கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Sri Lanka Year Book 1977

Page 1
එය රාජ්‍ය භාෂාවෙන් වෙනම මුද්‍රණය කරණු ඇත.
Sri Lanka
WATER FROM THE MAH
1975;

Jear Book
OOR
LAWELI

Page 2
Front Cover-Colour Slide of the Daml Development Project—the largest
(Courtesy

pulla-Lenadora-Channel outlet, under the Mahaweli
Project ever to be undertaken in Sri Lanka. --Ceylon Tourist Board)

Page 3
.CI SS
NO
ACCN
Sri Lanka
197
NO
ACC
NO.
DEPARTMENT OF CENSUS
COLOMBO, SRI LANK

lear Book
ASS
N.
AND STATISTICS
A (CEYLON)

Page 4


Page 5
PRINTED AT THE DEPARTMENT OF GOVERNMEI
Price : Rs. 22.00

IT PRINTING, SRI LANKA (CEYLON)
Postage : Rs. 2.00

Page 6


Page 7
PREFA
SRI LANKA Year Book is a factual narrative, presen historical background, geographical features, social i on the various development activities of the Governn fourth in its series and contains for the most part ir
Official reports of Government Departments, Put Sector Institutions constitute the sources of informat all these institutions in providing the necessary mate
Any suggestions that may help to widen the scope welcome.
Department of Census and Statistics, P. O. Box 563, Colombo, Sri Lanka, "7th February, 1978.

CE
ng in a compact form the salient facts on the nd economic conditions of the island and also ent. This issue of the Year Book is the twenty Formation for the year ended 1976.
Lic Corporations, Statutory Boards and Private on for the Year Book. The co-operation of rial for its compilation is greatly appreciated.
and usefulness of this publication will be most
W. A. A. S. PEIRIS, Acting Director of Census and Statistics.

Page 8


Page 9
CONTEN
PREFACE
LIST OF TABLES
CHARTS
CHAPTER
I-HISTORICAL SKETCH
CHAPTER
IIGEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES
I—General II-Relief of the Land III-Climate and Meteorolog IV Geology
CHAPTER
II-ECONOMIC REVIEW-1976
CHAPTER
IV—CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT
--Government of Sri Lank II-Elections III–The Administrative Syst IV-Judicial System of Sri L
V-Local Government VI–Diplomatic Service VII—Defence VIII–Official Language Affair
IX–Bandaranaike Memorial X-Public Administration a
CHAPTER
V—POPULATION, VITAL STATISTICS AND
-The Growth of Populati II—Census of Population 19 III–Vital Statistics IV–Migration
V–Registration of Persons 1
CHAPTER
VILAND DEVELOPMENT
-Land Development Depa II-Land Commissioner's D III-Land Settlement IV-Sri Lanka State Plantatio
V-Irrigation VI–Mahaweli Development I VII–Registration of Documer VIII—Land Surveys
IX—Janatha Estates Developi

TS
Page
хіі
Y
* n m m n.
10
16
ка
sem
anka
International Conference Hall nd Allied Services
MIGRATION
on
71
Department
|
artment epartment
ons Corporation
Project ats Ordinance
ment Board

Page 10
yiານີ້
CHAPTER
VI–AGRICULTURE AND FOOD
—General II—Tea Cultivation
I–Rubber Cultiva IV-Coconut Cultiv
V–Rice and Subs VI—Department of VII—Animal Produ VIII–Agrarian Servic IX-Agricultural Ins
X-Food Supply XI--Price Control A XII—The Developm XIII---Sri Lanka Nati
CHAPTER
VIII-INDUSTRY
I-Industrial Deve II Private Sector III—State-Sponsored IV—Plantation Indu
V—Bureau of Ceyle VI–Business Unde
(Acquisition) VII—Small Industries
CHAPTER
- IX-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
I-National Scienc II-Ceylon Institute III—Atomic Energy IV–Agricultural Re
V-Government A
CHAPTER
X-MENERAL RESOURCES
Economic Mine
Geological Sur III—Gemming

Page
66
tion
sation idiary Food Crops f Minor Export Crops ction and Health
9 8 % * * * * 8 & 3
ES
-urance Scheme
activities
nent of Marketing ional Freedom from Hunger Campaign Board 93
94
lopment Board of Ceylon
94.
98 I Corporations
100
stries
125 on Standards
rtakings vested under Business undertakings 131 Act (No. 15) of 1971
132
129
134
ce Council
134
e of Scientific and Industrial Research
140
Authority
140
esearch
142
nalyst's Department
154
155
erals
155
mes
156
157

Page 11
CHAPTER
XI-FORESTS, BOTANIC GARDENS AND
I-Forestry II—Botanic Gardens III–Wild Life Conservatio. IV-National Zoological
CHAPTER
XII--FISHERIES
IGeneral II—Extension and Develo III–Socio-Economic Activ IV-Inland Fisheries
V-Brackish Water Fisher VI--Commercial Activities VII---Research Activities VIII--Ceylon Fisheries Corp IX-Ceylon Fishery Harbo
CHAPTER XIII–FOREIGN TRADE
I-General Review II--Department of Comm III—Tea Export Promotion IV—Import and Export C
V—Department of Comm VI–Registration of Compa VII–Coconut Marketing Be VIII-Sri Lanka State Trad IX-Sri Lanka State Tradi
X-Sri Lanka State Tradi
CHAPTER XIV–MONEY, BANKING AND INSURANCI
I—General II—Banking Institutions III—State Sponsored Long IV-Savings Institutions
V—Insurance
CHAPTER XV—PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION
-Fiscal and Monetary II—The Budget—1977 III—External Resources

Page
WILD LIFE CONSERVATION
159 159
162
163.
Gardens
164
166
pment ities
ries and Surveys
166 166 167 168 168 168 168 169 171
Poration eurs Corporation
175
175
merce
177
180
ɔntrol
183 lodity Purchase
188
anies
191
pard
194 ing (Consolidated Exports) Corporation 196 ng (General) Corporation
197 ng (Tractor) Corporation
199
E
200
200
200 206
-Term Credit Institutions
214
217
218
Measures
218
223
225

Page 12
CHAPTER XVI-LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT
I-Employees' Provi II-Wages Boards Or III—The Shop and O
and Remunerat IV--Other Ordinances
V—Industrial Relatio VI-Trade Unions VII—Employment VIII—Industrial Safety,
IX-Occupational Hyg
X-Cost of Living an XI-Worker's Educati XII–International Lab XIIINational Youth S
XIV—Employment and
CHAPTER XVII--EDUCATION
-The Ministry of II—Department of E III–Univeristy of Sri IV–Residential Unive V—Libraries and Do
VI-Sri Lanka Acade CHAPTER XVIII—MUSEUMS, NATIONAL ARCHIV
ACTIVITIES
I-Museums II–National Archives III—Archaeology IV—Fine Arts
V-Cultural Activitie:
CHAPTER XIX-PUBLIC HEALTH
General II—Vital Statistics III–Health Planning a IV-Family Health
V-Dental Services VI-Nutrition VII—Epidemiology VIII—Specialised Camp IX-Environmental Sa
X-Health Education X—Veterinary Servic XIQuarantine Activ XIII—Foreign Aid XIV–Medical Conferer XV–Ayurveda

230
Page
226 dent Fund Scheme
226 dinance
227 fice Employees (Regulation of Employment 229 ion) Act, (Chapter 129)
and Acts Ds
232 233
233 Health and Welfare
234 siene
235 d Wages
236
243 our Organisation Service Council
245 Manpower Planning
246
on
244
Education xaminations
Lanka and Council of Legal Education ersity for Buddhist Monks cumentation Services
my of Administrative Studies
247 247 249 249 256 259 260
PES, ARCHAEOLOGY, FINE ARTS AND CULTURAL
261 261 262 263. 264 265
268 268
and Programming
268 : 271 272 274 275 276. 281 291 292
aigns unitation
294
ties
295 296
aces and Seminars
296
298.

Page 13
CHAPTER XXSOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVE
ToWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING
I–Social Services II—Rural Development III—Youth Rehabilitation IV-Co-operative Movement
V--Town and Country Plan VI–National Housing VII—Building Materials Corp
VIII—Department of Kandyar CHAPTER XXI–POLICE, PRISONS, PROBATION AND C
-Police System and Crim II—Prisons III—Probation and Child Car
CHAPTER XXII-TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS
Railways II–Roads and Road Transp III—Shipping IV-Civil Aviation
V—Postal and Telecommuni
CHAPTER XXIII—-ELECTRICITY, WATER SUPPLIES AND
Electricity II-Water Resources, Supply III—Department of Buildings IV–State Engineering Corpo
V-State Development and VI—Department of Machiner VII–National Engineering R.
Sri Lanka
CHAPTER
XXIV–THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, INFOR
—Press II–Broadcasting III–Information and Publicity IV–Tourism
V–State Film Corporation KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR SRI LANKA–1976
МАР

IGP - A - AND NATIONAL FLS -
307
308
ning
317 318
oration n Peasantry Rehabilitation
320
321
HILD CARE SERVICES e Statistics
re Services
324
327 327 329
ort
cation Services
PUBLIC WORKs
7 and Drainage
ration of Sri Lanka Construction Co pCration
y and Equipment esearch Ind Development
[ATION, PUBLICITY AND TCL
372
376

Page 14
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 2.1 Principal Mountain Peaks in Sri Lank 2.2 Lengths of Principal Rivers 2.3 Annual rainfall, temperature and relat
ECONOMIC REVIEW—1976 3. Sectorwise Distribution of G. D. P.
over 1975
Gross Domestic Capital Formation
POPULATION, VITAL STATIS 5.1 Population of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) in ( 5.2 The natural increase, migration increa 5.3 Births, Deaths and natural increase, 1 5.4 Population of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by ] 5.5 Population of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by ) 5.6 Population of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by
LAND DEVELOPMENT -6.1 Nature and Number of deeds register
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD 7.1 Distribution of Sri Lanka?s Tea ACI 7.2 Rubber Acreage, by size of holdings 1 7.3 Extent sown, harvested and average y 7.4 Extent sown, harvested and average y) 7.5 Minor Export Crops Assistance Scher 7.6 Progress of Agricultural Insurance (P;
NDUSTRY 8.1 Data On Investment and Employment 8.2 Salt Production and ConsLImption
Monthly Gallonage of ATrack sold an
FOREIGN TRADE
13.1 Sri Lanka?s Foreign Trade 1972-1976 13.2 Composition of Exports by Major Co 13.3
Imports classified by major categorie 13.4 Free Exchange Licences issued (inclu
years 1975 and 1976 13.5 Monthly purchases of Rubber at out; 13.6 Classification of Capital Investment 1

OF TABLES
Page
04
*
ve humidity at nine principal stations during 1976
Lt Constant Prices (1963) and Percentage change
10
object at current prices–1976
11
1976
12
*
TICS AND MIGRATION Census Years 1871 to 1971 se and intercensal increase 945–1976 Ethnic Groups as on 9th October, 1971 religion as on 9th October, 1971 Districts as on 9th October, 1971
44
45 45
ed affecting immovable property
reage by Ownership Categories _976 Field Maha 1975–76 ield Yala 1976
me 1976 addy Cultivation) 1976
* S 8
in approved industries by Industrial sectors 1976
99 112 127
ud value realised 1975 and 1976
ommodities 1972–1976 es and percentage to total imports (value)
ding Revalidated Licences) and value of debits--
175 176 176
station Depots—1976
974, 1975 and 1976
185 189 192

Page 15
TABLE
MONEY, BANKING AND INSURANC
14.1 Assets and Liabilities of the Central Bank 14.2 Distribution of Bank Offices and Deposits 14.3 Selected Assets and Liabilities of Commercial 14.4 Bank Clearings 1946–1976 (Monthly average) 14.5 Money Supply 1956–1975 14.6 Agricultural and Industrial Credit Corpor
outstanding 14.7 Ceylon State Mortgage Bank–Loans Granted, 14.8 Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon14.9 National Savings Bank and Total Savings
PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION
15.1 Government Fiscal Operations 15.2 Revenue of the Government of Sri Lanka 1973 15.3 Sources of Finance for Capital Expenditure 19 15.4 Composition of the Public Debt 1972-1976 15.5 Overall Budgetary Position—1977
LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT 16.1 Trade Unións Number and Membership 16.2 Cost of Living Index Numbers 16.3 Colombo Consumers' Price Index (Base : Aver 16.4 Cost of Living Indices, Wage Rate Index Numb
1939–1976 of Workers in Tea and Rubber E 16.5 Average Rates of Wages, Cost of Living Inde:
Wages Index Numbers and Real Wages Inde
1939-1976
16.6 Minimum Average Rates of Wages and N
(Agriculture and other Trades) 1952-1976 16.7 Average Earnings per day and Index Numbe
Trades 1952-1975
PUBLIC HEALTH
19.1 O. P. D. attendance and Number of Malaria
Division 1976 19.2 Age and Sex Distribution of Positive Malaria 19.3 Total Leprosy Cases all-Island (by Race) 1976 19.4 Total Leprosy Cases all-Island (by S. H. S. are: 19.5 New Leprosy Cases registered all-Island (by ag

le
Page
20]
208
209
Banks
Rs. Million)
210 211
ation-་-Loans Granted, Repaid and
213
215
Repaid and outstanding -Financial Operations
216
21?
-1976 74-1976
219 221 22
223 224
233
236
237
age Price 1952=100) pers and Index Numbers of Real Wages, states
238
* Number of Colombo Working Class, x Numbers of Unskilled Male Workers,
239
Tinimum Wage Rate Index Numbers
240
ers of Earnings Agriculture and Other
24¥
Cases Diagnosed Clinically by Health
Cases by Health Divisions 1976
282 284 288
) 1976 ཚ group) 1976
288 289

Page 16
xiv
TABLE
SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL I
MENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY 20.1 Activities of Rural Banks by A. C. C
POLICE, PRISONS, PROBATION 21.1 Crime Statistics, 1970–1976 21.2 Road Accidents, 1967–1976 21.3 Prison Statistics, Number of Admission
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNI 22.1 Volume of Railway Traffic 1976 22.2 Miles Operated and Passengers carried 22.3 Ceylon Shipping Corporation Progres
ELECTRICITY, WATER SUPPLI 23.1 State Development and Construction C 23.2 Department of Machinery and Equipm
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING,
TOURISM 24.1 Principal National Newspapers and Per

Page DEVELOPMENT, CO-OPERATIVE MOVE
PLANNING AND NATIONAL HOUSING
C. D. Divisions as at end of September, 1976 311
AND CHILD CARE SERVICES
321
321 a on Convictions
323
CATIONS
1958–1976 SS and Commercial Viability
329 333 336
TES AND PUBLIC WORKS Corporation ent—Assignments undertaken and value
360 362
INFORMATION, PUBLICITY AND
Fiodicals
365

Page 17
CHAR
Chart
No.
1. Monthly Rainfall at Selected Stations--1976 2. Birth Rate, Death Rate and Rate of Natural Ir
1976) 3. Reported Birth, Death and Marriage Rates, 19 4. Immigration and Emigration, 1966–1976 5. Balance of Trade, 1966-1976 6. Indices of Exports (Quantum and Price), Base 7. Indices of Imports (Quantum and Price), Base 8. Exports of Tea, Rubber and Coconut Product: 9. Exports of Tea and Rubber (by volume), 196610. Exports of Coconut Products (by volume), 196 11. Annual Average Market Prices of Tea, Ru
1966–1976 12.
Commercial Bank Deposits, 1966-1976 13. Commercial Bank Assets, 1970–1976 14. Commercial Bank Liabilities, 1971-1976 15. Note Circulation Active, 1966-1976 16. Note Circulation Gross, 1966-1976 17. Savings Děposits, 1966-1976 18. National Revenue, 1974-1976 19. Revenue and Expenditure, 1965-1966 to 197120. Consumers' Price Index, December, 1972, 1973 21. Expenditure on Education, 1966-1976 22. Expenditure on Public Health, 1966-1976 23. Infantile Mortality Rate, 1966-1974 24. Maternal Death Rate, 1966–1974

XV
TS
Page
08
ncrease of Population (1935-1960)(1961
P66-1976
: 1967=100-1966-1976 : 1967=100—1966-1976 B, 1966–1976—(By value) -1976
6-1976 bber, Copra and Desiccated Coconut,
47 48 50 177 178 179 183 190 195
197 202 204 205 206 207 214
219 220 237 247 269
1972 and 1973-1976
-1976
270
271

Page 18


Page 19
С НАРТЕ
HISTORICAL
RECENT studies regarding pre-historic and proto-hist pre-historic men. A small race with heavy brow rid single brow ridge that occurred in association with Hij District, is the earliest race known for Ceylon. Prin interglacial are not uncommon and the palaeolithic phase ”. Succeeding it is a combination of the meso phase". Its humans known from a number of sk about 5' 10” and the females 5' 5' in height, the browi the bit of the edge to the edge type, and the last molar worn with usage. This race named Homo Sapiens times. Of special interest is the fact, that many of the are of the palaeolithic type and these as well as pitted artefacts were used simultaneously by this race. W1 fauna included such large mammals as hippopotami with heavy brow ridges. All these became extinct ar the scene together with the animals that now inhabit Ce the gaur which although extinct locally, yet occur in Ir crossed from India over Adam's bridge, and the deg age and metalusing races came to be known as Veddha
According to the ‘Mahawansa’ an Indain Prince name the Island of Ceylon about 543 B. C. The present day tribes of Yakkas and Nagas who inhabited Ceylon at also made certain references in their writings to anc information regarding the ancient period. The Sinha sway in unbroken succession for nearly 2,300 years. of Anuradhapura stands out as the most important ru nearly a thousand years. Anuradhapura has been th nigh 2,300 years.
In the 3rd century B. C. there occurred an event w Island and the faith of its people. King Asoka, Empe piyatissa of Ceylon, the Message of the Buddha throug then embraced Buddhism. Quick progress followed a were used to subserve the needs of the new religious occurred at this time, was the arrival of the Bodhi Tr and is said to be the oldest tree in the world.
South Indian contacts disturbed the peace of the Isl. Northern part of the Island was held by King Elara, E by Prince Dutugemunu from Ruhunu. The establishn the direct result. There followed a period of prospe development of art and architecture and the foundation
Irrigation engineering had attained a unique position tanks. These ensured a proper food supply to the 1 arts, the Indian influences have been considerable, pa in the monuments of the 6th century A. D. The for
2-A 31485

R I
БKETCH
oric ages in Ceylon have revealed traces of ges named Homo Sinhaleyus, known from a ppopotamus fossils in a gem pit in Ratnapura itive stone artefacts assignable to the second -f Ceylon is termed the “Ratnapura culture end neolithic, termed the “ Balangoda culture Eletons were delicocephalic, the males were idges were heavy but diffuse, the palate wide, S were as large as the others and always well.
Balangodensis, persisted into early historic stone implements found with these skeletons: pebbles, microliths and ground and polished
en Homo Sinhaleyus inhabited Ceylon, the us, rhinoceros and two species of elephants ad Homo Sapiens Balangodensis came up on eylon, including such species as the lion and ndia. Eventually-waves of metal-using races enerated hybrid descendants of these stone
d Vijaya, with his band of 700 men, colonized | Veddhas are the survivors of the legendary that time. Travellers from the West have ient Ceylon. These too help obtain more lese royal line consisting of 180 rulers held
King Pandukabhaya who founded the city iler of the ancient capital of the Island for e spiritual home of the Buddhists for well
hich changed the whole complexion of the or of India, sent his friend King DevanamI his own son, Thera Mahinda. The Island nd art and architecture developed. These
movement. Another unique event, which e from India. It has survived to this day
nd from about the 1st centruy B. C. The it after a time he was vanquished in battle ent of peace under one sovereign ruler was ity leading to the spread of learning, the of temples.
in ancient Ceylon as is evidenced by large pulation. In the sphere of learning and icularly the Gupta influence is noticeable ess at Sigiriya was converted as the living

Page 20
HIST
palace of Kasyapa where the well known seventh century the Pallawa influence was a bears witness to this tradition.
The 9th century is a dark period in Cey inscriptions or in any other tangible form, is or political disputes which troubled the land.
During the mediaeval period, Ceylon suffer who from time to time overran the capital had to be abandoned. Finally the scattere who later defeated the enemy and brought coi as Vijaya Bahu I. To him, more than to a preserving their race. The results of his vict
King Parakramabahu the Great used his m revival of learning, restoration of monumei on a scale that was not to be surpassed sir worthy records of the spirit of greatness of a gre new tanks with the sole object of attaining s a period of strife and struggle. The Kings outsiders to preserve freedom, peace and p centuries that the nation recovered from inte
It was during the fifteenth century when tt was felt. This was the beginning of a cruci and difficulties and also the eventual loss o conquered parts of the Island. They were were ousted by the Dutch who ruled over ti established trade, ruled the maritime provi too yielded these to the English and in 181. British. New changes took place. The cou New laws were introduced and European w Island regained its Independence in 1948 and themselves under a democratic constitution. 22nd 1972 the Island became a Free Sovereig of Sri Lanka. The Sovereignty of the peop elected representatives. The First National General Election for the 21st July, 1977. TE on the Delimitation Commission giving an Second Session of the National State Assem
Further changes in the Republican Constiti to the Constitution which was passed in the came into operation on 4th February, 1978.
In terms of the Second Amendment, a p first time. The National State Assembly now the supreme instruments of State powe change was to vest (the executive power of also stipulated that the legislative power o Assembly.
I Based on researches conducted by Mr. I

RICAL SKETCH
rescoes are still preserved. Somewhat later in the 10 felt in the Island. The monument at Isurumuniya
on history. Little recorded evidence, either as rock ret available. This may be due to religious differences
ed again at the hands of the Cholas and the Pandyans,
burnt buildings and looted wealth. Anuradhapura I Sinhalese forces rallied together under Prince Kirti aplete victory to the Island. He ruled at Polonnaruwa ny other ruler, the Sinhalese owe an eternal debt for ory were realised during later times.
ighty influence to further the good of the Island. The its and the construction of buildings were organised ce. Some of these monuments stand to this day as at ruler. He also developed irrigation and constructed elf-sufficiency in food. After his reign there followed
at times contended with each other as well as with 'osperity. It was with considerable sacrifice through rmittent fauds and preserved its spirit. le capital was at Kotte that the first European contact al change which was to lead to further complications f freedom. The Portuguese arrived in 1505 A. D. and the first to introduce Christianity. The Portuguese heir possessions in the Island from 1640 A. D. They nces through a Governor. In 1796 A. D. the Dutch 5 A.D. the Sinhalese surrendered their country to the ntry was ruled by a Governor appointed from England. pays and beliefs influenced the people. However, the is now ruled by the elected representatives of the people
With the adoption of a New Constitution on May n and an Independent Republic known as the Republic le is exercised through a National State Assembly of State Assembly was dissolved on 19th May 1977 fixing e number of electoral districts was increased as based overall membership of 168 elected representatives in the
ply.
ation were made in 1977, under the Second Amendment - National State Assembly in October 1977 and which
residential form of government was introduced for the and the President under the Second Amendment are
of the Republic. The intention of this constitutional the People in the President. The Second Amendment - the People shall be exercised by the National State
E. P. Deraniyagala.

Page 21
С НАРТЕ 1
GEOGRAPHICAL
-GENER
Area and Location Sri Lanka (Ceylon) has an area of 25:3 thousand sq. n
The Island is situated between 5° 55' and 9° 50' N. Longitude. It is separated from the Indian sub-con the Palk Strait. Next to India the nearest neighbou its West, the Nicobar and Andaman Islands to its Eası
Excepting Mannar Island in the North-West, the Jaf Islands, the largest of which are Kayts and Delft, the is length of the island North to South is 270 miles, fro
Head in the South. The greatest breadth is 140 miles, f on the East Coast.
Sri Lanka's position in the Indian Ocean has proved f and Galle form important ports of call (passenger, bu Indian Ocean from East to West and vice versa.
With the development of air travel the Colombo Ai South of the city of Colombo, and the Bandaranaike and 21 miles North of Colombo have become busy c call regularly.
II-RELIEF OF TE
The relief of the Island may, generally be said to con part of or more correctly the South central part, avera feet, which is again surrounded by an upland belt of a plain occupying the rest of the Island is narrower on vast tract in the North.
The coastal plain continues for some distance out fathom line is close to the Coast, except about the N large area continuous with the Indian Continental SI which, though for the most part submerged, can be di short distance from the coast line.

R II
FEATURES
AL
niles. or 65,000 sq. kilometres.
Latitude and between 79° 42' and 81° 52' E. tinent by a narrow strip of shallow water, rs of Sri Lanka are the Maldive Islands to t, and North-East respectively.
fna Peninsula in the North and the adjoining sland has a compact land area. The greatest om point Palmyrah in the North to Dondra
rom Colombo in the West to Sangamankanda.
Cavourable and today Colombo, Trincomalee nkering repairs, etc.) for ships that cross the
r Port situated at Ratmalana, about 8 miles
International Air Port South of Negombo entres where the chief airlines of the World
IE LAND
prise a mountainous area about the central ging in elevation from about 3,000 to 7,000 about 1,000 to 3,000 feet, while the coastal che West and South but broadens out to a
to sea as the Continental Shelf. The 100 orth-West where it, opens out to include a. Lelf '. A coral reef lies close to the coast, scerned by the breaking of the waves at a

Page 22
GEOGRA
The following table shows the relative hei
TABLE 2.1–PRINCIPAL
Mountain Peak
Pidurutalagala Kirigalpotta Totapalakanda Kudahagala Siri Pada (Adam's Peak) Kikilimana Great Western Hakgala Conical Hill
Mahakudagala One Tree Hill
Waterfall Point Namunukula Gommolli Kanda Knuckles Kotagala
The essential frame-work of the Hill Cou *** To” or anchor, with the Central Ridge for in Sri Lanka—Pidurutalagala (8,282 feet), and also the high plains such as Nuwara El Plains (over 7,000 feet). At the base of the extends westwards to terminate at Adam’s F Haputale and continues North-East to form Dunugala ridge. To the North-West of th forming the highest point. On either sid plateaux, the Hatton Plateau to the West a each averaging 4,000 feet in height. The E
Mountain wall, because here it presents a lying at its foot. Forming a detached port Hill country and the Bulutota massif ave by the upper tributaries of the Kalu and composed of resistent rock-like granite, st The Jaffna Peninsula and the Island of Ma
Rivers and Waterways The hydrographic pattern is a function ess central hilly mass a general radial pattern and South being shorter than those flowing and longest river is the Mahaweli-ganga s“ anchor ”. The principal rivers of Sri La

HICAL FEATURES
hts of the principal peaks in Ceylon :
MOUNTAIN PEAKS IN SRI LANKA
Height in feet
District situated
Nuwara Eliya
do.
do.
do. Ratnapura Nuwara Eliya
8,282 7,837 7,733 7,610 7,341 7,342 7,258 7,118 7,106 6,879 6,890 6,803 6,679 6,674
do. do. do.
do. do.
do.
Badulla Ratnapura-Badula
do. Kandy-Nuwara Eliya
6,112
5,750
Source : Survey Department.
ntry over 5,000 feet appears in the form of an inverted ming the shank on which are some of the highest peaks Kirigalpotta (7,837 feet) Totapalakanda (7,733) feet), ya (over 6,000 feet), Elk Plains (6,000 feet) and Horton shank is Kirigalpotta from where one arm of the anchor eak (7,360 feet), while the Eastern arm extends through
Namunukula which is part of the North-South aligned) e shank are the Matale hills, with Knuckles (6,112 feet) e of this central mountainous Anchor-shank are two nd the Uva Basin (or Welimada Plateau) to the East sast-West arm of the “ Anchor is termed the Southern sheer drop of over 4,000 feet to the southern platform on from the massif to the South-West lies the Rakwana aging 3,000 feet, the intervening tract being occupied
Walawe Rivers. Monadrocks or “ relict mountains ?> and out to break the monotony of the level stretches. anar are entirely featureless plains.
ntially of relief and structure, and in Sri Lanka with its s clearly revealed ; the rivers flowing to the West, East p the North-West and North-East. The most important hich rises on the western side of the " shank” of the aka with their respective lengths are given in Table 2.2.

Page 23
CLIMATE AND MI
TABLE 2.2-LENGTHS OF
River
Length in
miles
208 102 92 90
Mahaweli-ganga Aruvi-aru Kala-Oya Kelani ganga Yan-Oya Deduru-Oya
Walawe-ganga Maduru-Oya
*
85
Waterfalls girdle the central mountain massif an Lanka e.g., Laxapana, Aberdeen, Dunhinda (Badulla and Perawella. They are found to occur especially Owing to the heavy rainfall on the Central mountai occur as a result of variations in the seasonal rainfall
II–CLIMATE AND 1 Climate Although on account of its situation close to the eq the mean temperature is high (ranging from 80° to 8 due to the fact that the maximum breadth of the Islar rature in the plains. The hills in the central regions
Temperature Variation with altiiude.—In the hill-country the tem for each 300 feet rise. Thus at Kandy, 1,600 feet ab Feet, it is 68° F and at Nuwara Eliya, the chief hill sta 60° F.
Seasonal Variation A noteworthy feature in many parts of Ceylon is the sm throughout the year. The mean temperature at Co to February, is 79° F, 3° lower than that during the w -stations the mean annual range of temperature does
East it is slightly higher.
Highest Temperatures Highest Temperatures are experienced in the district in the north-eastern low country, generally during
aced the blood heat (98•4° F).
Lowest Temperatures Lowest telperatures are experienced early morning occur during December and January and range betwee at Nuwara Eliya (6,200 feet), the minimum temperat (February), occasionally fall below the freezing (32°

TEOROLOGY
PRINCIPAL RIVERS
River
Length in
miles
Maha-Oya Manik-ganga Kalu-ganga Kirindi-Oya Kumbukkan-Aru Gin-ganga
Mi-Oya Gal-Oya
3F% PAR :
1 offer some of the best scenic features in Sri 2) Diyaluma (Koslanda), Elgin (Hatton Plateau) to the West, South and East and are perennial in mass, though fluctuations in their volume
METEOROLOGY
uator within the latitudes of 6° and 10° N yet 2° F in the low country). The oceanic effect id is only 140 miles, helps to reduce the tempe
enhance this effect.
perature falls at a steady rate of about 1° F ove sea level, it is 77° F at Diyatalawa, 4,100 tion in the Island, 6,200 feet in elevation it is
all variation in the mean monthly temperatures ombo during the coolest months, November armest months April and May. At the other 1ot vary very much, though in the North and
to the north or north-west of the hills and the period March to June, but they rarely
little before sun rise. At coast stations they 70° and 74° F. They decrease with altitude ; res, which are generally of the order of 45 °F
point.

Page 24
GEOGRAPE
Diurnal Variation The diurnal variation of temperature, the rise to a minimum shortly before dawn is well m the prevailing wind. There is a gradual increa from the sea.
Humidity The relative humidity varies generally from al per cent at night, rising as the temperature dro by about 5 per cent, while in the driest areas i drops to about 60 per cent. In the south-w particularly in April and May on account of th
Rainfall Rainfall is of three types—monsoonal, convect the two monsoons, South-West and North-Eas precipitation. Convectional rain occurs durir or evening, and is likely to be experienced anys
mainly during the inter-monsoon periods.
* The annual average rainfall varies from bel and south-east of the Island to 200 inches at ce
There are four rainfall seasons during the y be considered as follows:
(1) the South-West Monsoon period, May t (2) the inter-monsoon period, following the (3) the North-East Monsoon period, Decem (4) the inter-monsoon period, following the
South-West Monsoon The rainfall is mostly confined to the south-w western low country. As winds strengthen, it heavy rain in the hill country from June to inches at some stations in the south-westeri weather these stations aggregate monthly total
North-East Monsoon The rainfall is mainly confined to the north-e and January, February being normally a di north-eastern slopes of the hills, where some There have been occasions when over 100 ine in December or January.
Inter-Monsoon Periods During inter-monsoon periods winds are ger from about noon and is also responsible for evening. These showers may occur anywhe these periods is depressional activity.

ICAL FEATURES
to a maximum early in the afternoon and the fall rked. Its magnitude depends on the direction of se in the range with altitude as well as with distance
Iout 70 per cent during the day to about 90 or 95. IS. In the dry zone, however, these values are lower 1 the north-west and south-east the day humidity estern parts, the absolute humidity is rather high,... e high mean temperature.
onal and depressional. Monsoon rain occurs during. it, and is responsible for a major part of the annual g the inter-monsoon periods, mainly in the afternoon vhere over the Island. Depressional rain also occurs
ow 40 inches in the driest zones in the north-west rtain places on the south-western slopes of the hills.
rear with corresponding periods which may roughly
O September, South-West Monsoon, October and November, ber to February, and North-East Monsoon, March and April.
estern parts, at the beginning it occurs in the south
spreads gradually to the interior, with considerably August. South-West Monsoon rainfall exceeds 100 a hill country. During periods of active monsoon.
s of 50 to 60 inches.
astern parts. Most of the rain occurs in December y month. The heaviest rain is experienced on the tations receive about 50 inches for the two months. hes of rain were recorded at some of the hill stations:
erally light, except for the sea breeze which develops.
the thunder showers that occur in the afternoon or te over the island. Another source of rain during

Page 25
CLIMATE AND MET
Depressions are most frequent in October and Nov the precipitation during these two months. Rainfall d widespread and exceeds 20 inches at many stations rainiest period of the year.
Conditions are similar during the second inter-mon received is less, mainly because of less depressional ac
These four seasons are marked out by the position boundary between the Northern hemisphere air and north and south with the sun while moving between the It crosses the Island moving from south to north in Sri Lanka and India in its rear. On the return Je crosses the Island during October and early November The two Inter-Monsoon seasons are the periods when vicinity of the Island.
Hail During intense thunderstorms, hail is occasionally exp but reports have been received of the occurrence of h
Ground Frost Ground Frost occurs at Nuwara Eliya on a few days
Meteorology Climatic data have been collected in Sri Lanka sinc daily records of temperature, rainfall, wind, atmos upper wind observations with pilot balloons are record atmospheric pressure and wind of the upper air up Colombo with radio Sonde and radar instruments.
Table 2.3 shows the annual rainfall, temperature ar during 1976.
TABLE 2.3-ANNUAL RAINFALL, TEMPERAT
NINE PRINCIPAL STATION
Station
Annual Rainfall
(inches) (de
1976
Colombo Jaffna Trincomalee Hambantota Ratnapura Anuradhapura Kandy Diyatalawa Nuwara Eliya
81.71 38.87 43.31 31.41 131.76 46.64 56.06 55.94 50.54

TEOROLOGY
Pember and are responsible for a good part of uring the first inter-monsoon period is therefore - Taking the Island as a whole, this is the
soon period, March and April, but the rainfall tivity.
of the Inter-Tropical Front, which forms the - Southern hemisphere air. The ITF, moves Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
May and brings the South-West Monsoon to ourney, the ITF moving from north to south, , bringing in its rear the North-East Monsoon, the ITF fluctuates over and in the immediate
erienced. It occurs mainly in the hill-country,
ail in low-country stations too.
of the year during January and February.
e 1880. Meteorological Observatories make pheric pressure and humidity. In addition, led at 4 stations, while temperature, humidity, to a height over 50,000 feet are recorded at
id relative humidity at nine principal stations
URE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY AT S DURING 1976
Mean Annual Mean Annual Temperature Relative Humidity gree fahrenheit) (per cent)
1976
1976
Day
Night
75
89
85
81.1 82.0 83.3 80.9 81.7 81.7 76.5 68.3 60.0
* R * a
90 86

Page 26
GEOGRAFI
The Colombo Observatory provides weathe collection of climatological data, determinati ration of astronomical data such as the phase o and planets and Seismological work.
CHART No. 1-MONTHLY R/
1916 68 ஃபை8 338 1976 தெ ரிந்தெடுக்கப்பட்ட நிலையங்கள்
MONTHLY RAINFALL
நெத298
நாகேசன்துறை
KAISAR TUR AI
ஃதவி யாழ்ப்பாணம் JAFFNA
42பவபு66 ஓஒஒப்பு? அனுராதபுரம்
|ம தாழப்பாளம் வ தவிர AP3 2. AைMAIL PALAs |
N) 74
இல3
2000 க ட்கோ,சேட இட்நாடகா * ATP ( AECTA KA) வா AYARA
කලාව | දමලාන பியந்தா வ |
இரத்மலாட், RATMALAKA
- A LAW
aே 2
4ல் 15 அம் 32
ஒரு அங்கும் 38 அங்குல ம Rழ வீ ONE INC# REPRESENT!
IV
The Island is part of a larger " Shield'' area not undergone any major earth movements '' shield " are mostly Pre-cambrian in age, th years old.

