கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Costs of War
(C) National Peace Council
VISHWA LEKHA fി(d
41, Lumbini Avenue Ratmalana, Sri Lanka
Challenges and Prior
National Ped 2OC
ities for the Future
ace Council D3
This booklet follows the on the "Economic Socio Sri Lanka,' 2002 publis Lanka and the MARGA I some of the key messag format and to update sc The booklet is available
The National Peace Co contributed to this publi Marga Institute, K.W.
National Peace Council ( 12/14 Purana Vihara Ro Colombo 6
Sri Lanka Tel- (94-1) 818344, 85 Fax - (94-1) 819064 Email - peace26sri.lank Website - www.peace-s
2 publication of a revised research report -Political and Human Costs of the War in hed by the National Peace Council of Sri nstitute. This publication aims to summarise es of the research in a more user-friendly me of the statistics in the original report. in Sinhala, Tamil and English.
buncil would like to thank all those who
cation in particular Dr. Godfrey Gunatilleke, Janaranjana, Simon Starling and Bethan
of Sri Lanka ad
What were tl
Human Social an Economic Environm
What are the of the War?
ne Costs of the War?
: Continuing Costs
he Legacy of War
What were the costs of the War?
We have all, in every community paid the decades. We have paid in many ways - thro additional taxes, through increased prices and freedom of expression, through incre for economic development. In February 20 the Government of Sri Lanka and the Libe parties agreed to cease hostilities.
The human, social, political, economic and e and its legacy are explored in this booklet. Sri Lankan people about the impact of the complemented by facts on various costs of are reading think about the many ways tha paid for the war and in what ways you and community continue to pay.
This booklet and all costs mentioned relate conflict waged between the Government of LTTE and their allies - between 1983 and t
costs of Sri Lanka's war, which lasted for nearly two ugh the death or injury of relatives and friends, through of basic supplies, through restrictions on our movement ased fear and insecurity, and through lost opportunities 02 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between ration Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), under which both
environmental costs of the war
The testimonies of ordinary war on their lives are the war. As you + YOU have your
E to the internal armed - Sri Lanka and the
he ceasefire of 2002.
1. The Human Costs of the War
Death, Injury and Disappearance Those killed, injured or 'involuntarily disappet estimated that 65,000 people were killed - between 20 and 35.
If the average age of those who died is take life years
I received a letter informing me of my son I learnt about his death five days after he he was buried like an orphan. I could not sh only brother.
Those who lost relatives and friends experie household earner face economic problems the
Our Church celebrated its festival. The ch going together with their father. They the would have gone if our father had been livi
It is estimated that in the war 17,648 LTTE ki|ed
ared" paid the highest cost of the war. It is half were civilians and the majority aged
LSLL J S 00SY LL YY SS S S YYJ a S0S00S LLL LLLLLL
's death. I could not take part in the last rites.
Was buried. I Could not bear to think that 1are my grief With others. His sisters lost their
Mother of a Tamil soldier
nce a lifetime of loss. Many who lost their main ut add to their suffering.
ildren were watching and saw their cousins 'n said to each other, "that is how we too
Widowed Woman from Jaffna
Cadres and 14,790 security forces personnel were
The numbers of widows and women heade vulnerable to social exclusion, poverty and around 400,000 wormen live in sheliters acr
My husband's family blames me for eye. Always they see something wro young woma
3,687 Government soldiers were reported are unable to grieve and often live in hope disappearance.
My sons are in the Sri Lanka Army. children's bodies were lying dead. Th one of my children was among them.
me, but I have been deprived of find
We don't know how many civilians were disab 10,343 Government soldiers were permaner difficulties in obtaining employment and a
Before I was blinded there was a Wh to attend to, so many hopes. Now the some ray of light will fall on my eyes put into a prison for the whole of my
d households increased dramatically. Widows are often narassment. In Jaffna alone there are 18,000 widows and oss the country.
what happened. Society looks on us with a strange ng in us. n widowed victim in the Central Bank Bomb, Colombo
missing in action. Families of those who have disappeared that their loved one is still alive, even years after their
In September 1998, in Kilinochchi, about 650 of our 2y were packed in plastic bags. But I do not know whether We could not even see the bodies. My child was a part of ling out whether my son is dead or alive.
