கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: HEALTH CARE WASTE MANAGEMENT
Department ofC Universit
iy of Jaffna.
Categorisation of waste Health care waste can be broadly categ hazardous(General) waste. Non hazardous(General) waste
Non hazardous waste includes contaminated with infectious or hazard bodyfluids, and chemicals eg. Paper, le can be managed by the local authority. Hazardous waste
There are several categories of A. Infectious waste
a. Blood, body fluids or i b. Microbiological waste C. Waste from isolation w B. Pathological waste
a. Human body parts, fetl b. Sumilar waste from sur C. Animal carcasses orgal
pathogens C. Sharps
a. Syringes with needles b. Scalpel blades, razors, C. Contaminated brokeng d. Blood tubing and other
D. Chemical waste
a. Could be in the form o b. Is generated in the labc reagents disinfectants a C. May be toxic corrosive
carcinogenic E. Pharmaceutical waste
a. Are outdated or residua
orized into hazardous and non
all waste that has not been ous substances such as blood, ft over food, fabric. General waste
tems contaminated with them
gery and autopsies ns and tissues infected with human
infusion sers glass
f solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals pratory by the use of solvents und other chemicals
flammable explosive or
ll medications of all kinds
F. Radio active waste
a. Solid liquid or pathol radioactive isotopes ( b. Faeces vomitus and u radioactive substance
Health waste managemer Safe Health waste management proc and reducing public health risks both The procedures include the following
2○ Waste minimization, 2○ Waste collection and
g) Waste storage
Waste minimization and segrega Waste minimization Recycling procedurs should be ir of Health waste generated.
2○ All non contaminate separately to be pick
2○ All non contaminate not used should bes
2;D Broken glassware sh
Segregation consists of separating di
of treatment and disposal practices.
2%D It should take place 2○ Different colour cod
Waste Collection and on site i. Waste collection a) Hazardous waste
0 Should be collected international biohaz
ogical waste contaminated with fany kind rine from patients treated with
it procedures 2dures aim at containing infections within and outside the institution.
| meaՏԱTCS: and segregation onsite transportation
nplemented to minimize the quantity
d plastic items should be collected ed up by local authority capable of
d and un broken glassware which are egregated and sent for recycling ould follow the stream of sharp waste
fferent types of waste based on the type
at the point of generation of waste ed containers should be used.
in yellow polythene bags with the ird symbol placed in yellow bins.
Infectious waste Sharp waste
Glass waste Paper waste Plastic waste
b) Sharps 0 Sharps should be placed boxes which are punctul 0 Should be designed with be dropped in but no ite)
• Box should be of yellow the biohazards symbol o
c) General waste
• Should be placed in blac
• Waste should be collect schedule.
• When handling waste fo should wear protective c masks, apron, boots and
• All yellow bags should adhesive tape, and remo
• The sharps boxes should
• Waste should be collect to load and clean. The trolley should not b 0 The collection route sho
collection to the central
Yellow with a red stripe Black
in specific cardboard or plastic reproof and leak proof. 1 a small opening so that items can m can be removed.
colour with red stripes and have in it.
ck polythene bags
2d from each ward on a regular
r transportation sanitary staff lothing at all times including face heavy duty gloves. be sealed with appropriate ved from the bins.
be closed when 3/4 full. 2d in a trolley or cart which is easy
e used for any other purpose. uld be direct from the point of waste storage facility.
A separate central storage fa
() Non hazardous wast government authorit hazardous waste.
() The central storage f sealed from unautho It should be inaccess It should be easy to
() It should have a goo
Different types of hazardous Pharmaceuticals:
Should be returned to the reg Division (MSD) for proper d
If return to MSD is not possi carried out under supervisioi cement and lime before bury
Appropriate advice should b representative of the Central disposal of chemical. Large
returned to the supplier. Effluents:
All liquid infectious waste sl system only after being prop
Effluents of all diagnostic m theatres,etc. Shall always be concentrated hypochlorite (1 into the sewerage.
Radioactive effluents of in w the sewerage or into a septic adequate background level i.
2ility should be provided for storage. e which is to be taken away by local ies should be stored separately from
acility should be totally enclosed and rized access. ible to animals, insects and birds. slean and disinfect. d water supply, drainage and
HW should be treated appropriately.
gional offices of the Medical Supplies lisposal.
ble a process to inert them should be n of the authorized person. To mix with ing.
e requested at the regional
Environmental Authority before any quantities of chemical should be
hall be discharged into the sewerage erly treated.
edical laboratories, operating
neutralized in a buffer tank of 0% hypochlorite) before discarding
sard patients shall be discharged into
tank only after it has decayed to n retention tanks.
Placentas and Anatomical wa
All anatomical waste should be packed in yellow bags and tran: incineration
Alternatively it can be put into depth(> 1m) in a location at le underground water.
Anatomical waste should be stc
5c in the mortuary until transporte
Samples of blood should be aut
ternatively, samples of blood ca concentrated hypochlorite befo.
Blood bags should be incinerat
Infectious solid HW should pre chamber incinerator.
In densely populated areas it ca
In minor HCF solid infectious
Sharps are destroyed together v
The method of choice for destri chamber incinerator.
Alternatively, autoclaving and
In rural areas safety boxes can open burning. The residues oft sufficient depth (>1m).
identify as infectious waste and sported to a crematorium for
a designated pit of a sufficient ast 100m away from any source of
pred at a temperature between 1°c to d.
oclaved before being discarded.
in be kept overnight in a container of re discarding
ferably be incinerated in a double
in be treated by autoclaving.
wasted can be buried at sufficient
with other infectious waste.
uction is incineration in a double
shredding can be used.
be incinerated in small numbers by burning shall be safety buried at
8) Radioactive waste
In disposing radioactive w recommended.
O The radiation protection o
disposal of radioactive waste.
O In the process of disposal o'
energy authority regarding
e A written protocol on dispo
O All radioactive waste shall
e The radioactive waste shou and labeled with the radial Storage.
O They should be stored in a
shielded storage room or in
O When radioactive waste ha
be discarded as Infectious F
e Liquid radioactive wasteca once certified as free of rad
O Non infectious which has c discarded with general wa
aste the following practices are
fficer should be responsible regarding
f the instructions provided by the atomic storage and disposal should be followed.
sal should be available in the unit.
be stored to allow decay to background
ld be placed in large containers or drums tion symbol and the required period of
specific area preferably in a lead
a room with concrete walls 25cm thick.
s decayed to background level they can HW.
in be discarded into the sewerage system ioactivity.
lecayed to the background level can be Ste.
Reference 1.The National Guidelines of Srilanka
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