ICAL FEATURES
forecasting for aviation, shipping and local needs, a and distribution of Ceylon Standard Time, prepathe moon, the times of rise and set of the sun, moon
INFALL AT SELECTED STATIONS-1976
2 වාර්ෂාපනය சின் மாதாந்த மழை வீழ்ச்சி.
SEL & C T2 D STATioN5 1978.
6 இ
நர்
20309
வவுனியா VAVUSIYA
தேசச் திருகோணமலை TRIR CON ALEG
ලම් கதளம் "UTTAL A A
அலைபி)
கலை மட்டக்களப்பு
சூரு ஓல் BATTICALOA
KURUMSGA
2063 நுவரேலியா
கொ. கொழும்பு cola *
*ப*ARA 59
50s தீ ஈ பர்PURA
கலை மலை அம்பாந்தோட்டை |
காலி HANBANA
GALLI
25 5 89 05லை 603 :ை3: ச்சியைக் குறிக்கின்றது, 5 32 th cNes oF RAIN FALL,
கம்1)(KAA
GEOLOGY which embraces most of South Indian and which has since early geological time. The rocks within this 2 youngest of them being approximately 500 million

Page 27
GEOLOC
Occupying a belt which runs through the Island central highlands is a group of meta-sedimentar rock rock types of which are quartzites, marble, quartz-fe Schists and gneisses. These are the metamorphoses sandstones, limestones and marls, sandy clays and c depth. Closely associated with the metasediments ( of greyish-green rocks, known as the Charnockite serie In the south-western extremity of this central belt V cordierite,sillimenite gneisses are prominent.
To the east and west of the central belt are gneis: are collectively known as the Vijayan Series. Those and frequently black-and-white banded rocks, while are obscured by later reddish to pinkish series of gr the Tonigala Complex. The Vijayan series once tł Khondalite Group metasediments were originally lai the Khondalite Group and in part derived from it.
Several late granites and pegmatites, many zircon o dykes, cut across all these Pre-Cambrian rocks, and r
The Pre-Cambrian rocks (Khondalite Group and the Island, the remaining part being underlain by the the Jaffna Peninsula and the north-west coastal tract) sands and clays, sandstones and laterite of pleistocene of the Island and along the coasts). Two small pock of Jurassic age are found at Tabbowa and Andigam the Pre-Cambrian rocks.
The structure of the Island is complex. The rocl almost parallel series of open and recumbent fold distances and trend between north-west, south-east Series, however, the rocks have suffered greater defori and the trends vary from north-south to east-west.

from S.W. to N. E. and forming most of the s known as the Khondalite Group, the major spar, granulites and garnet-sillimenite-graphite a equivalents of such sedimentary rocks as lays, formed at high temperatures and at great of the Khondalite Group are distinctive series es which appear to be metamorphic in character. Fellastenite-scapolite calc gneisses and garnet
sic and granitic rocks of various types which
on the cast are predominantly light-coloured e to the West similar light-coloured gneisses anitoid rocks and gneisses together known as nought of as the " basement” on which the d down are now thought to be younger than
r allanite bearing, as well as a series of delerite ange from 450 to 600 million years in age.
Vijayan Series) occupy nearly four-fifths of e Jaffna Limestone of Upper Miocene age (in and by “ red earths", gravels, unconsolidated to recent age (mainly in the northern portion ets of coarse sediments alternating with shales. a where they are preserved by faulting within
Cs within the central belt are folded into an 3 which run continuously for considerable and north-east, south-west. In the Vijayan nation, major folds are fewer and less regular

Page 28
PTER III
C REVIEW—1976
s somewhat moderate due mainly to a decline in output: iction of rubber and paddy increased, these increases. decline in the production of the two plantation crops. I of the Mahaweli Development Scheme during the ddy land under irrigation schemes in the Dry Zone. rubber and a certain degree of diversification of the vement in the trade balance during 1976.
er cent as compared with an increase of 4:2 per cent in e to the poor performance of plantation agriculture. tic Product in 1976 at constant (1963) prices and the pears in the Table below:-
UTION OF G. D. P. AT CONSTANT PRICES NTAGE CHANGE OVER 1975
(Rs. Million)
Percentage change over preceding year
+ 2•9 + 33•8 + 1:3
3,711-2
205•7 1,428:5
543-4
1041 1,233-4 1,700:0
194:2 518:7 543-3 1,393-2
+ + + + + + + +
4:1
2:0
+ 5•1
+ 4:0
G. D. P. .. 11,575:7
+ 3·8
ng year Mining and Quarrying shows a significant to an increase in the value of gem production and a
1976 in the calculation of value-added in this sector. E of Electricity and Gas, Construction, Transport and on and Defence in 1976, over the level of the preceding.

СНА
ECONOMI
General The economic progress experienced in 1976 wa of the agricultural sector. Though the produ were not quite adequate to offset an overall - tea and coconut. The completion of Phase year, helped facilitate double cropping of pa Significant increases in the prices of tear and economy, accounted for the substantial imprc
Gross Domestic Product The annual rate of growth in 1976 was 3•8 p in the preceding year. This was mainly du The sector-wise distribution of Gross Domes percentage change over the preceding year ap
TABLE 3.1-SECTOR-WISE DISTRIB
(1963) AND PERCED
Sectors
1. Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries 2. Mining and Quarrying 3. Manufacturing 4. Construction 5. Electricity and Gas 6. Transport and Communication 7. Wholesale and Retail Trade 8. Banking and Insurance 9. Ownership of Dwellings 10. Public Administration and Defence IL Services
The percentage change over the precedir increase of 33•8 per cent and was mainly due wider coverage of additional commodities in Major increases were recorded in the output Communications and in Public Administratic

Page 29
ECONOMIC REV
year. If no cognizance is taken of the service sec economic growth should be encountered in comm in these latter sectors are reasonably encouraging. sector was due mainly to the limited availability of in the public sector was the main reason for the ex value added in this sector. The levels of activity in Services have shown, significant increases in the 5:1 per cent and 40 per cent respectively over the 1
Private Consumption Expenditure
The percentage increases of expenditure on house have increased markedly over the preceding year. tobacco, has declined in 1976. Table 3.2 shows the by object and relative percentage change over the p
TABLE 3.2—PRIVATE CONSUMPTION EXPENDIT
Object
1. Food
2. Beverages
3. Tobacco ..
4. Clothing ..
5. Rent
6. Fuel and Light
7. Furniture
8. Household Operation
9. Personal Care and Health..
10. Transport and Communication
11. Recreation and Entertainment
12. Miscellaneous Services
* Including expenditure abroad of residents and
Private consumption expenditure on Recreation declined by 0:5 per cent and 7-5 per cent respectivel expenses constituted 56:4 per cent of total consumpt percentage increase over the level of the preceding y

PIEW—1976
11
tors on the presumption that the real impact of odity-producing sectors, improvements reflected
The poor level of activity in the manufacturing raw materials. Construction work undertaken pansion of construction activity, thus increasing in the Public Administration and Defence and e year 1976 and were estimated to have risen by evels obtaining in 1975.
hold operation, furniture, fuel and light clothing
On the other hand, the total expenduture on = Components of private consumption expenditure preceding year.
URE BY OBJECT AT CURRENT PRICES—1976
(Rs. Million)
Percentage
change over "preceding year
10,836-6
+ 2•6
612:1
+ 3-0
1,150-6
- 10-2
1,687•7
+ 17-0
707-0
+ 1:4
502•6
+ 14:5
407•5
+ 18•0
394:7
+ 29-5
277•9
+ 1-8
1,565-7
+11-3
637-6
- 0-5
704-1
- 7:5
Total .. 19,226•7*
3•6*
excluding expenditure of non-residents.
and Entertainment and Miscellaneous Services, y over the 1975 levels. In percentage terms food ion expenditure and shows a somewhat moderate rear.

Page 30
12
ECONOMIC
Domestic Capital Formation Gross capital formation in 1976, exceeded the ai Fixed capital formation in the government secto of various project expenditure under irrigation ture in the government sector by type of capi the amount of money that was channelled to the gross domestic capital formation in 1976 an year.
TABLE 3.3—GROSS DOMES
I. Type of Purchaser
Fixed Capital Formation (Total) (a) Non-corporate private enterprises (6) Private corporations (C) Public corporations (d) Government enterprises (e) General government
II. Type of Capital Asset
Fixed Capital Formation (Total) (a) Land .. (6) Dwellings (C) Non-residential buildings (d) Other constructions (e) Transport equipment (f) Machinery and other equipment (a) Private Sector Planting and replanting Building and other constructions
Heavy machinery Other machinery and equipment Transport equipment Locally manufactured machinery
(6) Public Sector Land Dwellings
Other constructions Transport equipment
Machinery and other equipment
Domestic fixed capi

REVIEW—1976
mount that was recorded in 1975 by Rs. 913·3 milliori r increased by 47•3 per cent due mainly to an increase: and construction. The increase of capital expendial assets, showed a marked upward trend depicting land acquisition and reclamation. Table 3.3 shows. 1 the percentage change over the level of the preceding.
TIC CAPITAL FORMATION—1976
(Rs. Million)
Percentage change over the previous year
4,453•1
+ 25:8
Private Sector ..
3,123•6
+ 18:5
Public Sector
1,329-5
+ 47:3
4,453-1
611:6 1,812:5
+ 25.8 + 56:4 + 17:5
336:9
655:3 1,036:8
+ 10-9 + 42:8 + 23:0
296-3 1,602:6
234•4 463-9 410-5 115.9
+ 5:0 + 17:2. + 4:6 F 38•9 + 49.3 - 25:0
Sub-Total
3,123•6
+ 18:5
315.3 209.9 336:9 244•8 222•6
+ 189•3. + 19•6. + 10-9 + 33°0 + 70-7
Sub-Total
1,329•5
+ 47-3
tal formation
4,453-1
+ 25:8

Page 31
ECONOMIC REVIE
The percentage increase in private capital formatic preceding year. A significant increase in the import private sector capital formation pushing it up to a h factured machinery in private capital formation decl
Fiscal Policy Estimated total government revenue for 1976 was for 1975 by Rs. 858 million. The increase, which increase in revenue under income tax, import dutie expenditure of the government for 1976 was Rs. per cent over the previous year.
The current account deficit was Rs. 128 million. million.
The over-all budget deficit for the year is Rs. 3, borrowings, amounting to Rs. 2,270 million and foi
million.
Foreign Trade Sri Lanka’s balance of trade in 1976 showed a surp the first time since 1966. This significant improver export earnings and also a decrease in import expen
Despite a drop in the volume of tea exports by 13 from tea exports in 1976 exceeded that of 1975 by of tea accounted for this situation in 1976. As regar the year decreased by 24 million kilograms, export ea Export earnings from coconut and coconut products mainly due to a decrease in the quantum of exports.
The island's dependence on export earnings from and coconut showed a declining trend from 76 per earnings of other domestic exports and precious a increased respectively by 24:3 per cent and 5:4 per ce experienced since 1971 saw a reversal during 1976 Consumption goods accounted for 36•9 per cent o investment goods respectively accounted for 48:2 per in expenditure on consumption goods in 1976 was fa of rice, imports, flour and sugar.
Balance of Payments The current account deficit in the balance of paym remarkable in view of the fact that it dropped from Rs. 49.8 million in 1976. The 1976 deficit was in earnings in 1976 increased by as much as Rs. 800 1 increased over that of 1975 by less than Rs. 100 mil drop in the 1976 deficit as compared with 1973. A services account was reduced to Rs. 49-8 million by
under transfer payments.
Increased earnings from non-traditional exports ai in the balance of payments. Despite a decrease in their total export earnings expanded over the prece

N—1976
n in 1976 was 18•5 per cent over the level of the of transport equipment contributed to augment gher level in 1976. The share of locally manuned sharply as compared with year 1975.
Is. 5,739 million, which exceeded the revenue is about 13 per cent was mainly due to the s, tea tax, turnover taxes and FEECs. Total 1,314 million. This shows an increase of 20
This was lower than that for 1975 by Rs. 14
576 million which was financed from domestic reign loans and grants amounting to Rs. 1,340
lus (as based on customs data) incidentally for nent during the year was due to an increase in liture.
3 million kilograms from that of 1975, eamings Rs. 168 million. An increase in export prices ds rubber, though the volume of exports during rnings nevertheless increased by Rs. 226 million. s declined by Rs. 14 million from that of 1975,
the three main plantation cropsviztea, rubber
cent in 1975 to 70 per cent in 1976. Export nd semi-preceious stones on the other hand nt. The increasing trend in import expenditure
mainly due to a decrease in import prices. f total imports, while intermediate goods and
cent and 137 per cent. The marked decrease acilitated by a decline in both volume and price
a
ents for 1976 was Rs. 49-8 million. This was e deicit of Rs. 772 million in 1975 to a meagre
fact the lowest recorded since 1966. Export million although import payments for the year lion. This in the main accounts for the sharp
deficit of Rs. 597.1 million on the goods and a surplus of Rs. 547.3 million made available.
nd from rubber, contributed to an improvement volume of exports of tea, rubber and coconut, ding year due to an increase in export prices.

Page 32
14
ECONO
The rising trend in the international prices of tially to increased export earnings under the
Earnings from the non-traditional sector recorded for such items as gems, precious st of the non-traditional sector in the total expo per cent in 1976. The 1976 import bill incr commodity prices for rice, flour, sugar and import expenditure at this level.
The highest increase in the import bill in 19 was partly due to an increase in the volume prices as imposed by OPEC in October 1975.
The main ‘invisible contributions to For and Tourist earnings.
Gross inflow of long-term aid amounted to
(a) Commodity aid (6) Food aid (C) Project aid (6) Other aid
The net inflow of long-term aid leaving a This high level of foreign assistance helped Sr Rs. 91.4 million.
Resources available from the I. M. F. as Rs. 272:8 million. This together with longdeficit of Rs. 49•8 million. The country could til
million as at the end of 1976.
Prices The Colombo Consumers' price index is the cc levels in Sri Lanka. The index increased by of 6•7 per cent in 1975. This moderate increase which partly off set price increase recorded ur Groups respectively. Price reductions in flou sugar were mainly responsible for the decline firewood caused an upward movement in Fuel a Group Index was attributable to increases in p of excise duties on these items. Price control containing the pressure on prices of widely use
Wages
The special living allowances, of the governm month from January 1976. This increase wa sector and also those categorised under wage for workers in the plantation sector. With t less than 25 persons and approved charities, to pay this increase provided that these emplo
with the cost of living index number.

IC REVIEW—1976
minor agricultural products also contributed substanon-traditional sector.
vas more marked during the year in view of increases nes, made-up garments, tinned fruits, etc. The share t earnings increased from 24-0 per cent in 1975 to 29•6 ased over that of 1975 by only 1:6 per cent. Lower fertilizer helped to a great extent in containing the
'6 was for crude oil and petroleum by-products. This f imports and partly due to a 10 per cent increase in
sign Exchange Earnings in 1976 were Port earnings
Rs. 942:9 million. This consisted of :-
(Rs. Million)
338•4 169•2 315•8 119•5
n allowance for repayments was Rs. 710-4 million. i Lanka to decrease her short-term indebtedness by
balance of payments support in 1976 amounted to term aid was far in excess of the current account hus build up its external assets to the tune of Rs. 568•3
euntry's official indicator of changes in consumer price
1:2 per cent in 1976 as compared with an increase e was the net effect of a price decline in the Food Group nder the Clothng, Fuel and Light and Miscellaneous ir and bread and an increased quantum of rationed e in the Food Group Index. Increases in price of nd Light Group Index. Increases in the Miscellaneous rice of liquor and tobacco due to an upward revision s and rationing continued to play a significant role in -d consumer items.
ent sector employees were increased by Rs. 15 per s extended to cover employees in semi-government s boards. A proportionate increase was authorised he exception of small scale establishments employing private sector employers too were required by law vers were not paying a cost of living gratuity varying

Page 33
ECONOMIC REV
The increase in the minimum wage rate of techni per cent during the year, while increase in minimum in the State service respectively were 5•7 per cent employees, the percentage increase in wages was and Commerce increased by 2:58 per cent, while sector increased by 2•16 per cent.
Employment Employment in the government departments incre on an Annual Survey of the Central Bank. The i sponsored institutions was over 55,000 and this wa State Plantations Corporation. This reflects a State-sponsored institutions as this arose merely fro private sector to these State-sponsored institutions.
Based on the age-structure and age specific activity in 1976, about 125,000 would have entered the la about 20,000 persons. From these figures it would the year under review would have been over 100,000
Adequate data are not available as regards employ in institutional private sector employment is obtair under the EPF. Thus there was a decline of 14,277 ir a corresponding drop in the institutional private sect

Ew–1976
15
cal and clerical grades in State Services was 4•8.
wage rates of school teachers and minor grades ind 6'5 per cent. As regards private sector omewhat less. Wages of workers in Industry the nominal wages of workers in plantation
ised by about 20,000 persons in 1976 as based ncrease in employment opportunities in State} entirely due to an employment increase in the shift’ of employees from the private sector to m a change of ownership of estates from the
rates of the population it has been estimated that pour force with an estimated ‘withdrawal of, Il appear that the demand for new jobs during
ment in the private sector. The annual change ied by using the number of active accounts i active accounts under EPF during the year with. or employment.

Page 34
С НА
CONSTITUTION
1-GOVERNME
Sri Lanka (Ceylon) at present possesses a bre that of a Free, Sovereign and an Independent
The Law embodying the Constitution is co adopted and enacted by the Constituent Assem
The Constitution of the Republic of Sri Lanl (a) The State, Sovereignty and the People, (6) Buddhism, (C) Language, (d) Powers, Privileges, Duties and obligation (e) State Policy,
C) Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, (8) President of the Republic, (H) National State Assembly, (i) Procedure for Enacting Laws,
G) Procedure for laws amending the Constiti (k) Constitution of the National State Assem () Control of Finance, (m) Executive Government, (n) Administration of Justice, and (0) Public Security.
The Republic The Republic of Sri Lanka is a unitary State, exercised through a National State Assembly o
National State Assembly The National State Assembly of Sri Lanka is th and exercises (a) the legislative power of the per the defence of Sri Lanka, through the Preside power of the people through courts and other in relating to its powers and privileges, wherein directly by the National State Assembly.
The National State Assembly shall consist of as a Delimitation Commission may determine is The election of members to the National State Every citizen of the age of eighteen years and an elector at elections to the National State A:
Unless the National State Assembly is disse under the Constitution shall continue for a p and no longer ; the expiry of the period of six
Note.--Information as appearing in Sections Amendment to the Constitution which came in

PTER IV
AND GOVERNMENT
NT OF SRI LANKA
ad-based democratic Government. Her position is Republic within the British Commonwealth.
ontained in the Constitution of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) bly of the people of Sri Lanka on the 22nd May, 1972. ca as enacted on 22nd May, 1972 provides for
s of the Republic,
ution, ably,
its sovereignty is in the people, is inalienable and f elected representatives of the People.
e supreme instrument of State power of the Republic pple ; (6) the executive power of the people, including
nt and the Cabinet of Ministers, and (c) the judicial astitutions created by law except in the case of matters the judicial power of the people may be exercised
such number of elected representatives of the people
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. Assembly shall be free and shall be by secret ballot. over is, unless otherwise disqualified, qualified to be ssembly. olved earlier, every National State Assembly elected eriod of six years from the date of its first meeting years shall operate as a dissolution of the assembly.
I and III of this Chapter does not refer to the Second to operation on 4th February, 1978.

Page 35
GOVERNMENT OF
The first National State Assembly was dissolved or Commission the number of elected representatives was to the Second National State Assembly were held on under the leadership of Mr. J. R. Jayewardene swep 140 seats.
Executive Government The Prime Minister nominates the President of the R of the State, Head of the Executive and Commander responsible to the National State Assembly for the d and functions of his office under the Constitution an time being, relating to Public Security.
The executive consists of the Prime Minister and a C with the Prime Minister as its Head charged with the the Republic shall be collectively responsible and an all matters for which it is responsible.
The President appoints as Prime Minister the men the President's opinion, is most likely to command th
The Prime Minister determines the number of Mini jects and functions to Ministers.
The President appoints, from among the members be in charge of the Ministries determined by the Prim the Ministers in the performance of their duties.
A new Republican Constitution to achieve the is envisaged.
The First Appointed PRESIDENT of the Repu GOPALLAWA.
ADDENDUM Far reaching political changes were made within the with the assumption of office by the United Nat MR. JUNIUS RICHARD JAYEWARDENA as t. REPUBLIC on 4th February, 1978 marked a new
MR. RANASINGHE PREMADASA, Minister of I and Leader of the National State Assembly was sworn
Cabinet The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Sri Lanka
Mr. Junius Richard Jayewardene, (Colombo West),
of Planning and Economic Affairs and Minister o Mr. Ranasinghe Premadasa (First Colombo-Centra
and Construction and Leader of the Assembly. Mr. Abdul Cader Shahul Hameed (First Harispattu Mr. Lionel Gamini Dissanayake (First Nuwara Eli
and Highways. Mr. Lalith William Athulathmudali (Ratmalana), M Mr. Walter Geoffrey Montague Jayawickrema (W
and Home Affairs. Mrs. Irene Wimala Kannangara, (Galigamuwa) Mir Mr. Nissanka Parakrama Wijeyeratne (Dedigama), Mr. Kanapathipillai William Devanayagam (Kalkud Mr. Ronald Joseph Godfrey de Mel (Devinuwara), Mr. Cyril Pinto Jayatilleke Seneviratne, (Mahiyanga
* Re-designated as Minister of Finance and Plannin

RI LANKA
17
19th May, 1977. In terms of a Delimitation increased from 157 to 168 members. Elections
21st July, 1977. The United National Party - the polls with an overwhelming majority of
epublic of Sri Lanka who becomes the Head -in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He shall be ue execution and performance of the powers d under other law, including the laws for the
abinet of Ministers. The Cabinet of Ministers e direction and control of the Government of swerable to the National State Assembly on
aber of the National State Assembly who, in e confidence of the National State Assembly. sters and Ministries and assignment of sub
of the National State Assembly, Ministers to e Minister and also Deputy Ministers to assist
goals of a DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST SOCIETY
_blic of Sri Lanka was MR. WILLIAM
frame-work of a democratic socialist society, ional Party Government. The investiture of he first EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT of the era in Sri Lanka's constitutional history Local Government, Housing and Construction in as PRIME MINISTER of the REPUBLIC.
a as sworn-in on 23rd July, 1977 were Prime Minister, Minister of Defence, Minister f Plan Implementation. I), Minister of Local Government, Housing
wa), Minister of Foreign Affairs. ya-Maskeliya), Minister of Irrigation, Power
linister of Trade. eligama), Minister of Public Administration
lister of Shipping, Aviation and Tourism.
Minister of Education. Iha), Minister of Justice.
Minister of Finance.* na), Minister of Labour.

Page 36
18
CONSTITUT
Mr. Cyril Mathew (Kelaniya), Minister o Mr. Edwin Loku Banda Hurulle (Horowy Mr. Stephen de Silva Jayasinghe (Dehiwe Mr. Gamani Nanda Jayasuriya (Homagar Mr, Dingiri Banda Wijetunga (Udunuwar Mr. Mathew Vincent Prerera (Colombo Mr. Mohamed Haniffa Mohamed (Borella Mr. Edward Lionel Senanayake, (Mahanu Mr. Asoka Mahanama Karunaratne (Ran Mr. Donald Shelton Jayasinghe (Wattala) Mr. Sirisena Bandara Herath (Hiriyala), Mr. Mahabalage Don Henry Jayawardene Mr. Wijayapala Mendis (Katana), Ministe Deputy Ministers as appointed to the respe
Mr. Tikiri Banda Werapitiya (Patha Duml Mr. Mohamadu Haniffa Mahamudu Nain
and Economic Affairs.* Mr. Dingiri Banda Welagedera (Kurunega Mr. Pema Chandra Imbulana (Ruwanwella
Construction. Mr. Ranil Wickramasinghe (Biyagama), D Mr. Adikari Mudiyanselage Somapala A
Power and Highways. Mr. Matarage Sirisena Amarasiri (Hinidur Mr. Percy Samaraweera (Welimada), De
Affairs. Mr. Nanda Mathew, (Kolonne), Deputy M Mr. Lionel Jayatilaka (Kuliyapitiya), Depu Mr. Shelton Ranaraja (Senkadagala), Depi Mr. Joseph Michael Perera (Ja-Ela), Depu Mr. Michael Festus Perera (Wennappuwa) Mr. Nicholas Denzil Fernando (Negombo) Mr. Weerakoon Mudiyanselage Gedera Til
Affairs. Mr. Sunil Subasiri Abeysundera (Yatinuwa Mr. Dharmasena Attygale (Kesbewa), Dep Mr. Chandra Karunaratne (Nawalapitiya), Mr. Don Edwin Tillakaratne (Ratgama), I Mr. Hiripitiyage Kularatne (Rakwana), De Mr. Mohamedali Ahamed Abdul Majeed
Lands. Mr. Jasenthu Liyana Sirisena, (Bingiriya), Mr. Abeyratne Bandara Pilapitiya (Kalawa Mr. Sarathchandra Rajakaruna (Dompe), Mr. Alick Aluwihare (Matale), Deputy M Mr. Ratnayake Mudiyanselage Dharmadas
* Re-designated as Deputy minister of Fi † Succeeded Mr. S. de S. Jayasinghe as 1

ON AND GOVERNMENT
Industries and Scientific Affairs. ptana), Minister of Cultural Affairs. a), Minister of Fisheries. ta), Minister of Health. ), Minister of Information and Broadcasting. North) Minister of Parliamentary Affairs and Sports.
Minister of Transport. wara), Minister of Agriculture and Lands. bukkana), Minister of Social Services.
Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. linister of Food and Co-operatives. (Kaduwela), Minister of Plantation Industries.
of Textile Industry. tive Ministries were para), Deputy Minister of Defence. a Marikar (Puttalam), Deputy Minister of Planning
la), Deputy Minister of Plan Implementation.
), Deputy Minister of Local Government, Housing and
eputy Minister of Foreign Affairs.
dikari (Kalawewa), Deputy Minister of Irrigation,
na), Deputy Minister of Trade. puty Minister of Public Administration and Home
Minister of Shipping, Aviation and Tourism. aty Minister of Education.
uty Minister of Justice. ty Minister of Labour.
Deputy Minister of Finance.Ť , Deputy Minister of Industries and Scientific Affairs. kiri Banda (Galagedera), Deputy Minister of Cultural
era), Deputy Minister of Fisheries. puty Minister of Health.
Deputy Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Deputy Minister of Parliamentary Affairs and Sports. eputy Minister of Transport.
(Samanturai), Deputy Minister of Agriculture and
Deputy Minister of Social Services. na), Deputy Minister of Posts and Telecommunications. Deputy Minister of Food and Co-operatives.
nister of Plantation Industries. a Banda (Bibile), Deputy Minister of Textile Industry.
nance and Planning. Minister of Fisheries.

Page 37
ELECTION
II-ELECTI
ese are tauguration the olde
There are two main types of elections in the Island (a
With the inauguration on 22nd May, 1972 of the Representatives (under the old constitution) gave wa the Constitution of Sri Lanka, elections to the Nat every six years unless the Assembly is dissolved earlie
Local Authorities, of which there are 682 coverin office and their elections generally take place in towi their term of office ends and as far as Village Coun
March to June of their fourth year. The law gover is found in Ceylon (Parliamentary Elections) Order i subject to the provisions contained in the Constituti Authorities elections is found in the Local Author subsequent Amendments.
The responsibility for the conduct of Elections Authorities lies with the Department of Elections. by the President under the Constitution of Sri Lanka an address of the National State Assembly recomme and safeguarded in this particular way so that he ma terial control. The Commissioner of Elections also f Bodies) under the Local Authorities Elections Ordina:
For purpose of Elections to the National State Registering Officers who cover the whole Island) a June each year this revision commences and an enum the form of house-to-house visits by Grama Sevaka special enumerators are employed and householders qualifications for an individual to have his name enter Sri Lanka, being not less than 18 years of age on 1st resident at some particular address in an electoral di disqualifications for those who have been sentenced practices, insanity, etc., These registers are prepare Island, generally about December with due publicit the Registering Officers and after inquiries, the fin available in the various provincial towns. These regi general election or by-election. These same register voter to be entitled to vote at a local election has to Electoral Register for the time being in operation Authority is situated.
Principles on which elections are conducted, whethe are essentially similar. Convenient polling stations a goes to the polling station at which his name appears
with indelible ink receives an official ballot paper, sta the ballot paper appears the names of candidatees co appears a symbol which has been allocated to that par is to help a voter who even if somewhat illiterate cou he wishes to vote for and place his mark against tha paper takes it to a cubicle, where screened from obs provided, folds it and then deposits it in a sealed ballo Officer. At the close of the poll all the ballot paper together, sorted and counted in the persence of the c the election announced. The essential element in an n secret for any candidate he wishes. The party sy

VS
IONS
National State Assembly, (b) Local Authority. Republic of Sri Lanka the former House of y to a National State Assembly. In terms of ional State Assembly are required to be held er.
ng the whole Island, have a four-year term of ns in October/December of the year in which cils are concerned, similarly in the months of ening elections to the National State Assembly
n Council, 1946 (Reprint of 12th April, 1970) Cons of Sri Lanka. The law governing Local rities Elections Ordinance (Chapter 262) and
to the National State Assembly and Local The Commissioner of Elelctions is appointed and his removal from Office can only be upon ending his removal. His appointment is made ay be independent and not be subject to minisunctions as Commissioner of Elections (Local
nce.
Assembly, the Department (through the 23 annually revise the Electoral Registers. In neration takes place. This enumeration takes s in the rural areas while in the larger towns
are required to fill up forms. The essential red or retained in a register are citizenship of June of that revision year and being ordinarily _strict on 1st June. There are the other usual I to imprisonment been convicted of corrupt d in “draft' form and exhibited all over the y. Claims and objections are then invited by al registers are complied, certified and kept isters form the basis of electoral lists for any es are the basis for local election too. Any have his name on the National State Assembly for the electoral district in which the Local
er for National State Assembly or local bodies, are allocated to groups of voters. Each voter registered and after identification and marking amped or franked with the official mark. On ontesting that election and against each name ticular candidate. The purpose of the symbol d recognise the symbol of the party or person t name. The voter, after receiving his ballot servation, he marks it in secret with a pencil
t box which is placed in front of the Presiding s relating to the electorate or ward are mixed candidates and their agents and the winner of - election is liberty of the voter to vote freely stem is gaining popularity and the results of

Page 38
20
CONSTITUTI
the last three general elections (under the old constitution) held on 21st July, 1977, show t
During the year 1975, three by-elections Assembly for the Katana, Kankesanturai, ai was also held in 1976 to fill the vacancy for t
The Island has a very proud record of pe Very keen interest has been evinced as seen b menatry General Elections (under the old co At the last Parliamentary General Election (u was 85 per cent with an equally high percent to the National State Assembly, the averag voters at an all-island level as based on the 1.
The General Election for the Second Natio with the highest ever average poll at 87 pe Electoral District which polled on 12th Septe candidates contesting the Pottuvil Constituen
There were 6-8 million voters as certified in
II—THE ADM The Cabinet of Ministers as in other Comm of governmental policy. Day to day admini comprising officers of various services and gra
Subject to the provisions of the Constituti appointment, transfer, dismissal and disciplin
For purposes of administration a number each Ministry. There is a secretary in each M of Departments under the Ministery.
Functions of Ministries and Departments of A Secretary, subject to the general direction a or departments of government or other insti has been taken it is his business to see that it Minister takes responsibility for his departme
The functions of the various Ministries a below :-
Defence The Prime Minister functions as the Ministe Affairs and Minsiter of Plan Implementation.
Defence, Police, Citizenship, Immigratior within the purview of the Ministry of Defence
Departments under the Ministry are Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Fo
and Emigration and Registration of Perse tration of Persons.
Note.—Functions as assigned on 23 J Implementation are now under the charge Planning and Economic Affairs has been reco1

N AND GOVERNMENT
constitution) and in general election (under the present
at the country by and large votes party-wise. were held to fill the vacancies in the National State d Colombo South Electoral Districts. A by-election 1e Mulkirigala Electoral District. Lceful and orderly elections for a considerable period. i the fact that the all-island average poll at all Parlianstitution) since 1960 has been well over 80 per cent. ider the old constitution) in 1970, the all-island average ige in local elections. At the subsequent by-elections
· poll has been over 86 per cent. Total number of 175 certified registers was 6,488,957. nal State Assembly polled a record of 5•8 million votes r cent. These figures exclude also include Pottuvil mber, 1977, consequent to the death of one of the
N.
the electoral registers for the 1977 General Election.
NISTRATIVE SYSTEM Ionwealth countries is responsible for the formulation stration of the island is carried on by State Services ides. on, the Cabinet of Ministers shall have the power of ary control of all State Officers.
of departments of government are grouped under inistry entrusted with the general control and direction
Government nd control of his Minister, supervises the department itutions in charge of his Ministry. When a decision is carried out with all possible energy and skill. The nt's acts.
nd important departments under their control appear
r of Defence, Minister of Planning and Economic
- and Emigration and Registration of Persons falt
rce, Police Department, Department of Immigration ons of Indian Origin, and Department for the Regis
aly, 1977; the Ministries of Defence and Plan f the President of the Republic. The Ministry of stituted as Ministry of Finance and Planning.

Page 39
THE ADMINISTRATI
Planning and Economic Affairs and Plan Implementa The Ministries of Planning and Economic Affairs an of the Prime Minister.
Departments under the Ministries are National Planning, Economic Affairs, Department Secretariat, Regional Development, National Y Plan Implementation Department.
Local Government, Housing and Construction Local Government, Local Authorities Elections, Loca Town and Country Planning, Water Supply and Drain assigned the Ministry of Local Government, Housing
Departments under the Ministry are— Department of Local Government Service, Town :
Committees Department, Local Government D Buildings Department, State Engineering Corpoi Common Amenities Board.
Foreign Affairs Foreign Affairs Division of the Ministry of Defence had F A new Ministry was constituted in July 1977, under the
Functions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs include and Treaties, International Conferences, Protocol, Fore and Sri Lanka representation abroad.
Irrigation, Power and Highways Subjects assigned the Ministry of Irrigation, Power an lopment, Electrical Undertakings and Highways.
Departments under the Ministry are Irrigation Department, Sri Lanka Electricity Boar
Factory, River Valleys Development and Mahaw Department, State Development and Constructic and Equipment and Directorate of Works (Regi Reclamation and Development Board, and Centra
Trade Commerce and Trade, Government Supplies, Control of Marketing, Price Control, State Trading and Insurance
Departments under the Ministry are— Department of Commerce, Department of the Regist
ment Supplies, Department of Commodity Purch: Exports, Department for Development of Market Sri Lanka State Trading (General) Corporation, Sri Sri Lanka State Trading (Tractor) Corporation, Sri Corporation, Insurance Corporation of Ceylon, A of Price Control, and National Metric Conversion

E SYSTEM
ion I Plan Implementation are under the charges
of Census and Statistics, Export Promotion puth Council, State. Film Corporation, and
| Government Service, Janatha Committees, age, Housing and Construction are functions. ind Construction.
und Country Planning Department, Janatha . epartment, National Housing Department,.. ration, Building Materials Corporation, and:
hitherto functioned under the Prime Minister. e Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Foreign Relations, International Agreements. eign Government representation in Sri Lanka..
d Highways include Irrigations, Land Deve--
d, Department of Highways, Government eli Development Boards, Land Development on Corporation, Department of Machinery
onal), Colombo District (Low Lying Areas). I Engineering Consultancy Bureau.
FImports and Exports, Commodity Purchase,
are functions of the Ministry.
rar of Companies, Department of Governuse, Department of Control of Imports and ing, Co-operative Wholesale Establishment,
Lanka State Trading (Textiles) Corporation, Lanka State Trading (Consolidated Exports) sian Hotels Corporation Ltd., Department. Authority.

Page 40
22
CONSTITUT
Public Administration and Home Affairs Subjects assigned the Ministry include Pu Fund, Widows' and Orphans’ Pensions, E Affairs, Parliamentary Elections, Mosques
Departments under the Ministry are Public Administration, Government Agen
Department of Pensions, Official Lang Muslims Charitable Trusts, and Depar
Shipping, Aviation and Tourism Shipping, Tourism, Wilf Life Conservation
Departments under the Ministry are — Department of Merchant Shipping, De Port Commission, Ceylon Tourist Bo Life Conservation, Zoological Gardens, Services Corporation, Central Freight B Ceylon.
Education "The Ministry is in charge of all forms of edu
Departments under the Ministry are— Regional Departments of Education, UN
Department of Educational Publicati Publications Board, and Ceylon Natio
«Justice
Subjects assigned the Ministry are— Administration of the Courts of Justice
Tribunals and Prison Administration.
Departments under the Ministry areDepartment of the Attorney-General, D
Public Trustee, Department of Goveri the Bribery Commissioner, Departmer Supreme Court, District and Magistrat
Finance Subjects falling within the purview of the ! State Corporation, Inland Revenue, Custon
Departments under the Ministry areTreasury, Department of Inland Revenue
Department, Department of Credit C State Mortgage Bank, Agricultural a Lotteries Board, State Distilleries Co External Resources.

ION AND GOVERNMENT
·lic Administration, Pensions, Public Service Provident ome Affairs, Government Agencies, Official Language nd Muslims Charitable Trusts and Rural Development.
cies (Kachcheries), Department of the Registrar General, iage Affairs Department, Department of Mosques and
ment of Rural Development.
and Aviation are functions of the Ministry.
partment of Coast Lights, Port (Cargo) Corporation, ard, Ceylon Hotels Corporation, Department of Wild
Ceylon Shipping Corporation, Port Tally and Protective ureau of Sri Lanka, Civil Aviation Department, and Air
cation in Sri Lanka.
ESCO Secretariat Ceylon, Department of Examinations, ions, Bauddha Sravaka Dharma Peetaya, Education
nal Library Services Board.
, Law Reforms, Public Trustee Temporalities, Labour
epartment of the Legal Draftsman, Department of the nment Analyst, Department of Prisons, Department of at of Debt Conciliation, Department of the Registrar of e's Courts.
Ministry include Supply and Cadre, Finance, Accounts, ns, Excise, Valuation, Gemming and National Savings.
- Customs, Loan Board, Excise Department, Valuation Councils, Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon, nd Industrial Credit Corporation of Ceylon, National rporation, State Gem Corporation, and Department of

Page 41
THE ADMINISTRATI
Labour The Ministry is in charge of Labour.
The Department under the Ministry is— Department of Labour.
Industries and Scientific Affairs Subjects assigned the Ministry are--
Industries, Meteorology, Scientific Research, Geolo Departments under the Ministry are— Geological Survey Department, Salt Department, Paranthan Chemicals Corporation, Ceylon Cera Ceylon Mineral Sands Corporation, Ceylon Ceme ration, Ceylon Plywood Corporation, Ceylon Corporation, Ceylon Tyre Corporation, Ceylon Flour Milling Corporation, Ceylon Institute of S lizer Manufacturing Corporation, Ceylon Petrole
National Science Council, Bureau of Ceylon : Graphite Corporation, Ceylon Hard-board Corp ment of Small Industries, National Small Industri Corporation.
Cultural Affairs Functions of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs include Archaeology, National Museums, and National Archi
Departments under the Ministry are— Department of Cultural Affairs, Archaeological De
Department of National Museums.
Fisheries Functions assigned the Ministry of Fisheries are Adm Disputes, Fisheries Research and Development, Pe Fishing Craft, State-owned Fishing Trawlers, Distribut Cold Rooms, Ice Plants, and Fishing Rights.
Department under the Ministry are— Fisheries Division, Fishery Survey and Research
Ceylon Fishery Harbours Corporation.
Health The Ministry is in charge of Medical Services, Pub Ayurvedic Medical Services.
Departments under the Ministry are— Department of Health, Department of Ayurveda
Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
Information and Broadcasting The Ministry is in charge of Information, Broadcasti
Departments under the Ministry are Department of Information, Si Lanka Broadcasti
Printing, and State Printing Corporation.