Woman from Kandy - 1998
led during the war. According to the Ministry of Defense, tly disabled. Those disabled often suffer discrimination, lack of recognition for the sacrifice they made.
ole days work before me, so many little domestic needs are is nothing. I only live in the futile hope that some day ...Just imagine my condition it is as though I have been
young man blinded in Central Bank Bomb, Colombo
All sides are guilty of serious human rights o massacre of civilians (including women and c violation of international humanitarian law, Thousands of survivors (both soldiers and ci brutalities.
War has changed our lives so much...we begin to till we begin to think of the ca to work. Everywhere in the village the
Fear and insecurity increased throughout t unpredictable. Many political leaders and part of soldiers lived in constant fear that their
We are watchful and suspicious of eve village received guns for its defence. the LTTE would like to capture the gu war.
Internal conflict deeply damages and erodes a pervasive culture of violence. Around the often erupt in fierce and brutal forms of v people live amidst and adjust to continuing easier both legally and illegally and as viol undermining the democratic process.
ibuses and terrible acts of violence. These include the hildren), indiscriminate bombing, rape and torture. In both sides killed those injured or captured in battle. vilians) were and continue to be traumatised by these
2 cannot think of the morrow...if we go to the field and lamity that befell the village...we do not have the heart re is only fear.
Yakawewa Villager - 1998
the country, violence and terror was widespread and y members were assassinated. Around 130,000 families relatives would be killed.
ry visitor to the village. It is after the attack that the But then the threat to the village was greater. Because ns...everyone here has got used to the environment of
Anuradhapura Villager - 1998
the moral values and foundations of society and creates world conflict between states and militant movements iolence. There is a slow process of dehumanisation as violence and suffering as access to weapons becomes ence invades various political and social institutions
Children were particularly affected by the * Many were killed, injured or traumat * Around 250,000 of those displaced * Hundreds of boys and girls were rec * Education was disrupted. The drop o became the highest in the country. * Many children lost one or both paren
For example, Packiarajah was born in a villa a scene of mass slaughter and rape by In encounter between the army and the LTTE
Children now play war games... their W. jeeps...children have become scouts can dismantle and assemble a T56.
ised by violence.
Were under 14.
ruited as child soldiers. ut rates in the North and East increased and
its - deprived of their protective love and care.
ge in the North. When he was 10 years old he witnessed dian Peacekeeping Forces. He died at 15, caught in an
sorld of play consists of operations, bunkers,
and spies for the village. Even a 7-year-old child
Villager from yakawewa
Around 700,000 landmines were planted c. and injured thousands. They are indisc Landmines were often laid in heavily popu
luring the war by all sides. Landmines have killed riminate and remain in the ground for years. fated and fertile agricultural areas.
Displacement and Homelessness In 2001 it was estimated that approximate to leave their homes due to the war. Appro deprived of the security, familiarity and pri to seek asylum abroad.
The number of people displaced is the sa
Eating, sleeping, all our household wor sleep on a piece of mat...we felt like .
-ly 1,116,000 Tamils, Muslims and Sinhalese were forced
ximately 800,000 moved to other parts of the country, Jacy of their own homes. Many left Sri Lanka as refugees
ime as the entire population of Uva Provincel
k has to be done in one place. We cannot sit and relax...we committing suicide...we suffered such a great deal.
Lakshman Anthony, Fisherman from Niyaru
Displacement and homelessness cause immens of social and economic relationships destroyed in welfare centres - the children born there n to move again and again, from one temporary,
The home we lived in had mud walls and water, sanitation, and space and freedo say this building was used for rearing p Often we have to queue for water or to hours to go to town. The officers in the questioned.
Moving into new communities can be difficult resentment, especially if they move into ar opportunities.
