Colombo 87-8 0 74.5 -- 0:5 Diyatalawa 78‧0 十0.4 58·1 |一0·1 7. Galle 856 -0.775.5 -- 0:5 Hambantota, 864 -0.6 74-7 || -- 0:4 7 Jafna ... 88-8 -- 0:1 77.9 -- 2:0 Kandy ... 86-8 -- 67.7 || -- 0:6 6. KaLakeSanturai 90-0--1-3 76-7 --1-4 7. Kurunegala, 91.7 || -1.0 || 72·8 || +0.8 6. MIlluppallama 90·8 || -1·2 || 71.8 || -+-0·3 7. Mannar 88-8-0.5 76.9 --1-4 Nuwara, Eliya . . || 73-2 || -- 2.3 || 49:5 || -1-2.9 7. Puttalam 90-0 || -- 0:1 74.1 --1-2 Ratmalana SS-4 -- 0:2 74.8 -- 0:9 7. Ratnapura 93·3 || +-1-2 || 72-2 || -0·3 6. Tala Wakele 76.1 -1.7 54.7 -0.7 7. TrinCOmalee S7-8 1-2-2 77.1 -- 0:5 7, MullaittiiWU ... 86-9 - 74.7 - 7. Katunayake . . I SS-9 - 73-9 - 7. Vavuniya 91-5 - 72-3 - 6.

AL REPORT
March, 1961
MIDITY RAJNI FALI
Amಖ್ಖmt
Night O Rain
on Cloud Amount offset Says offset
Min)
% Inches
93 4·0 1.56 -2.59 9 +-II 94. 4-6 9·28|,十4·23 14 +-2
90 4-6 10-58 || +5.92 16 +5 88 4·9 6-20 --1-31 12 - S6 4·6 4·73 -0.58 13 --II 88 4'4 3:25 -014 10 +-II 89 3·2 O-36 -122 3 O 87 5-0 3-35 -2-07 9 O 88 3-4 0.75 -0.72 2 O 95 4·0 6-15 -0-13 9 一直 88 4·2 1-80 -2-84 8 十王 88 3.0 1.96 || --0-12 4. O 84 48 3.46 -0.63 11. 0. 86 3-3 5·71 || +-2·63 7 --1 90 4·8 7.88 --1-40 19 - 85 55 6-87 -35. 20 十l 84 4-0 4·00 一0...62 8 - 89 3.7 1-52 -0.78 6 O 90 3-II 0.40 -128 5 95 4-5 S.O.3 - 10 - 93 3.8 (0.98 -'86 7 -
3.

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Page 91


Page 92
THE FRUITS OF ABOUR
In man’s COnStamt er earth to yield more LIZERS are playing Here in Ceylon for C.C.C. Fertilizer.S na VI helped to promote in creased and bette yields whenever crop are gCOWI).
C.C.C. EPERTIT ARE BACKED BY YEAR
ENCE AN
THE COLOMBO, CO
N
(Incorporated in Great Britain
Fertilise Acland House, Union Place, Co
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

deavour to coax mother
of her bounty, FERTI.
a major and vital role.
over half a century
C. C. C.
FERT LISERS FOR
TEA一 RUBBER - COCÓN UT - TOBACCO PADDY - VEGETABLES
LISER MIX LURES
S OF PRACTICAL EXPERI.
RESEARCH.
MINA ERICAL COMPANY
TED Liability of Members is Limited) Department
mbo 2. Telephone 79351
CCC 157660 JWT