VE SYSTEM
23
-gical Survey, and Salt production.
Industrial Development Board of Ceylon,
mic Corporation, National Salt Corporation, ent Corporation, National Paper Mills CorpoSteel Corporation, Ceylon Leather Products
State Hardware Corporation, Ceylon State -cientific and Industrial Research, State Fertium Corporation, Department of Meteorology, Standards, Atomic Energy Authority, State pration, National Apprentice Board, Departes Corporation and Ceylon Tobacco Industries
Cultural Affairs, Promotion of Arts and Crafts,
ves.
partment, National Archives Department, and
ministration of the Fisheries Ordinance, Fishing arl Banks, Coastal Fisheries, Registration of Eion and Marketing of Fish and Fish Products
Division, Ceylon Fisheries Corporation, and
lic Health Services, Laboratory Services, and
and Ayurvedic Drugs Corporation and State
ng, Press, and Government Printing.
ng Corporation, Department of Government.

Page 42
*24
CONSTITUT
Parliamentary Affairs and Sports
Functions assigned the Ministry of Parliam Encouragement and Development of Sports
Department of Rehabilitation functions u
Transport
Railways and co-ordination of Motor Trans
Departments under the Ministry are Railway Department, Department of Mot
Agriculture and Lands The Ministry is in charge of Agriculture, Extension, Food Production, State and Co
Departments under the Ministry are Department of Agriculture, Department o
Department of Minor Export Crops, I Peasantry Rehabilitation, Survey Depart State Timber Corporation, National Research and Training Institute, Paddy Development Board, and Ceylon Oils ar
Social Services Social Services including Social Welfare a Services are functions assigned the Ministry.
Departments under the Ministry are— Social Services Department and Probation,
Posts and Telecommunications Posts and Telecommunication services includ are functions assigned the Ministry.
Department under the Ministry isPost and Telecommunications Department.
Food and Co-operatives The Ministry is in charge of food supply, co Co-operative Employees Commission.
Departments under the Ministry areDepartment of Food Commissioner, Dep
of Co-operative Societies, and Co-operat
Plantation Industries The Ministry has under its charge, Tea, Rub Cashew Cultivation, Mulberry and Silk Produc of Tea and Rubber Lands.

CION AND GOVERNMENT
entary Affairs and Sports include Parliamentary Affairs, s and Provision of Recreational Facilities.
nder the Ministry.
port are functions of the Ministry.
For Traffic, and Ceylon Transport Board.
Agrarian Services, Veterinary Services, Research and operative Farms, Land Reform, and State Forests.
f Agrarian Services, Land Commissioner's Department, Land Settlement Department, Department of Kandyan
ment, Forest Department, Sri Lanka Sugar Corporation, Milk Board, Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation, Agrarian
Marketing Board, Land Reform Commission, Livestock ad Fats Corporation.
.nd Vocational Training, Probation and Child Care
, and Child Care Services Department.
ing Overseas Telecommunication and Satellite Stations
ntrol and distribution, Co-operative undertakings, and
artment of Co-operative Development and Registrar ive Employees Commission.
ber, Coconut and Palmyrah, Industries Development, tion, State Plantations, and Agricultural Diversification

Page 43
JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF
Departments under the Ministry are Sri Lanka Tea Board, Sri Lanka State Trading (Tea)
Authority, Rubber Research Institute, Rubber C turing Corporation, State Plantations Corporation Cultivation and Coconut Processing Boards, Co Board, Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation, Janawas Development Authority.
Textile Industry Development, Control and Regulation of Textile I State-owned Textile Manufacturing Exterprises, Sup Co-operative Sector Textile Industries and Production of the Ministry of Textile Industry.
Departments and State-owned Ventures under the M Textile Industries Department, National Textile (
and State-owned Business Undertakings, Wellaw J. B. Textiles, and Libra Industries.
IV—JUDICIAL SYSTEM
The hierachy of Courts in the Republic of Sri Lanka es of 1889, was replaced on 1st January, 1974, by a ner Administration of Justice Law, No. 44 of 1973. The . Law consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts, Di High Courts, District Courts and Magistrate's Court districts and divisions. The Judges of the Supreme by the President of the Republic. The age of retiren 63 years while that of High Court Judges is 61 years. I by the Cabinet of Ministers on the recommendations o
Supreme Court The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and revisionary jurisdiction in all cases and is the only su the rectification of omissions in fact or in law committ Court may also grant and issue mandates in the nature o procedendo, prohibition and Habeas Corpus. The ap in respect of judgements of Magistrate's Courts is exei of the judgements of District Courts and High Courts Court may also transfer cases out of any court of lowe Court is final and conclusive. It has also the power t of contempt committed in dis-respect of itself or any ot
High Courts There are at present 16 High Courts in the Island sit of the High Court extends to all prosecutions upon offences as. murder, homicide, man-slaughter, rape any sentence authorised by law. Every trial before a Judge. A High Court may grant and issue injuctions jurisdiction to hear admiralty cases and election petiti shall be triable before a High Court at Bar by three Ju in his discretion order that any trial be held by Jury befi

SRI LANKA
Corporation, Tea Small holdings Development ontrol Department, State Rubber Manufac-- , Coconut Development Authority, Coconut conut Marketing Board, Coconut Research ama, Uswasama, Silk and Allied Products.
ndustries, Management and Supervision of ervision and Co-ordination of Private and of Textile Manufacture Exports are functions
inistry are Corporation, Weaving Supplies Corporation ratte Spinning and Weaving, Ceylon Silks,
OF SRI LANKA
tablished under the Courts Ordinance (No. 1): w system brought into operation under the Judiciary under the administration of Justice strict Courts and Magistrate's Courts. The
are established respectively for the Zones, Court and the High Courts are appointed nent of the Judges of the Supreme Courts is District Judges and Magistrates are appointed f the Judicial Services Advisory Board.
19 other Judges. It exercises appellate and perior court of record with jurisdiction for ed by any subordiante court. The Supreme f writes of mandamus, quo-warranto, certiorari, pellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court -cised by at least 2 judges and that in respect exercised by at least 3 judges. The Supreme r jurisdiction. A judgement of the Supreme o punish in a summary manner any offence her court,
cing in the 16 Zones. Criminal jurisdiction indictment, which include the more serious. and robbery. A High Court may impose High Court is by a jury before a High Court
to prevent irremediable mischief and has ons. The trial of offences against the State Iges without a Jury. The Chief Justice may are three High Court Judges to be nominated.

Page 44
26
CONSTITUTIC
by him. The Minister of Justice may also d Law (Criminal Procedure) that any offence by three Judges without a Jury.
District Courts There are 44 District Courts in Sri Lanka p have original jurisdiction in all civil, revenu and of the persons and estates of those with i des-tui-que-trust and of guardians and trust Competent Authority to deal with uncontes of the District Court extends to all prosecuti a High Court. The District Court may impo
(a) Imprisonment for a term not exceeding (6) A fine not exceeding Rs. 5,000. (C) Whipping. (d) Any lawful sentence combining any two
A district Court may try offences affecting re to such offences although the same may exce to impose.
The Magistrate's Courts There are 67 Magistrate's Courts in the Islan 28 are presided over by Magistrates who are co Courts have civil jurisdiction to hear all case in value. The criminal jurisdiction of Magist for which the maximum punishment prescrib of Rs. 7,000. The Magistrate's Court may in
(@) Imprisonment for a term not exceeding (6) A fine not exceeding Rs. 1,500. (c) Whipping (d) Any lawful sentence combining any two
There are 8 Magistrate's Courts sitting in C a Municipal Magistrate's Court. Under the ! on the Magistrate's Court to make orders for
The Administration of Justice Law also e of specific categories of offences. According to hear admiralty cases and the District Coun
Detailed information as regards Courts, Ju
Courts
Place of sittings
Supreme Court
High Courts District Courts
1 A 16 - 16 44
48
Magistrate's Courts
39 43
On
Juvenile Court
On

ON AND GOVERNMENT
irect under Chapter 2 of the Adminstration of Justice of public imporance be tried by a High Court at Bar
resided over by District Judges. The District Courts ne, matrimonial, insolvency and testamentary matters ansound mind, minors, wards and of the estates of ees. The Public Trustee has been declared the sole sted testamentary matters. The criminal jurisdiction -ons upon indictment that do not merit a trial before ose any of the following sentences :-
5 years.
p of the aforesaid. evenue laws of Sri Lanka and impose fines appertaining eed the maximum sum which such court is authorised
d, 39 of which are presided over by Magistrates while ncurrently appointed District Judges. The Magistrates s involving property which does not exceed Rs. 1,500 crate's Courts tends to the adjudication of all offences ped is not in excess of 7 years imprisonment or a fine
mpose any of the following sentences :- 18 months.
p of the aforesaid. olombo one of which is a Juvenile Court and the other Maintenance Ordinance special jurisdiction is conferred the maintenance of wives and children. mpowers the Minister of Justice to nominate a court ply the High Court of Colombo has been nominated It of Colombo to hear cases on the offence of bribery.
diges and Magistrates, appear below:
Judges
Chief Justice and 20 Puisne Judges
High Court Judges District Judges (there are five Judges for the District Courts of Colombo)
Magistrates (there are four Magistrates for the Magistrate's Court of Colombo). e Juvenile Court Magistrate ly one court functions in Colombo. (in the other udicial Divisions the Magistrates perform such Functions)

Page 45
JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF
Commercitation Boards Conciliation Boards Act (No. 10) of 1958 empowers the
ations consisting of not less than 12 persons for three areas as determined by the Minister. The purpose of settlement of disputes arising in these areas before p boards apart from relieving the pressure on the formal disputes expeditiously and without any form of expen these boards natuarlly tends to reduce incidence of Conciliation Boards are rendering a great service to the p
The Criminal Justice Commissions Under the Criminal Justice Commisions Act, No. 14 may establish a Criminal Justice Commission to try--
(1) offences in connection with, in the course of, or (ii) offences in relation to currency or foreign excha
the national economy or interest, or (iii) widespread offences of destruction, damage or
other installations, whether public or private.
where in his opinion the practice and procedure of th criminal justice for the purpose of securing trial and such offences. Membership of Criminal Justice Comm Court.
Language of the Courts
With the promulgation of the Republic Constitution, empowered by the Law to administer Justice and all Coi under the Industrial Disputes Act and Conciliation Bo The Constitution, however, enables parties, motions an in Tamil Language in the Northern and Eastern provir
Judicial Services Advisory Board The Judicial Services Advisory Board, established und of the Chief Justice as the Chairman and of four othe the four members, one is appointed from amongst Ju Justice Law, No. 44 of 1973, and another member a Tribunal, or such persons as may be empowered by the I and functions of Labour Tribunals.
A Member of the National State Assembly is preclu
A Secretary to the Board is appointed by the Cabinet ( of the Board.
The functions of the Board are to submit to the C mended for appointment as Judicial Officers and State | ist of applicants and effect the transfer of such Judges to the Minister of Justice. These provisions apply o salary.
The power to make certain acting appointments of J has been delegated by the Cabinet to the Secretary to 1
Every member of the Board holds office for four yea

SRI LANKA
27
Minister of Justice to form panels of conci-- year periods for every village area and other these boards is to bring about an amicable irties go to formal Courts of Law. These Courts provide an acceptable way of settling diture. Speedy settlement of disputes by rime. Statistics collected indicate that the eople.
of 1972, the President of the Republic:
during any rebellion or insurrection, or
nge of such a scale a nature as to endanger
destroying of factories, industrial plant and
e ordinary courts are inadequate to administer punishment of the perons who committed ission are confined to Judges of the Supreme
the language of the Courts and Tribunals, urts, Tribunals, other institutions established sards became Sinhala throughout Sri Lanka. ad petitions to participate in the proceedings. aces.
ler Section 125 of the Constitution, consists. er members appointed by the President. Of dges appointed under the Administration of -ppointed from amongst Prezidents, Labour National State Assembly to exercise the powers.
ded from being a member of the Board. of Ministers in consultation with the Chairman
cabinet of Ministers a list of persons recomDifficers administering Justice, together with a. and other State Officers, subject to an appeal aly to transfers not involving an increase in
adges and State Officers administering Justice:
he Board.
rs unless he ceases to be a member earlier.

Page 46
*28
CONSTITUT
-Judicial Services Disciplinary Board
The Judicial Services Disciplinary Board i exercise the powers of dismissal and discipl Administration of Justice Law, No. 44 of .
The Board consists of the Chief Justice wl Court nominated by the President of the Re
The Secretary to the Judicial Services ..Judicial Services Disciplinary Board.
When the Judicial Services Disciplinary B through the Minister of Justice a report ther shall be transmitted to the Speaker of the administering Justice found guilty of misco .an address of the National State Assembly.
The Judicial Services Disciplinary Board on such particulars of the charge as are all or State Officer administering Justice broug of the Judicial Services Disciplinary Board
V_LOCA
Of the 25,332 square miles of land in Sri La under some local authority or other. A Tota 549 Village Councils ; 83 Town Councils; 3
Village Councils Vlilage Councils have very limited revenue r Councils, Urban Councils and Municipal Co is no limit in the number of wards of Village number of wards in terms of the powers ves
Town Councils Town Councils have been established in sm a few councils in the Island which are more population and urbanity. The number of w of 3 and a maximum of 8 wards. Represen Council status to progressive town council a
Urban Councils Urban Councils have been established in to council areas. These councils rank next ir apparently marked by such factors as popu there are in fact Urban Councils which ar The manum of wards in an Urban Coun
Municipal Cancis
Municipal Councils cover the densely popul "various types of Local Government Authorit "population, Social and other Welfare Acti
is not fixed.

ION AND GOVERNMENT
- established under section 127 of the Constitution to nary control of Judges of Courts established under the 973 and of other State Officers administering Justice. o is the Chairman and two other Judges of the Supreme public.
dvisory Board also functions as the Secretary to the
pard exercises its power of dismissal, the Board forwards eon to the Cabinet of Ministers. A copy of such report
National State Assembly. Any Judge or State Officer nduct may be removed from office by the President on
reports to the Speaker of the National State Assembly eged in a motion for removal from office of any Judge
ht before the National State Assembly, and the findings on the particulars of such charge are final.
AL GOVERNMENT
nka, all areas, excluding Trincomalee Dockyard, comes al of about 682 Local Authorities in the island comprised
8 Urban Councils and 12 Municipal Councils.
esources and other facilities in comparison to Town uncils and have more or less no Urban outlook. There
Councils. The Minister concerned may decide on any ted in him.
all towns with an urban outlook. There are however, developed than some of the Urban Councils as regards ards in a Town Council has been limited to a minimum Itations from local residents ensure granting of Urban reas.
wns where urbanity is more conspicuous than in town
order to Municipalities. Althlough the difference is ation, community development and welfare activities, | more Urbanised than some of the Municipal Areas. il is not fixed but the maximum number is 12.
ited and vastly developed areas in the Island. Of the es, Municipal Councils occupy the foremost as regards ities. The number of wards in a Municipal Council

Page 47
LOCAL GOVERN
The Department of Local Government which was purposes for which reorganisation was designed. Th the local government system ; supervision and effec an equitable distribution and proper utilization of ce made possible with the division of the Department in Development and Control and Management which of Local Government.
Local Government Service There are 2 categories of employees in local authorit
(1) Members of the Local Government Service ; (2) Employees recruited direct by the various local
The local government service was constituted under of monthly paid employees of Municipal, Urban and : than those employees whose posts are specified in the government service constituted under the Local Go deemed to be members of the service constituted unde of the Act which are deemed as non-local government
(1) Any appointment of a temporary or casual nati (2) Any appointment in a Municipal Council if the
appointment does not exceed Rs. 4,000 (consol (3) Any appointment in an Urban Council, if the r
appointment does not exceed Rs. 3,500 (conso (4) Any appointment in a Town Council or a Villa
assigned to such appointment does not exceed The Minister of Local Government is responsible i dismissal and disciplinary control of members of th
The Local Government Service Advisory Board a Board have been established to advise the Minister in
Conditions of service applicable to the local govern of state service. The Local Government Service Per
Widows' and Orphans’ Pension Fund are now in opera posts could contribute to the Local Government Servi
Department of Local Government Service.--Recru remunerations, disciplinary control of members of t control and supervision, etc., of Local Government S and the Provident Fund are the main functions of th expended in the performance of these functions durin
With a view to regulating the local government revised and re-drafted equating posts in the service wit
A decentralised scheme of transfers was impleme employees. Transfers within a district were accord composed of the Regional A. C. L. G. while transfer by the Central Transfer Board of the Department.
There were 2,004 pensioners and a sum of Rs. 7,8 local government service up to the end of 1975. E
Widows' and Orphans’Pension Fund stood at 559 as at payment as pensions.

NMENT
29
re-organised in 1973, has achieved the main ere has then been an efficient development of tive control of local government work and entral government assistance. This has been to three main working groups viz :-Planning, function under three Deputy Commissioners
sistance, ment work at of
ies, Viz.--
authorities.
the L. G. S. Act, (No. 16 of 1974, and consists Town Councils and also Village Councils other
schedule of the Act. Members of the local vernment Service Act, No. 18 of 1969, are r the new Act. Posts specified in the schedule t service are : ure in any local authority,
maximum of the salary scale assigned to such idated) per annum. naximum of the salary scale assigned to such lidated) per annum ; ge Council if the maximum of the salary scale
Rs. 3,000 (consolidated) per annum.
For and has powers of appointment, transfer,
e local government service.
and Local Government Service Disciplinary - the discharge of such powers and functions.
ament service are somewhat similar to those asion Scheme and Local Government Service tion. Employees who do not hold pensionable ice Provident Fund. Litment, appointment, promotions, transfers, Ehe local government service, administration service Pension Scheme, W. and O. P. Fund e Department. A sum of Rs. 2,173,870 was g 1975.
service, schemes of recruitment have been th parallel posts in the state service. nted in 1975, for local government service ingly made by the District Transfer Board s from one District to another were effected
15,737 had been paid as pensions under the Beneficiaries in the local government service end of the year involving a sum of Rs.1,137,119

Page 48
30
CONSTITUTI
Local Government Service Advisory and Discij The Local Government Service Commission disciplinary activities, pensions and allowar since 1946, was re-organised under the terms The Local Government Service Advisory Bo such matters as appointments, promotions
government service.
The Local Government Service disciplinary of Act, No. 16 of 1974, by the National State
The Board submits recommendations rega local government service employees on appea
VI-DIPLO
Information on the Diplomatic Service as at 3 Countries which have established diplomati
Afghanistan Arab Republic of Egypt Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada China, People's Republic of Chile Cuba Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Denmark Finland France Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, Democratic Republic of Ghana Greece Hungary, People's Republic of India Indonesia Iran Iraq Italy Japan Jordan Kuwait

ON AND GOVERNMENT
Llinary Board which dealt with appointments, promotions, transfers,. ces of employees of the local government service
of Local Government Service Act, No. 16 of 1974. ard was incorporated on 23 May, 1974, to deal with and policy matters concerning employees of local
Board was established on 23 May, 1974, in pursuance Assembly.
rding punishments and other disciplinary matters of Is made to the Minister of Local Government.
OMATIC SERVICE
31 December, 1975, appears below :-
c relations with Sri Lanka, are :
Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives, Republic of Mexico Mongolia, People's Republic of Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Pakistan Philippines Poland, People's Republic of Portugal Romania, Socialist Republic of Singapore Spain Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Turkey United Kingdom and Great Britain United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of

Page 49
DIPLOMATIC SI
Diplomatic Corps
Country
Name of the Head of Dr. M. Rahim Sherzoy
Afghanistan
Arab Republic of Egypt. His Excellency Mr. Moha
- El Nawawi Argentina
Dr. Emso Italo Alberto
Australia Austria
Belgium
His Excellency Mr. A. H. His Excellency Dr. Wolfg
lenberg His Excellency Mr. Jean
Solmon His Excellency Mr. Robe
Assumpcao de Aranjo His Excellency Mr. Stoya
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burma
His Excellency U Mahn 1 Canada
Her Excellency Miss Mar.
Macpherson China, People's Republic of His Excellency Mr. Huan Cuba
Her Excellency Mrs. Ai
Gonzalez Suarez Czechoslovakia
His Excellency Mr. Franti Denmark
His Excellency Mr. Henni
Finland
Her Excellency Miss Ritt
France
Germany, Federal
Republic of Germany, Democratic
Republic of Ghana
His Excellency Monsie
Anthonioz Her Excellency Dr. (Mis
gunde Feilner His Excellency Mr. Kraft
Greece Guyana, Republic of
Hungary India
His Excellency Mr. Paul
Duah His Excellency Mr. Basil His Excellency Mr.
Gajraj His Excellency Dr. Feren His Excellency Shri G
Singh His Excellency Mr. Soeki His Escellency Mr. M
Selli His Excellency Mr. Tow
Jabber His Excellency Dr. Fabi
bricotti
Indonesia Iran

RVICE
31
fission
Designation Minister-Counsellor and Charge
d'Affaires (Resident in New
Delhi) mad Atef Ambassador
Charge d’Affaires (Resident in New
Delhi) Borthwick High Commissioner ang Schal Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) 1. Charles Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) rto Duiz Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) in Zaimov Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) 'ha Myaing Ambassador lon Adams High Commissioner
g Wing-ta Ambassador na Maira Ambassador
isek Malik Ambassador
ng Halck Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) a Oro Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) ur Pierre Ambassador
s) Hilde- Ambassador
Bumbel Ambassador
Boakye High Commissioner (Resident in
New Dlehi) Jitsaxic High Commissioner Rahaman High Commissioner, (Resident
in New Delhi) Tuir .. Ambassador urbachan High Commissioner (Resident
in New Delhi) man
..Ambassador noutcher Ambassador (Resident in Islama
bad) fiq Abdul Ambassador
Ezio Fab- Ambassador

Page 50
CONSTITUTIO
Country
Japan Jordan
Name of the H His Excellency Mi His Excellency M.
Kenya, Republic of
His Excellency Mi
of
Korea, Democratic People's His Excellency M
Republic of Kuwait
His Excellency
Rhaman Al-Ess Laos
His Excellency M
Upravan Lebanon
His Excellency
Hafea Libya, Arab Republic of His Excellency Mr
Miladi Malaysia
His Excellency Mr
Mahmud Maldives, Republic of
His Excellency M
Didi Mexico
His Excellency M
errez Macias Mongolia
His Excellency
Dashtseren Nepal
His Excellency Mi
Malla Netherlands
His Excellency
Meurs New Zealand
His Excellency Mr
Nigeria
His Excellency Mr.
Norway
Pakistan
Philippines
His Excellency
Cristiansen His Excellency M
Khan His Excellency M
Саусо His Excellency
Kinecki His Excellency Dr
Poland
Romania
Singapore
His Excellency M
Spain
His Excellency
Nadal His Excellency T
Ahamed Sahoul
Sudan

N AND GOVERNMENT
ead of Mission
Designation
-. Akira Yoshioka Ambassador Ir. Wajih Kailani Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi ) E.S. K. Kimalel High Commissioner (Resident in
New Delhi) r. Yu Song Jin
· Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Ar. Essa Abdul Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) ir. Phagua Souk Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Mr. Mahmoud Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) -. Abdussalam El Ambassador
. Mustapha Dato High Commissioner
Ir. Hussain Ali Ambassador
r. Carlos Guti- Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Mr. Buyantyn Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) . Krishna Bom Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Mr. T. J. A. Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) . R. E. B. Peren High Commissioner (Resident
in Singapore) Soji Williams
High Commissioner (Resident in
New Delhi) Mr. Torbjora Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) r. Abdur Rauf Ambassador
Ir. Librado D. Ambassador
Mr. Wiktor Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) . Petre Tanasie Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) | K. M. Byrne High Commissioner (Resident in
New Delhi) Mr. Guillermo Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Mr. Sayed Ali Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi)

Page 51
DIPLOMATIC SI
Country
Name of the Head of
Sweden
His Excellency M
Finnmark
Switzerland
His Excellency Mr.
Chatelain
Thailand
His Excellency Mr. (
wart Narueput
Trinidad and Tobago
His Excellency M
Satcumar Lutchm
Turkey
His Excellency Mr.
Uskun
United Kingdom of Great His Excellency Mr.
Britain
United States of America
His Excellency Mr.
Van Hollen
Union of the Soviet Socialist His Excellency Mr.
Republic
Nishanov
Vietnam, Democratic Republic His Excellency Mr.
of
Bien
Mr. Nyuyen Ngoc S
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal His Excellency Mr
Republic of
Martinovic
Consular Corps
Countries represented by Honorary Consuls are :-
Austria
Gree
Brazil
Liber
Denmark
Mex Neth
Dominican Republic
Other Representation
Other Representation in Sri Lanka include Trade Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the Peopl of Korea, the Colombo Plan Council for Techical Asia, the United Nations Development Programme the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Healt
Organisation. 3-A 31485

RVICE
33
Mission
Designation
r. Lennart Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi)
Francois P. Ambassador
Dwart Suthi- Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi)
F. Solomon High Commissioner (Resident
in New Delhi)
an
Gundogdu Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi)
H. Smedly High Commissioner
Christopher Ambassador
Rafik
Ambassador
Chu Van Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Charge d' Affaires, ad interim
ingh
Slobedan Ambassador
Norway Spain
co
Sweden
rlands
Turkey
epresentations of the People's Republic of 's Republic of Rumania and the Republic
Co-operation in South and South East the United Nations Information Centre, Organisation and the Food and Agriculture

Page 52
34
CONSTITUTION
Sri Lanka Representation Abroad
Sri Lanka has established Diplomatic Missio
Arab Republic of Egypt
Australia
Belgium
Britain
Burma
Canada
China, People's Republic of
France
Germany, Federal Republic of
India
Indonesia
Iraq
Italy
Names and designations of Resident Represe
Country
Name of Re!
Arab Republic of
Egypt
His Excellency
goonewarden
Australia
His Excellency) Mr. P. Nagarat
Belgium
His Excellency Mi
ratne
Britain
His Excellency Mi
Burma
His Excellency M
ratne
Canada
His Excellency Dr
China, People's Republic of His Excellency 1
Karannagoda
France
His Excellency Dr
chandra

AND GOVERNMENT
is in the following countries :
Japan
Kenya
Malaysia, Federation of
Pakistan
Philippines
Sweden
Switzerland
Thailand
United Nations, New York
United States of America
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
Yugoslavia
entatives in these countries are :-
presentative
Designation
Mr. H. O. Wije- Ambassador
Mr. T.S. Fernando High Commissioner nam
Trade Commissioner (Resident
in Sydney)
. Tilak E. Goone- Ambassador
L. V. L. B. Mendis High Commissioner
r. H. R. Prema- Ambassador
H. W. Tambiah
High Commissioner
Ir. R. L. A. I.
Ambassador
V. R. E. Sarach
Ambassador

Page 53
DIPLOMATIC SER'
Country
Name of Represen Germany, Federal Republic of His Excellency Mr. M.C India
His Excellency Mr. Justi
dena Dr. S. U. Kodikara
Mr. W. Tennekoon
Indonesia
Iraq
Italy Japan
Kenya
His Excellency Mr. K. SI His Excellency Mr. Feisa His Excellency Mr. J. E. J His Excellency Mr. B. P
ratne His Excellency Mr. W.
kulasuriya His Excellency Dr. K. I
giyawanne Her Excellency Mrs. The
wardhana Mr. T. G. Ariyaratna,
Malaysia, Federation of
Pakistan
Philippines
Mr. J. Oliver Perera Sweden
His Excellency R. C.S. K Switzerland
Mr. W. S. L. de Alwis Thialand
Mr. L. B. C. Monerawel: United Nations, New York
His Excellency Mr. H. S
singhe United States of America
His Excellency Mr. N. T.
karatna Union of Soviet Socialist His Excellency Dr. C. E.
Republic
tunga Yugoslavia
His Excellency Mr. E.
Jayawardena
Sri Lanka is concurrently accredited to the countries !
Afghanistan -
Luxem Algeria
Mexico Austria
Mongo Brazil
Nepal Cambodia
Nether Cuba
New Z Czechoslavakia
Norwa Denmark
Philipp Ethiopia
Poland Finland
Rumar German Democratic Republic
Singap Hungary
Sudan Iran
Switzer Jordan
Tanzar Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
Thailar Laos
Uganda Lebanon
Vietnan Libya
Zambia

ІСЕ
"35
tative
Designation
W. Pinto Ambassador n Siriwar- High Commissioner
Deputy High Commissioner
(Resident in Madras) Trade Commissioner (Resident
in Boambay) hinya
Ambassador al Junaid Ambassador 5. Rodrigo Ambassador -. Tilaka- Ambassador
T. Wije- High Commissioner
L. V. Ala- High Commissioner
eja Guna- Ambassador
Trade Commissioner (Resident
in Karachchi)
Charge d' Affaires oelmeyer
Ambassador
Consul-General
Charge d' Affaires 3. Amera- Permanent Representative
D. Kana- Ambassador
S. Weera- Ambassador
W. P. S. Ambassador
given below: bourg
, United States of olia
lands ealand
eines
nia Ore
Fland nia ad
m, Democratic Republic of

Page 54
36
CONSTI
Names and designations of Sri Lanka |
Country
Name e
Afghanistan
His Excellen
dena Algeria
(Vacant) Austria
(Vacant) Brazil
His Excellent
singhe Cambodia
(Vacant) Cuba
(Vacant) Czechoslovakia
His Excellenc
tunga
Mr. A. J. Ob Denmark
His Excellenc
meyer Ethiopia
(Vacant) Finland
His Excellenc
meyer German Democratic Re- His Excellenc
public
tunga Hungary
His Excellenc
tunga Iran
Her Excellenc
wardhana Jordan
(Vacant) Korea, Democratic People's (Vacant)
Republic of Laos
(Vacant) Lebanon
(Vacant) Libya
(Vacant) Luxembourg
His Excellency
ratne Mexico, United States of His Excellency
karatna Mongolia
His Excellenc
Karannagod Nepal
His Excellency
dena Netherlands
His Excellency
ratne New Zealand
His Excellency
Norway
His Excellency
meyer His Excellency
ratna
Philippines

UTION AND GOVERNMENT
epresentatives in these countries are :- F Representative
Designation
y Mr. Justin Siriwar- Ambassador (Resident in New
Delhi) Ambassador(Resident in Belgrade)
Ambassador y Mr. H. S. Amera- Ambassador
(Resident in New York) Ambassador
Ambassador y Dr. C. E. S. Weera- Ambassador(Resident in Moscow)
esekera
Trade Representative y Mr. R. C. S. Koel- Ambassador (Resident in Stock
holm)
Ambassador y Mr. R. C. S. Koel- Ambassador (Resident in Stock
holm) w Dr. C. E. S. Weera- Ambassador (Resident in Moscow)
- Dr. C. E. S. Weera- Ambassador (Resident in Moscow)
ey Mrs. Theja Guna- Amabssador (Resident in Islama
bad) Ambassador Ambassador
Ambassador Ambassador
Ambassador Mr. Tilak E. Goone. Ambassador (Resident in Brussels)
Mr. N. T. D. Kan- Ambassador (Resident in Washing
ton) | Mr. R. L. A. I. Ambassador (Resident in Peking)
Mr. Justin Siriwar- Ambassador (Resdient in New
Delhi) Mr. Tilak E. Goone- Ambassador (Resident in Brussels)
Mr. T.S. Fernando High Commissioner (Resident in
Canberra) Mr. R. C. S. Koel- (Ambassador Resident in Stock
holm) Mr. B. P. Tilaka- Ambassador (Resident in Tokyo)

Page 55
DEFEN
Country
Name of Repri
Poland
His Excellency Dr. C. E
tunga Roumania
His Excellency Dr. C. E
tunga Singapore
His Excellency Mr. H.
ratne Sudan
(Vacant) Switzerland
His Excellency Dr. V. E.
chandara Tanzania
(Vacant) Thailand
His Excellency Mr. H.
ratne. Uganda
(Vacant) Vietnam, Democratic Re- His Excellency Mr. R.
public of
Karannagoda Zambia
(Vacant)
Sri Lanka representation abroad also includes t representatives, Honorary Consul Generals, Consuls
Austria
Mr. K. Hawlicok Denmark
Mr. U. M. Jorgenson Federal Republic of Ger
many Hamburg and Schleswig- Mr. Olav Ellerbrock
Holstein West Berlin
(Vacant Munich
Mr. Franz Joseph Deloi New Zealand
Mr. D. M. P. Hay Singapore
Mr. U. W. de Silva United States of America
Chicago
Mr. George F. Sisler Los Angeles
Mr. Maxc Donald Beck New Orleans
Mr. C. C. Walther Seattle
(Vacant)
VII-DEFFE
Sri Lanka Army The Sri Lanka Army functions under the Minister of agricultural work, conducting training courses and also
The army has continued to deploy personnel of th of the Volunteer Force to assist in the amintenan troops were continuously deployed in the anti-illicit
Apart from training courses conducted at the AT arranged in the U. K., India, and Pakistan for certai
In the field of agricultural development assistance to repair unserviceable tractors.

CE
esentative
Designation .S. Weera- Ambassador (Resident in Moscow)
C.S. Weera- Ambassador (Resident in Moscow)
R. Prema- High Commissioner (Resident in
Rangoon)
Ambassador .R. Sarach- Ambassador (Resident in Paris)
High Commissioner
R. Prema
Ambassador(Resident in Rangoon)
High Commissioner Ambassador (Resident in Peking)
L. A. I.
High Commissioner
he following countries which have as official and a Trade Commissioner :-
Honorary Consul-General Honorary Consul-General
Honorary Consul-General
nge
Honorary Consul Honorary Consul Honorary Trade Commissioner Honorary Trade Commissioner
Honorary Consul Honorary Consul Honorary Consul-General Honorary Consul
INCE
Defence and has been assigned security duties, affords assistance to other state departments.
e Regular Force as well as mobilised personnel e of law and order in the country. Further, mmigration and the anti-smuggling drive.
C Diyatalawa, overseas training courses were
selected officers and other ranks.
I was afforded to the Agricultural Department

Page 56
38
CONSTITUTIO
Assistance to the Health Department in th the transportation of urgent food commodities of the Colomb-Katunayake highway were othe
Under the scheme of development projects th of the phosphate project at Eppawela. Jung crash food production campaign under the R Stage III—Kalawewa under the Mahaveli I cultivation purposes has also been undertaken
Clearing and levelling of the building sites for tion at Minneriya, the Mosart tile factory at were other items of work undertaken under the
Army teams have participated in National laurels. They have also competed with foreig
Sri Lanka Navy The Navy Act (Chapter 358) of the Revised Edi the regulations and administrative procedure o Regular Naval Reserve and Volunteer Naval R
The cadre of the Regular Naval Force is 193 Naval Force is 50 officers and 500 sailors. T. bases at Trincomalee, Karainagar, Welisara, Ta
The main naval base is at Trincomalee wit Maritime Academy. The Naval and Maritir conducts basic and refresher courses for officer Corporation and Fisheries Corporation perse called on to deal with fires ashore in Trincome of Trincomalee is administered by the Naval O the Deputy Master Attendant.
* The Main Wireless Station at Welisara sery and merchant ships and also monitors weather and ships at sea, and also foreign news bulletir
The Navy continues its main role of carry patrols in the northern and north-eastern wate 1975 was Rs. 334,169, SLNS GAJABAHU, SAMU BALAWATHA, RANAKAMEE and DAKSHAYA tog in continuous sea patrols off the coast of Sri
The Navy extends its specialist services to 8 officers and 55 sailors were loaned to the Ce the Colombo Port Commission.
Sri Lanka Air Force The Sri Lanka Air Force officially came into consisted of seconded personnel including a Force and directly enlisted personnel. Ceylor the departure of the last seconded R.A.F. of A. F, Katunayaka. The first Ceylonese to coi

AND GOVERNMENT
Anti Malaria Campaign, the Food Department in ind the Department of Highways in the construction : activities the Army carried out during the year.
Army constructed buildings for storage of explosives le clearing was undertaken in connection with the nbima State –Mahiyangana, Stage II—Kuadulla, evelopment Schemes. A vast extent of land for by the army.
the spinning factory of the National Textile Corpora
Balangoda and the agricultural Centre at Dompe scheme.
Championships in various items of sports winning I teams showing prowes in sports activities.
tion of the Legislative Enactment of Ceylon provides f the Regular Naval Force, Volunteer Naval Force, eserve.
officers and 2,370 sailors and that of the Volunteer he Naval Headquarters are located in Colombo with Ingalla and Kalpitiya.
h the Base Stores, Workshops and the Naval and ne Acadamy being the main naval training centre s and sailors. Training is also afforded to Shipping onnel. The Naval Fire Service at Trincomalee is elee and on board vessels in the harbour. The Port fficer-in-charge (Trincomalee) who also functions as
es as a link between the Central Telegraph Office forecasts broadcast by other metereological stations
ing out anti-illicit immigration and anti-smuggling s of Sri Lanka. Value of contraband seized during DRA DEVI, HANSAYA, LIHINIYA, soORAYA, WEERAYA, ther with the Thornycraft Patrol Craft are engaged Lanka.
other Government Departments and Corporations ; Ion Shipping Corporation, Ministry of Fisheries and
being by an Act of Parliament in 1949. Initially it Royal Air Force Sri Lanka Platoon, Royal Air sation of the Air Force was completed in 1965 with cer who held the post of Station Commander R. Cy. mand the Air Force assumed office in October, 1962.

Page 57
DEFENCE
The Air Force Commander is responsible to the Mini is also the Prime Minister), for the operation, admin The President of the Republic of Sri Lanka, as the exercises overall control.
The Air Force, has been organised into different for Operational Squadrons situated at Katunayake, Ekala,
The operational role of the Air Force in the main, co (a) Provision of support to the Army and Navy dep
illicit immigration and smuggling. (b) VIP air transport. (c) Internal Security Patrols. (d) Crop spraying, aerial photography and reconnais (e) Search and location of vessels in distress at sea up
sea rescue operations. (f) Casualty evacuation. (8) Tourist flights and charters for purpose of earnin () Flying Training.
Commercial The Air Force embarked on commercial flying in 1972 the Convair 440, Cessnas, Riley Herons, De Havilland
Helicopters. Those charted to tourists, foreign miss at the 1975, total earnings (in foreign exchange) was in the
The Air Force has been awarded a contract to prov Air Maldives, the National Airline of the Maldivian Re
S. L. A. F. has launched a number of agricultura vegetable and other food crops, dairying and poultry f undertake urgent agricultural projects ; at Morawewa Detachment has been established for agricultural work. is over 250 acres.
The approved cadre for the regular air force is 189 offic transport and trainer aircraft consists of Chipmunks, C Herons, Jet Provosts, MIGs Convair 440, and the Jet DC 3 (purchased from Air Ceylon in December 1975).
Officers of the Air Force are either recruited direc enlisted as Cadets and on completion of training, cor service. Provision also exists, for non-commissioned ranks, to be granted Commissions.
After an initial recruit training, an airman is given he has been mustered. On completion of the training Aircraftsman ” (LAC). Recruitment/enlistment to ti officers and airmen recruited depending on vacancies ranks and also those who have been discharged from i
Initial/recruit training, for all ranks is carried out a Unit at Diyatalawa. General Service Training and R are also carried out at this Unit throughtout the year. nation, familiarisation and basic and advanced tra Academy, China Bay. On-the-job training, where Katunayake.