Life in Border Villages Communities living along the boundaries of t insecurity and poverty. Life became very diffi communities enjoyed an integrated way of life
The Tamil village was close to our setts brought us vegetables, milk, a sweetme one family in great amity. We can not ut Suddenly.
e trauma. Displacement was often sudden - a lifetime 1 in a single day or night. 40,000 families were housed 2ver knowing a normal life. Some families were forced (and often inadequate) shelter to the next.
a cadjan roof but we had all the basic facilities, m. But now we live as though we are in a cage...they oultry. How can children study in these conditions?
use the toilet. We are given a permit for four : camp are very strict, if we are late we are closely
Displaced Tamil mother - 1998
and painful. Outsiders often experience hostility and eas with already limited resources and employment
he North and East suffered particularly from fear, cult in these areas where previously Tamil and Sinhala 2 with close personal and economic relationships.
ement. The Tamil villagers bought fish from us; they at made of gingelly seed. We lived like members of nderstand why this happened to us. Things changed so
Villager from Yakawewa
Think about how the War affects diffe and Women fake on different roles and more af risk from sexual violence and
However, Women are not just victims of farmers and peacebuilders.
Brent people in different Ways? During conflict men have specific needs and concerns. Women are often Darry a greater burden in caring for their family.
War but take on many roles - as fighters, teachers,
Summary of Human Costs
· Approximately 65,000 people killed -
Thousands permanently disabled.
Approximately 1.2 million displaced p 66,000 live in camps in India 40,000 live outside camps in In 200,000 live in the West 800,000 live in Sri Lanka
Thousands suffering post-traumatic : or resulting from the war. Over 9 treatment from the army rehabilitat
An estimated 30,000 - 40,000 peop often took their weapons with them limited skills outside the military.
Sri Lanka has the highest suicide rate in lives below the poverty line. The war has !
- at least half civilians.
ersons and refugees of whom:
stress disorder and other mental illness related to 2,000 troops continue to receive post-recovery ion unit.
ble deserted the army during the conflict. They and now face high levels of unemployment having
the world and around a quarter of the population been a contributing factor to both these problems.
Social and Political Costs
When I was 11 years old, my father w he Would be released affer his inferra a gunny bag, poured kerosene oil on hi
The war damaged the democratic founda and impunity. Human rights were restr political transparency, accountability an
as arrested. We went to look for him and were fold gation. Later we learnt that they had tied him up in
and set fire fo him.
Woman from Batticaloa - 1998
tions of our society and created a culture of violence icted and abused. The nature of War undermined d the potential for corruption increased.
RESTRICTIONS AND ABUSE
OF HUMAN RIGHTS
The human rights of Sri Lankan citizens were restricted and abused due to the War. Tarni communities were particularly affected and the population of the North and East were almost entirely deprived of their democratic rights. The whole or parts of Sri Lanka were under a more or less continuous state of emergency from 1984. The Government and security forces used their increased powers to restrict many civilian protections and freedoms. These included:
Freedom of Expression - including the democratic right to demonstrate and protest.
Freedom of Information - The Sri Lankan Constitution recognises freedom of speech and expression as fundamental rights. But the media was banned from all combat zones and in 1988 the Government imposed direct censorship on all foreign media reports relating to security operations. The Government increased its power to seize printing presses and to close newspapers and broadcast stations.
A Special Media Information Centre was established to 'approve' all material produced inside Sri Lanka. The LTTE also limited the freedom of expression and restricted the media in the areas i Contro ed. Violent forms of censorship were imposed to silence opposition and dissent. Those who voiced opinions disliked by the warring parties - journalists in particular were murdered, arrested or disappeared. The authorities on both sides often failed to reveal information to families on the faite or whereabouts of loved ones.
Freedom of Movement - Both the Government and the LTTE operated strict controls on civilians. Large parts of the country were out of bounds for civilians and special passes were required to enter certain areas. At times people in the North and East were issued with passes restricting them to one area, preventing any travel outside.
Under the Emergency Regulations and Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA), the police and army were permitted to arrest and detain suspects without charge for up to 18 months, restrict visitor access and withhold information on the place and conditions of those detained. These regulations exceed the limits permitted under international law - in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is estimated that 18,000 people were detained in 2000 alone under the PTA and Emergency Regulations.
A culture of impunity for abuses of power amongst law enforcement officials resulted in arbitrary arrest, killings of civilians, widespread torture in detention, rape and deaths in custody, violations of international humanitarian principles and prolonged detention of people with or without trial.
"Look here it says - "All war reporting was to know the situation within our own Count regulations were more restrictive than ith
We can't go where we want to go ev go to see my family in Vavuniya. And hard They mus† leave someone beh the police.