39
er of Defence (who, under the Constitution, tration and organisation of the Air Force ommander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
itions comprising Bases, Units, Depots and China Bay and Diyatalawa. isists of : pyed in northern coastal strip to combat
ance flights. to 50 nautical miles off the coasts and Air/
; foreign exchange.
and its fleet of transport aircraft, comprise Herons and Doves and the Bell Jet Ranger ions and the Maldivian Government. As e region of Rs. 3,240,725.
vide Technical and Management services to epublic
I projects, including cultivation of paddy, arming. Bases and Units of the Air Force off Trincomalee, an Air Force (Volunteer)
The area under cultivation at this location
ers and 2,099 airmen. The fleet of operational essnas, Doves, Riley Herons, De Havilland Ranger, Bell 47G KA 26 Helicopters and
ly and given permanent commissions, or
missioned into one of the branches of the Officers who have proved themselves in the
professional training in the trade to which successfully he is reclassified as a “ Leading e Air Force is periodic, the number of due to resignation and retirement in the ce force.
the Ground Combat and Recruit Training fresher Courser for all combatant personnel Technical, administrative, instructor, contie training is carried out at the Air Force necessary, is carried out at formations

Page 58
40
CONSTITI
The Sri Lanka Volunteer Air Force, was and 1,000 men. Volunteer Air Force pe for immediate mobilisation in times of eme
(a) to undertake building construction (b) Agricultural and Food Drive projec (C) Airfield security.
The youngest of the three Armed Servi March 1976.
VIII–OFFICI
The Department of Official Language Af introduction of Sinhala into the administ to Sinhala was accomplished the Depar officers to play a meaningful role in a chan Courts of Law, became a reality with the A separate division was also set up in the N
(a) Implementation of the Official Langi (6) Teaching of Sinhala to Public Officei
(C) Training of external students in Sin
government departments and corpori
(d) Assisting Government Departments
official documents into Sinhala and I (e) Provision of Glossaries of Sinhala a
in the day to day use. A series of oral classes were organised to and English media. Correspondence cou attend such classes. A total of 1,500 publi
The department trained 63 external stude A total of 45 public officers were trained in
As regards provision of Glossaries editor Standard Legal Terms Glossary–English Standard Legal Terms Glossary–English Composite Glossary Supplement English Composite Glossary Supplement English Standard Legal Terms Glossary EnglishStandard Legal Terms Glossary EnglishGlossary of Names of Government o
(in print)
BANDARANAIKE MEMORI
The Bandaranaike Memorial International ment and the people of the People's Repu medium for the falliment of the high ideal

FION AND GOVERNMENT
ormed in April 1971. The approved cadre is 100 officers onnel, not required for operational duties, are available gency. Volunteer personnel are at present mobilished : rojects within Air Force premises,
ses, the S. L. A. F. celebrated its XXVth Anniversary in
AL LANGUAGE AFFAIRS
cirs was initially set up to assume responsibility for the ration of the country. As the transition from English
ment was reorganised with a view to enabling the ging society. Progress in the extensive use of Sinhala in
posting of transtlation staff of the Ministry of Justice. linistry of Public Administration to undertake
age Policy,
hala shorthand and typewriting, training of officers in ations in Sinhala typewriting,
and Corporations as regards rendering of important Tamil, and und Tamil equivalents for English terms and phrases
teach Sinhala to public officers recruited through Tamil 'ses were handed to those officers who are unable to C officers were benefited under this scheme. nts in Sinhala shorthand and 64 in Sinhala typewriting. Sinhala Typewriting. al work was completed in the following publications : -Sinhala Part II -Sinhala Part III (in print) Sinhala Part II (in print) Sinhala Part III (in print) inhala-Tamil Part I
nhala-Tamil Part II ganisations and Designations-English-Sinhala-Tamil
| INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HALL
onference Hall is an outright gift from the Governlic of China. The BMICH is intended to serve as a cherished by Mr. S.W.R.D Bandaranaike.

Page 59
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND AI
This conference hall affords most up-to-date facilities foi and seminars. With its present capacity it could cater for a each or 540 delegates. The technical services are most me and smooth conduct of meetings as well as the personal cc Facilities for simultaneous interpretation in seven language tion for the press and for observers. The total seating cap available at the BMICH have been sought on a numbe Conferences. The highlight of such International Ci Non-Aligned Summit Conference which was hosted by th
X_PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND
The Sri Lanka Administrative Service was instituted or reorganisation was initiated and subsequently implement objectives :
(a) Rectification of anomalies resulting from the rul
providing more effective utilisation of man-power po (6) Professionalisation of the service to make it a me
positions in the public sector. (C) Provision of a career salary structure for recruitm
available in the employment market. (d) Removal of existing impediments for effective care
administrative service. Two special schemes of promotion were undertaken an structure of the service to a three-tier one and an increase large-scale promotions. Provision exists under the new I Service for introduction of a Diploma in Public Administrati Isation in the Service.
Academy of Administrative Studies Details of activities of the Sri Lanka Academy of Administ
O Courses for managerial grades O Diploma in Public Financial Management O Courses for Grama Sevakas () Courses conducted for Government Departments a
A total of 2,688 applications were received from State an partice in the various courses at the Academy.
Participants selected were—
Sinhala Medium English Medium
Tot
e
Fies payable to the Academy from State and Statespe is.2000.
Engineering and Management Services
GANGERING SERVICE DIVISION The Engineering Service Division of the Ministry of Publi with establishment matters of the engineering service in g alin senicestte Engineering Service Board established in

LIED SERVICES
41
the holding of international conferences naximum of 90 delegations of 6 members lern of their kind and ensure the efficient mfort and convenience of the delegates. are also provided. There is accommodacity of the main hall is 1,500. Facilities - of occasions for several International nference held in 1976 was the fifth Sri Lanka Government.
ALLIED SERVICES
the 01st May, 1963. The scheme of ed by the government with the following
es of absorption adopted in 1963 thus -ssible. ore competent body to man managerial
aent to the grade attracting best talent
er advancement of members in the
1 implemented reducing the five class in cadre of the middle class to facilitate ninute on the Sri Lanka Administrative on to achieve an objective of professiona
rative Studies are outlined below:
nd State Corporations State-sponsored institutions for partici
797 1,035
1,832
sored institutions were in the region of
Administration and Home Affairs deals vernment departments. The Division erms of the Minutes on the Sri Lanka

Page 60
42
CONST
Engineering Service as published in the 1972. The main functions of this div and disciplinary matters of the state eng
The Sri Lanka Engineering Service engineering groups. A total of 64 app nical and electrical engineering grades.
Management Services—Major assign (1) Operational Manual for the Loc
with a view to facilitating work
adopt uniform procedures to eli (2) Operational Manual for the Kach
with a view to standardising pro (3) Standardised List of Responsibi
Duty lists were drawn up for the bilities respectively under admir
(4) Amalgamation of the Colombo i
Study was undertaken to cent
duplication of registers. (5) Revision of the Establishment C
Establishment Code. The existi
tables. (6) Establishment Manual.--An Esta
of Public Administration with a
work and personnel administrati (7) Survey of work of the Valuation
was carried out with a view to its organisational set-up and the the increasing demands resultin Study Report has been accepted
(8) Study of the Accounting System
Foreign Affairs. This Study wa at the Division and in the Sri La
of accounting controls. (9) Incentive Scheme for Staff at Rai
in regard to the various activiti scheme that would increase outi
(10) Accounting System, Local Got
the Local Government Service |
introduced. (11) Re-organisation of the Public T
of the various units of the Pul eliminating unnecessary proced the efficient functioning of the
(12) Financial Regulations (Courts).-
The Management Services Division, and office machine requirements in stal

UTION AND GOVERNMENT
overnment Gazette Extraordinary No. 15,001/8 of March 14, sion relate to recruitment, promotions, training, transfers neering service.
as a total cadre of 1,020 posts, grouped into 11 distinct intments were made during 1975, comprising civil, mecha
ients carried out during 1975, are outlined below :- al Government Department. This Manual was prepared n the Local Government Department and enabling them to ninate delays.
heri Land Branches.--The Operational Manual was drafted edures in kachcheries as regards land work. ities for Assistant Commissioners of Local Government.-- different grades of officers indicating functions and responsiistration, accounts, establishments and development.
Tunicipal Council Assessments and Rates Departments.--A ralise rates assessment and collection and eliminate the
pde. The main objective of the revision is to up-date the ng code was reduced to logical flow charts and decision
iblishment Manual was drafted for the office of the Ministry - view to standardising procedures as regards establishment
on.
- Department.--A study of the Chief Valuer's Department
the decentralisation of its activities, the streamlining of improving of its work procedures so as to enable it to meet ng from the Land Reforms Commission work, etc. The and action to implement it, is now under consideration.
of the Overseas Administration Division of the Ministry of s carried out with a view to standardising procedures both nka Missions abroad and also to increasing the effectiveness
"way Workshops, Ratmalana.—A Study has been undertaken es at the workshops with a view to devising an incentive
ut and productivity.
ernment Service Department.—The accounting system of Pepartment was reviewed and a new system of accounting
ustee’s Department. The Division examined the working lic Trustee's Department. A report for simplification and res as well as the introduction of improved procedures for Public Trustee’s Department was prepared.
A set of Financial Regulations for Courts was drafted.
addition, undertook numerous studies on the form design and state-sponsored institutions.

Page 61
CHAPTI
POPULATION, VITAL STAT
-THE GROWTH O
The first decennial Census of Sri Lanka was undert: population as 2,400,380 which rose to 12,689,897 therefore, the population of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) ha
The following table indicates the population of decennial censuses beginning from 1871, the amo intercensal period :-
TABLE 5•1-POPULATION OF SRI LANKA (C
Census Year
1871 1881
1891
1901
1911 1921 1931 1946 1953 1963 1971
Population
2,400,380 2,759,738 3,007,789
565,954 4,106,350 4,498,605 5,306,871 6,657,339 8,097,895 10,582,064 12,689,897
The growth of the Island's population has bee! increase, the increase of births over deaths and the
The following table shows these two factors in increase :
TABLE 52—THE NATURAL INCREASE, MIGR.
Period
1871-1881 1881-1891 1891-1901 1901-1911 1911-1921 1921-1931 1931-1946 1946-1953 1953-1963 1963-1971
Natural Increase 119,792 114,260 225,406 356,147 319,410
656,990 1,280,916 1,328,355 2,513,248 2,186,815

R V
ISTICS AND MIGRATION
OF POPULATION
iken in 1871. The Census of that year gave the at the Census of 1971. In one hundred years,
increased by 10,289,517 or 428•7 per cent. Sri Lanka (Ceylon) as recorded at the various unt of increase and percentage increase during
EYLON) IN CENSUS YEARS 1871 TO 1971
Real Increase
Percentage Increase
19.0 9.0
18:6
359,358 248,051 558,165 540,396 392,255
808,266 1,350,468 1,440,556 2,484,169 2,107,833
15:2
9:6 10-8 25-4 21.6 30:7 19.9
n occasioned by two factors, viz. ; the natural
difference in migration.
operation and also gives the total intercensal
ATION INCREASE AND INTERCENSAL INCREASE
Migration Increase
239,566 103,791 332,759 184,249
72,845 151,276
69,552 112,201 29,079 78.982
Intercensal Increase 359,358 218,051 558,165 540,396 392,255
808,266 1,350,468 1,440,556 2,484,169 2,107,833

Page 62
44
POPULATION, VITAL
Births and Deaths The increase in population in recent years has b over deaths. The following table gives figure rate, death rate and rate of natural increase fc
TABLE 5·3.—BIRTHS, DEATHS
Year
Births
Birth rate per 1,000
35-9 37:4 38:6
39.7
1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967
238,494 256,886 271,191 287,695 291,191 304,635 313,662 313,532 321,217 303,894 325,538 325,067 334,135 335,690 356,336 361,702 363,677 370,762 365,842 361,577 369,437 369,153 369,531 384,178 372,774 367,901 382,480 384,066 366,186 365,685 373,138 378,833
39.1 39.7 39-8 38:8 38-7 35:7 37-3 36:4 36•5 35-8 37:0 36:6 35-8 35-5 34:1 33:2 33:1 32:3 31-6 32:0 30-4 29.4 30-1 29.7 27:8
1968
1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 *1975 1976
27:3
27:7 27:6
*Provisional.
Note.-Provisional corrections in population e after have been made for child under enumerati

TATISTICS AND MIGRATION
een in a very large measure due to the excess of births s in respect of births, deaths, natural increase, birth
r the period 1945-1976.
AND NATURAL INCREASE 1945-1976
Rate of
Deaths
Death
rate per 1,000
Natural increase
Natural increase
per 1,000
21-5 19-8 14-0 13:0 12:4 12:4 12:7 11:8 10:7 10-2
11.8
9.8
10-1
14:7 18-0 25-0 27-3 28:2 27-8 27.6 27:5 28-0 25:5 26•5
26-6 26:5
9.7
26•1
9.1
27.9
8:6
142,931 135,937 98,544 93,711 91,889
95,142 100,072 95,298 89,003 86,794 94,368 87,561 92.759 90,815 87,971 84,918 81,653 88,928 91,673 95,618 91,728 94,419 87,877 94,903 99,841 94,147 97,209 104,080 100,850 119,141 115,501 109,098
95,563 120,949 172,647 193,984 199,302 209,493 213,590 218,234 232,214 217,100 231,170 237,506 241,376 244,875 268,365 276,784 282,024 281,834 274,169 265,959 277,709 274,734 281,654 289,275 272,933 272,785 285,281 279,966 265,336 246,630 279,872 321,353
28.0 27:7
27-0
25-6 24-4 24.9
24:0
8.0 8:5 8:5 8-8 8-2 8.3 7-5 7.9 8•1 7.5 7:7 8.0 7:7
24•1 24:1 22:3
21:9
22.4 21:7 20-1 18:4 19.2
8.9
8:5 80
19.6
estimates and rates in respect of the years 1941 and on at the 1946, 1953 and 1963 Censuses.

Page 63
CENSUS OF POPULATION,
"Sri Lanka's (Ceylon's) death rate declined fairly steadily to 19•8 in 1946. In 1947, however, intensive D. D. T. s resulted in a sensational decline in the death rate to 14 steadily though more gradually.
During the fifteen-year period 1931-1945, the mean cri was the mean for the decade immediately preceding it. period 1921-1930 to 22-0 in the period 1931-1945.
During the following intercensal period 1946–1953, slightly to 39•0, the death rate declined rapidly to 13:4. number of deaths was 89,003. In 1960 the death rate wa! the death rate was 8-0, 8-9 in 1974 and 8-0 again in 1975 v
II-CENSUS OF POPULI
A Census of Population was taken on 9th October, 1971. at this Census was 12,689,897 as compared with 10,582,064 The population increase since the 1963 Census was 2,10
males enumerated at the 1971 Census was 6,531,361 and centage composition in the total population was respective
Tables 5:4, 5.5 and 5-6 show the population of Ceylo Districts respectively.
TABLE 5:4-POPULATION OF SRI LANKA (CEYLON) BY ET
Nu
12,6
All Ethnic Groups Low Country Sinhalese Kandyan Sinhalese Ceylon Tamils Indian Tamils Ceylon Moors Indian Moors Burghers and Eurasians
Malays Others
TABLE 5-5—POPULATION OF SRI LANKA (CEYLON) BY
Nun 12,6
8,5
All Religions Buddhists
Hindus Christians Muslims Others
2,2
1,0

971
45
from about 26 per thousand in the 1920's praying in malarial regions of the Island 10. Subsequently it has declined further,
de birth rate fell to 36:5 from 39.8 which The death rate declined from 26•5 in the
though the mean crude birth rate rose n 1953, the death rate was 10-7 while the - 8•6. In 1967 it dropped to 7:5. In 1972 Fith 115,501 deaths.
ATION—1971
The total number of persons enumerated persons enumerated at the Census of 1963. 97,833 or 19.9 per cent. The number of
the number of females 6,158,536. Perely 51:4 and 48•6 per cent.
n by Ethnic Groups, by Religion and by
INIC GROUPS AS ON 9TH OCTOBER, 1971
Imber
Per cent
589,897 |25,780 105,461 123,981 74,606 28,304 27,420 45,376 43,459 15,510
100-0
42-8 24-2 11:2
9.3 6:5 0:2 0.4 0-3 0-1
RELIGION AS ON 9TH OCTOBER, 1971
ber
Per cent
39,897 36,858 38,666 14,326 D1,785 $1,383
100-0
67-3 17:6 7:9 7-1 0:1

Page 64
46.
POPULATION, VI
TABLE 5-6-POP
9T
Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
Colombo
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Jaffna
Mannar
Vavuniya
Batticaloa
Amparai
Trincomalee
Kurunegala Puttalam
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Badulla
Moneragala
Ratnapura
Kegalle
III-V
Registration of Marriages, Births and De For purposes of registration of marriages divided into several small units called "1 is co-extensive with a D. R. O's division and deaths registration division is a sub-di Grama Sevaka divisions. Each such div. who exercises exclusive jurisdiction over 1 Excepting Registrars of births and deaths

TAL STATISTICS AND MIGRATION
JLATION OF SRI LANKA (CEYLON) BY DISTRICTS AS ON 1 OCTOBER, 1971
Total
12,689,897 2,672,265
729,514
1,187,925
314,841
450,278
735,173
586,443
340,254
701,603
77,780
95,243 256,721
272,605
188,245
1,025,633
378,430
388,770
163,653
615,405
193,020
661,344
654,752
PITAL STATISTICS
aths
, births and deaths each revenue district in Sri Lanka is registration divisions”. A marriage registration division
and functions under one or more Registrars. A births vision of a D. R. O's division generally comprising several ision could only have one Registrar of births and deaths nis division in the matter of registering births and deaths. : in certain towns--towns which are “ proclaimed " and

Page 65
VITAL ST
functions under “ medical registrars”, the other Registrars of marriages as well, of the marriage re registration divisions are situated. Thus, in the ma of marriages in a marriage registration division jurisdiction over entire marriage registration divis areas generally function as Registrars of Kandyar
Important aspects of vital statistics relating to i
Population The estimated population of Sri Lanka at the begin and at end of the year 13,632,000. The increa 1:7 per cent, while excess of births over deaths wa 22,225. Mid-year estimate of population in 19 s at end of the year. The Island's population deaths was 269,735 while excess of emigrants over
Marriages There were 85,042 marriages registered under th Acts, 74,390 being under the General Marriage A A total of 7,987 Muslim Marriages were registered year. Under the General Marriage Act, 82,788 ma also registered under the Kandyan Marriage Act gi under these two acts in 1976. There were 7,987
CHART BIRTH RATE, DEATH RATE AND RATE
(1935–1960),
Enčbobos 1000
Sri GoooƏ
PER 1000 OP POPULATION
Euryoppaa pity Szu
seja
RAT!
D6SE 2 இறப்பு வீதம்
DEATH RATE
1935 E-CdeSILVA
1940 89
59

TISTICS
47
registrars of births and deaths are generally istration division in which their births and deaths ter of registration of marriages all the Registrars riz, in a D. R. O's division) exercise concurrent on. Registrars of general marriages in Kandyan
marriages as well.
ne years 1975 and 1976 are enumerated below.
ning of 1975 was 13,494,000 at mid-year 13,603,000 e in the Island's population during 1975 was
· 257,647 and excess of emigrants over immigrants 6 was 13,730,000 which increased to 13,850,000 increased by 1-6 per cent. Excess of births over immigration was 51,618.
Le General and Kandyan Marriage Registration Lct and 10,652 under the Kandyan Marriage Act. during the year compared with 7,987 the preceding rriages were registered in 1976 and 11,883 marriage. ring an overall figure of 94,671 marriages registered Muslim marriages registered during the year.
No. 2 OF NATURAL INCREASE OF POPULATION
(1961-1976)
IRTH CATE
පාවික වැඩි වීම ප්‍රමාණෑගි
no af.AC4 fso OF NATURAL INCREASE
HERFRA 1960 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66,67,68 69 70 71 72 7Z74 75 76.
STAD 'MAN. CIT.

Page 66
48
POPULATION, VITAL ST
Births Births registered in 1975 were 374,228 (189,8 (186,072 males and 179,613 females) in 1974. T. Rate per 1,000 population was 27.7. There were registered during 1976. The ratio at birth was 1,000 population was 27.6 compared with 2. Colombo Town were 30,830 in 1976 compared
Deaths A total of 109,098 deaths (61,500 males and 47 with 113,578 deaths in 1975. The death rate for 1 preceding year. Deaths registered in Colombo
CHAR REPORTED BIRTH, DEATH AN
Cosna gə,8
ஒவ்.வாரு ஆயிரத்துக்கும் 50 RATE PER THOUSAND
දැන් ප්‍රමාණෝ
e6 səs IIID
Səito
3
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIb
Itt
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 19
6. de Silva"
IV-MIC
The Department of Immigration and Emigration of Indian Origin both function under the Minis was set up in 1949, with the passage of the Immig Immigration into Sri Lanka. A separate Depa Origin was set up in 1966 for implementing the I
The main functions of the Department of Imm (a) Issue of Sri Lanka Passports and Emergen
abroad.

ATISTICS AND MIGRATION
19 males and 183,379 females) as against 365,685 ne sex ratio at birth was 1,036 males per 1,00 females. = 378,833 births (193,125 males and 185,708 females)
1,040 males per 1,000 females. The birth rate per .7 in the preceding year. Births registered in with 29,428 in 1975.
,598 females) were registered in 1976 as compared he year 1976 was 8.0 showing a decrease of 0.5 the Town declined from 9,636 in 1975 to 9, 64 in 1976.
T NO. 3 ID MARRIAGE RATES, 1966–1976
6 பிறப்பு வீதம்
3 இறப்பு வீதம் Se launā aigu
BIRTH RATE. DEATH RATE. MARRIAGE RATE.
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
STI-D MAN.
GRATION
and the Department for the Registration of Persons try of Defence. The Department of Immigration rants and Emigrants Act in Parliament to Control rtment for the Registration of Persons of Indian ndo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964. igration and Emigration are -- cy Certificates to citizens of Sri Lanka for travel

Page 67
MIGRATION
(6) Issue of visas to foreigners coming to Sri Lank
residence visas to foreigners for residence and emp
leave the country on the expiry of their visas, and (C) The arrest and removal of illicit immigrants from
The Department for the Registration of Persons of Inc Citizenship to persons of Indian Origin covered by th repatriation of those recognized as citizens of India.
Travel Documents Following are the categories of travel documents issued
(a) Sri Lanka Passports, (b) Emergency Certificates, (C) Identity Certificates.
A Sri Lanka Passport is issued to a citizen of Sri La endorsed in the passport.
Emergency Certificates issued to Sri Lanka nationals Nepal.
An Identity Certificate is issued to a person who is not to obtain a national passport for some reason or other a
Particulars as regards Sri Lanka travel documents w years appear below :-
1971 1972
Sri Lanka Passports Emergency Certificates Identity Certificates
12,060 3,288
155
14,133 5,771
193
Visit Visas
Nationals of several countries have been exempted from for entry to Sri Lanka provided they are coming as bor permission to land at the port of disembarkation by : provided they possess a valid passport and an onward ti ticket.
Mala Japan Luxe
The I
Countries, whose nationals are exempted, are
Australia Austria Britain and Coloniesines Belgium Canada Denmark Eire Federal Republic of Germany Finland Franc Indonesia Italy Pakistan
New Norv
Singa Swed
Switz Thail
U. S.
Repu

49
as tourists or short-term visitors, issue of oyment purposes and ensure that foreigners
Sri Lanka.
ian Origin deals with the grant of Sri Lanka = Indo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964 and the
by the Department :-
nka and is valid for travel to any country
are valid for travel to India, Pakistan and
e a citizen of Sri Lanka and who is unable nd needs urgent travel abroad.
hich have been issued during the last five
1973 1974 1975 1976 22,781
20,943
24,268
21,277 10,884
12,275 10,668 472
302
240
266
9,796
I the requirement of obtaining prior visas tafide tourists. These nationals are given in endorsement made on their passports, :ket or foreign exchange for purchase of a
isia
|
nburg letherlands Zealand ay Dore
n rland
nd
A. and slic of the Philippines

Page 68
50
POPULATION, I
Statistics of Foreigners, who came to Sr
Year
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
IMMIGRATION
en es
ஆயிரங் களில் THOUSANDS.
300
42ND)G4 og Som Ə5 g quæ
250
200
ISO
100
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
1966 1967 1968 1969 19
TATISTICAL DRAUGHTS
Residence Visas A residence visa, unlike a visit visa, is issue to the immigration control, to reside or which were formerly issued on a quota t available for a particular type of employ of visas even on the basis of capital they
Statistics of residence visas issued or ex
Year
Indians an Pakistanis
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
7,211 5,708 2,629 4,800 2,646 4,368

TAL STATISTICS AND MIGRATION
Lanka as tourists or short-term visitors appear below: lians and Other Commonwealth
Aliens akistanis
Citizens 6,722
8,368
23,386 8,959
10,705
21,106 9,507
13,589
35,527 8,098
13,052
65,332 10,143
16,778
79.430 10,565
18,954
89,797
CHART No. 4 AND EMIGRATION, 1966–1976
Y IMMIGRATION. WA MIGRATION
-70 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
vaکرے. حمی
ed for a longer period to enable a foreigner, who is subject
to be employed in Sri Lanka. Visas for employment, masis are now issued, only if Sri Lanka nationals are not ment. Foreign businessmen too do not qualify for issue nave invested in the country. tended from 1971 to 1976 were—
Other Commonwealth Aliens
Total citizens
831
704 626 522 492 531
1,195 1,173 1,150 1,071 1,066 1,247
9,237 7,675 1,405 6,393 4,204 6,146

Page 69
REGISTRATION OF PEF
Illicit Immigration The responsibility of preventing the entry of illicit to an organization in which the Army, Navy, Air ! popularly known as TAFII (abbreviation for Task command of a senior Army Official who directs op
The TAFII now covers the entire coast-belt in t Navy carries out patrols to detect illicit immigrants reconnaisance flights helps the Navy in these patrol belt is carried out by Army personnel either on f outboard motors. Civil authorities in the areas conc
It could confidently be stated that TAFII has be illicit immigrants into Sri Lanka.
While services personnel are deployed along the the Police and the Department of Immigration ca immigrants, who had come to Sri Lanka earlier. arrested and 299 deported during 1976.
Indo-Ceylon Agreement Under provisions of the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of repatriated to India and 300,000 persons granted S
mented under provisions of the Indo-Ceylon Agre amended by the Indo-Ceylon Agreement (Impleme Act, provides for granting of Sri Lanka citizensh issuing Residence Permits to persons who have be such persons and for other matters connected with
Sri Lanka citizenship is granted on the ratio of 4
The Indian High Commission had issued India the Agreement, i.e., those born prior to 31 October Island as at end of 1976. Sri Lanka citizenship eligible under the Agreement.
V–REGISTRATION OF P The Department for the Registration of Persons i of Persons Act, No. 32 of 1968 as amended by Act. over 18 years of age lawfully resident in Sri Lan registered and issued with identity cards. Person should apply within six months of his arrival. A apply for registration before he reaches the 19th ye
Application should be made on a prescribed fo: attaching 3 copies of a photograph taken by a registe
Steps have been taken to issue identity cards to department of examinations. This has resulted in of these students.
Statistics relating to registration and issue of id 31st December, 1975, were
(1) Number of new applications received at hea (2) Number of applications registered (3) Total number of identity cards despatched (ca
Applications received from students were 62,281 in 1975.
Total revenue of the department was Rs. 169, Rs. 1,523,051.

SONS DEPARTMENT
immigrants into Sri Lanka has been entrusted Force and Police participate. This organisation Force Illicit Immigration) is under the immediate erations in the field. he North from Kalpitiya to Trincomalee. The
in territorial waters. The Air Force with their s to spot suspicious crafts. Patrols on the coast oot or in small fibre-glass boats equipped with rned co-operate with TAFII in this arduous task. en able to bring under effective control further
coast to prevent entry of new illicit immigrants, rry out 'combing operations' to arrest illicit A total of 834 suspected illicit immigrants were
1964, 525,000 persons of Indian origin are to be ri Lanka citizenship. This Agreement is impleement) Implementation Act, No. 14 of 1967, as ntation) Amendment Act, No. 43 of 1971. The ip in terms of the provision of the Agreement, ten recognized as Indian citizens repatriation of
the implementation of the Agreement. to every 7 persons leaving the country. a Passports to 285,576 persons eligible under E, 1964 and 190,814 of this number have left the has been granted to 109,029 and 26,651 children
ERSONS DEPARTMENT s responsible for implementing the Registration
No. 28 and Act, No. 37 of 1971. All persons ka, except those who are exempted, have to be s entering Sri Lanka and liable to be registered ny person reaching the age of 18 years should war. rm, affixing stamps to the value of Rs. 1.50 and ered photographer.
students appearing for examinations held by the an approixmate saying of Rs. 600,000 to parents
entity cards for the period 1st January, 1975 to
d office
72,268
189,797 rried over from the preceding year)
350,591 and a total of 62,197 identity cards were issued
787 with a corresponding expenditure figure of

Page 70
С НА
LAND DE
IELAND DEVELOP The Land Development Department plays a fund The necessary infra-structure for the creation ( with the land development department. Provisi of paddy lands, construction of cottages and continued to be a function of the departmen considerably reduced.
In the course of 1976, the construction of buildi rations, which, hitherto constituted a lesser respo department has gradually been converted into on were carried out for the Ceylon transport bo the lower Uva development project, Mahawe etc.
The expenditure incurred under the votes of 1 on economic development during 1976, was Rs. was incurred through ‘Work Done Advance Acc Departments.
Some important assignments of the land develop
Fencing and roads Construction Jungle clearing and ridgi
Metalling and tarring Stumping
II–LAND COMMISSIC Land resources constitute the basic infra-structure Lanka. In that context during the year 1976, th alienating land under the various schemes through evaluating projects and activities, and taking appr up their producitivity and maximising returns on s
The principal ordinances administered by the (a) Sale of State Lands (Special Provisions), La (b) The Land Development Ordinance, No. 19
No. 16 of 1969 ; (C) Crown Lands Ordinance, No. 8 of 1947.
The Land Development Ordinance and Sale of state lands to peasants and other citizens of Sri I lands alienated fall within the following five type
(1) Village expansion projects (2) Major colonization projects ; (3) Highland colonization projects ; (4) Youth settlement projects ; (5) Middle class projects.

PTER VI
"ELOPMENT
MENT DEPARTMENT
mental role in colonisation settlement programmes. f new communities in colonisation schemes rests en of roads, clearing of jungles, asweddumization
latrines for colonists and community buildings 1. Work under this programme has now been
ngs for other Government Departments and Corponsibility, has now become its main function. This e of construction activity. Building programmes ard, government agencies, fisheries department, li development board, Ceylon electricity board,
che department_Project 102, capital expenditure
5,218,112. In addition a sum of Rs. 17,001,992 count' on account of work undertaken for other
oment department during 1976, are given below:-
522 chains 257 units 243 acres 350 squares
54 lots
ng
NER'S DEPARTMENT with regard to agricultural development of Sri e department continued its normal function of but the Island. In addition, emphasis was laid on opriate remedial measures with a view to stepping
uch capital investments.
Land Commissioner are— w, No. 43 of 1973 ; of 1935, Land Development (Amendment) Act,
State Lands Law provide for the disposition of Lanka to foster agricultural development. The s of Settlement Projects viz. :-

Page 71
LAND COMMISSIONER'S D
Village Expansion Projects A total of about 862,498 acres of land have been alienate the year, 7,572 acres were alienated on 12,065 permits.
(a) Residential village expansion projects ; (6) Agricultural village expansion projects.
Most of the Projects are for residential purposes. Th ranges from - acre, depending on the man-land ratio i cultural village expansion project ranges from 1-3 acres sized allotments are generally found in the dry zone wl acute as in the wet zone districts.
The peasants in residential projects are entitled to construction of an agricultural well has now been incre: the year the total amount spent on all development amounted to Rs. 2,145,841. Of this, a sum of Rs. 85 for supply of planting material and special agricultural met under provisions of the decentralized budget opei Economic Affairs.
Village expansion projects on acquired lands cover an e mits have been issued to date. This year 2,566 acres havi Rs. 1,702,625 was paid as compensation for lands acqui settled during the year in 15 major colonization scheme schemes after providing irrigation facilities to their pad harvest in their first year of settlement.
Special Projects The FAO/IBRD Mission that visited Sri Lanka in 195 of development in major colonization schemes. The
were
(1) To maximize production through improved metho (2) To introduce irrigation rehabilitation to increase p (3) To strengthen institutional arrangements for the is
inputs and the produce. (4) To encourage community development with the e
in these schemes.
The special projects package Programme now operates a total of 146,996 acres. Consequent to the adoption cultivation became popular among the colonists in the increase in the use of pureline seed varieties by the farmer Tiam calendar also fell in line with the farmers. There firlitzer, and weedicides. The initiation of lift irrigation Suistantial harvests in principal field crops such as ch Tacik gram, maize, vegetables and Bombay onions. meer successfully completed due to the institutional
spective cultivation seasons.
Highland Colonization Schemes At present there are 52 highland colonization schemes with tea, covering an extent of 8,233 acres ; 4 schemes,

PARTMENT
so far to 605 299 permit-holders. During These projects fall into two categories.
= unit of alienation in residential projects n the locality. The farm size in the agriand in some instances 5 acres. The latter mere landlessness among peasants is not as
financial assistance. The subsidy for the ased to a maximum of Rs. 2,800. During works in the Village Expansion Projects ,680 was spent from departmental funds subsidies. The balance expenditure was cated by the Ministry of Planning and
xtent of 46,971 acres for which 77,081 pere been alienated and 2,389 permits issued. red during the year. 3,475 colonists were es. These colonists were drawn into the Idy lands. This facilitated reaping a good
5, recommended an integrated programme main objects of this package programme
Is of cultivation. roduction. sue of credit and marketing of the required
Ibject of achieving a self-sustained growth
in 23 major colonization schemes covering
of intensive agricultural methods, paddy special projects areas. There is a steady 3. The practice of adhering to the cultivahas been a uniform increase in the use of projects has resulted in the farmers reaping llies, cow-pea, onions, yams, green gram, The marketing of the entire produce has arrangements that were planned for the
in the island, 18 of which are cultivated rubber with an extent of 2,325 acres, 29

Page 72
54
schemes, coconut and mixed crops cov covering an area of 332 acres. Product
Name of Tea (Green le Rubber (Shee Coconut Cocoa
Youth Schemes 4,217 youths are now resident in 48 yout
UNDP/FAO Farm Mechanisation Project The objectives of the project are to impro machinery in youth settlement schemes. use and maintenance of agricultural mae machinery at the central work shop run
Production figures of three main crops
Crop Chillies Red Onions Passion Fruit
During the year a sum of Rs. 100,82 Rs. 28,288 on the construction of 18 wel providing financial assistance to 1,557 all
Encroachments There was a change in the policy toward larise encroachments which had taken pl to purchase the lands under the sale of purposes are being issued leases under the encroachers such as non-alienable lands 1
In accordance with the policy now bei of 1,490 acres. By the end of the year 197 of 172,129 acres, and investigation into tl
Special Leases Scheme Under the provisions of the Land Refori owned by an individual has been limited continue to be on lease among 61 leasse
Cashew Cultivation About 7,000 acres of land have been give Vavuniya and Puttalam Districts. Cad an extent of about 3,000 acres. The depa communal wells and internal roads in tt additional facilities, new extents have bee

LAND DEVELOPMENT
ering an extent of 16,415 acres ; and one scheme, cocoa on in these schemes during the year 1976, is as follows:-
Crop
Harvest 15,065,875 (lbs.)
2,224,800 (lbs.) 1,720,860 (Nuts)
8,000 (lbs.)
af)
E)
1 schemes covering 18,484 Acres.
ve agricultural production through the greater use of farm
During the year, 260 youths were trained in efficient chinery. 72 youths were trained in repairing agricultural
by the department in Colombo.
are as follows:
Extent (Acres) Harvest (Cwt.)
2,500 2,000 1,035
25,000 160,000 25,820
1 was spent for constructing 06 miles of internal roads ; Ils ; Rs. 754,723 for the supply of planting material and
ottees.
is encroachment during the year. It was decided to reguLace prior to 4th August, 1975, by permitting encroachers state lands act. Persons utilizing lands for commercial
Crown Lands Ordinance. The eviction of certain types of ike stream reservations, continues to be followed.
ng adopted, 1,232 encroachers were alienated in an extent 5, there remained 152,906 encroachments covering an extent nese encroachments are being continued.
m Law, No. 18 of 1972, the maximum extent that can be to 50 acres. In pursuance of this requirement 5,097 acres -es.
1 out for cashew cultivation in Batticaloa, Mannar, Jaffna, ju has been successfully cultivated in an area covering rtment of minor export crops has assisted in constructing ese schemes out of its own funds. As a result of these n brought under cashew cultivation.

Page 73
LAND SE
Sale of State Lands Regulations for implementing the Sale of State La of Agriculture and Lands on 9th January, 1975 at A total of 1,410 allottees have opted to pay the has been collected by sale of these allotments du
III–LANDS The connotation of the term "Land Settlement Here it is not settlement of people on the land bu disposal of the State. Under the provisions of th are investigated and settled. Claims are consoli vague, scattered and undivided interests. The established in the areas to which private claims ar the State are thereby assured of an essential pre-
Credit facilities from the various lending institui holding settled title.
Settlement has a special significance in the lig state land. Summary ejectment of encroachers the case of land declared the property of the s predecessor, The Waste Land Ordinance) acqui under the provisions of the Land Resumption C
The areas to be taken up for settlement opera the Government Agents. Priority is given to ar irrigation or other development schemes. Block in the case of villages, and Topo Survey Plans on
areas having less detail are prepared by the Surv on these plans.
During the year 1976, settlement operations Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Badulla, Nuwara I and Puttalam.
Settlement operations were possible to be a “Programme Budgeting’.
Since the inception of this Department an exte and about 4 million acres of land are under vari
IV_SRI LANKA STATE PI
Sri Lanka State Plantations Corporations was e of raising, developing, maintaining and managi was stressed on opening up of large extents of C of Western, Southern and Sabaragamuwa Pro perforced to be high by reason of heavy labour C in jungle clearing and also providing necessary Work of such a nature had to be logically in the
In 1976, some estates that came under stage ) to the corporation comprising 149 units of t all, the corporation had a total of 248 units.
Regional offices were opened in the plantation activities.

TLEMENT
55
ds Law, No. 43 of 1973, were made by the Minister d published in the Gazette of 7th February, 1975. etermined sale price in a lump sum, Rs. 1,800,000 ng the year.
ETTLEMENT
' in Sri Lanka is not what it is in other countries. t settlement of title to land presumed to be at the e Land Settlement Ordinance claims to such lands lated, and indefeasible title is granted in place of title of the State is also finally and conclusively
not admitted. Both the private sector as well as equisite for development.
ions in the country are readily available to persons
it of the current trend towards encroachment on s possible under several Land Ordinances only in jate under the Land Settlement Ordinance ( or its red under the Land Acquisition Act or resumed Irdinance. tions are decided annually after consultation with eas to be taken up for development under major
Survey plans on the scale of 4 chains to an inch the scale of one mile to an inch in the case of larger -eyor General. Settlement proceedings are based
vere conducted in the Administrative Districts of Eliya, Matale, Trincomalee, Amparai, Ratnapura
ccelerated with the introduction of the scheme of
nt of nearly 7 million acres has been finally settled ous stages of settlement.
ANTATIONS CORPORATION tablished by Act, No. 4 of 1958, with the object ng plantations for the State. Initially, emphasis Fown land with commercial crops in the hinterland rinces. The cost of raising new plantations had
mmitments and substantial ground work involved infra-structure for the development of such land. hands of a State Agency.
of the land reform commission act were handed a, rubber, coconut and other minor crops. In
districts for better performance of the corporation

Page 74
56
LAND I
The total acreage under cultivation during th under Tea and 1,692 acres of Rubber.
1,806 Males, 2,167 Females and 41 children State Plantation Corporation had a total labou
V—IRI A considerable amount of work was done by th facilities for cultivation. The Department geare
major irrigation, lift irrigation and drainage f the year nearly 15,000 acres were provided with
Construction work on three new schemes was Reservoir Scheme in Nuwara Eliya district, Gil Dewahuwa Augmentation Scheme in Matale Dis
The Bomurella Reservoir will have a storag Government has allocated a sum of Rs. 5,000,0 Project will protect 12,150 acres of paddy lar Rs. 210,000,000 which is to be financed entirely Dewahuwa Tank near Galewela is to be supplied through a pick up anicut and inlet channel. I to 2,340 acres. The scheme estimated to cost Rs
Work was continued in Muthukandiya, Makan Scheme, Wahalkade Project Channel System, Kai number of other projects.
Under drainage and reclamation, work in six } the year and by the end of December was almost o The rehabilitation project at Hingurana sugar pla
About 25 tube wells were constructed in vario Overcome the acute water scarcity due to the dro during the Non-Aligned Summit Conference. location of sites for these tube wells. Work regai basin, Mulankavil basin and at Paranthan were co
The research branch of the department provid model testing, hydrology, soil mechanics, and land use surveys for project studies done by the e
ments, corporations and private agencies.
During the year the department continued to pr rations that appear below:
1. Territorial Civil E 2. Mahaweli Develop 3. Fertilizer Manufac 4. Sri Lanka Sugar C 5. Ministry of Indust 6. Ceylon Electricity
7. Central Engineerir Feasibility Studies had been undertaken for the Province. Drainage and reclamation projects, Dandugan Oya and Mahara Mudun Ela. Invest progress and the investigation work on the Ingi Lunuganvehera reservoir and Heda Oya reservoir

ELOPMENT
year was 209,578 acres. of which 937 acres were
were given employment in 1976. The Sri Lanka Force of 160,583 in 1976.
GATION Department in providing irrigation and drainage itself to ensure completion of the programme, on ojects that fell directly under its scope. During rrigation and drainage facilities. commenced during this year. These are Bomurella
Ganga Regulation Project in Galle District, and rict.
e capacity of 1,100 acre ft. to feet 1,500 acres. D0 for this purpose. The Gin Ganga Regulation
ds from floods and the total estimated cost is py the People's Republic of China. The existing
with additional water from Nalanda Oya Reservoir his will provide a more assured supply of water L. 6,800,000 is to be completed by 1979. dura-Pannala Schemes, Nagadeepa Augmentation adulla Scheme-channel system in stage II and in
projects financed by the I. D. A. continued during complete except in the case of Kiralakalle Scheme. ntation work proceed according to programme. us institutions in Colombo by the Department to ight of 1976 and also to meet the heavy demand Short-term investigations were carried out for
ding tube well drilling programmes in Murunkan ontinued during the year. ed laboratory and other facilities in hydraulic
material testing, geological investigations, and epartment as well as other government depart
vide services to other departments and corpo
gineering Organisation nent Board uring Corporation orporation ies and Scientific Affairs Board
· Consultancy Bureau. liversion of the Kelani Ganga to North-Western under investigation were Attidiya, Kalu Elazation work of Kotmale reservoir project was in imitiya Reservoir, Rambukkan Oya reservoir, rojects were completed.

Page 75
MAHAWELI DEVELOP
Colombo District (Low-lying areas) Reclamation Boal During the year 1976, work on the following project
1. Crow Island 2. Heen Ela Project Sta, 3. Orugodawatte Project 4. Bauddhaloka Mawatl 5. Bauddhaloka Mawatl
6. Kirillapone Project Crow Island Project The total extent of marshy lands to be reclaimed u reclaimed till end of 1976, is about 29 acres. Of th of to the Department of Fisheries.
Heen Ela Project Stage I (Kadurugastuduwa) The area of marshy land to be reclaimed under this entrusted to the State Development and Construct 8 acres has been so far reclaimed.
Orugodawatte Project Stage I The extent of land for reclamation under this project is for the Commissioner for Development of Marketing During the year about 20 acres have been reclaimed ar handed over to the State Engineering Corporation to
Bauddhaloka Mawatha Project Stage I The area taken up under this project is about 18 acre been completed. The balance area is occupied by sq these squatters are ejected. Of the area reclaimed h.
proceeding for the sale of the balance land.
Bauddhaloka Mawatha Project State II Under this project about 4 acres of marshy land ha reclaimed. The balance portion of the land is occup has been heed up.
Kirillapone Project An extent of 6:5 acres under this project has been rec has been disposed of to the Buildings Department for
VI—MAHAWELI DEVELO The Mahaweli is the longest river in Sri Lanka and ac Tises in the Horton Plateau, in the heart of the centra of 175-200 inches and flows down encircling Kandy region of Polonnaruwa before it empties itself into t
The Mahaweli development project is the larges development ever undertaken in Sri Lanka. This pr timunough the Polgolla-Ukuwela tunnel of 5 miles in innough another tunnel at Bowatenne, 4 miles long th din zone of the island.

ENT PROJECT
were continued :-
2I (Kadurugastuduwa)
Stage I a Project Stage I a Project Stage II
nder this project is about 54 acres. The are e land reclaimed, 14 acres have been disposed
roject is about 11 acres. This work has been ion Corporation. Only a portion of abor“
about 31 acres. This area is being reclaimed for the establishment of a wholesale market. ad part of the reclaimed land has already been carry out building operations.
Ps. Reclamation work on about 15 acres has uatters and work is held up in this area until alf an acre has been sold and negotiations are
} to be reclaimed. Only 0-38 acres has been ed by squatters and as such reclamation work
aimed and completed. 3-3 acres of this land a Housing Project.
PMENT PROJECT ounts for a little over 200 miles in length. It
mountains which receives an annual rainfall irough the parched dry zone, benefiting the e sea near Trincomalee.
combination of water and land resources ject is the diversion of the river at Polgolla ength to Sudu Ganga and Amban Ganga ugh North Central Province to the northern

Page 76
58
LAND
This diversion of the Mahaweli river to the history of economic development in Sri Lanka which calls for considerable engineering tech and diverting vast volume of water. It also f that is aimed at a speedy expansion of the co
The area extends over the Mahaweli Ganga in the North Central part of the island.
The ‘Master Plan’ of development envisages existing land under paddy and sugar cane, and
million KWH units with a total installed capac into 3 phases to be undertaken over a period o
The Mahaweli development board which wa (Act, No. 14 of 1970) was responsible for imp
The Special Areas’ declared for developm Bowatenna headworks. The development a region extending from Elahera to Kantalai ar city tanks. These lands are situated in An and Matale Districts. The board is responsi gation, drainage and water supply schemes. A Area’ is also the responsibility of the board.
Project I envisages the development of 235, 120,000 acres of land irrigated from existing ma of hydro-power. Project I is further sub-divi
Stage I
(a) The construction of Stage I is nearing
a diversion dam across Mahaweli Gang:
Polgolla to Ukuwela and a Power Plant (6) The Bowatenna Complex-diversion d
length diversion tunnel to divert a part (C) Taming the Sudu Ganga to cope with (d) Improvements to existing Elahara weir - the Elahera, Minneriya, Giritale, Kaud
The existing canals and distributory syster Stage I after necessary improvements, to augi the Kala Oya basin, some 72,800 acres in Anuradhapura city tanks. These lands get investigations would be undertaken during thi
ment, farm management, size of holdings, allied fields.
Stages II and III Stage II of project I of the Mahaweli develo of new land with irrigated agriculture for 2 includes settlement of some 28,000 farmer of farmers and community development. I and Trincomalee districts would be taken development. A large number of colonists and community services.

ZVELOPMENT
ry Zone would prove a very significant event in the
This project is a multi-purpose national endeavour vlogy, organisation and co-ordination in controlling rms the basis for la major agricultural programme itry's domestic supplies of rice.
asin, the basins of Maduru Oya and adjoining rivers
development of 900,000 acres of land (246,000 acres 56,000 acres of new land) and the production of 2,611 y of 507 MW. The proposed development is divided 30 years at an overall cost of about Rs. 6,700 million.
established on 3rd May, 1970, by Act of Parliament ementing project I of phase I of the "Master Plan'.
nt under project I, phase I covers the Polgolla and ea which includes land in the Kala Oya basin, the d land presently cultivated under the Anuradhapura iradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Trincomalee, Kurunegala ble for promoting, operating and co-ordinating irrigricultural and economic development of the 'Special
000 acres of land under irrigated agriculture including ujor irrigation schemes and the development of 40 MW led into three stages for purposes of implementation.
completion. This comprises the Polgolla complex, a at Polgolla, a five mile length diversion tunnel from
at Ukuwela, am across Amban Ganga of Bowatenna, a 4 mile of the Mahaweli waters into Kala Oya Basin,
the Polgolla diversion, and nd Yoda Ela to divert the balance water to lands under alla and Kantalai schemes.
as would be utilised for irrigation of the lands under nent the water supply to 41,500 acres of paddy land in the Elahera Kantalai region, 9,700 acres under the additional water for dual season cultivation. Several
stage for purpose of land classification, water manageettlement patterns, industrial development and other
ment plan envisages the development of 71,000 acres o 3 crops per year in the Kala Oya basin. Stage II milies, provision of infra-structure facilities, training
Stage III 20,000 acres of new land in Polonnaruwa O mainly for agricultural and suitable agro-industrial vould be settled with provision of apprioprate social

Page 77
MAHAWELI DEVELOPMEI
Progress
Major works relating to the Polgolla and Bowatenna 1 Sudu Ganga improvement scheme were completed by th waters to several tanks in Anuradhapua and Polonna The Ukuwela power station started operating on wate 20 MW.
The Items of work completed as at end of 1976 are o
Project I, Stage I Polgolla Complex. The construction of the Polgolla d completed and the Polgolla diversion was ceremoniall by the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. Mahaweli water through the irrigation by-pass to Dhun Oya and Sudu G Power Plant was operated and connected to the natio unit was operated from 1st October, 1976. The opera Sri Lanka Electricity Board.
Bowatenna Complex.--The construction of the dam placed in position and 4 gates are in working order. A tunnel were completed, and the diversion through the ti by the Acting Prime Minister and Minister of Irriga 700 Cusecs of water was sent to Kalawewa and the and Amban Ganga flows to Minneriya. The work completed and water was diverted to Kandalama tank. II the issue of water for yala cultivation to the fields unde the Kandalama sluice.
Elahera headwork improvements were nearing con scour sluice have been placed. Sudu Ganga Bridges, been completed. Work on the 16 mile length Bowatei
Project I, Stage II Preliminary work commenced in 1974, with a provision was programmed to carry out construction works in 6,0 The main canals, main roads, work in the Kalawewa ma heavy machinery by private contractors and state constr
Kalawewa Headworks.--87 per cent of the work is cc Gate fabrication is complete and erection work is to be done on the Kalawewa embankment. Work in connect nearing completion. All work on the left bank slu completed on the approach canal.
Kalawewa.–6,000 acres in the Kalawewa left bank a farmers were settled in HI area. A Yala cultivation has t clearing and construction of channel systems was com nearing completion on 5,500 acres in HI area. This wi early 1977. Work is in progress in the Kalawewa rig
Kandalama.—Facilities were extended, to 7,600 acres i per cent of the expected target.
Dambulu Oya Reservoir.--Excavation is nearing com of the concrete work on the dam is complete. Work IS nearing completion.

IT PROJECT
Leadworks, Elehera weir and canal and the
end of 1976 and the diversion of Mahaweli uwa districts was possible during the year. Ts of the Mahaweli with a capacity of
atlined below:
um, tunnel and Ukuwela power house was y commissioned on the 8th January, 1976, S so diverted through the tunnel were sent anga. The first power unit of the Ukuwela nal grid in July 1976. The second power tion of the power unit was handed over to
is almost complete. All 6 radial gates are il essential safety devices of the Bowatenna innel to Kalawewa basin was commissioned tion, Power and Highways in early 1976 balance available from Polgolla diversion on the Bowatenna-Kandalama Canal was a May 1976, the Prime Minister inaugurated r Kandalama by the ceremonial opening of
mpletion. Gates for the head sluice and 9 foot bridges and 1 road bridge have nna-Huruluwewa canal was completed.
- of Rs. 15 million by the Government. It D0 acres on the left bank area of Kalawewa. in embankment, etc., have been done using uction organizations.
mpleted in the raising of the existing spill. done. 70 per cent of the work has been on with the Kalawewa right bank sluice is ce is complete and excavation has been
ea were cleared by March 1976 and 2,200 een allowed under the Purana tank. Jungle plete in 4,500 acres in M2 area. Work is 1 be available for settlement of farmers by at bank main canal.
a the Kandalama area, covering about 50
pletion in the Dambulu Oya spill. About with regard to the approach and tail canals

Page 78
60
LA
Settlement and Development. The reset The persons who were displaced at Polg resettled on the land acquired in and arou
253 families affected under Bowatenna scheme in Kala Oya. These were the first t Project.
Selection and Settlement of Farmers.-- settled in settlements on the Left Bank of
Assistance and Subsidy Programme of n assistance to farmers already settled.
Socio-Economic Studies.--The socio-eco and proposed settlement area of Kandala Kantalai Colonization Schemes were con
Infra-Structure Facilities.—Negotiations Ministries for providing necessary infra-stri Development Scheme.
Agricultural Activities.--The Departmei system of irrigated farming and macro sca Development Board.
The management of pilot settlement p changed from government officials to farm
A 5 acre irrigable unit was found to be Illuppallama Pilot Project on redemarcate practised intensive production methods an criteria led to improved farming practices
Nearly 2,000 farmers settled in newly de rice yields of over 80 bushels per acre in subsidiary crops was not satisfactory espec of rainfall and seepage from newly const
Expenditure Of a committed expenditure of Rs. 554 I Rs. 121 million had been spent during the
Acceleration of Mahaweli Project A change of government in mid 1977 saw t new Government decided to accelerate the of 5 to 6 years as against the former prog development programme, envisages solving of food, etc. with the utilization of 6 mil and other streams in the environs.
The accelerated project is estimated to estimates of 6,700 million rupees.

AND DEVELOPMENT
tlement of persons displaced at Polgolla and Bowatenna. olla due to the construction of Polgolla reservoir, were nd Kandy.
Reservoir were settled under the Left Bank settlement patch of settlers to be settled under Mahaweli Development
2,259 farmers from HI area were selected and mostly
Kala Oya, during this period.
new settlers.—Action was taken to supply subsidies and
onomic survey of the Huruluwewa Colonization Scheme, ama compromising H7 and H9 encroachment survey on
npleted during this period.
s were conducted with the relevant Departments and Cucture facilities for new settlements in Stage II of Mahaweli
at of Agriculture continued research on development ale land and water management studies for the Mahaweli
projects at Maha Illuppallama and Polwehera has been mer institutions directly financed by the People's Bank.
e unsatisfactory and 16 new farmers were settled at Maha d units of 21 acre in extent. Farmers with 21 acre units d showed good progress. Adherence to farmer selection and bettter income generation.
eveloped land of the Mahaweli Stage II Project obtained
Yala 1976 and Maha 1976-77 seasons. Cultivation of cially in the Maha season due to the combined effect ructed irrigation canals.
million on various activities of the Mahaweli Project year 1976.
he United National Party Government in office. The e Mahaweli Development Project within a shorter period ramme of completing it in 30 years. This accelerated s the pressing problems as mass unemployment, scarcity ion acre feet of water available in the Mahaweli Ganga
cost 15,000 million rupees as compared with the original

Page 79
REGISTRATION OF DOCU
The River Valleys Development Board The River Valleys Development Board continued Uda Walawe Multi-Purpose Project during the year
In 1976 the River Valleys Development Board c the project to irrigate 15,000 acres for the cultivation of 244 colonists were settled during this period in 24 acres of irrigable land for the cultivation of cottor the other. At the same time, irrigation was provide colonists who had been settled during the early part
In the right bank area, the board concentrated ma already irrigated for the cultivation of paddy, sub colonists were settled during this period. Paddy, w area, showed tremendous improvements during this p from 73 to 117 bushels per acre. The increase in pa the establishment of mills with large capacities. He capacities of 3 to 4 tons per hour.
Subsidiary food crops, such as pulses and cereals, to the settlers and contributed well to the governmen
The development of livestock in the Walawe projec streamlining of artificial insemination programmes, protect village cattle. Veterinary demonstrators we breaks of contagious diseases. These measures helper area and a milk collecting centre was also established
VII–REGISTRATION OF DO
Under this law, registration of land is not essential priority on it i.e. an unregistered deed is void agai executed for a valuable consideration.
Before a deed is tendered for registration it should of the stamp ordinance. Registration of a deed wh wrong folio will entail consequences to the public, su
The nature and number of deeds affecting immov are shown in the table below :-
TABLE 6.1-NATURE AND NUMBER OF DEEDS E
Nature of Deed Transfers by sale, gift &c.
Mortgages Discharges Leases Other Deeds

MENTS ORDINANCE
ts activities in the development programme of 1976.
oncentrated its activities on the left bank on a of cotton and subsidiary food crops. A total the left bank area. They were provided with a during tne season and subsidiary food crops in d for the cultivation of 3,000 acres of paddy by of the project.
inly on the settlement of colonists on the land sidiary food crops and cotton. A total of 67
hich is the mainstay of the settled agricultural period. The yields in the various tracts ranged ddy production in the project area necessitated ence, two rice mills were installed with milling
accounted for an additional source of income t's food production campaign.
et continued with the up-grading of local cattle,
and adoption of disease control measures to ere appointed to every tract to prevent outd to increase the milk production in the project
DCUMENTS ORDINANCE
to the validity of a deed but merely confers nst any later registered deed adverse to it, is
be stamped in accordance with the provisions ich is improperly stamped or registered in a :h as loss of title to land.
ible property registered during the year 1973
EGISTERED AFFECTING IMMOVABLE PROPERTY
Number
193,530 50,213 31,486 62,616 18,051

Page 80
62
LAND
Land Valuation For official purposes, land valuation is a s department's role in the evolution of an ac particular significance. The main functions under :
(a) Assessment of capital value of proper (6) Assessment of rental values (C) Assessment of rental values for local A
Assessment of Capital Value.--Assessment below:
(a) Valuation for acquisition of land for i
No. 9 of 1959, as amended by Land A (6) Furnishing estimates for governmen
Institutions on proposed acquisitions. (C) Valuation for estate duty under Estate (d) Valuation for stamp duty under the St (e) Valuation for semi-government instit
Central Bank etc. for ad hoc purposes. (f) Valuation for the Commissioner of In (g) Valuation for the Land Reform Comr (h) Valuation by the Chief Valuer under s
Valuation for Acquisitions Acquisition for public purposes is on the inci schemes road-widening projects, hospital reports of approximately 2,500 blocks of Airport road-widening scheme were comple the acquisition of land under the Mahaweli Ganga Project and lands in North-Central I
In addition to these works, valuation and ments such as the Savings Bank, the Loan furnished to such authorities. Valuation : reached with regard to acquisition of prop under confidential cover were furnished concerning certain properties. Services o Department under the Ceiling on House an the department was the valuation of ner: Commission.
Among other activities of the department given and taken by the government institut
УШNo land can be alienated or otherwise deal and demarcated by the Survey Department
Triangulation Records of systematic triangulation in Sri I on the west coast in 1857 and the subsequ

EVELOPMENT
itutory function of the Valuation Department. The anced social and economic structure is therefore of f the valuation department could broadly be classified
es
uthorities.
of capital value is undertaken for purposes as outlined
ublic purposes in pursuance of Land Acquisition Act, cquisition (Amendment Act, No. 28) of 1964.
departments, local authorities and semi-government
Duty Ordinance. amp Ordinance. ations as local authorities, the State Mortgage Bank,
and Revenue for purpose of Wealth Tax. nission. tatutory provisions.
rease primarily for village expansion schemes, housing
construction and extension of schools. Valuation land under the Colombo Katunayaka International ted during the year 1976. Valuation work regarding
Project, the Nugegoda Development Project, the Gin Province were carried on successfully.
estimation reports regarding semi-government departBoard, local authorities and the Public Trustee were Vork was completed and a concensus of opinion was erty of ESSO and Shell companies. Valuation reports o the Bribery Commissioner under the bribery act,
the department were also extended to the Housing a Property Act, 1973. The major task undertaken by ly eight thousand acres of land for the Land Reform
were the assessment of rentals on house and property ons on rent.
LAND SURVEYS
with by the Government unless it has been surveyed
nka began with the measurement of a base at Negombo nt survey of a net work of triangulation. *

Page 81
LAND SURVEY
During the year triangulation of 22 triangles and 2 ba: This was necessary to provide a system of control for th
Levelling The earliest recorded levels were taken in 1865, the ave based on data at five tidal stations. Since then primar out providing the level net work for the Engineering Sur
During the year, 225 return miles of Primary, Secon 23 miles of tertiary Levelling was done.
Topographical Surveys The Topographical Survey of Ceylon commenced in 1897 of One Inch to One Mile covering the whole island was individual one Inch sheets is being carried out and new a
Sinhala Editions of Kandy, Rukam, Buttala, Padawiya, and English Editions of Chilaw, Iranamadu, Buttala, Po have been printed. In adition electoral maps of Horowpathana, Kokkilai and Nilveli were printed.
Engineering Surveys A total of 143,840 acres were surveyed under major ir In addition 792 miles of channel traces and road traces y
Block Topographical and Demarcation Surveys Block and Topo preliminary plan surveys are carried ou the final settlement of claims made by private parties.
The survey of a total extent of 360 acres in Wanni Ha forest reserve, 27,132 acres in Panama forest reserve a: Reserve Surveys were completed and plans issued to t
In addition 41 demarcation surveys, 142 crown requis reform commission and 48 settlement plans were com officer.
Air Surveys 18 Flight lines and 10 flight index sheets, 5,358 cont 375 mosaic prints and 350 dia positives were made in p members of the public, government departments and cor
Town Surveys A total of 61,184 acres of town assessments and contour Colombo, Nallur, Sravastipura, Hatton and Dick-oya.
Resources Surveys The Resources centre completed land-use mapping of 19
Land Development Surveys A total of 83,000 acres for land development purposes and forest surveys and regularisations of encroachments were

ses were completed under Samanala Wewa. e proposed tunnel.
erage determination of mean sea level being y and secondary levelling has been carried veys udertaken in parts of Sri Lanka.
dary and Reciprocal Levelling were done.
. Preparation of a set of maps on the scale completed in 1934. Systematic revision of additions issued from time to time.
Tunukai, Nilweli, Alutgama and Nalanda ; lonnaruwa, Aluthgama and Nalanda sheet;
Marichukaddi, Vavuniya, Kudiramelai,
rigation schemes and village tank surveys. vere completed.
t for large areas of land in connection with
tpattu area, 2,782 acres in Aralu Bulu Nelli and 261 acres in Campbell land. Forest
he settlement Officer.
ition and 177 acquisition surveys for land pleted and plans issued to the settlement
act prints, 702 rectification enlargements, -hotographic laboratories for issue to the
porations.
surveys were completed. Towns included
7,000 acres.
278,500 acres under middle class schemes, completed.

Page 82
64
LA
Land Reform Surveys 346,400 acres have been surveyed for the
Miscellaneous Maps and Diagrams Printing of various types of maps and dia
Topographical maps on the scale of one contour surveys, maps in Sinhala, Tamil various types of maps and diagrams for g undertaken during the period.
IX-JANATHA EST
Janawasama
The Board was incorporated on 6th Februar Act, No. 11 of 1972. This order was s 4th October, 1976.
Effective operations were commenced in former agency houses, which managed priva These estates totalling 227 and comprisit
management of the board.
The entire staff of the former agency ho janatha estates development Board. All continued in employment on the same terr
Capital The initial capital of the board was Rs. 101
The board consists of five directors inclu appointed for the general supervision of reg
The board decentralised the manageme Avissawella, Hatton, Nuwara Eliya, Badull
The main divisions of the organisation head office are as follows:
(1) Management and Production Division
managers. They are in charge of sev Kurunegala, Nuwara Eliya and Ratn and are responsible to the general ma
The management and production di
uniformly in all the regions. (2) Supplies Division.—The supplies dit
directly responsible to the general ma
The division performs a central categories of items that are required
managed by the board. These vario supplies, etc.

ND DEVELOPMENT
and reform commission.
grams were undertaken during the period.
Inch to a mile plans of town assessment surveys, town
and English, land utilisation maps and printing of overnment departments, corporations and boards were
ATES DEVELOPMENT BOARD
ey, 1976, in terms of the State Agricultural Corporations ubsequently amended by the Gazette Notification of
1 April, 1976, when the Statutory Trusteeships of the ate sector estates, vested in the state were terminated. ag an acreage of 234,073 acres were entrusted to the
puses was recruited on new terms and conditions of the estates Superintendents, staff and labour grades were ms and conditions as existed earlier.
million. Only Rs. 24 million has been received to date.
eding the chairman. Two of the working directors were gional operations ; and another for financial operations.
ent of estates with the creation of regional offices at
a, Kandy, Ratnapura and Kurunegala.
operating under a general manager, concentrated in
1.-The management and production division has three en regions namely, Avissawella, Badulla, Hatton, Kandy, Lapura, act as co-ordinators for their respective regions
nager in head Office.
ivision ensures that decisions of the board are carried out
vision is administered by the supplies manager who is anager.
ized function in purchasing and transporting various
by the head office, the regional office and the estates us items consist of packing material, fertilizers, general

Page 83
JANATHA ESTATES DEVEL
(3) Marketing Division.--The functions of this Divi
and abroad from all Janawasama estates, the test and accounting of sale proceeds to the regional
Janawasama's share of teas to be consigned approximately 35 million pounds on the basis Advisory Committee. Janawasama has up t pounds which was more or less the largest for t
The marketing division has a separate tea divisio well over 250 tea estates, with an approximat high, medium and low grown tea-land coming i ment Board.
(4) Insurance Division. This division is a centralis
the exception of Life Insurance and was regi commission agent for the purpose of transactis Corporations and private clients as well.
The duties discharged are of a complex and
assistance to the Insurance Corporation of Sri L (5) Finance Division. This division is responsible f
banking, accounting, financial delegation of au and general activities, which includes accounting
(6) Internal Audit Division. This division is under
play a dynamic role rather than carry out routir
(7) Abministration Division.--This division is respo
tration and general, which supervises the work o
(8) Consumer Service Division. This division has
Kirillapone Pola, Campbell Park Pola and at V consumers. This service was started in bringing
(9) Fertilizer Division. This division is primarily
and coconut fertilizers to the Board's estates.
LA 31485

LOPMENT BOARD
sion briefly cover sale of produce both locally ing and reporting on tea samples, warehousing
offices, estates and government organisations.
e to the London auctions during the year is
of the allocation given by the London Tea o date shipped approximately 17 million he period.
on covering all aspects of quality control for Le crop of 81 million kilogrammes, covering ander the purview of Janatha Estate Develop
ed unit handling all classes of Insurance, with stered with the Insurance Corporation as a ng all classes of General Insurance for other
I specialised nature extending a great degree of
anka.
or budgetary control, financial operation and thority, surplus funds and financial position g policy and implementation, etc.
- a chief internal auditor and is expected to ne Internal Audit functions.
nsible for the recruitment, welfare, adminisof the postal section.
sale outlets of consumer items in places like Vellawatta Savoy car park for the benefit of s down the cost of living.
concerned with the supplying of tea, rubber

Page 84
С НА
AGRICULT
-
Agriculture continues to occupy an unrivalle earnings from the three major traditional e 1975 from a low 72 per cent, in 1974 to 76 per and coconut production declined as compar showed an increase.
The full benefit of improved export price declining export volume recorded during the
Sri Lanka's three main export crops and in 1976. The asweddumized paddy land viz from 1,535,840 acres in 1975 to 1,557,680 a island.
Apart from plantation agriculture, much a export crops, horticulture and on the promot
The Land Reform Law (No. 1 of 1972) v vesting of company and individually-owned total of 417,957 acres of company-owned a acres rubber, 6,406 acres coconut and 79,124 at end of 1975. Company ownership of the
Local Rupee Con Sterling Compani
An estimate of the total land area vested 1972 is 563,400 comprising plantation crops, cultural, land.
П—ТЕА
The tea industry accounted for 44 per cent i its position as the largest industry in the islan of Black Tea in the world.
Acreage The tea plant grows at elevations up to 6,000 rainfall of not less than 80 inches a year. Tee categories, viz., high, medium and low grow if its mean elevation is 4,000 feet or more abo is above 2,000 feet but below 4,000 feet ; and less.

PTER VII
URE AND FOOD
GENERAL
1 position in the national economy. Foreign exchange sport crops which had recovered significantly during
cent slumped again to about 70 per cent in 1976. Tea ed with the preceding year, while rubber production
s of the three plantations crops was thwarted due to year. paddy accounted for approximately 3•8 million acres ia, the potential cultivable area under paddy increased cres, the largest acreage under any single crop in the
ttention has been focussed on the cultivation of minor ion of animal husbandry. vith its amendment (No. 39 of 1975) provides for the | estate lands in the Land Reform Commission. A
gricultural land comprising 237,992 acres tea, 94,835 4 acres mixed crops were vested in the Commission as se lands was categorized as :-
Acres
panies
222,813 195,144
417,957
in the Commission under the Land Reform Law of chena clearings, jungle, patna and uncultivated agri
- CULTIVATION
of Sri Lanka’s export earnings in 1976, and maintains 1. Sri Lanka also ranks as the second largest producer
- feet above sea level and requires an evenly distributed - lands are commonly classified under three elevational 1. A tea land is said to produce high grown' tea -ve sea level ; 'medium grown’ tea if its mean elevation - ‘low grown’ tea if its mean elevation is 2,000 feet or

Page 85
TEA CULTIVA
The total area under tea in Sri Lanka at the end of classification of total area into acreage groups is giv
Н
12
(1) Small-holdings (ii) Estates 10 acres and above but
below 100 acres (iii) Estates 100 acres and above but
below 500 acres (iv) Estates 500 acres and above
The following tables gives the distribution of the ] categories :-
TABLE 7:1-DISTRIBUTION OF SRI LANKA'S TEA
Public Sector :
Sri Lanka State Plantation Corporation Janatha Estates Development Board Udarata Co-operative Estates Development Board Janawasa Land Reform Commission Electoral Co-operative Societies
Multi-Purpose Co-operative Societies Sri Lanka Tea Board (Tea Research Institute) Bank of Ceylon Estates and Small holdings managed by other State
Agencies Private Sector :
Sri Lanka Individuals
Non-National Individuals Sri Lanka and Non-National Individuals Small Holdings owned by Private Individuals
Tota
Production The total quantity of tea produced in 1976 was 433s compared with 471 million pounds (213.6 million average yield per acre in 1976 is estimated at 380-71
Eports
The total quantity of made tea exported from Sri Lan (S0-8 million pounds) as compared with 212:7 million The total value of tea exported was Rs. 2,100-0 mill
made tea at Rs. 10•49.

TION
67
December 1976, was 594,481 acres. A broad en below:-
Co. of oldings
Total Acreage
Percentage of total acreage
19.92 13-54
2,804
118,425 80,493
3,089
- 536
139,334
23-44.
286
256,229
43•10
6,715
594,481
100-00
Island's tea acreage among different ownership
A ACREAGE BY OWNERSHIP CATEGORIES
No. of Estates
Acreage
177 204 84
54
83 213 21
123,501 149,010
33,299.
6,399 10,821 34,637 2.894 4,655 566 402
12
31
881
366,184
2,965
13
103,981
4,329
1,660 118,327
122,785
125,834
228,297
126,715
594,481
4 million pounds (196•6 million kilogrammes) 1 kilogrammes) in the preceding year. The silos (839 pounds).
ka during 1976 was 200-0 million kilogrammes 1 kilogrammes (468.9 million pounds) in 1975. ion, with an average f.o.b. price per kilo of

Page 86
68
AGRICU
Pakistan retained its position as the larges 29-2 million kilogrammes (64-8 million pound million kilogrammes (60-5 million pounds) c grammes (44.9 million pounds). The same in the preceding year.
Licensing of Tea Dealers All dealers in made tea and green tea leaf are licences from Tea Commissioner. There v Business premises of these licensed tea deale missioner's Department to ensure dealers cor
New Planting The planting of new areas in tea is prohibited Tea Control Act. An extent of 1,918 acres planted area and extent replanted under th registered during the year.
Tea Nurseries.—In terms of the Tea Con of a tea nursery. Permits are issued for d Nurseries, Multiplication Nurseries, Ordir Nurseries.
Analytical Control - To ensure that the lead content of Sri Lank consumer countries, the Tea Commissioner estates in different planting districts to be ani
A total of 60 samples for lead content were
The Tea Commissioner's Department was of the Sri Lanka Tea Board under the Tea I Control Department and the Tea Export Cor fell within purview of the Tea Commissioner
Apart from regulatory functions administe provisions of the Tea Board Law, (No. 14) of (Tax and Control of Exports) Act (No. 16 of promotion of the Tea Industry as undertaken
(a) The Tea Replanting Subsidy Scheme ; (6) The Tea Factory Development Subsidy (C) The Tea Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme ; (d) The Crop Diversification Subsidy Scher (e) The Tea Chest Subsidy Scheme ; (f) The Tea New Planting Subsidy Scheme (8) The Rubber into Tea Subsidy Scheme ; (h) The Tea Export Duty Rebate Scheme.
Replanting Subsidy Scheme The Tea Replanting Subsidy Scheme is design replacement of old seedling tea with vegetat of high yields. Since the introduction of the already replanted and total subsidies paid out

JLTURE AND FOOD
t buyer of Sri Lanka tea during the year with a total of 3). The United Kingdom, with purchases totalling 27•5 ame next followed by U. S. A., with 20-4 million kilocountries shared the bulk of Sri Lanka's tea exports
required, under the Tea Control Act, to obtain annual vere 3,594 such licensed dealers at the end of 1976. ers are regularly inspected by officials of the Tea Comaforming to requirements of the Act.
except on the authority of a permit issued in terms of the of new tea area comprising unregistered tea land newly e Rubber into Tea Replanting Subsidy Scheme, was
atrol Act, a permit is necessary for the establishment ifferent types of nurseries, as V. P. Nurseries, Seedling nary Multiplication and Commercial Multiplication
ca tea is well below the maximum limit prescribed by Ps Department regularly obtains samples of tea from alysed by the Government Analyst.
e analysed during 1976.
reconstituted in January 1976, with the establishment Board Law of 1975. Activities handled by the Tea atrol Unit of the Department of Imports and Exports, s Division of the Sri Lanka Tea Board. ered by the Tea Commissioner's Department within
1975, Tea Control Act (No. 51) of 1957 and the Tea 1959), subsidy schemes sponsored by the State for the - by the Department are :-
Scheme ;
ne ;
and
ed to improve productivity of tea lands on a planned ively propagated clonal tea capable of a potential
scheme in 1959, a total of 70,686 acres have been amounted to Rs. 252 million.