My friend is living in Wanni. He says and must promise to come back, else
subject to censorship We were denied our right
try - I have heard that the Sri Lankan emergency ose under the apartheid regime in South Africa."
en Within our own country. I need a pass to if they want to come and see me it is very ind each time and get special permission from
that he also has to get permission to leave 2 his family will be punished.
young man from Jaffna – 1998
The Economic Costs of the War
The economic costs include:
• What the Government and LTTE sp
• Government expenditure on public s
Government expenditure on the nee Cost of damage and reconstruction
Loss of economic output
• Lost opportunities for growth and d
The estimated costs amount to a sta
The Government spent more money on 1 on health care and x5 times more than paid to repair the damage caused by th
Escalations in military operations betwe
Two-thirds of the total economic cost i
The human costs also had subsequent e years lost through death and injury, th displacement and the cost of health ca
ent directly on the war afety ds of those displaced to buildings an infrastructure
9gering Rs 2,451 billion!
the war than on anything else, x3 times more than on education. We paid for new weapons and then em!
zen 1998 to 2001 account for 28% of this total.
Nas borne by the North and East.
conomic costs. Including the economic life e disruption of income earning activities due to re for those injured.
Look at the Government's spending on the investment:
Government Spending, Loss of Income da
Direct Expenditure on Defence Additional Expenditure on Public Order & Expenditure on Needs of Refugees & Disp Damage to Physical Assets & Property Loss of Tourism & Foreign Investment Loss of output in North & East (the reduction of 1982 output) Loss of income due to migration of profes
It is believed that the LTTE spent the eq spent on the war - at least Rs 74.55 billio
Therefore the direct military expenditur Rs 510.45 billion!
| war and the incurred loss of income and
Rs Billion (2001 prices)
Rs. 372.78 Rs. 63.12 Rs. 53 Rs. 230.9 Rs. 366
Rs. 413 Rs. 191.37
uivalent of at least 20% of what the Government n (based on 2001 prices). e by the Government and the LTTE amounts to
Proportional Defense & Soci
10-year Expenditure Graph (perc
1991 192 193 194 Defense 11.2 12.0 10.9 12.9 Social 11.2 13.09.9 12.8 - Educ.
3.5 - Health 2.4 3.1 1.9 2.6 - Poverty 5.3 4.5 3.7 5.7 - R&R Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report, quoted by
Social m Education - Health - Poverty
entage) "95 196 197 198 199 2000 14.3 17.7 16.8 16.9 16.4 177 12.7 13.5 12.6 12.0 12.7 9.8 3.5 4.2 4.24.7 5.0 3.8 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.0 4.8 3.9 2.0 3.2 3.0 2.5 2.6 2.0 2.0 1.1 0.69 0.80 0.27 0.14 : Muttukrishna Sarvananthan, Pravada, Vol. No.7
The effects of the war on the economy are C
* The concentration of direct expenditure
* The massive spending on arms depleted f
Foreign investment and tourism declined.
* The productivity and markets of the Nor
* The prices of basic services and essentia
The war extensively damaged housing, roads, systems, machinery, communications systems, of assets and houses, cost of damages and pr billion (based on 1998 and 2001 prices). The ti East amounts to Rs 32.7 billion (based on 200
on the war diverted resources away from productive
oreign exchange reserves.
th and East were devastated.
items were forced up by security and distribution
bridges, commercial and state property, irrigation plantations and fisheries. The total cost of replacement operty in the North and East amounts to Rs 296.5 otal cost of property damaged outside the North and )1 prices).
Photo courtesy of Lanka Monthly Digest
I Ligue esta ONE THOUSA
1 Helicopter = RS 583,140,000 = 20 hospitals
1 Automatic Pistol = Rs 10,000 = 20 school books
Dvora Fast Attack Craft = RS500 billion = 8,333 1 bedroom
Increased Taxes and Economic Deprivation The war increased the taxes paid by citizen increase in taxes and National Security Levy a 20% surcharge on corporate tax, doubled a garrments.