Page 87
TEA CULTIVA
To ensure more participation in the Subsidy Scheme “ Package Deal” for the Tea Industry from Rs. 3,751
A sum of Rs. 17-0 million has been paid as subsidi
Rubber into Tea Replanting Subsidy Scheme The scheme envisages replanting of old rubber lan propagated tea. Funds for the purpose are made availa under the Rubber Replanting Subsidy Act (No. 36) o
The total area replanted under the scheme as at the 263 acres of which have been replanted during the ye
A sum of Rs. 0-6 million was paid as subsidies und
Crop Diversification Subsidy Scheme
With a view to replacing uneconomic tea land by introduced a Crop Diversification Subsidy Scheme on for payment of subsidies for cultivation of alternative Sugar-cane, Spices, etc., on uneconomic tea lands. Si a total of 6,600 acres of uneconomic tea land have be in the region of Rs. 5•1 million. Approximately 1,000
payment of a sum of Rs. 1.6 million as subsidies.
Tea Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme Prior to 1974, the issue of subsidised tea fertilizer wa in extent. Coverage was confined to approximately outlay as subsidies was in the region of Rs. 3 million. has been extended to all tea lands under the " Packag
A sum of Rs. 77.2 million has been spent to meet h Owners.
Factory Development Subsidy Scheme Financial inducements afforded the tea factory owner and equipment in keeping with modern technological
(a) An outright grant of one-third cost of approved
in tea factories ; (6) One half of interest payable on loans taken for
taken by factory owned co-operatives, the enti The payment of one-third grant has been extende electricity supply from the national gird and installin hydro-power to tea factories.
Since introduction of the tea factory modernisation ment Projects undertaken amounted to Rs. 87 mill subsidies.
Tea Chest Subsidy Scheme The cost of tea chest panels for packing of tea is subsid The current price of a complete set of chest panels is Rs. 24.00. The present subsidy payable on a comple a set is Rs. 10.50.
Subsidies under the scheme in 1976, tota lled Rs. 45

TION
69
, the subsidy payable was increased under the D to Rs. 4,750 per acre.
es under the scheme during 1976.
d with high-yielding varieties of vegetatively able from the Rubber Subsidy Fund established f 1963. e end of 1976 was in the region of 5,097 acres,
er the scheme in 1976.
more remunerative crops, the government an experimental basis. The scheme provides e crops as Coconut, Pepper, Timber, Rubber, nce the introduction of the pilot study in 1974, Den diversified. Total subsidies paid out was acres were diversified during the year involving
as confined only to tea lands under 100 acres 60,000 acres of tea. The annual government
The issue of subsidised fertilizer at half oost ge Deal”.
alf the cost of fertilizer issued to tra land
s to improve and modernise the machinery trends during 1976 were — 1 items of machinery and equipment installed
factory development. Where loans have been
re interest is subsidised.
d to cover capital cost incurred in procuring ng water turbines or pelton wheels to harness
a scheme in 1966, cost of factory developGon involving payment of Rs. 21 million as
ised by government under the ‘ package deal’. Rs. 26.00 and that of a half set of chest panels te set of chest panels is Rs. 12.60 and for half
-9 million.

Page 88
70
AGRIC
Tea Export Duty Rebate Scheme Under this scheme, teas fetching low prices of export duty on such teas. The maximu fething a price between Rs. 4.40 and Rs. 5. in 1976 was Rs. 3•5 million.
Leaf Collecting Centres
Marketing of small-holders’ green leaf has be ing agents and dealers. To improve returns actively promoted establishment of leaf collec ing chain. These leaf collecting centres helpe of sınall-holders produce.
As an incentive in the scheme of green 1 scales to such centres where necessary. A si subject to a maximum of Rs. 250.00 is als offered in this regard include supply of coir 1
There were 104 leaf collecting centres at the A sum of Rs. 34,446 has been spent on thi
The membership of these collecting centres
III–RUBB Sri Lanka ranks as the fourth largest produc grows best at elevations up to 1,200 feet, ab
Acreage The total area under rubber in Sri Lanka o Control Act, was 652,179 acres compared wit
Although the acreage under rubber regist acres, acreage cultivated in rubber is estimat acres although “registered” is now virtually al grown was found unsuitable for rubber culti
The Rubber Control Department is requir of all rubber estates and small-holdings in the of land not less than 10 acres in extent and a planted in rubber. The Island's total regist holdings’ and ‘estates’ of varying sizes was :-
TABLE 7:2—RUBBER ACH
Category
Small-holdings (Below 10 Acres) Estates 10 Acres and above but
100 Acres Estates 100 Acres and above

JLTURE AND FOOD
et the Colombo auctions are granted a rebate of a part n rebate paid in 1976 was 20 cents per pound on teas 4 per kilogramme. The total export duty rebate paid
en traditionally dominated by intermediaries as collectto small-holders, the Tea Commissioner's Department ting centres eliminating some of the links in the marketd provide an improved infra-structure for the marketing
eaf collection, the department has supplied weighing absidy up to 50 per cent of cost of a green leaf “shed' O given to each collecting centre. Further incentives pags to leaf packers.
e end of 1976, catering to the needs of the small-holders. s scheme from the Tea Board Fund.
E stands well over 10,000 at present.
ER CULTIVATION
cer of natural rubber in the world. The rubber plant Dve mean sea level with an even distribution of rainfall.
n December 31, 1976, as registered under the Rubber h 652,802 acres at the end of the preceding year. ered by the Rubber Control Department is 652,179 ed to be 500,872 acres. The balance extent of 91.307 pandoned since the elevations at which it was originally ration.
ed" by the Rubber Control Act, to maintain a register Island. An“ estate ” is defined in the Act, as an area "small-holding" as an area less than 10 acres in extent red rubber area of 652,179 acres grouped into ‘small
EAGE BY SIZE OF HOLDINGS–1976
No. of Holdings
Registered
Total Extent
Acres
1976
154,445
6,873
1976
215,689 159,802
below
827
276,688
otal
162,145
652,179

Page 89
RUBBER CULTI
Departmental records show that 472,331 acres o have been planted with high-yielding material (clonal has been planted with ordinary seedling rubber. TI been planted after the government's Rubber Replar
Production The total production of rubber in Sri Lanka in 1976, 146,402 tons in the preceding year.
The break-up of the 1976, production figure (in to ponding 1975 figure appears below :-
Year
Sheet
Sole Crepe
4,428 4,017
Scrap Crepe (tons)
12,346 14,241
1975
86,000 85,118
1976
On the basis of the cultivated acreage as estimated the actual area in tapping during 1976, excluding area
Local Consumption Returns furnished by local consumers of rubber and total of 7,153 tons of rubber had been consumed loc the preceding year.
Rubber consumed locally is used in the manufac manufacture of cycle tyres and tubes, rubber goods s surgical gloves, rubber soles and heels and rubber toys
It is expected that local consumption of rubber w progressive increases in the manufacture of tyres and t
Exports The total quantity in respect of which entries had been 134,776 tons valued at Rs. 889.5 million compared wit These figures however are liable to adjustment in vie following or preceding periods specified.
Customs entries also reveal that the People's Reput customer followed by the U. S. S. R. and Italy which v trade as in the preceding year. The Federal Repub! among the other buyers of local rubber.
Rubber Dealers Al rubber dealers are required to obtain licences ur There were 3,038 licensed rubber dealers at the end of in 1975. Licensed rubber dealers are required to I purchases and sale of rubber and furnish monthly sum Department.
Rubber Prices Average Colombo price of sheet rubber (RSS No. 1) per lb. as compared with an average price of Rs. 1.30 rubber during the entire year was Rs. 2.86 cts. a lb. com year.

ATION
Sri Lanka's total registered rubber acreage pedlings or budded stumps), while the balance | major part of this high-yielding rubber has ing Subsidy Scheme was launched in 1953.
estimated at compared 149,739 tons as with
is) under various categories with the corres
Total
Technically Latex (dry Latex specified rubber Crepe
rubber
content) 41,157
1,534
937 43,142
2,230
991
146,402 149,739
by the Department of Census and Statistics, s not of tappable age was 474,626 acres.
| the Ceylon Tyre Corporation show that a ally in 1976, as compared with 6,488 tons in
eturing and retreading of motor tyres, and such as foam rubber cushions, rubber mats,
puld be even greater than at present with ubes by the Ceylon Tyre Corporation.
passed in 1976, based on Customs Returns, is h 158,332 tons at Rs. 654•5 million in 1975. w of certain quantities being shipped in the
lic of China was once again Sri Lanka's best as, basically the same pattern of international Ec of Germany, U. S. A. and Pakistan were
Her Section 13 of the Rubber Control Act. 1976, as compared with 3,023 licensed dealers aintain certain prescribed registers showing naries of transactions to the Rubber Control
luring the whole of 1976, was Rs. 1.97 cts.
cts. a 16. in 1975. Average price of crepe -ared with Rs. 1.85; cts. a 16. in the preceding

Page 90
AGRIC
The Rubber Replanting Subsidy Scheme Rubber land owners who intend replanting t on a graded scale. Rates of subsidy have n
(i) if the area to be replanted forms part
payable is Rs. 2,000 per acre. (ii) holdings under 100 acres in extent are
Under normal conditions it takes about 6 that the plants are satisfactorily maintained i in one lump sum but is spread over 6 instali 7 instalments in the case of small-holdings e paid immediately after the old rubber has bi rubber plants have been planted. The third thereafter at yearly intervals, subject to mai
Progress made under the Subsidy Scheme The acreage replanted under the Rubber Ref acres. An extent of 6,290 acres, was replant as at 1976.
Issue of Fertilizer and Planting Material to si Small-holders particularly those resident in have been afforded necessary assistance to of fertilizer required by them. To obviate tl arrangements to supply fertilizer to smallCommodity Purchase Department, located in
Planting material is also distributed by Rubber Replanting Subsidy Scheme.
Diversification of Uneconomic Rubber Lands The scheme to diversify uneconomic rubbe continues. Approved crops, the minimum crop is outlined below:-
Crop
Coconut Cocoa Cardamom Cloves Nutmet Pepper Passion Fruit Pineapple Pasture Timber Oil Palm Mulberry Lemon Grass Sugar Cane

LTURE AND FOOD
eir lands with high-yielding varieties are paid subsidies
w been increased : f an estate 100 acres or more in extent, the subsidy
also paid a subsidy of Rs. 2,000 per acre. ears for budded rubber to come into bearing. To ensure fter the replanting is completed, the subsidy is not paid ments in the case of estates over 100 acres in extent and tates under 100 acres in extent. The first instalment is en uprooted. The second instalment is paid after new and subsequent instalments of the subsidy are payable tenance of the replanted area satisfactorily.
lanting Subsidy Scheme upto end of 1975, was 325,922 ed in 1976, giving a total replanted area of 332,221 acres
nall-holders remote areas, void of transport and delivery facilities take delivery of the comparatively small quantities nis difficulty, the Rubber Control Department has made molders through the network of rubber depots of the a the principal rubber-growing districts of the island.
the department to small-holders participating in the
| lands for planting of other crops initiated in 1970 extent to be planted and the subsidy payable on each
Minimum
extent Acre
Total subsidy payable per acre
Rs.
op- U - u un N + H on ta he rope
800 1,200
900 800 800 900 1,000 1,000 500
600 1,500
500 500 800

Page 91
COCONUT CULTIV.
A total of 2,167 permits covering an acreage of 11,8. the end of 1976. Of this acreage, 6,189 acres have b approved crops. The total subsidy pay ble under this end of 1976.
Rubber Factory Development Scheme The Rubber Factory Development Scheme was initiates of premium grades of rubber as latex crepe, pale crej increasing manufacturing capacities of factories.
Under the Rubber Factory Development Subsidy Sche machinery, appliances, etc. Items that qualify for the subs Replanting Subsidy Fund, are power supply ; bulking i and laminating mills ; floor tiling, extractor fans and blo tower and water supply equipment and various other i for the production of technically specified rubber.
Apart from subsidies payable, the Ministry of Plan People's Bank has launched a scheme for payment of 1 their factories for production of crepe and new grades o
Factory modernisation and subsidy paid during the tw
Year. No. of Factories
1975
non
1976
IV-COCONUT CULT Sri Lanka's coconut acreage stands at 1,152,428, the crop in the island. The tempo of replanting activi considerably during the year. The replanted area as est: al 13,100 acres.
Production and Exports Coconut production continues to be subject to varying contributed substantially to a drop in nut yield during in the preceding years had its impact in 1975. Overa 198 million nuts in 1975, fell by 12:7 per cent in 1976. multis, this figure showed a drop of over 300 million n nought retarded extension activity in the application of
Export earnings from the three major coconut product te preceding years, recorded a slight decline attributable despite an increase of 6.1 million kilogrammes in the qu
Carolinat Cultivation Board. The Coconut Cultivation Board was established in M miserias, by an order published in the Government Ga. mier section 2 (1) of the Coconut Development Act,

TION
13
have been issued under this scheme as at en uprooted and 5,430 acres planted with scheme stands at Rs. 10,928,300 as at the
in 1974, with a view to assisting producers e and new forms of rubber apart from
ne, factory owners are paid one-third cost of idy or an outright payment from the Rubber nd coagulating tanks ; macerating, creping vers for preliminary drying of laces ; drying sems of machinery and equipment essential
ation Industries in collaboration with the Dans to assist those intending to modernise f rubber.
wo years 1975 and 1976 were :-
Amount of Subsidy
Rs.
125,496
53,865
'IVATION
second largest acreage under any single y and fertilizer application has declined mated by the Central Bank is in the region
fluctuations. Adverse weather conditions 1976. The extensive application of fertilizer 11 nut production which was estimated at
At a provisional estimate of 2,093 million its over the preceding year. The spell of fertilizer, which continues a declining trend.
I which had remained virtually static during to a drop in the f.o.b. price of coconut oil, ntum of exports.
rch, 1972, by the Minister of Plantation ette, in terms of the powers vested in him
No. 46) of 1971.

Page 92
74
AGRI
Among major functions of the Board ar tations ; (6) assist in promoting cultivati pasture and other intercrops on coconut 1. suitable cultivation methods as regards coc (e) develop new techniques in processing services to assist the coconut industry.
Extension activities carried out by the E seedlings among cultivators particularly in distributed during the year.
Fertilizer Stores were established at estates and at the demonstration centre, M
Subsidy Schemes.—1,169 permits in res establishment of pasture involving payment
Under the Replanting/Underplanting Sul were received during the period July to De of land.
The rehabilitation of coconut land betwee There were 3,614 applications during the y cover an extent of 13,831 acres of land. Sú of Rs. 651,024.
Agricultural productivity committees at Dambadeniya, Polgahawela and Hamonga implementation of the scheme in these areas
Estate Management.—15 coconut estates Cultivation Board by the Land Reform C Systematic programme for improvement of severe spell of drought during the year, total Intercropping with crops as, chillies, cowpea
Animal Husbandry.—A scheme for the m kelle, Bopitiya, Mahayaya, Nagansola and 1 Sheep rearing was also commenced in Mal end of the year was 450 animals. Poultry 1 gama, Passikudah and Randeniya Estates.
Publicity work to popularise the Board “Esala Mela’ Kandy, the agriculture exh exhibition at Richmond College, Galle, tt opening ceremonies of agricultural service also arranged at these exhibitions.

JLTURE AND FOOD
(a) faster development of productivity in coconut plan| of land with coconut ; (C) promote establishment of ds and also promote livestock farming : (d) popularize ut cultivation and other crops on coconut plantations ; coconut products and provide advisory and extension
vard during 1976, envisaged the distribution of coconut 1e dry zone. A total of 264,038 coconut seedlings were
ahayaya, Mohettegoda, Devivimana and Johnnydale ndel. These estates are being managed by the Board.
pect of 5,947 acres were issued during 1976, for the of Rs. 272,201 as subsidy.
Isidy Scheme initiated in July 1976, 4,307 applications cember. These applications cover an extent 2,880 acres
11 acre and 20 acres was first commenced in May, 1974. Par, in respect of 16,817 acres. Permits were issued to bsidy payment for rehabilitation work was in the region
Pothuhera, Mawathagama, Kudalgamuwa, Yakwila, lle served as 'agents of the Board to assist in the
overing an extent of 4,000 acres, vested in the Coconut ommission continue to be managed by the Board. A.
these estates was initiated during the year. Despite a nut production in these estates reached 7:55 million nuts.. - coffee, pepper was carried out in about 300 acres.
altiplication of upgråded cattle was initiated at Rajgammassikudah estates with a breeding stock of 421 animals ayaya and Bopitiya estates. Sheep population at the arming was carried out successfully at Mahayaya, Raj
activities was carried out with participations at the bition at St. Joseph's College, Colombo, the annual
agriculture exhibition, Kurunegala and also at the centres at Panadura and Nugape. Film shows were:

Page 93
COCONUT CULT
Coconut Processing Board
Kernel Products. —Arising from restriction of expor coconut manufacturethere were a host of problems par workers. A relief wages scheme for mill employees per kilogramme of desiccated coconut sold was coll payment of relief wages.
A total of 70 desiccated coconut millers and 61 co Coconut Development Board. 46,000 metric tons o of coconut oil were produced during the year.
Since the question of Aflatoxin in Coconut Product organised a setninar on “ Aflatoxin in Coconut Produ dealers to alert them on the dangers of Aflatoxin cont
Non-Kernel Products.--Fibre—647 Fibre Mills, 89 ) were registered with the Board in 1976. The number fibre operation for export) had increased over the 1975
87,749 metric tons of fibre was exported in 1976 reflec production was approximately 75,000 metric tons. De demand for bristle and twisted fibre was strong. The 1 kilogrammes, while the price of bristle fibre was Rs. 5
Mill Modernisation. —A scheme was drawn up for t loans would be made available from the People's Ba improvements, as electrification. The scheme includes
Coconut Shell Grit.—156 manufacturers of coconut carbon were registered during the year. There is grow plants and some feasibility studies are being carried coconut shell flour were also registered with the Coco
Service to Millers. The Board continues to import a mainly of desiccated coconut millers. The Coconut D items, as Camel Hair Belting, V-Belts and other such ndustries. A loan was requested under the World Bar a loan of Rs. 4 million for the scheme. The Board im hers to d.c. shippers to overcome shortage of packing
Laboratory.–13,028 samples of desiccated coconut w these 58 per cent of the samples were found contaminat were resampled for quality defects. The laboratory al special investigations on mills contaminated with salm

VATION
ts and the "quota system of desiccated icularly lack of full employment for D.C. mill vas initiated under which a sum of 50 cents ected from millers and placed in a fund for
conut oil millers sought registration with the f desiccated coconut and 45,800 metric tons
Es is gaining momentum at present, the Board acts” for the benefit of oil millers and copra amination in their products.
Hacklers and Dyers and 59 Fibre Processors of fibre processors (i.e. twist, polish and bale - figure.
eting a recovery from the 1975 position where
mand for mattress fibre was poor while the local price for matters fibre was Rs. 37 per 50 10 per 50 kilogrammes.
he modernisation of the fibre mills whereby nk to millers carrying out certain approved
a subsidy of one-third cost to millers.
shell grit and 1 manufacturer of activated ing interest in setting up of activated carbon put on this project. Two manufacturers of nut Development Board during the year.
nd supply a limited number of items for use, evelopment Board imports and supply scarce spares necessary for the coconut processing k. IBRD Loan Scheme. The IDA approved ported and supplied 100,000 paper sacks and | material for desiccated coconut.
're examined for bacteriology and quality. Of :d with salmonella and 7•11 per cent samples 30 carried out analysis of water samples and
nella.

Page 94
76
AGRIC
The Quality Advisory Unit was establis laboratory and help maintain hygienic stan
A seminar on aflatoxin in coconut produ the Board in conjunction with the laborato
Research.—A paper was read at the S. L. studies on desiccated coconut during storage was also prepared. Studies are proceeding yeast and (6) as a diluent for toddy in the n
Fluid Bed Drier.—Experiments were condu Ltd., and the Tea Research Institute with tl No conslusive results have so far been obta
White Fibre Project.—Extension of buildir ted. The quality of white fibre produced t market. A fibre extracting machine is on oro unretted green husks. Experiments conduct
(a) most suitable age of husks for retting
(6) optimum retting period for mechnical
Coconut Cream.--Experimentation into n use continued during 1976. The project ha
A total of 5,168 bottles of coconut milk bottles each manufactured specially for the ! Kandy Esala Mela Exhibition.
The price factor appears a deterrent after market.
Brown Fibre.——Cemented retting tanks we Kirimetiyana leased by the Coconut Develo a defibering machine were installed and teste fibre was constructed and installed. This ha
Mill Management.—The Mill Management Division and mill management activities no

ULTURE AND FOOD
ed by the Board to better utilise data available in the Cards of mills.
ets was organised by the Kernel Products Division of
B. A. S. sessions on physico-chemical and bacteriological A report “Progress of the D. C. Industry 1970–1974° on utilisation of coconut juice for--a) propagation of manufacture of vinegar.
cted in collaboration with the Colombo Commercial Co. he Batch Driers loaned by the T. R. I. for the purpose.
ned from these experiments.
ngs and installation of decorticating drums were comple
y using these drums were found acceptable to the local der from the State Engineering Corporation for defibering sed were :-
extraction and manual extraction of fibre.
nanufacture of a stabilised coconut milk for domestic s been found acceptable to the local market.
E were processed. This included two batches of 1,000 21st Anniversary Exhibition of the C. I. S. I. R. and the
- the product has been found acceptable for the local
ere constructed at the Brown Fibre Mill, Nattandiya pment Board. An Ennor husk-crushing machine and
d. A low cost fibre cleaning machine for cleaning dry Es proved quite successful in getting a cleaner fibre.
Division of the Board was separated from the Technical w function as separate unit of the Board.

Page 95
RICE AND SUBSIDIARY
Mirigama Mills. —Constructional improvements effec
(a) wet section modified and improved, (6) dry section floors re-laid, (C) heat exchanger furnace converted from oil to w
cost of production, (d) an extra desiccator installed, (e) a new copra kiln constructed according to plan
Nattandiya Mills.--Improvements were effected to f were also made to the fibre mill. Construction of t low cost fibre cleaning machine helped improve quali
Finance.--The Board received a grant of Rs. 1,409, also a loan of Rs. 500,000 from the Coconut Develo
The operation of Nattandiya and Mirigama mills and Rs. 210,454 during the year.
V–RICE AND SUBSIDIA
Rice forms the staple food of the people in Sri Lanki of special significance. The paddy crop is a seasonal o to the two monsoonal periods—N. E. and S. W. m distinguishable in Sri Lanka are (a) Maha (Sep intermediary crop being termed “MEDA’ cultivation cultivable area as enumerated during cultivation year to 1,557,680 acres during cultivation year 1976.
The extent sown in the Maha season 1975-76 was i 1976 an extent of O‘64 million acres was brought und
Paddy production declined drastically during 197 that prevailed for most part of the year. The estima
million bushels in 1975 was a drop of 28 per cent as con recorded in the preceding year. An estimated produ cultivation year 1975-76 giving an increase of 8 per of drought in the Yala season thwarted an otherwise
Increased rice production is one of the objectives plan. With a view to achieving this objective, the cultivators as good quality seed of high-yielding strai an attarctive guaranteed price.
High yielding strains are being developed by the Der available to farmer-cultivators are Bg 11-11 (4 mon 3 and 3 months) which are issued from state seed A total of 1,38 million acres were under improved st
District wise break-down of extent cultivated duri per net acre harvested during the cultivation year 197. Seasonal coverage during the year includes cultivation

FOOD CROPS
ted to the mill were :
pod firing, thus effecting considerable saving in
specifications of the Coconut Research Board.
urnaces and desiccators. Many improvements vo cement tanks, use of a husk crusher and a ty of fibre.
810 from the Treasury for Board activities and pment Authority for Mill Management.
- resulted respectively in profits of Rs. 90,556
ARY FOOD CROPS a. The cultivation of rice (paddy) is therefore ne, pattern of cultivation roughly corresponding monsoons. The two main cultivation seasons tember-March) and Yala (April-August) the 1. Asweddumized paddy land, viz. potentially 1975 was 1,555,840 acres. This figure increased
1 the region of 1:14 million acres, while in Yala er the plough.
5, attributable to adverse weather conditions ted paddy (grain in husk), production at 55:3 mpared with an estimate of 76-8 million bushels ction of 60 million bushels was recorded in the cent over the 1975 figure. A prolonged spell increased production in that season.
of the government's agricultural development government affords such facilities to farmer ns, subsidized-fertilizer, credit facilities and
partment of Agriculture. The popular varieties ths), Bg 34-6, Bg 34-8 and Bg 33-2 (between farms and agricultural productivity centres. rains during the cultivation year 1975–76.
ng Maha and Yala seasons and average yield 5–76 appear respectively in Tables 7.3 and 7.4. 1 on high land, tank and river beds.

Page 96
TABLE 7:3—EXTENT SoWN, HARVESTED AND AVERAGE YIELD-MAHA 1975–76 EXTENT SOWN (Acres)
EXTENT HARVESTED (Acres)
Asweddumised Land
Irrigated
5 Rainfed
District
Total
Average
Yield
(Bushels)
SRI LANKA
Colombo
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara-Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Jaffna
Aswedumised Land Irrigated Rainfed Highland
Cultivation
626,648 503,582
16,732
9,182
55,580
5,387
44,798
31,065
17,607
20,938
7,042
17,370
795
1,468
56,980
18,130
32,065
42,728
4,390
23,876
49,315
1,146,962
64,762
50,185
48,672
27,980
18,165
58,448
50,195
47,118
73,191
579,988
6,893
4,911
30,747
20,303
17,341
1,080
16,264
39,853
23,073
457,676
50,510
40,889
17,482
6,771
794
52,442
29,994
4,116
43,196
Highland
Total
Cultivation
14,2791,051,943
57,403
45,800
48,229
27.074
18,135
53,522
46,258
43,969
66,269
47:17
43:24
31:56
55-49
53•87
58:97
29.87
"3850
58-60
* 35.44
AGRICUL

17
TURE AND FOOD
Mannar
8,419 741
9,160 2,314
2,331
59.12
Vavuniya
19,306 11,477
1,678 32,461 14,576 7,430
399 22,405
27:59
Batticaloa
33,870 56,686
3,823 94,379 31,418 52,370
3,416 87,204
43-10
Ampara
79,837 19,983
99,820 78,843 19.572
98,415
45·94
Trincomalee
24,891 20,213
2,724 47,828 24,275 16,727
2,457 43,459
42:17
Anuradhapura
56,747 3,178 3,135 63,060 44,378 1,603 2,985. 48,966
54•61
Polonnaruwa
59,208 3,637
62,845 59,019 3,337
62,356
80-77
Kurunegala
60,562 67,082
127,644 55,704 63,851
119,555
45-65
Puttalam
15,147 5,563
20,710 13,167 4,437
17,604
33•44
Badulla
32,756 5,221
37,977 32,681 4,528
37,209
59.08
Moneragala
16,606
7,057 1,910 25,573 15,143 4,767 1,560 21.470
46:47
Ratnapura
25,549 12,331
37,880 24,633 11,781
36,414
38:29
Kegalle
6,258 21,841
28,129
6,098 21,062
30 27,190
51:96
Udawalawe
17,348
3,432 20,780 17,274
3,432 20,706
82•10
(1) Irrigated Land denotes land cultivated under major and minor schemes.
(2) Nett acreage under regular asweddumised land harvested during the season is 882,014. On this basis total harvested area including highland cultivation is 896,293 acres giving an estimated production of 42,278,000 bushels of paddy with upper 95 percent confidence limits of 42,861,000 bushels and a lower limit of 41,705,000 bushels. Estimated paddy production of 868,200 tons is an equivalent of 590,300 tons rice.
(3) In view of its agricultural importance UDAWALAWE has been treated as a separate stratum.
30

Page 97
TABLE 74-EXTENT SoWN, HARVESTED AND AVERAGE YIELD—YALA 1976 EXTENT SOWN (Acres)
EXTENT HARVESTED (Acres)
Asweddumised Land - Irrigated Rainfed
Asweddumised Land Irrigated Rainfed
District
Total
Highland
Cultivation
| Highland
Cultivation
Total
Average -
Yield
(Bushels)
276
134
SRI LANKA
Colombo
Kalutara
Kandy
Matale
Nuwara-Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
Jaffna
Mannar
Vavuniya
205,459
39,595
41,135
7,645
2,158
366,920
4,969
5,503
17,034
8,202
11,462
1,336
17,767
15,901
10,612
2,044
746
274,733
42,881
43,863
8,768
2,525
261
55,377
29,504
2,616
143
133
641,929
47,850
49,366
25,802
10,727
11,723
56,856
47,404
18,517
10,612
2,044
746
312,745
4,672
5,136
15,831
7,257
11,286
1,294
16,786
13,141
10,056
1,823
746
261
51,282
| | | | | | | | | |
134
518,338
44,267
46,271
23,476
9,415
11,547
52,710
44,301
14,968
10,056
1,823
746
40-30
30:19
27.04
51:23
39-87
59-90
23:56
29-94
45-21
37:96
53-28
32-50
27,515
1,827
RICE AND SUBSIDIARY

TOUJ
22
OOD CROPS
| | | | | | | | | |
85
19
Batticaloa
18,135 1,128
19,205
IU,ZJI
19
63,389
63,408
Ampara
62,610
62,623
49:38
3,187
3,165
2,905 22
44:26
2,927
Trincomalee Anuradhapura
16,868
18,746 04
18,750 16,868
69-34
Polonnaruwa 45,211 45,211
44,279
44,279
59-62
48,527
56,020
Kurunegala
104,547
8,443
14,719
3189
23,162
1,373
3,997
8,748
7,375
248
4,245
Puttalam
31:44
187
15,744
Badulla
15,931 15,511 97
15,608
45:58
4,256
4,084
4,341
4,163
Moneragala
46-36
23,240
Ratnapura
34,076
10.836
38:28
10,458
22,660
33,118
5,486
Kegalle
19,264
24,750 4,346
17,958
13,612
Udawalawe
16,487
18,120
16,487
18,120
52-16
(1) Irrigated Land denotes land cultivated under major and minor schemes.
(2) Nett acreage under regular asweddumised land harvested during the season is 440,473. On this basis total harvested area including highland cultivation is 440,607 acres giving an estimated production of 17,756,000 bushels of paddy with upper 95 per cent confidence limits of 18,113,000 bushels and lower limit of 17,404,000 bushels. Estimated paddy production of 364,000 tons is an equivalent of 248,000 tons rice.
34:51

Page 98
80
AGRICU
Paddy Marketing Board The Paddy Marketing Board was establishe with its general objects as :-
(a) to carry on the business of purchasing,
(b) to carry on the business of milling, hul
Purchasing paddy for the Government, Department, was transferred to the P. M. B. The P. M. B. commenced purchasing paddy as its purchasing agents and has contracted as ‘authorised purchasers'. While all M. P. as authorised purchasers, actual purchasing i “Pradeshikas'. There are over 4,000 such ce
Paddy purchased by the Co-operatives or storage until paddy is handed to mills or pri conversion to rice. The greater portion of ri sioner for distribution under the governm is sold by the Board to institutions, canteens
There were 20 mills owned by the Paddy private mills, of which 335 were functioning o
Paddy purchases, since the P. M. B. comme
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Quantities of rice delivered to the Food Co
1972
1973
1974 1975 1976
A total of 30,323 tons of rice were sold ć 1975 and 1976.
Collection of paddy as undertaken by the P table surplus by farmer cultivators. The weat cultivation as reflected in the drop in quantiti in 1976 showed a slight increases over the 197.

LTURE AND FOOD
d on 29th March, 1971, under Act (No. 14) of 1971
selling, supplying and distributing paddy and rice ; and ling and processing of paddy and rice.
| function hitherto handled by the Agrarian Services
with the take over of rice mills, store buildings, etc. from Janaury 1972, deploying M. P. C. SS generally, a few Agricultural Productivity Committees to serve
C. SS in paddy producing areas have been appointed s being done by their net-work of branches known as entres in the island.
A. P. CC is sent to the 283 stores of the P. M. B. for vate millers and a few co-operative-owned mills for ce milled is thereafter transferred to the Food Commisent's rationing scheme. A small quantity however, , hospitals, hotels, etc.
Marketing Board and a number of co-operatives and luring 1976.
enced operations were :-
Tons
541,193 470,557 428,640 233,043 263,294
mmissioner during these years were :-
Tons
415,729 337,175 259,026 195,241 181,178
lirect outside the ration during the years 1973, 1974,
- M. B. solely depends on volnntary sale of the markeher in Sri Lanka was generally unfavourable for paddy es purchased in ensuing years since 1973. Purchases 5 figure.

Page 99
DEPARTMENT OF MINOR
The Paddy Marketing Board has since taking over rice industry and embarked on a programme for im modernization of storage and milling activities. The was the adoption of “ weight system' in the purchase the bushel. The P. M. B. introduced a system of cor covering the entire island by the end of 1975.
Bulk storage facilities are being provided with the these silos were ready for commissioning. Eight new r capacity have been imported five of which been installe
VI—DEPARTMENT OF MIN
The three plantation crops, Tea, Rubber and Coconi over the past years, continue a declining trend. Cul those with an export potential and also orchard croj in the agricultural economy of the island. State ende
minor export crops became a reality, when a separa Department of Minor Export Crops has as its function (a) Promotion and development of cultivation and
nature other than Tea, Rubber and Coconut; Cro Cinnamon Cardamom, Pepper, Cloves, Nutmeg, and Oil Palm.
(b) Organisation of Cultivation of these crops.
(C) Promotion of cultivation practices and new crops
(d) Financial aid for the construction or rehabilitati
for distillation of essential oils from leaves or spii
(e) Implementation of policy resulting from Proje
un-economic tea and rubber lands.
Minor Export Crops Assistance Scheme Implementation of targets for the above crops are cha Department. Assistance afforded in this regard is :-
In Cash-Subsidies or grants provided to cultivators
litation of crops. The Department also recomme
for cultivation purposes. In Kind–Free planting material in appropriate quar
of crop failure, a further free issue is made withir is not attributable to negligence of the cultivator.
by free issue of agro-chemicals. Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme_This scheme continued i
Fertilizer Corporation introduced its General Ferti
The performance of the Minor Export Crops Sche Cashew and Mulberry are now dealt with by the Mini

XPORT CROPS
these functions made a careful study of the roving the systems of collection, as well as first item of work undertaken in this regard of paddy. The purchasing unit earlier, was version by pound weight commencing 1973,
onstruction of silos at four sites. Three of ce milling plants, mostly of 2-tons (per hour) d in 1976.
DR EXPORT CROPS
it which had fetched record export earnings ivation of minor export crops, particularly Os have in recent years figured significantly Lvours in the development and promotion of e department was established in 1972. The IS :-
processing of export crops of a perennial bps dealt with at present are–Cocoa, Coffee,
Citronella, Papaw (for papain production)
with export potential.
ion according to specified standards of units
ces.
et Study on agricultural diversification on
nneled through the extension services of the
at various stages of new planting or rehabiEnds to the People's Bank granting of loans
tities is issued in the first instance. In case - specified limits provided that such failure Out-break of pests and diseases is controlled
o function till April 1976, when the Ceylon lizer Subsidy Scheme.
ne during 1976 is outlined in Table 7.5 stry of Plantation Industries.

Page 100
TABLE 7.5-MINOR EXPORT CROPS ASSISTANCE SCHEME-1976
82
Cinnamon
Cocoa
Cardamom
Cloves
Nutmeg Pepper
Coffee
Papaw
New Re- New Re- New Re- New Re- New Re- New Re- New Re- New Replant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- plant- planting ing inging ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing
Permits issued
- 310 655 73 175 58 — 4 - 1.425 —
482
8 --
Extent covered (acres)
676 1,191
163
239
12
77
2,050
6,596
|-
105
Acreage planted
156 617
33
63
1,386*
— S
574*
644*
687*
27
AGRIK

IKUpiaulig IIIUIuuUS AEılavulation or crops.
*Inter-plantation with mixed cropping.: actual acreage covered on permits is therefore not obtainable.
ULTURE AND FOOD

Page 101
ANIMAL PRODUCTION A
Subsidiary Food Crops The ‘national food drive’ exerted its impact on the from paddy/cultivation, the government continues to subsidiary food crops as yams, root crops, pulses, chillies food crops during 'Maha' and 'Yala' seasons are :-
Yams root crops :
Manioc Sweet potatoes
Other Root crops
Pulses :
Maize Sorghum
Green Gram Soya Beans Cow-Pea Ground-nut
Millets and other crops :
Kurakkan
Meneri Thanahal Gingelly Chillies Red-onions
Chilli production during the two seasons of the cultiv mately 378,000 cwt., while red onion production from th cwts. Potato production during the cultivation year wa
Passion fruit and pine-apple have a potential export attributable to a developing tourist industry in Sri Lank: as loans and marketing facilities.
VII—ANIMAL PRODUCTIC
Animal Production The high cost of stock feed constitutes a major proble animal industry.
Dispersal of stock in certain areas consequent to altected production temporarily. Large-scale issue the needs of breeders and special projects, thwarted ne of milk supply from state farms and animal projects ar
Tamankaduwa Project Ambewela/Bopatalawa Undugoda Farm
Nikaweratis
Sheep and Goats.–Wirawila Farm in Hambantota
s-breds. The Goat Project at Kottukachchiya (Pu of local breed, Jamnapari and their cross-breeds.

ND HEALTH
83
agricultural economy of Sri Lanka. Apart focus much attention on the cultivation of , red-onions and fruits. Important subsidiary
ation year 1975-76 was estimated at approxiese two seasons was in the region of 1,509,000 as 763,000 cwt. from an extent of 6,900 acres.
market particularly with the tourist 'influxo a. Fruit growers are afforded such incentives
ON AND HEALTH
m for the promotion and development of the
the implementation of the land reform law
of cattle from some state farms to meet ormal production of milk. The main sources
Ridiyagama Farm Wirawila Farm Kallagoda/Uyangoda
District maintains Bikeneri Sheep and their stalam District) maintains a herd consisting

Page 102
84
Pigs. —The pig farms at Welisara ma Landrace and Blue' Pigs for purpose of
Poultry. The country's requirements (1) private hatcheries which hold monopo parent stocks of well known strains, a Marawila. Government farms supply se rates.
Animal Health The field Veterinary Services continued both in state-owned projects and private
The Incidence of Foot and Mouth and H control by routine immunisation of stock locally produced at theVaccine Centre, Per health in the island. Government Veter. of livestock against animal diseases and p
Artificial Insemination. —A complete sur in the Dry Zone and Mid-country was Tinnevelly supply chilled semen to veterin
A Senior Adviser on artificial insemi Agriculture in promoting these activities.
Development Programmes. Apart from subsidies for establishing pas government has approved a subsidy schem under aegis of Agricultural Productivity farmers. The bulk of planting material foi nursery.
Financial assistance was also given dairy Association, Dairy Development Project water service and purchase of cows.
Milk Collection.-Farmers throughout S sell their milk through dairy co-operatives :
Extension Work in the Dry Zone Areas. Colonisation Schemes were issued cows a collection centres have been opened by Co-operative societies.
A National Livestock Board was establis the prime objective of ensuring regular mea
Apart from constructing a large-scale ab: to house slaughter animals and provide nece
Under the economic relations agreement b would be afforded the Sri Lanka Governme personnel in India.

RICULTURE AND FOOD
ntains different breeds, viz., Large Whites, Large Blacks -reeding and multiplying breeds for the private sector.
of commercial layer chicks are supplied from 2 sources
istic rights for production of day-old chicks from imported d (ii) government poultry farms at Karandagolla and xed and unsexed day-old chicks and broilers at subsidised
o perform a vital role in the control of animal diseases ector farms.
Septicanisa and B. Quarter among cattle is kept under strict every 6-7 months. The requisite quantities of vaccines are adeniya, thus maintaining a satisfactory standard of animal
nary Staff provide vaccination services for immunisation pultry.
vey and evaluation of the artificial insemination service undertaken in 1975. The 2 centres at Kundasale and ary surgeons in carrying out these inseminations.
nation under SIDA has assisted the Department of
stures in uneconomic coconut, tea and rubber lands, e for establishing pastures in waste lands to be operated
Committees. This scheme has benefited many dairy r these pasture lands was supplied from the Karandagolla
farmers under the Sri Lanka International Development to establish pasture, construct dairy buildings, supply
Sri Lanka receive assistance from the extension staff to and multipurpose co-operatives.
Selected colonists in the Aluthwewa and Minneriya nd buffaloes from the state farms. Two satellite milk the Hingurakgoda and Polonnaruwa multi-purpose
shed under the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands with
t supplies to consumers.
attoir, arrangements were also finalised to acquire land essary grazing ground.
etween Sri Lanka and the Indian Government facilities nt to obtain livestock breeds and training of the Board's

Page 103
ANIMAL PRODUCTION
The National Milk Board Apart from the 44 milk collecting centres operated milk collecting centres were functioning by the end million pints, an increase of 35 per cent over the prec The increase was attributable to a price hike of milk taken to foster dairy farming activities by offering fina
Of the total quantity of milk collected, 57 per cen powder at the Ambewela factory, 21 per cent for pro
milk and the balance for other milk products.
Due to an increase in the intake of milk, the Board powder to a considerable extent. The spray dried m pounds of full cream milk powder during the year. of " Lakspray" full cream milk powder packed fo produced locally the preceding year. Production in 197
The Sterilized Milk Plant installed with an effec was commissioned in March 1976. The Board co incidentally the first time since it commenced operatic
Production and sales of the Board's Milk products
Liquid Milk
Pasteurised Milk ('000 pints) Sterilized Milk ('000 pints)
Powdered Milk ('000 pounds)
“ Lakspray" Full Cream Milk Powder “ Vitamilk " Infant Milk Powder
“ Vitamalt ” Malted Milk Powder Condensed Milk ’000 (14 oz. tins)
“ Perakum” ’000 (14 oz. tins) off-grade ('000 pounds) Roller Dried Skim Milk Powder
Produced at Pallekelle from October 1976 ('000 pou Cheese from June 1976 (pounds). Butter ('000 pounds) Ghee ('000 pounds) Ice Cream Bulk (gallons) Ice Cream Cups ('000) Yoghurt ('000) (cups)
Moru ('000 pints) Cream ('000 pints)
An agreement was entered into with the Interna Sri Lanka Government in August 1974, under which repayable in 40 years commencing 1984 for the deyi assistance and credit to dairy farmers and such facil On completion of this project, milk production in 43,000,000 pints per year from its present level.

ND HEALTH
85
by the National Milk Board 6 co-operative of 1976. The total milk collection was 104:8 }ding year's collection of 77•4 million pints. by 30 cents in September 1975 and also steps icial assistance, etc., for the dairy industry.
was used for production of full cream milk cessed liquid milk, 18 per cent for condensed
vas able to reduce imports of full cream milk Ik factory at Ambewela produced 11 million
his works out to 56 per cent of total quantity ་ sale, as compared with 6:7 million pounds 5 was about 40 per cent of total packed for sale. ive capacity of 20,000 pints per 8 hour-shift, immenced commercial production of cheese
in in June 1976. in 1975 and 1976 appear below:
1975
1976 Production Sales Production Sales
16,138
4,440
15,798
4,391
15,082 7,007
15,022 6,662
20,578
20,189
22,089
21.684
16,671
1,046 1,199
16,645 1,013
996
19,723 1,300
361
19,404 1,421
551
17,040
16,09216,767
669
17, 19
15
56
3
nds) -
69
༡ > ༧, ཀ2
273
149
423
£26
324 54-0
05 17,92017,033
27-5
6, 49
5,918
$1
695
682
63:6
1675 151:5
2:5
55:2
3:9
3:1
4:9
tional Development Association (I. D. A.) and
I. D.A. would provide a loan of Rs. 90,000,000 Flopment of milk production including technical ties as milk collection, transport and marketing. Sri Lanka is expected to increase by a further

Page 104
86
AGRIC
VIII—AG Agrarian reforms in Sri Lanka are being g Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and
The Agricultural Productivity Committee Responsibility in preparing annual agricul the Productivity Committees. Preparation Productivity Law commenced during 1975.
The construction of 48 agricultural servic committee centres and centres serving fai centres are under construction involving a si
Apart from construction of agricultural 100 fertilizer stores of 40 ton capacities at Fertilizer Stores were completed at the end o
Of the agricultural service centres constru of 366 such centres functioning as at end of Agricultural cservice entres extending loan a committees and farmers were opened durin facilities for agricultural productivity com paddy, etc. Agricultural productivity comm tractor spares and alkathene piping.
Under the scheme for the issue of farmer issued during 1976. The total number of far 1,35,268.
The division implements an extensive tr: A. P. C. C. were trained in management and Tribunals set up by the end of 1976, in all d Of these, 21 Tribunals (excepting Moneragala)
On the basis of information available, 1 hearing, and enquiries were completed in res made by the Agricultural Tribunal, these case
The responsibility of the distribution of pa the division. Fertilizer issues during 1976 tot
IX-AGRICULTUR
The Crop Insurance Scheme for paddy cult the Ministry of Agriculture has since widene livestock.
Paddy Premium collections for 1975–76 N participated in the scheme contributing abou progress was achieved in Jaffna, Vavuniya Galle and Kandy districts. By the end of I indemnities to farmers who suffered crop loss
The 1976 Yala insurance operations comm a sum of Rs. 1:35 million was collected as pre is satisfactory as compared with Yala 1975 sh

LTURE AND FOOD
ARIAN SERVICES
red by the Rural Institutions and Productivity Laws Lands with effect from 1st January, 1974.
a recent institution fostering agricultural development. ural implementation programme is being entrusted to the Agricultural Lands Register under the Agricultural
scentres which function as agricultural productivity ners’ needs were completed during 1976. 52 more m of Rs. 2,820,304 on construction work.
ervice centres, work commenced on construction of ached to Agricultural Service Centres. Of these, 35 f 1976.
cted during the year, 54 were opened giving a total 1976. 38 branches of the Bank of Ceylon attached to ad other banking facilities to agricultural productivity g the year. Action was initiated to obtain overdraft mittees for purchase of tractors, mammoties, seed ittees have also been supplied two wheeled tractors,
s’ identity cards, a total of 5,567 Identity cards were mer's identity cards issued as at end of 1976 totalled
aining programme. A total of 22,607 members of organisational functions. There were 22 Agricultureal stricts to inquire into agricultural disputes of farmers. are conducting enquiries at present.
1,644 tenant cultivators' disputes were taken up for peet of 3,140. In 669 cases where decision had been s were forwarded to courts, to decide on tenancy.
idy fertilizer under the subsidy scheme also rests with alled 75,276 tons.
L INSURANCE SCHEME
vation initiated by the Agrarian Services Division of its scope of activity to cover other agricultural crops
zha season were finalised. Around 260,000 farmers Rs. 3•85 million to the insurance fund. Satisfactory
Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Mannar, Kalutara, :cember 1976, a sum of Rs. 4:73 million was paid as in all districts of the Island.
nced during April 1976 and by the end of December nia. Progress in premia collection during Yala 1976 ving an increase from 10 to 15 per cent in Yala 1976.

Page 105
AGRICULTURAL INSUR
The increase in progress is mainly attributable to active pura, Polonnaruwa, Vavuniya, Amparai, "Kurunega. million has so far been paid to farmers who suffered o | Insurance operations for 1976–77 Maha season co end of December a sum of Rs. 1•8 million has been co
Livestock The scheme for insurance coverage of dairy cattle supr Development Project was finalised. A sum of Rs. 9. through the Bank of Ceylon and People's Bank as le ‘triangles’. Insurance coverage for cattle purchased
would be administered in close liaison with Project Te and lending institutions. All heifers and cows under til premium rate of 3 per cent of value, to indemnify insured resulting from accident or diseases. Addition loss against theft.
The Agricultural Insurance Board has insured arou and premium collected is Rs. 64,546. A total of 76 c claimed is Rs. 125,360.
Actuarial Operations (a) Revision of Premium Rates.--Based on experience damage statistics available, premium rates for the padd the basis of crop damage statistics (both total and parti for a period of 5 years by DRO0 divisions were app taking to cognizance of local variations. Main feat
(i) Premium rates computed for each Rs. 100 cover (ii) Premium rate is directly related to damage rate (iii) Optional levels of premia based on desired lev
This new scheme came into operation during 1. (6) Identification of tracts (Yayas) as unit of insuran tracts (yayas) as insurance unit on the basis of uniform of the survey Yaya’ will be treated as one unit in de
Arrangements were made to incorporate this sury of discussions held with officials of the curriculum de in Bandaragama APC with assistance of Wewita 1 conducted in Kalutara, Galle, Polonnaruwa and Kega
(C) Training of loss adjustors.--Training of loss ad estimating the damage to standing crops by condi undertaken. Technical assistance in this regard has be
(d) Prosecution of defaulters. Since the insurance premia are considered due for collection before sowi rised to prosecute premia defaulters commencing M
Publicity and Training (a) Training course on agro-technical aspects of ag officials and graduate trainees at the inservice training
(6) Training classes for agricultural productivity ( graduate trainees.
(C) Press releases on agricultural insurance issued.

NCE SCHEME
87
varticipation of farmers in Matara, Anuradha! and Kegalle districts. A sum of Rs. 1-7 top losses during 1976 Yala season. mmenced during September 1976 and upto llected as premia covering all the 22 districts.
lied to farmers under the Sri Lanka/IDA Dairy nillion is being channelled under this project ans to farmers in mid country, and coconut on these loans is compulsory. The scheme. chnical Unit of the Agriculture Department is project would be covered by insurance at a against loss through death of the animal al premium of 5 per cent is charged to cover
nd 983 herd of cattle valued at Rs. 1,953,944 laims were received during 1976 and amount
> in the past two cultivation seasons and crop y sector were revised. The rates computed on al) of the Department of Census and Statistics lied to the respective APC areas and adjusted aires of these computations are :
rage. - in the locality.
el of coverage offered to farmers. 976-77 Maha season.
ce.--A survey is being carried out to identify level of risk and productivity. On completion termining premia and indemnities. ey to the education curriculum. As a result velopment centre, the survey was conducted Maha Vidyalaya. Similar surveys were also Elle districts. justors to improve personal judgement in eye acting a series of objective yield surveys was -en sought from Sweden.
coverage for the paddy crop is compulsory, mg/transplanting. A. P. CC have been authoaha 1975-76 seasons.
cicultural insurance for agriculture insurance E centre, Gannoruwa. centre officials, administrative secretaries and

Page 106
AGRICU
(d) Classes for students following a course the university of Sri Lanka. As part of the t study on agricultural insurance. A semina Vidyodaya campus for students following a si
(e) A two-day training session for each t Officials who had served 6 months on the job
TABLE 7.6-PROGRESS OF AGRICULTU
District
1975. Premium Collected
Colombo Kalutara
Kandy
Rs. 128,558 177,288 157,857 91,973 10,161 145,222 57,384
Matale
Nuwara-Eliya
Galle
Matara
Hambantota
101,834
Jaffna
558,504
Vavuniya
510,020
Mannar
202,875
Batticaloa
134,146
Trincomalee
64,964
Ampara
195,980
Kurunegala Puttalam
118,750 124,971 524,820
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
331,419
Badulla
59,300
Moneragala
38,507
41,496
Ratnapura Kegalle
Walawe Region
47,570 30,423
3,854,022

PURE AND FOOD
n development studies at the Colombo-campus of ining course these students were deployed for a field
on agricultural insurance was also held at the ilar course.
tch of Graduate Trainees and Agriculture Insurance raining in the districts.
EAL INSURANCE (PADDY CULTIVATION)—1976
76 Mahd
Indemnity
paid
1976 Yala Premium
Indemnity Collected
paid
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
10,409
33,843
239,176 173,015 129,920 63,806 28,500 169,784
93,300 111,222
34,600 62,943 94,269 25,626
4,802 89,971 79,100 82,457 112,580
60,595 20,993
5,726 133,724 117,869 339,406 2,922 300
164,070
464,400
810
1,620
195,718 83,110 59,603 152,653
37,575 160,182 1,991,630 216,490
7,500 94,692
5,550 75,050 100,222 18,866
74,746
156,716 33,565 27,121 78,050
126,458
158,040
92,564
372
79,836
3,000
1,762 1,461
25,890
8,605
144,954
42,924 19,073
574,681
7,098
23,316
4,794,441
1,353,783
1,682,607

Page 107
FOOD SUP]
X-FOOD SI
A major problem for most of the third World Cou millions. Sri Lanka too is no exception with an in other problems as severe shortage of essential foods drought both at home and in various producing cou ensured an adequate supply of foodstuffs available fo
Quantities of rice, flour and sugar imported by the
Commodity
Source
Rice
China Burma Burma Rice (under China Cont Thai Rice (under China Contra Thai Rice (under Private Contre Thai Rice (Government Contra Thai Rice (Japanese Gift) Pakistan
Flour
Australia France Belgium Italy Singapore America (PL. 480) U. N. Grant (E. C. M. Origin) Canadian (Gift) F. R. G. (Gift) Australian (Gift) French (Gift) Netherland (Gift) Sweden (Gift)
Sugar
Thailand (Cane Raw Sugar) Indian (White Crystal Sugar) Food aid from West Germany
Sugar F. F. H. C.) Thailand (Cane Raw Sugar) G
the World Food Programme

PLY
89
UPPLY
untries is to find food to feed their teeming
creasing population and beset with the various stuffs, escalating prices and recurrent spells of untries. Despite all these, the Government has or distribution to all parts of the island.
Food Department in 1976 were :-
Quantity Impor- Value (Cost
ted in Nett- and Freight) Long Tons
ract)
st)
36,798•49 24,867•70 99,940-20 39,514•67 27,114•15 16,197:74
3,364:93 170,552-07
Rs. 74,572,659 42,236,636 188,902,384 70,938,670 42,595,755 23,071,539
9,700,343 271,844,721
act)
ct)
418,349.95
723,862,707
45,833-62 108,349-76 32,503-19 10,681:77 13,588:69 98,390-39 10,309•86 16,071:90 11,732:19 7,501-78 9,098-74 3,395-51 12,302-59
106,230,146 211,509,715 61,688,627 20,048,168 22,451,409 207,658,401 19,398,067 42,279,442 20,386,538 17,334,781 20,696,701
6,856,005 24 280,687
Total
379,759-99
780,818,687
31,465-54 11,908-90
489-01
84,259,100 36,322,083 1,475,668
—(White
Gift under 2,066•83
6,219,212
Total
45,930-28
128,276,063

Page 108
90
AGRIC
Imported rice, flour and sugar were distribu Co-operatives. In addition a quantity of 3, to consumers throughout the Island under th and 2,223). The Food Commissioner's D distribution of maldive fish on ration.
Changes were effected in the ration schem during the year were :-
Rice
(Fresh Issue)
Impor
Locall Sold at subsidised rate
Imp Loc
Flour
496,014 tor
Sugar
Local
Tons 15,302 4,322
Rationed Off-ration
Total 19,624
The issue of sugar to consumers was increa each ration book, with no variation in the i
XI-PRICE C
The Price Control Department enforces the ance and the Licencing of Traders Act. It
Commission and has the Deputy Warden o Chairman of the National Metric Conversion
Price Control The items which continued to be under price
Wheat Flour, bread, sugar, coriander, in powder, beef, mutton, sheet glass, ceme books, monitors exercise books, pencil instrument boxes, mantles, asbestos she and tubes for motor vehicles, motor veh paste, margarine, pelargon and nestogen
More items were brought under price contr in May 1976. These includes bicycle tyres point pens, soap, sewing thread, biscuits, too board milk, tea chest compartments, fertili boxes of matches, disinfectants and insectici department and Talcum toilet powder.

JLTURE AND FOOD
ated to lhe consumers through a network of Multi-purpose -26 tons of flour and 2,874 tons of sugar were distributed
e World Food Programme (Project Nos. 431, 748, 2,009 epartment is also responsible for effective control and
ne of rice and flour during 1976. Issues to cosumers
306,454
ted rice
192,386 tons ) y produced 114,068 tons - of Re. 1 per lb. Forted
ally produced 81,067 tons
214,694 tons 295,761
Total 602,215
Imported
Tons 43,206 13,763
Total
Tons 58.508 18,085
56,969
76,593
ised during latter part of the year from i 16. to 1 lb. on price of this commodity.
KONTROL ACTIVITIES
Price Control Act, the Weights and Measures Ordinenforces the price orders issued by the National Price of Standards of the weights and measures division as n Authority.
control in 1976 were :- fants’ milk foods, condensed milk, full cream milk nt, formic acid, drugs (more than 6,000 items) exercise 3, coloured pencils, slates, slate pencils, mathematical tets, bicycles, umbrellas, infants’ feeding bottles, tyres Licle spares, synthetic textiles, sewing machines, tooth
ol by the Emergency (Regulation of Trade) Regulations and tubes, rubber slippers, electric bulbs, socks, ball th brushes, paints, torch and transistor batteries, milk zer, aerated waters, ayurvedic drugs, water pumps, des, canvas shoes, canned products of the marketing

Page 109
PRICE CONTROL AC
The enforcement of price control measures continu station in Colombo and price control units in the Kachc ment carried out 10,807 raids on trading establishmen under the Price Control Act. A sum of Rs. 244,275 w
Pap
Powers under the Price Control Act, and the Food S the following items :-
Beedi Tobacco Poonac
Fis] Soap
Bee Tumeric Shirts
Bo: Synthetic Sarees
Lal Suitings
Mu
The draft of a new law to replace the Licensing of 1 State Assembly during the year.
Weights and Measures Enforcement of the Weights and Measures Ordinanc of weights and measures and weighing and measuring i and prosecution of traders who use unstamped or false measure. The Weights and Measures personnel of t British Units and 26,426 Metric Units of Weights al instruments collecting a sum of Rs. 496,244 as stamping were inspected detecting 1,178 offences. Fines collecte
Metrication The programme of the National Metric Conversion A
(a) the consolidation of changes made in the preced (b) the extension of changes to the producers of prir (C) metrication of the import trade (d) commencement of changes in industry (e) initiating studies in connection with engineering s
The department of highways installed Kilometer sig
The factories, viz., the Lanka Wall Tiles Factory at Ba Factory at Minneriya were designed and executed inn
New publications issued by the National Metric Con
(1) Metrication Guide for the Tea Grower (2) Metrication Guide for the Rubber Grower
A publicity campaign on the metric system was car was run at the Agro-Exhibition in Nuwara-Eliya.

CTIVITIES
ed during the year through the price control
heries. The price control staff of the Depart ts and 2,375 cases filed in courts for offences as recovered during the year as fines.
supplies Ordinance were used to requisition
er
hing Nets
itton
kes of Matches 

Page 110
AGRIC
XII—THE DEVEI
The main activities of the Department for
(i) Vegetable and fruit marketing. (ii) Fruit processing and canning. (iii) Sri Lanka Products Shops. (iv) Hospital supplies
(V) Cold storage of fish, meat, butter an (vi) Food Research and Marketing Intell
The department also maintains a kitche The prime objective of the department ist vegetables, fruit and other agircultural com to purchase these items at reasonable price vegetable purchasing centres, people's sho Island.
Vegetables and Fruits The quantities of vegetables and fruits bo scattered over the island during the years 1
Vegetables
(lb) 1975
23,813,194 1976
26,638,964
The qunatities of vegetables and fruits r Market during the Two years were :-
Vegetables (lb) Fruits (16)
Fruits (Bulk (Nos.) (a) Janatha Pola was not held from July,
A total of 5,338,518 eggs were received a year.
The total Sales of these commodities inclı
Vegetable Who Wholesale Floo Peoples' Shops
New Peoples' Shops were opened during pita, Battaramulla and Angoda.
Mahajana Pola Tripoli Sales at reta Janata Pola

CULTURE AND FOOD
LOPMENT OF MARKETING
Development of Marketing are :-
ad eggs. ligence Service.
n and bakery to cater to the public and private needs. o afford facilities to producers and producer societies of
modities to market their produce and assist the consumer es. These activities are now being implemented through -ps and “mahajana polas' established throughout the
Dught from local producers by the 47 collecting centres
975 and 1976 were :- Fruits (Weight)
Fruit (Bulk) (lb)
(No.) 11,031,554
3,394,551 10,432,206
3,609,307
eceived at the Mahajana Pola, Janatha Pola and Tripoli
1975 27,929,033 3,140,816 1,616,455
1976 16,756,952 (a) 3,372,797 2,438,424
1976.
t the Tripoli, compared with 1,300,511 eggs the preceding
iding grain and subsidiary food items were :-
Sales
Rs. lesale Floor
3,121,985 or-Grains
3,029,507 33,790,102
the year at Dematagoda, Kolonnawa, I. D. H., Narạhen
Sales
Rs. 8,169,540 11,738,852
557,528
El outlets

Page 111
SRI LANKA NATIONAL FREEDOM FROM
The canning factory at Narahenpita earned Rs. 3,58
The department's kitchen at Narahenpita earned an i preparations to various government departments an bakery had an income of Rs. 4,218,600 from sale of Ba
Hospital supplies continue to be channelled through th vegetables, provisions, meat, fish and other commo allied institutions located in various parts of the Ialsnd
The second canning factory at Attanagalla was com for the proposed wholesale market at Orugodawatta Reclamation and Development Board is also complete undertaken by the State Engineering Corporation.
XIIISRI LANKA NATIONAL FREEDOM FR
The Sri Lanka National Freedom from Hunger Camp Statutory Body under the Ministry of Agriculture ai Freedom from Hunger Campaign Law (No. 15) of 197. The General objects of the Board as out lined in the
(1) to secure the aid of non-governmental agene
economic development in accordance with the
the Government. (ii) to assist institutions and other bodies in carrying
and economic development ; (iii) to aid, promote and co-ordinate specific projects
development ; (iy) - to stimulate non-governmental agencies in the
agricultural and industrial production ; (V) to collaborate with the International Freedom :
institutions, associations or societies abroad.
Field of Activity The major fields of activity of the Board are land production and seed certification, agricultural, industi
A large number of projects have been processed ai fields covered since institution of the Board include a soya milk processing, dairy farming and fisheries de agriculture, Industry, vocational training, health and si supporting their claims for assistance from abroad. V governmental organisations has been in the region of R
Location of Projects The Board is solely concerned with assisting non-governi and training projects. Future objectives of the Bo organisation in securing a well planned, co-ordinated the agricultural and industrial fields so as to generate a opportunities in the non-governmental sector.

HUNGER CAMPAIGN BOARD
93
5,189 from export of canned fruit. ncome of Rs. 2,295,819 from supply of food | government sponsored institutions. The kery products.
e department. The items so supplied include lities involving government hospitals and
ipleted in June 1976. Reclamation of land by the Colombo District (Low lying Areas)
Construction work in this regard is being
OM HUNGER CAMPAIGN BOARD
raign Board was set up in March 1973 as a id Lands in terms of Sri Lanka National
Law of 1973 are :- ies, both foreign and local, for social and programme of development formulated by
g out schemes of public utility, social welfare
s directed towards agricultural and industrial
implementation of projects for increasing
From Hunger Campaign and other similar
reclamation, - agricultural extension, seed ial and vocational training.
d applications made for assistance. Main Criculture, agricultural vocational training, velopment. Other projects connected with ttlement are being examined with a view to lue of foreign assistance channelled to non. 3-5 million.
mental organisations in agricultural industrial rd would be to assist non-governmental ffort and thus making a greater impact on high level of productivity and employment

Page 112
СЕ
I-INDUSTRIAL DEV
The Industrial Development Board of Cey body under the State Industrial Corporation.
were directed towards consolidating its resou and developing the small industry sector. CISIR, NERD, RRI and Bureau of Stan would have an impact on productivity of t} economy is envisaged.
There were in all 4,071 industrial units Affairs as at end of 1975. Approximately sector. A total of 420 units were approvec by the IDB fall into a very wide range presen the Board itself. The provision of general e priority areas, particularly in regard to mac of importance of various industrial fields development and resources made available fields were :
(1) Rubber products
(2) Food processing
(3) Metals
(4) Wood industries
(5) Agro-Industries and agricul
tural waste utilisation
(6) Mineral based industries
(7) Building materials
(8) Leather and foot wear
(9) Packaging

TAPTER VIII
INDUSTRY
ELOPMENT BOARD OF CEYLON
Flon was established in May 1966, as an autonomous Act, No.49 of 1957. The activities of the Board in 1976, urces for the effective performance of its role in promoting
Active collaboration with such organisations as the lards were continued. A meaningful programme which ne small scale sector and its contribution to the national
approved by the Ministry of Industries and Scientific 90 per cent of these units covered small scale industry 1 by the Ministry during 1976. Industrial units serviced ting problems as regards organisational aspect of work of extension services has been concentrated on a few selected hinery and process technology. Selections on the basis
were made with due consideration of the potential for e to the Industrial Development Board. Such selected
Machinery, testing processes, product develop
ment, viz., adhesives and paints Canning, Fermentation, dehy-dration and allied
preservation processes of fruits, vegetables, fish, meat and vegetable
Ferrous and non-ferrous foundries, testing, heat
treatment and metal work
Seasoning, preservation, tableware, toys and
furniture Fibres, bio gas, compost, product development of waste matter from rice, sugarcane,
coconut, casava and fruit Processing and product development from gra
phite, micadolomite, limestone, abrasives and
paints Brick, cement and cement substitutes, clay,
masonry cement work
Machinery, processing, product development,
waste utilisation
Materials, machinery, designs

Page 113
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
Small Scale Industry The role of the IDB in the promotion and developm doubtedly a 'challenging’ one and besets with the prot performance. With such difficulties as experienced decided to adopt criteria as listed below for purpo: particularly in the regional set-up.
(i) New units opened during the year. (ii) Approval of new units by the LIAC of the Mir (iii) Applications from entrepreneurs to set up new (iv) Quantum of loans recommended by the IDB an (V) Adequate supervision of loans granted to indust
Analysis by purpose of ‘visits to the regional offices showed a 63 per cent coverage for finance consideration coverage. It thus appears that major aspects for which
marketing and approval of industrial ventures.
New Industrial projects The work undertaken in this regard is identification of subsequent implementation as development or multip products were undertaken during the year, of which 28 selected for preparation of project reports.
These studies include manufacture of ferrites, de dehydrated fruits, stretched tape woven sacks, press m corrugated cartons. Action has also been initiated to products and services for multiplicity projects to be se cularly in the rural sector.
New development projects set up during the year wei
(i) Turkey Red Oil (ii) Peanut Butter (iii) Pineapple Fibre
The Turkey Red Oil Project is based on process tech has been commissioned and would be handed over to for commercial operation. The work on the Peanu pineapple fibre project relates to product development.
The other projects undertaken on an experimental bas acid from pyrolignous liquor, banana fibre board, comme facture of boxes of weights, dolomite powder and utilis industry. Work has also been initiated on the manufa the Vidyodaya campus and Stearic Acid from rubber University of Sri Lanka.
Work on the manufacture of banana fibre board has t prepared. The project would be set up in proximity to
Consultancy services were provided for The setting up ( two tile factories at Divulapitiya and Dambadeniya, two landa and a number of projects manufacturing jaggery f

BOARD OF CEYLON
Lent of the small-scale industry sector is unolem of making quantitative assessment of its
in actual quantitative assessment, it was ses of evaluation of the work undertaken
nistry of Industries and Scientific Affairs. anits.
d approved by banks. rial units.
s of the I. D. B. by prospective industrialists Ls while industry approvals had a 22 per cent assistance is sought are those of financing,
projects, their feasibility, project reports and blication projects. Feasibility studies of 42 B have been completed while 14 have been
extrine, groundnut products, tartaric acid, pulded glassware, fishing nets, agar-agar and - prepare model project reports in respect of et up in different parts of the country, parti
re :
Katubedde Pallekelle Dompe
nology developed by the CISIR. The plant the Sri Lanka Industrial Development Co. Butter Project has been completed. The
is were wood charcoal, distillation of acetic ercial use of coconut juice, smoked fish, manusation of coir dust for fuel and in the rubber acture of natural dyes in collaboration with seed oil with the Colombo campus of the
been completed and a project report has been - Dambulla.
pf a number of other projects. These include O Lime Kilns at Hikkaduwa and Dodangasfrom coconut, palmyrah and sugar cane.

Page 114
96
Special Studies on the Small Scale Sector Programme of the work undertaken include spares industry essential oils, and rubber industry in Sri Lanka was published during Asia, a project of the IDRC, was obtained on major recommendations as outlined in t
A study on the electronics industry in Sr Expert on Small Industry Development. expansion of the industry, which has made on the motor spares industry has been com
The work on the survey of ‘unapproved' ir administration. The first part of the survey in the selection of entrepreneurs for further
A Directory of industrial products and December 1976. A follow-up to the Direct year.
The lack of basic statistical information : planning and programming of developmen Scientific Affairs in collaboration with the approved industries during the year. Inforr contribution of the small-scale industrial se
Extension Services The extension services division of the IDE forms of assistance required by the industria as financing, marketing and approval of the i
machinery and process technology.
The I. D. B. concentrated its attention on a package programme for the up-grading
water colours and rubber products. Assista availability of raw material and packaging of Education afforded necessary assistanc initiated in collaboration with the CISIR
ensure the quality of products manufactured rubber compound and centrifuged latex ha
material at reasonable prices. Centralised is being examined with a view to ensuring re
A potential for the development of the 1
As a part of the extension effort, a series A training course in basic accounting method of 253 industrialists. The training course Department of Labour were attended by conducted for small-scale rubber manufacti
The Eight officers participated at training of the IDRC in industrial extension and inf of Small Scale Industry, Manila.

INDUSTRY
s in-depth studies of the cast iron foundry industry, motor products. The report on the study of cast iron foundry s the year. The services of an Engineer from Technonet - in the preparation of a programme of follow-up action he report.
i Lanka was undertaken by Dr. Ram K. Vepa, UNIDO The report has made several recommendations for the tremendous strides abroad in the recent past. The study apleted.
ndustrial units was started with the assistance of the district y has been completed. This survey would assist the IDB
development.
manufacturing units in Sri Lanka, was published in Cory of Approved Industries was published the preceding
as regards small-scale industry sector continue to thwart t activity in this field. The Ministry of Industries and IDB and other organisations conducted a survey of all mation collected in this survey would reveal the significant ctor to the economic development of the country.
3 undertook a co-ordinated programme as regards all .lists. These services mainly took the form of assistance ndustrial projects. Assistance was also sought as regards
i a few selected product fields with a view to providing of the industry sector. Products identified were starch, Lnce was rendered in process technology, quality control, . The National Textile Corporation and the Ministry e. As regards the rubber industry, action has been and the RRI to formulate a quality control system to 1. As a first stage a centralised unit for the sale of dry s been established. The industrialists are provided raw import of raw material required for the rubber industry egular supplies of good quality material.
rubber industry especially in the rural sector exists.
of training programmes were conducted during the year. s was organised on a regional basis with the participation is in industrial safety held in collaboration with the 85 industrialists. Seminars and workshops were also irers with the assistance of the RRI.
courses sponsored by TECHNONET ASIA, a project ormation held at the University of Philippines—Institute

Page 115
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMEN
Financing Small-Scale Industry Credit requirements constitute an important compa industry sector was reviewed and an expanded cred the participation of the Bank of Ceylon.
A total of 154 loans for Rs. 2,721,925 had been re loan scheme with the People's Bank. The expan Rs. 400,000 with an extended period for repayment. March to December 1976, totalled Rs. 3,460,225 fo
Marketing Product marketing is a vital function of the small particularly where the owner entrepreneur has to e
The marketing centre for small-scale industry was e are being made to organise small-scale manufacturer tions and various private sector institutions.
The advisory services afforded by the marketing popularity.
Water colours, manufacture of starch, banana fibre Considerable improvement in marketing arrangemer has been achieved.
Under the marketing credit scheme operated with made available to 73 industrialists during the year.
Development (Machinery) The programme of development and adaptation of ma sheller and a foot operated bellows pump. Designs IDB were made available to the Hambantota DDC.
The sugar cane crusher programme continues. It would be in a position to meet the demand for 3-roll
The engineering division completed the design an equipment for safety match units.
Industrial Estates
Work on Pallekelle and Atchuvely Industrial Estates the Ekala Estate have been occupied throughout the has not been quite satisfactory attributable, perhaps these two estates. A rent purchases scheme is en optimum occupancy levels.
It has also been decided to develop an additional ex to growing demand for industrial accommodation i would be made available to suitable industrialists as
The establishment of “ mini " industrial estates, as cater not only to manufacturing industry but service i study for establishment of such an estate at Keppetigo 5—A 31485

T BOARD OF CEYLON
onent of assistances required by the small-scale lit scheme was introduced in March 1976, with
eleased to small industrialists under the original ded scheme provides for a maximum loan of
The loans approved by banks for the period r 145 industrialists in the small-scale sector.
-scale industrialists and is beset with problem ngage himself in a variety of functions.
Established in Colombo in June 1976. Attempts sto meet large orders of Government Organisa
g division of the I. D. B. has evinced much
and educational aids receiving special attention. nts of these products, quality and packaging
the People's Bank, a sum of Rs. 601,427 was
chinery covered prototypes of a fretsaw, a maize s of the two-wheeled tractor developed by the
has been estimated that major manufacturers er crushers.
ed manufacture of strawboard machinery and
- was completed during 1976. All 42 units in year. Occupancy at Pallekelle and Atchuvely to high rentals charged for accommodation in visaged in these industrial estates, to ensure
xtent of 5 acres in Ekala with six units to cater n Colombo suburbs. An extent of 84 acres developed plots.
growth centres specially in the rural sector, to industry as well is being mooted. Feasibility -llawa, Anuradhapura district has commenced.

Page 116
98
Bio-Gas Generator Programme The energy crisis focussed much attention popularisation of bio-gas consumption using attention during the year.
A suitable bio-gas generator for use in Sri capacity established at its premises in Moratu parties. A programme to popularise these in the regions, mainly in schools has been di
Demonstration units were established in Kandy, Jaffna, Anuradhapura and Kuruneg
A new model generator was designed at an envisaged was in the region of Rs. 3,500. ground level. Laboratory scale model has
Boron Rubberwood The work on Boron Rubberwood Project cc valued at Rs. 500,000 were processed at Ka four has revealed that considerable prospec Europe exist. Exports during 1976 were 2,0
Advisory and Information Services The UNIDO made available the services o small-scale industry development. Most of for implementation by the Board. The sers was also made available by UNIDO on a resources available and made recommendatio of Dr. R. H. Rao of the Kanpur Institute of Government on a three-month assignment. units producing jaggery and allied products 1
The IBD's monthly issue “ Karmanthe 'has ship which now stands at 4,000 Sinhala and
II—PRI
Private Sector Industries Significant characteristics of the private sector report of a recent survey on manufacturing units occupy with each capital investment of 78 per cent of industrial units in the private n share of the value of annual output is account of over Rs. 1 million and constitutes 8 per ce sector. These characteristics are summarisec
Value of Fixed Capital Assets
(Plant and Machinery)
Size of Industry
(1) Over Rs. 1 million (ii) Less than Rs. 1 million and over
Rs. 100,000 (iii) Less than Rs. 100,000

INDUSTRY
on the development of novel forms of energy. The = dung and other waste material received considerable
Lanka has been developed. The plant of 110 cubic ft. va was tested and designs 'made available to interested
plants with the establishment of demonstration units -cided on. Colombo, Matara and Badulla. Additional plants at ala would be commissioned shortly.
estimated cost of Rs. 1,200 through the initial figure This consists of a concrete tank constructed under
o performed satisfactorily.
ntinues. A total of 26,500 cubic feet of rubberwood ndana and the 4 satellite mills. An export promotion ets for export of rubberwood to the Middle East and 000 cubic feet valued at US $ 6,000 at f.o.b. prices.
f Dr. Ram K. Vepa on a nine-month assignment for the recommendations of the Report have been accepted vices of Dr. R. H. Kirby, Expert in Fibre Technology two-month assignment. Dr. Kirby made a survey of
ns as regards further development in this field. Services T Sugar Technology were made available by the Indian
Dr. Rao had contact with a large number of industrial rom sugar cane, coconut and plamyrah.
evinced much popularity with an increase in member2,500 English copies of the publication.
VATE SECTOR
manufacturing industries as surfaced in the preliminary industries reveal the predominent position small-scale less than Rs. 1 lakh. These small-scale units comprise manufacturing sector in the country. About 55 per cent ed by 181 industrial units each with a capital investment nt of total number of approved industries in the private | below:
Establishment
Percentage value
of output (Ex-Factory)
Number
Per cent
181
55•6
14
337 1,850
16:0 28•4
18
2,368
1000
100.0

Page 117
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
The private sector manufacturing units recorded a m during 1976 main sub-sectors where an expansion in
Sub-Sector
Manufacture of food beverages and tobacco Textiles, wearing apparel and ready-made garments Base Metal Industries
Manufacture of fabricated metal products
The increase in production in the sub-sector food be fact that 63 per cent of the total value of raw material i as such the foreign exchange constraint is not an obst sub-sectors increase in production was mainly due to sources as vital industries were granted foreign excha These sub-sectors were also successful in obtaining loc
New Industries A total of 372 New Industries were approved in 1976 solely from domestic sources. Detail composition of tl
TABLE 8.1-DATA ON INVESTMENTS AND EMPL
INDUSTRIAL SECTO
Industry Sector
Category
401 Meat, Fish and Milk products 402 Fruit and vegetable Products 403 Confectionery, Bakery Cereal and products 404 Spirits, Alcoholic Beverages and Areated Waters 405 Other food products and tobacco 406 Spinning Weaving and Finishing of textiles and wo
textile products 407 Manufacture of made up garments 408 Petroleum, Petroleum products and petrochemical 409 Salt and salt based chemicals 410 Other Chemical Products 411 Pharmaceuticals, Medical supplies and Cosmetics 412 Soap, Vegetable and animal oils and fats 413 Leather and rubber products 414 Manufacture of wood, paper and pulp 415 Clay, Sand and Cement products 416 Basic Metal Industries (excluding transport machin 417 Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal products of
than machinery 418 Transport Equipment Spares 419 Electrical goods 420 Cptical and Photographic goods and precision pro
Grand
* Arithmetic Total

BOARD OF CEYLON
99
odest growth rate in (real terms) of 1•2 percent
value of output recorded were :-
Ex-factory value of Et-factory value of
production
production (Rs. Innillion)
(Rs. Finallio) 1975
1976 782:4
999:5 332:3
516:7
41:2 407:2
456:2
32:8
:verages and tobacco could be attributed to the ised in this sector was of indigenous origin and ruction to the expansion effort. In the other
the availability of raw material from foreign nge to gear production to optimum capacity.
al raw.material.
1. These industries which would be financed
hese units appear in the table below :-
OYMENT IN APPROVED INDUSTRIES BY
RS—1976
Total ord Total employment Investment No. of Units
(Rs. °000) 60
490:0
01 2,551:0
04 335
1,023-0
10
59
288 1,869
659:9 3,1545
16
ven
8,616
31
55,524:8
179.0
04
595
77
1,976
208 455 196 109 288
580:0 1,101:0 5,246:7 1,370-8 2,307:6 1,257-0 1,233:6 1,066:6
08 03 199 16 18
ery) her
8 86 =
311
169
2,556:0 197:0 129.7
12
ducts
70
04
Total
*15,712 *80,628:2
372

Page 118
100
Investment to the tune of Rs. 55.5 million Manufacture. This investment is being geared Total investment envisaged in new industries is i Rs. 6:6 million in 1975 and Rs. 21.0 million in created once these industries are established.
III-STATE-SPON Ceylon Cement Corporation The Ceylon Cement Corporation was establishe (No.49) of 1957. Production capacity of the pro cement factory, Puttalam and ruhunu cement consumer demand of the island's cement requi 899 tons of cement were exported to the middle viz., Rs. 368,077 inclusive of FEECs.
Production and sales figures for the year 1976
Production Kankesanturai Cement F Puttalam Cement Works Ruhunu Cement Works
Sales Kankesanturai Cement F Puttalam Cement Works Ruhunu Cement Works
Sales include stock-in-ha The production and sale of concrete fabricat
Production Sales
The employees strength of the Corporation a technical and labour grades.
Paranthan Chemicals Corporation The Corporation was set up under Section ( (No. 19) of 1955 by Incorporation Order publ purpose of taking over, erecting, commissioning at Paranthan. Subsequetly, in 1957, the Co Corporations Act (No. 49) of 1957.
The main activities of the Corporation are :
(i) manufacture and sale of Caustic Soda a (ii) manufacture and sale of by-products, viz
Table Salt, etc., and (iii) iniport and sale of Caustic Soda.