War increases the prices of most goods. The
حصے Was Rs.1,000/=
It is estimated that the average household War to half of What it Was in 1982. There hic fuel and medicine. Neither the Government r the population, such as food, education, health Tr and infant mortality have increased.
is and businesses. The 2001 budget blamed the large directly on the cost of the war. The budget introduced irport departure tax and increased the tax on export
2 only items that become cheaper are weapons!
income in the North and the East dropped during the ve been severe shortages of essential goods such as nor the LTTE have provided adequate basic needs for care, water and sanitation. In some areas malnutrition
Foreign Investment & Tourism The war caused economic insecurity an investment and tourism. The declin long-term development and growth oft is estimated at US $1,610 million. It is from the decline in tourism.
Loss of Output in the North and Eas The economy of the North and East important industrial sector. These indus 40%. The loss of output for the region on 2001 prices). Over this period incorr even population).
Economic Loss from Migration
Thousands of people left Sri Lanka due professionals - doctors, engineers etc. national economy had they stayed. An e migration is Rs 15 billion for every year
Remember some people also benefited
Profits were made from providing g Additional employment was created Huge profits were made by internal
ld instability that contributed to a lack of foreign e in investor confidence greatly affected the the economy. The loss of direct foreign investment s estimated that the economy lost US $4.4 billion
is based on agriculture, fisheries and a small but tries were devastated and declined by an estimated during the war is estimated at Rs 686 billion (based he per person dropped by around 40% (assuming an
to the war. Many of those who migrated were who would have contributed significantly to the stimate for the loss of human capital due to
of the conflict.
from the conflict oodς αηα ξερονίσες το Thε αrmed forcες.
in the defence and public order sectors. Fional and national arms dealers.
The cost of living rises all the timel I can hardly afford to pay my electricity bill. anymorel. In 2000 the price of ric
sugar and bus fares rose by nearly 30%.
Trn fhe Norfth Easf
many people have to pay War
faxes foi fhe LTTEF and foi fhé
6overnmen† T don'† unders fand
they can expect us to spend m.
of our money on their war whe
We are struggling even to
My family in Jaffna is
also suffering like this. Since
the fighting for Elephant Pass, prices have risen dramatically. I used to pay Rs 9 for a King Coconut, but now if is Rs 301 The cost of
diesel has risen by 86% and kerosene by 20%.
Security Levy - to help pay
for the War - has gone up again!
I am trying to save some money
for my children's education but now I just Won't be
able to anymore.
The Economic Benefits of Peace
Imagine Sri Lanka without the war! resources had not been decimated?
If the war had not occured it is esti
Lille ECONOMIC LEELLeifts of Peace
An unemployment rate of 7.8% woul One-third more could have been spe One-third more could have been spe 1 million tourists would be arriving e and earning an estimated US $7.56 Average household consumption cou Economic growth, currently at arou risen to an estimated 7% with a GDI A balance could be left to reduce d Investment in roads, power, telecon Direct foreign investment could hav strengthening the economy and lead
What if the country's abundant human and natural
d have fallen to around 3% ent on education. ent on health services. every year, creating around 141,000 jobs
illion annually in foreign exchange. ld have been 62% higher. nd 5% with a per capita income of $850 could have P 2001 factor cost prices of Rs. Bn. 1252.8 Dmestic borrowing and the budget deficit. mmunications and ports could have risen by 30%. -e increased by an estimated US $1,610.1 million ling to an increase in total national investment.
The Impact of the War on the Environment The war severely effected the environment and natural habitats of Sri Lanka, especially in the North and East. In what way has your environment been affected? Below is an overview of some of the main causes and consequences of environmental destruction:
Causes of Environmental Destruction:
Use of Heavy Explosives and Ammunition - bombs, shells, landmines, grenades, bullets
Direct Military Operations - construction of bunkers, camps, fences, perimeters Military Manoeuvres - transportation of large numbers of vehicles, tanks, boats and planes Displacement of People, Military Restrictions and Economic Embargoes
Consequences of Environmental De
Destruction of eco-systems, ni Bombing and systematic shelling Deforestation - Around 5 million it 2 and 3 million Palmyrah palms W. their population. The clearance of Mangroves to de affecting fish, prawns and birds. Displacement, electrocution and Land, sea, air and noise pollution. Soil compaction and removal of it dust storms. Sound and shock Waves. Darnade to the coastline and mar Aban ning land led to the dea gardens. The uncontrolled growt of Craters led to an increase in n A sudden increase in population a in some areas put intense strait degradation. Problems included sanitation and the improper disp and the spread of disease.
Summarised from Jayasingam T. War an Consequences of the War in the Tamil Hon. VTS Jayapalan, 1999.
atural vegetation, Wells and agricultural land. caused localised but intensive damage.
rees were used for military fences and between rere cut down in the Jaffna Peninsula – halving
nyshelter for opposing forces and for firewood,
death of domestic and wild animals and birds,
pp soil. Creation of rubble, Craters, erosion and
ine life. 2neration and decline of agricultural land and 器 weedy vegetation combined with the presence NOIOr|O. - nd the growth of camps and temporary shelters on environmental resources and caused land deforestation and land clearance, inadequate psal of animal carcasses causing water pollution
d Environment: Sri Lankan Perspective and Ecological eland in Sri Lanka by T. Saverinnuttu, N Sriskandarajah,
section 2 s What are the Continuing Costs of it
The ceasefire didn't resolve the CC new set of problems, the conseque,
As we have seen, the war had many cost Some of the costs that we continue top
uses of the conflict. What We have now is a Inces of the conflicf.
young women from Colombo 2002
5. What are the costs we no longer pay? ay are explored in this section.
Culture of Violence
A culture of Violence, fear and mistr million people were made homeless, tho attacks was constant and where citize
The effects of such a violent Culture C reversed. The impact of these socially
Apathy with or acceptance that vio Rising violent crime and corruption. Easier access to weapons. Continued human rights violations s * Loss of faith in the police and law repress and abuse the rights of cit An increase in domestic violence, ro girls. Lack of faith and interest in the po Election violence assassination a democratic structures and the per * A sense of insecurity and mistrust
Powerlessness and anxiety expres: different, (whether religion, langua Ongoing militarisation of society.
ust developed during a war in which more than a usands killed every year, where the threat of bomb ns could be detained without reason.
tre subtle, far reaching and take a long time to be destructive processes include:
lence is a normal way of solving disputes.
uch as torture.
enforcement officials - the attitude that they izens rather than protect and safeguard them. pe and other forms of violence against women and
litical process and in the right to vote. nd intimidation of political leaders, weakening ormance of politicians. within and between all sectors of society. Sed in growing intolerance with persons who are ge, class, Caste etc)
Most restrictions on movement have bee in some areas of the country.
Thousands are still displaced living in home. Even those who have returned fac relatives, the loss of property, savings a
We still live in a neighbourhood Wh. speak ours. We cannot contact our any news of a marriage or death of
Landmines continue to cause permanent are reported each year. Demining is an ex fertile and continue to be affected Chavakachcheri and its surroundings will
Economic resources are still being spel infrastructure, health care for those in etc. Funds continue to be channelled to such as schools, hospitals and transport
Many people are still living with the fear
n lifted but there is still astrong military presence
temporary shelters, waiting or unable to return e many problems such as the loss of contact with nd livelihoods.
ere we do not speak their language and they don't relations easily, it takes months before we receive
any of our relations.
Displaced Muslim - Puttalam 2002
disability and death. Several hundred casualties (pensive and dangerous process and large areas of . It is estimated that the de-mining of just cost Rs 300 million.
nt on the costs of War - repair of buildings and
ured, support and basic needs of displaced people maintain the military - away from public services
and uncertainty that war will return.
Section Addressing the Legacy of War
Peace is not just the absence of war! It is conflict are removed. Basic characteristics
* An active civil society * Inclusive democratic political structu * Open and accountable government * Security and equality for all ethnic m * Full social, economic, civil and politica
a society without violence where the causes of future of a society that enjoys sustainable peace include:
res and processes
inorities, and between men and women
human rights for all
The task of reconciliation and rehabilitat peace in Sri Lanka will be a long one. It resources, and political and popular will. I must be inclusive, based on principles of
Think about what must happen in your ol fear, address the legacy and pain of War Some priorities include:
Those responsible must ensure that all have disappeared as healing and forgiven
The political culture must be transform participation. Efforts must focus on ther with the reform of institutions in order democracy. Free and fair elections need violence.
Financial and technical resources, support who are returning home.
While popular opinion and optimism incr vast majority of people in Sri Lanka have own the process. The peace process and population. What is being agreed, why, wh people's legitimate fears.
tion to end the Culture of violence and to restore will require vast human, technical and financial
if the current peace process is to be effective it
justice, equality and accountability.
wn family, community, village or town to end the and remove the threat of future violence?
information is revealed to families of those who 2ss is impossible if they do not know the truth.
2d from one of violence to one of engagement and e-imposition of human rights protection together to achieve transparency, structural equality and to be held without the threat of election-related
and safety must be ensured for displaced persons
eases towards peace and the peace process, the not been able to become actively involved or to ts importance must be understood by the general ten and by whom must be communicated to dispel
• Resources and support must be provi acknowledgement that men and women
· Peace, civil society and community or they need to build peace.
• Government budgets must be dive reconstruction and rehabilitation.
• Effective programmes must be de destruction of small arms.
• International aid should be monitore in need.
What V Keep H Smilin
ded for the rehabilitation of ex-combatants, (and
combatants have different needs).
rganisations must be provided with the resources
erted from military spending to processes of
signed and implemented for the collection and
d closely to ensure that it is reaching those most
Truth and Reconciliation for War Crim
The assumption that individuals or gro simply forget about them...without som leave in place the seeds of future conf
Layers of grievance on all sides have built u addressed in some form to avoid future conf traumatised and bereaved to simply forget t acknowledgement of their suffering and publ
The consequences of an amnesty for the war may result in the culture of violence within ir
We are talking about words 'accountab things that have happened. People need then ask for forgiveness. If people hav must be faced to release people from i
The decisions regarding what truth and justic addressed and what should be forgotten, is o Sri Lanka from a local to national level.
Addressing war crimes is an effective mear realities of the past in which the validity of a Upon this basis we can come to terms with equality for all can be realised.
!s and Human Rights Abuses
ips that have been victims of hideous atrocities will e form of accounting, some semblance of justice, is to lict.
p over the years of violent conflict, which must be licts. It is very difficult for the thousands severely he past without some public recognition and official ic disclosure of wrongdoings by those responsible.
' crimes and serious human rights abuses committed Istitutions remaining unchanged.
ility' and 'forgiveness', but there is a need to air d to say why things happened, how they happened and e not done this, how can we move forward? The truth the past.
Woman from Killinochchi - 2003
ce mechanisms should be implemented, what should be one which should be discussed in-depth throughout
is of creating a national account or memory of the | communities involved are recognised and respected. the past, and achieve institutional reform so that
The war has been fought in our name. We It is up to each and every one of us to star
sTOP - we demand permanent peace anc
What can y OU do? Here are some ideas to
Show this booklet to friends, family, in Join a peace organisation or network in Start a peace forum to discuss what cc Write to your local Member of Parliam views and concerns. Lobby local political candidates to comm spending towards education, health car poverty * Take part in meetings, discussions, Wor Encourage your local church, temple, m for the victims of the War and need fo Take part in marches, demonstrations ( towards sustainable peace. * Write, phone or email local/national ni need for peace or challenge the misinf * Organise competitions (art, poetry, dra photo/art exhibitions) with the 'search Respond to and challenge anti-peace m informing friends and colleagues and C your local MP.
For a copy of the Ceasefire Agreement and informati Secretariat for Co-ordinating the Peace Process, We, Centre Building, Colombo, Tel - 075.554471/2, 3887C firstname.lastname@example.org and www.peaceinsrilanka.org
are the ones who are still paying the price. ld up and say,
justice for all! get you started:
eighbours and colleagues.
your local community. in be done to promote peace in your area. 2nt, to the President and to the Prime Minister with your
it themselves to a redirection of funds away from military e and the rehabilitation of those traumatised by war and
kshops and other forums on peace. osque or kovil to hold a vigil for peace or special prayers r peace. and peaceful protests to encourage and support the move
ewspapers and radio stations with your views about the ormation and anti-peace views of others. ma or essay reading) or events (street theatre, concerts,
for peace' as the theme and invite local politicians essages and misinformation about the peace process by :ollectively demanding a statement of commitment from
on on the current peace process contact: 5f Tower, Level 10, World Trade 9 Fax - O75 554473
NATIONAL PEACE C.
12/14 PURANA VTH,
(94-1) 818 344, 854 )
OUNCIL OF SRI LANKA
ARA ROAD, COLOMBO 6