DUSTRY
n has been approved in the Sub-sector Garment
exclusively to make garments for export market. in the region of Rs. 80•6 million as compared with 1974. A total of 15,712 job opportunities would be
SORED CORPORATIONS
=d in 1959 under the State Industrial Corporation Act duction units of the corporation, viz., Kankesanturai
works is in the region of 710,000 tons. Entire rements is being met by the Corporation. A total of east countries earning a foreign exchange component,
- were:
Factory
Tons 196,213 184,191 36,045
Total
416,449
Factory
Tons 179,798 183,064
58,485
Total
421,347
nd.
ors of the Coroporation during 1976 were :
Rs.
990,580 747,086
as at end of 1976 was 2,625 including administrative,
2) of the Government-sponsored Corporations Act ished in Government Gazette of March 1, 1956, for g and operating the Government Chemicals Factory orporation was brought under the State Industrial
nd Chlorine : ., Hydrochloric Acid, Zinc Chloride, Ferric Chloride,

Page 119
STATE-SPONSORED C
The production targets and performance for the two
Product
Target Perfor
1975 Caustic Soda Liquid
1,341 Liquid Chlorine
609 Hydrochloric Acid
391 Table Salt
406 Ferric Chloride
66 Zinc Chloride
(Production figures in
- N O )
56
Substantial increases in production have been reco preceding years. The production of 1,546 metric ton recorded. Power failures and voltage fluctuations con and stoppages of plant due to commissioning of the E
Caustic Soda Liquid.--The quantity of caustic sod metric tons. Caustic soda is mainly used by manufa also cleansing bottles by the National Milk Board.
Issues of caustic soda continues to be made on the Industries and Scientific Affairs and the Ministry of Foo to small industrialists. Sale of caustic soda liquid eal
Caustic Soda (Solid).--The oorporation imported a o (solid) to supplement local production and cater to be quantity of imports during the year was necessitated co industries by the government.
There was a net profit of Rs. 5,841,328 gross sale
Chlorine. The corporation produced 692 metric chlorine consumers continue to be the National Pap ration, Colombo Municipality and other local autho Swimming pools are also provided with their chlorin geared to meet entire requirements of chlorine.
Sale of chlorine recorded a profit of Rs. 356,722.
Hydrochloric Acid. —A quantity of 600 metric tons the year. The main consumer, Ceylon Steel Corporat thus eliminating import of sulphuric acid.
Difficulties were encountered as regards transport of breakdown. Action has now been taken to import
was a net profit of Rs. 90,000 from sale of hydrochlor
Table Salt.—The total quantity of table salt produ as compared with the preceding year. The corporati of table salt.
Research and Development.--The Rubber Research ducted experiments on the use of hydrochloric acic institute is now in the process of extending these e producing areas. Hydrochloric acid could be substi saving foreign exchange to the tune of approximately latex to the rubber producer would also be comparative

RPORATIONS
101
years 1975 and 1976 were :-
ance
Target Performance 76
1975
1976 DO
1,239
1,546 576
692 411
600
494 69
29 62
89 Metric Tons)
638
402
20
rded during 1976, as compared with several s of caustic soda liquid was the highest ever itinued to hamper production at the factory pansion Project thwarted further progress. i liquid produced during the year was 1,546 cturers of soap, textiles, batik and paper and
pasis of quotas determined by the Ministry of id and Co-operatives which granted allocations 'ned a profit of Rs. 1,472,026.
quantity of 4,300 metric tons of caustic soda
lance requirements of the country. A larger onsequent to the approval of several new soap
of caustic soda (solid) during the year. tons of chlorine during 1976. The main er Corporation, National Textille Corporities servicing water purification schemes. e requirements. The corporation has been
of hydrochloric acid was produced during ion, was supplied with its entire requirements
hydrochloric acid in bowser due to frequent new trucks for purpose of transport. There
c acid during 1976.
ced was 494 metric tons, a significant increase on recorded a profit of Rs. 40,878 from sale
Institute of Sri Lanka has successfully conin the coagulation of rubber latex. The xperiments to field trials in various rubberuted for imported formic and acetic acid Rs. 2:1 million a year. Cost of coagulating ly less due to low price of hydrochloric acid

Page 120
102
Discussions were held with the National W necessary steps to convert the brackish wate in place of imported alum. The water supply An initial quantity of the product was suppli
In view of the difficulties that may arise in tl steps are being taken to request the National Municipal Council to examine possibility of consuming centres.
Action has been initiated to evaluate econo (a) Bleach lye for pharmaceutical purposes (6) Poly vinyl chloride ; (C) Chlorinated rubber ; (d) Titanium dioxide (through titanium tet
Expansion Project. --Stage I of the Expan major difficulty that arose during the commis monel and nickel pipes required for the evap iron pipes were used for the purpose and the 50 per cent caustic soda liquid. Production substituted did not withstand heavy corrosior
With the commissioning of Stage I of the output from 1,600 metric tons of caustic sod 3,200 metric tons and 2,800 metric tons a year
Stage II of the project envisages an increas Soda and 4,400 tons of chlorine a year.
Total output of caustic soda from stages I 90 per cent of requirements of the entire Islan
Second Caustic Soda Chlorine Plant.-The during discussions with the Ministry of Plan In financnig a feasibility study for the establis! in consultation with the Ministries of PI
Messrs Kreditanstalt Fur Wiederaufbau of th and special agreements on the feasibility stud
The Project envisaged manufacture of– (1) Either the manufacture of 20,000 tons o
production of 15,000 tons of caustic soc (2) The manufacture of 10,000 tons of polyvin
of 7,500 tons of caustic soda.
The basic raw materials for the project wo are available in the island while coke would re process and production of calcium carbide wa

NDUSTRY
ater Supply and Drainage Board as regards initiatingr supply schemes for an in-take of ferric chloride.
scheme at Galle has been designed for this purpose. ed to the Board for experimental purposes.
ne transport of approximately 6,000 tons of the product,
Water Supply and Drainage Board and the Colombo localising of manufacture of ferric chloride at the
mic feasibility in the manufacture of :-
cachloride).
sion Project was commissioned during the year. A. sioning stages was the non-availability of supplying
orator. Locally available mild steel pipes and cast evaporator was successfully commissioned to produce
could not be maintained continuously as the pipes. a of caustic soda under high temperature.
Expansion Project, the corporation would increase its Ta and 1,400 metric tons of chlorine to respectively
e in the capacity of the Plant to 5,100 tons of causitc:
and II of the expansion project would meet about d.-
government of the Federal Republic of Germany ning and Economic Affairs, had indicated its interest iment of this project. Negotiations were conducted anning and Economic Affairs and Industries with e Federal Republic of Germany and draft financing. y for the project were finalised.
f poly vinyl chloride a year with a corresponding a, or
1 chloride with a corresponding annual production
ild be salt, limestone and coke. Salt and limestone quire to be imported. Electricity for the electrolytic: uld also be available from the national grid.

Page 121
STATE-SPONSORED CO
Finance Financial operations of the corporation resulted in an with Rs. 5.2 million the preceding year. The break d
Rs
Imports
Manufacture
Rs
A sum of Rs. 8•8 million has been contributed to consists of -
FEECS Customs duties Consolidated Fund Business Turnover Tax
Employment.--The employee-strength of the corpo supervisory, clerical, allied and labour grades. Empl implementation of stages I and II of the expansion pro
National Paper Corporation The National Paper Corporation (Eastern Paper Mills C under the Government Corporation Act (No. 19) of . Department of Industries and reconstituted under tl of 1957.
The total finished production for the year 1976 wa preceding year. The production capacity constitutes
Printing paper, writing paper, corrugated medium ar material covering approximately 10,634 tons.
The production for 1976, fell short of the target of Tank which serves as a source of water supply to the September to October 1976, compelled the mills to however, under normal conditions production would 1
Average manufacturing cost of a ton of paper W: Rs. 5,182 the preceding year.
Apart from 14,642 tons of paddy straw, 102 tons of grass used in pulp production, waste' paper was for 6,830 tons compared with 7,800 tons in 1975. Ir by the corporation in 1976 through its purchasing cer
Mills—Valaichchenai, Koduwamadu, Punanai, Thumbankerni, Uhana and Arasadichchenai.

PORATIONS
103
rer-all profit of Rs. 7•7 million as compared yn of the over-all profit in 1976 is —
5•8 million 1.9 million
7:7 million
government revenue during the year and
Rs. million
6-6 1:0 1-0 0:2
otal
8:8
ration totalled 403 comprising of executing, oyment opportunities are in offing with the vject.
orporation as known earlier) was incorporated 1955, to take over the paper factory from the ne State Industrial Corporation Act, No. 49
a 17,257 tons compared with 18,725 tons the various grades of paper and paper board. dbox board accounted for bulk of production,
23,870 tons due to lack of water in Vakaneri mills. Unprecedented drought in the months pe closed down for almost two months. If ave exceeded 90 per cent of the rated capacity.
: Rs. 5,133 which compares favourably with
naize, 240 tons of kenaf and 22 tons of guinea Iso used as a basic raw material accounting addition, 28,730 tons of straw were purchased -es, viz :
Sammanturai, Nintavur, Veerapura, Oluvil,

Page 122
104
The corporation paid over Rs. 2•15 million
Embilipitiya Mills.—Although the pulp and sioned during the latter part of 1976, constr this date.
With the commissioning of the Embilipit together would be 37,500 tons (38,100 metric
Carbon Paper Factory. The construction 1976 and trials are being carried out. Com The factory has a production capacity of 1,94 ideal conditions however capacity of the fact
The net foreign exchange savings on manu compared with Rs. 42:4 million the preceding
Employment.—There were nearly 2,900 pe December 1976.
Ceylon Plywoods Corporation The Ceylon Plywoods Corporation was est corporation at Kosgama commenced produc supplies constitute a major constraint to capa thwart the State Timber Corporation-chie timber supply. Higher veneer prices during se
ment local supplies.
The bulk of local timber supplies of the corporation's timber extraction project at 743,631 cubit feet of timber were supplied by to the Gintota factory. A total of 425,245 Timber Corporation to both Salawa and Gint
Despite all these hazards in timber supplies utilisation of existing resources. Investigatio and about 7 per cent of the total tea chest pro
The two factories of the corporation prod equivalent in 1976 comprising 25,949,376 squ respectively at Gintota and Salawa.
Tea chests constitute main line of product chests were produced by the corporation and tea chests is presently handled by the Min block-board, veneered and unveneered chipbo products sold by the corporation. The corpo
The carpentry division which had earlier co and presently absorbed into the Plywood Co and Kandy and Small Workshops at Bandar to making the division a viable unit, re-org schemes have exerted their impact on produc was produced in 1976 reflecting an approxima the carpentry division in 1976 were in the reg the preceding year. Several export orders we acceptance of these export orders.

INDUSTRY
a to farmers for these purchases.
paper mill at Embilipitiya was expected to be commiscuction and erection work could not be completed by
iya Mill, the total production capacity of both mills
tons) a year.
of a Carbon Paper Factory was completed in December omercial production is expected to commence shortly. O boxes (100 sheets per box) on an 8 hour shift. Under ory would be 300 boxes each work shift.
ufactured paper for the year 1976 was Rs. 44-6 million. E year.
ermanent employees in the corporation's service as at.
ablished in 1956. The wood work complex of the tion during latter part of 1973. Shortfalls in timber .city utilisation in all factories. Pressing commitments f supplier of timber in maintaining target levels of cond half of 1976 restricted import of veneer to supple
corporation during the year was obtained from the - Kenneliya/Dediyagala/Nakiyadeniya. A total of
the K. D. N. Project—bulk of supplies being diverted cubic feet of timber had been supplied from the State tota factories.
, the corporation continues forge ahead in maximising ons in the use of rubber-wood has proved successful duction presently utilizes rubberwood as basic material.
uced an aggregate of 46,583 152 square feet of 3 ply are feet, and 20,633,776 square feet of 3 ply equivalent.
tion of the corporation. A total of 2.2 million tea
sold at a value of Rs. 49,575,372. Distribution of istry of Plantation Industries. Doors, door-frames, pard, commercial plywood and veneer constitute other bration’s sales amounted to Rs. 66,371,760.
nstituted the National Small Industries Corporation rporation comprises 3 major units—Velona, Amparai awela, Koggala, Jaffna and Batticaloa. With a view anisation schemes were introduced in 1974. These ction and sales. Furniture valued at Rs. 92,630,016 tely increase of 20 per cent over 1975. Sales figures of ion of Rs. 8,117,125 an increase of 15 per cent over re received though local committments have curtailed

Page 123
STATE-SPONSORED CORI
Ceylon Petroleum Corporation Established in June 1961, under a Special Act of Parliame Act (No. 28) of 1961, the Petroleum Corporation initia marketing of petroleum products in competition with corporation subsequently took over the entire business oil in Sri Lanka in 1963.
There has been a rapid expansion in the activities o It has inter alia the responsibility for management of refines imported crude oil and produces a number of liquid petroleum gas, a lubricating oil blending plan a candle factory both located at Kolonnawa. The ac over years to include production and supply of marin to air craft as well as the blending and marketing of agr
Production.--Production figures of the corporation du
Super' Petrol
Regular Petrol Auto Diesel
Marine Diesel Furnace Oil Kerosene Chemical Naptha Bitumen L. P. G. Aviation Fuel (Autor) Solvents
Total
Lubricating oils
3,861 candle factory
19 Sales during the year were :-
Quantity
(M|tons) "Super' Petrol
77,471 'Regular' Petrol
23,666 Auto Diesel
257,558 Black Diesel
33,004 Furnace Oil
126,197 Kerosene
206,888
Bulk Sales
Bitumen
5,647,092 Lubricating oil
4,096,845 Grease
1,294,593 Petrol Artrun
67,976 Other Products
42,994 Wax
1,625,015 Agro-Chemicals
784,420 Candles
21,627 L. P. G.
4,423,476 Solvents
832,337 Brake Oil
53,557 Bunkers and Aviation
Valu Foreign Sales
Valu

ORATIONS
105
it, viz., the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation ly confined its activities to the import and three existing private oil companies. The pertaining to import and distribution of
! the corporation since inception in 1961. the Oil Refinery at Sapugaskanda, which petroleum products including solvents and E for blending of imported base oils and tivities of the corporation have expanded
bunkers to ships and turbine aviation fuel )-chemicals. ring 1976 were :-
M. Tons
73,344 26,164 276,136
88,318 513,678 188,331 103,484 26,921
2,130 76,884 1,863
1,377,253
5,379 (gallons) 2,506 (packets)
Value (Rs. million)
289.7
89.6 351:7 | 44-2 130.9 320-6
Value
(Rs. million) (gallons)
38:5 (gallons)
84-1 (lb.)
6-5 (lb.) (gallons) (lb.) (lb.) (Boxes)
2:3 (lb.)
2-0 (gallons)
15-1 (gallons) e Rs. 49.9 million - Rs. 346.4 million
0-3
1:2 4•8
13:7
4:3

Page 124
106
Imports of Crude and base oil A total of 1,447,141 metric tonnes of crude o during the year. The value of crude and ba grease oil and waxes imported during 1976, a
Exports.--The export of naptha and furn were in the region of Rs. 3•5 million.
Nylon 6 Project.--A contract has been er long-term credit to finance the project. The f of Rs. 154 million.
Oil exploration.--On-shore exploration se
Employees. There were 3,744 employees comprised administrative, technical, clerical
Ceylon Oils and Fats Corporation The Oils and Fats Corporation at Seeduwa, became the Ceylon Oils and Fats Corporation Corporation Act. It was reconstituted in 1 of 1957. Initial authorised capital was Rs. 19 1975, is Rs. 25,780,000. Objectives of the con in the Gazette Extra-ordinary No. 11,466 of 1
(1) The manufacture and sale of all kinds
products, detergents, emulsifiers, fats, v (2) The manufacture and sale of pharmace
preparations and compounds of all k
surface coatings, including paints and e (3) The manufacture and sale of any by-pr
facturing any of the above items.
There are at present four production unit distillation unit, (c) glycerine concentration (a) The oil mill consists of three pressure ex
batch solvent extraction plant, The expe (coconut refuse), and other oil bearing is removed by the solvent process in
for production of refined deodorised oi (6) The extracted coconut oil is supplemer
acid splitting plant into crude mixed f very low concentration. Crude mixed
yield mixed fatty acid. (C) The ‘sweet water' is concentrated in the
saponification crude glycerine 88 per ce (d) The residual extracted meal left over af
ingredients as protein substances, bran
produce poultry, pig and cattle feed.
Production. —As a result of drop in dema production of animal feed had to be curtailed cerine which are mainly for export market al

INDUSTRY
oil and 12,913 metric tonnes of base oil were imported se oil imports was in the region of Rs. 1,1152 million accounted for Rs. 3-6 million.
cace oil fetched Rs. 150-5 million, while other imports.
ntered into with NISHOEWAI, Japan for provision of Foreign component of the project would be in the region
ismic surveys have been completed during the year.
in the corporation's service as at end of 1976 and and labour grades.
originally a division of the Department of Industries a on 1 August, 1955, under the Government Sponsored 958, under State Industrial Corporations Act, No. 49 ,750,000 and total subscribed capital as at 31 December, rporation as stated in the Incorporation order published 1.8.1958, are as follows :-
of oils, oleoginous and sapanaceous substances, food vaxes and resinous substances.
uticals, medicinal, chemical, industrial and agricultural inds, toilet preparations, plastics, dyes, manures and enamels.
oduct which may be produced in the process of manu
is, viz., (a) oil mill, (6) fat splitting and fatty acid
unit, (d) provender plant. Rpellers, a continuous solvent extraction plant and a eller unit handles expelling of oil from copra, polkudu
seeds, while the residual oil left in expeller 'poonaco the extraction plant. There is also an oil refinery
ated with white coconut oil and is split in the fatty atty acid and ‘sweet water' which is glycerine with I fatty acid is distilled in the distillation unit to
glycerine concentration plant to produce hydrolyser nt ; and ter oil extraction from poonac is mixed with other feed us, vitamins, minerals, etc., in the provender plant to
nd for provender feed during the first half of 1975, - to 39,681 tons. Production of fatty acid and glyso declined considerably due to unfavourable market

Page 125
STATE-SPONSORED
Item
conditions the world over. The fatty acid plant was year and the total production achieved was, 1,042 tons o value of production at sale prices was Rs. 50.9 million
Capacity Plant (in i Provender
90,000 Fatty Acid
3,000 Glycerine
360 Sales.-The corporation was able to maintain an api Comparative sales and value for the years, 1974 and 1
197
Item
Quantity
(Tons)
42,946
Provender Fatty Acid
High Grade Low Grade Glycerine
1,060
321
87
Ceylon Leather Products Corporation The Ceylon Leather Products Corporation was estab venture.
Leather Leather production in 1976 showed a marked improvem
Chrome Leather (sq.ft) Bark Leather (1b) Kattai and other Leather (sq.ft)
The Indo-Ceylon Leather Co. produced in addition 5 corporation as against 469,288 square feet in 1975.
Faced with stiff competition in marketing of products was placed on production of some footwear items in 19
The value of production of miscellaneous leather goo with the corresponding figure Rs. 3,204,000 in 1975.
The turnover from local sales increased from Rs. 14:5
Footwear Leather
Misc. Leather Goods Other Sales
Total Sales
Leather

CORPORATION
107
shut down for nearly a full quarter of the f fatty acid and 136 tons of glycerine. The
ons) Production (1975)
39,681 1,042
136 preciable level of sales during the year.
975 were :-
1975
Value
Quantity Value (Rs.
(Tons)
(Rs. million)
million) 39-83 39,798
45:26
3•19 1:49 0:43
748 305 132
2:59 1-19 0-89
lished in 1956 as a state-owned industrial
ient over the preceding year :-
1975
1976 1,004,363 1,232,645 186,450 200,152
86,332 151,467
73,695 square feet of chrome leather for the
from users of synthetice material, restriction 176.
ds was Rs. 3,686,000 in 1976 as compared
million to Rs. 16-0 million in 1976. Local Sales
Rs. 7,181,569 5,705,375 3,101,784
22,737
16,011,465
Vholesale rade (Local)
Rs. 2,719,657

Page 126
108
A considerable progress in export tra established new markets and obtained be Rs. 1.26 million to Rs. 2.47 million.
Footwear Leather
Miscellaneou
The net profit for the year (before taxat in 1975.
There were 990 employees on roll as at e
Executive gr Technical an Clerical and s Manual and
The construction of a go-down for the in progress. Work on glue projects is est approximately of Rs. 490,000 has been m for the Tannery.
Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation The Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation was es Corporation Act, No. 49 of 1957.
Demand for fertilizer had shown a +2. to factors as :-
(1) Introduction of a 50 per cent gene
permits for all crops other than Tea. (ii) Fixing of maximum recommended (iii) Consequent to the take-over of C.C.
spare mixing capacity utilisation we
preceding year. (iv) Distribution was rationalised by the
tion to C.C.C.(F) Ltd.
(V) Improvements in marketing techn
outlets, and establishing a retail cen home garden purposes in Colombo a
The introduction of manual mixing units vity committee with a mixing capacity of employment opportunities.

INDUSTRY
de has been made during the year. The corporation cter prices in 1976. The value of exports increased from
Export Trade
Rs.
508.897 1,442,448 520,827
is Leather
Total 2,472,172
ion) was Rs. 1·12 million compared with Rs. O•86 million
nd of 1976 :-
ades dallied grades supervisory grades operative grades
28 35 220 707
990
storage of dyes, chemicals and spares of the tannery, is imated to cost Rs. 250,000. A financial commitment of ade at the end of the year for new machinery as required
tablished in January 1964, under the State Industrial
4:4 per cent increase over the preceding year attributable
eral subsidy scheme with effect from 26 April, 1976, sans.
prices under the above scheme by Gazeette notification.
C. (F) Ltd. in January 1976. Private fertiliser distributors as optimised showing an increase of 46 per cent over the
e transfer of Tea and Rubber mixtures from the corpora
iques as attractive discounts, increasing distribution tre to facilitate supply of small quantities of fertilisers for nd suburbs.
at district level under Menikdiwela agricultural producti100 tons per day, this project, in addition would provide

Page 127
STATE-SPONSORED
With the assistance of the Federal Republic of C promotion of fertiliser distribution and consumpti capacity under the project is envisaged.
The functions of marketing liasion officers have be of assistant directors, rural institutions, thus str institutions and the co-operatives.
Sales
1973
1974 (Tonnes
95,2
Paddy Coconut Sundry crops Other sales
125,534 38,605 22,633 104,683
39,3 15,3 142,0
Total
291,455 292,0
Mixed Fertilizer
Receipts Issues
(Tonnes) 64,508 91,873
The main constraint with the mixing plants is th; carried out simultaneously since infeeding time is apr designs to modify the plants in line with rated capa
would virtually double rate of production.
Storage of additional fertilizer outdoor had been e outdoor storage has be been reduced to 18,000 toni in muriate of potash. Construction of two warehou cost Rs. 2 million would help storage and transport
Fertilizer purchases and finance Following a deliberate policy of reducing stock leve over the previous year contrasted to +24•4 per cent given below:
1975 (tonnes)
Ingre
65,553.. Sulphate of amon 51,770
Urea 18,300
Rock phosphate 11,074
Triple super phos] 23,500
Muriate of potash 5,000
N. P. K. 7,986
Others
183,183
Personnel of the corporation totalled 474 employ
Executive Staff
Clerical and allied grad
231
29

CORPORATIONS
109
termany, a Project is being carried out for the in. A mixing unit of 20,000 tons per annum
en decentralised under the administrative control engthening the marketing technique of rural
1975
1976
1977
(Estimates)
70 48,606 70,388 125,000
26,521
20,631
25,000 12,976
31,028
37,500 90 120,358 137,320 160,635
208,461 259,367 348,135
Quantities Mixed Manual Mixing Plant
(Tonnes) 34,187 28,971
at both infeeding and production could now be proximately double production time. Necessary city are being carried out. These modifications
ompletely stopped. The hardened stocks due to nes of triple super phosphate and 1,500 tonnes ses of 10,000 tonnes capacity each estimated to - problems.
Fls, the imports for the year were +17•8 per cent E in the case of sales. The relevant statistics are
1976 (tonnes)
edient
69.250 73,241 33,000
phate
30,500 7,500 2,350
215,841
Fees :
des
- Technical grades
Others
54
160

Page 128
110
Fertilizer Manufacture State Fertilizer Manufacturing Corporation Foreign finances for implementation of the entered into with the following:
Financing Authorities
Date of
(a) Government of India (b) Asian Development Bank (C) KFW of West Germany (d) Kuwait Fund (e) Government of Sri Lanka
4 Novemb 2 October, 9 Decembe 22 Septemb
The government of Sri Lanka was to finan
With the concurrence of the Financing Aut general contractor services were invited from submitted their Bids. These bids were evalua Board of Directors of the corporation at an int studies made, the lowest valued bid, Kellogg general contract.
Persuant to signing of the General Contra project, project implementation within the con comprised mainly of process/engineering desig nation/pre-loading of soil at the main site, and
Urea Project.—By end of 1975, all financ except that between the Government of Sri ] January, 1976. An agreement was also signer corporation for supply of naptha and fuel oil
The State Fertilizer Manufacturing Corpo1 on the proposed housing scheme at Bataland of A and B Units.
Apatite Project. Following a visit made to the Ministry of Industries and Scientific Affairs the Government of Si Lanka and People's
mining crushing grinding and experimental
State Graphite Corporation The State Graphite Corporation was incorp Corporation Act, (No. 49) of 1957.

INDUSTRY
rea project were finalised and loan agreements were
Loan
Amount (in million)
Approx. Equivalent in US$
(in million)
100
12:5
30
30
er, 1975 Ind. Rs.
1975 U.S. $ r, 1975 Deutsche Mark er, 1975 Kuwait $
U.S. $
24:5
60
7.5 5•5
25
5:5
97-5
ce the entire local component of expenditure.
horities and Government of Sri Lanka, offers for the
five pre-selected International Firms, three of whom ated and the evaluation subsequently examined by the er-ministerial committee. On the basis of evaluation Overseas Corporation of U. S. A. was awarded the
ct with Kellogg Overseas Corporation for the urea tractual scope commenced in 1976. Project activities gns, procurement work in connection with the exami1 construction of the housing scheme.
eing arrangements had been completed and signed Lanka and the Corporation. This was signed on 5th d between the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation and the
basic raw material for manufacture of urea.
cation had commenced work towards end of 1975, a. The housing scheme includes a total of 68 houses
the Peoples' Republic of China by a delegation from - and the corporation letters were exchanged between Republic of China as regards assistance in apatite
production of ground phosphate.
orated on July 1, 1971, under the State Industrial

Page 129
STATE-SPONSORED
The two large scale commercially operated mines of | Kolangaha mines.
The production figures of these mines in 1976 were
Bogala mines Kahategaha/Kolangaha m
There was a production increase of 214 tons as ci graphite which in 1975, showed a substantial drop, in
A total of 7,887 tons graphite were exported d Rs. 29,967,597. Local sales were 270 tons at a value
Prospecting mines of the corporation are at Ra where scientific prospecting continues.
Ceylon Mineral Sands Corporation The Ceylon Mineral Sands Corporation was establi ilmenite in 1976, amounted to 54,932 long tons co shortfall in production in 1976, is attributable to a fis by the corporation's principal buyer. Restriction of the pigment plant for some months on account o in world market as a result of industrial recession. A during first four months of 1976, compared with 3, zircon plant at China Bay was permanently closed and integration with the Pulmoddai processing comp
Exports of mineral sands in the year 1976, were :-
Ilmenite
52, Rutile
A sum of Rs. 11,160,641 was earned by way of for exports of mineral products during the year. Incom The total revenue earned by the corporation durin profit of Rs. 12,584,000 before taxation and contrib amounting to Rs. 2,500,000. The gross profit for th
US $ 5-15 million has been provided by the Asian Lanka for meeting foreign exchange expenditure an with expansion of the mineral processing complex processing equipment and about 50 per cent of acce from member-countries of the Asian Development Ba by local contractors on tenders has been completed.
There was a low demand for minerals consequent to cadre employment of the corporation as at end of 1

CORPORATIONS
111
the Corporation are Bogala and Kahatagaha
tons
5,033 ines 2,974
8,007
ompared with the preceding year. Export of creased by 1952 tons during 1976.
uring the year fetching an export value of of Rs. 700,541.
gedera (Kurunegala) and Rangala (Kegalle)
shed in December, 1957. The production of mpared with 63,999 long tons in 1975. The ve day week consequent to restricted purchases on purchases had to be effected due to closure of the fall in demand for titanium products total of 1,023 long tons of rutile were produced 062 long tons the preceding year. The utile down from 30th April, 1976, for dismantling
lex.
259 long tons 77 long tons
eign exchange and Rs. 7,254.412 as FEECs on le from local sales amounted to Rs 841,955. g the year was Rs. 19.257,008 giving a gross ution to the Government Consolidated Fund, e preceding year was Rs. 11,670,444.
Development Bank to the Government of Sri d cost of Consultancy services in connection
at Pulmoddai. All major items of mineral sory equipment were received during the year nk. Major civil construction work undertaken
world economic recession in 1976. Permanent 176, totalled 420 employees.

Page 130
112
Salt Industry in Sri Lanka The National Salt Corporation came into exi by the Minister of Industries and Fisheries un (No. 49) of 1957, published in the Ceylon Gov The objectives of the corporation are :
(1) The processing, recovery, purification, i
product derived from inland and marine (2) The processing, manufacture and sale
course of manufacturing any of the afon (3) The sale of electrical energy, water and
corporation. Salt, chemically known as sodium chloride, 1 very beginning of civilisation. The importan lof the country received official recognition w isted the salt and by-products industry among taken by the State.
The intake of salt and water to combat he a standard ‘norm’. Consumption of salt table in furnace rooms, is quite essential until acc
Salt perhaps is the oldest industry in Sri Lank are now being controlled by the National Sal is solar salt which is obtained by solar evapor
Although salt production is technically comp tists call it a process of 'Fractional crystallisa in the process. With sea water, which contain until the volume has been concentrated by evap trace of carbonate is precipitated. Gypsum is sodium chloride or common salt when it reach
The rehabilitation and improvement of the production increase in succeeding years. Impo
TABLE 8.2-SALT PRO
Year
1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976*
*Official sales declined in 1976, due to exte sales.

NDUSTRY
stence as a legal entity consequent to an order made der Section 2 of the State Industrial Corporation Act, ernment Gazette, No. 11,212 of 3rd December, 1957.
manufacture and sale of salt and other chemicals and e waters.
of any by-products which may be produced in the cesaid articles, and
other amenities not required for the purposes of the
has been a commonplace item of consumption from the ce of solar sea-salt industry for the industrial progress hen in 1956, the Minister of Industries and Fisheries the seven basic or strategic industrial ventures under
at exhaustion and heat cramps had become virtually As by armed forces, those engaged in mines, or working limatisation is achieved. ca. The present salterns, both government and private, t Corporation. The salt manufactured in Sri Lanka ation of sea-water. blex, the chemistry of it is essentially simple. Scienution’. Sun and wind are the main natural agencies
s 3•5 per cent by weight of salt, no deposition occur poration to nearly one half of its original bulk when a
deposited when the volume reaches about one fourth. Les about one tenth.
salterns has already paid dividends as shown in the -rt of salt which commenced in 1962, ceased in 1967.
DUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
Poduction
Tons 32,979 55,732 34,781 36,442 21,440 44,934 57,939 63,468 74,611 96,842 112,353 68,352
84,785 155,185 121,097 118,982 119.056 138.285
Consumption
Tons 56.665 61,143 65,326 64,029 67,570 70,109 69,439 75,920 76,034 79,231 78,244 83,107 87,537 89,603 96,001 100,260 103,160 101,268
nsive illicit collection. Consumption figures denote

Page 131
STATE-SPONSORED COR
Elephant Pass and Kurinchativu.—The existing salter extent and had an average yield of 50 tons per acre. adjacent to it have also been converted to a saltern ar saltern produced 34,838 tons. Only 17,510 tons were
production.
Palavi.-The saltern at Palavi which was about 344 - of about 5,000 tons has been expanded to 600 acres wit. A total of 17,050 tons were collected in 1976.
Maha and Koholankala in Hambantota. --Improvemer at Hambantota have been effected. These salterns c average annual output of about 25,000 tons. Some 43,
Puttalam.--Improvements have been made to this p least 10,000 tons per annum. The collection in 1976 wa
Palatupana.--Improvements are being planned to within the next few years. The harvest in 1976 was ove
Bundala Lewaya.--The development of this saltern is it tion, but also as a measure of providing employment i been completed and production is due to commence ear.
Future Development. The present average capacity 128,000 tons per year. Local annual demand is in tl establishment of a second caustic soda-chloring factor increase in demand. This would be met by developing necessary, by expanding Puttalam and Palavi salterns.
By-products. —A number of by-products would be from the salt pans. So far only some gypsum that dep been recovered. This is so in view of the manufacture of sulphate, gypsum, etc., which demands installation of a
manufacture of 1,000 tons a year of agriculture grade E Lewaya.
Washed Salt.--Manufacture of washed salt in a sma This product was sold in 2 lb polythene packets. Sales 1974. 237,860 packets in 1975 and 282,000 packets in 1 at Elephant Pass saltern.
Exports.—Export of salt has been investigated and fo port or shipping in proximity to a major saltern and for from saltern to shipping point, lighterage etc (i.e. transp much more than the bare direct cost of production of salt is being explored. Small quantities have, in recent year scale shipments have not so far materialised.
Sri Lanka Sugar Corporation The Sri Lanka Sugar Corporation was established as a Corporation Act, (No. 46) of 1957.
The corporation recorded a production of 23,275 M metric tons in 1975. The percentage improvement was performance at Kantale and Hingurana respectively were

PORATIONS
113
-n at Elephant Pass is about 505 acres in
Another 600 acres, Kurinchativu saltern— ad is now in production. In 1975, the new e produced in 1976, due to curtailment of
acres in extent with an average annual yield h a potential of 16,000 tons of salt annually.
ats to the Maha and Koholankala Lewaya operated together are expected to yield an
600 tons were harvested in 1976.
-rivate saltern to produce an average of at is in the region of 25,200 tons.
Palatupana Lewaya to yield quick results r 5,600 tons.
mportant not only for increasing salt producto the people of the area. The saltern has
y.
of the existing salterns is in the region of he region of 111,000 tons. The proposed y and a soda-ash factory would ensure an g Karagan and Palatupana Lewayas, and if
obtained from, bitterns or residual liquor osits in the condensers of the salterns have by-products as magnesia, potash, magnesium set of high cost equipment. A plant for the Epsom salts has been commenced at Maha
Lll scale commenced in 1971 as a trial study. s have improved steadily 225,000 packets in 976. A mechanised unit is being installed,
iund to be a difficult process. There is no bulk shipments, the cost of transport of salt 1ort of salt by barge to ship, etc.) has proved in the saltern. The feasibility in salt export 's, been exported to the Maldives, but large
state sponsored institution under Industrial
[etric tons of sugar compared with 18,258 i 28 in respect of production while recovery
9:73 and 8:55 per cent.

Page 132
114
The planting programme fixed at the begin at Hingurana. Though a spell of severe dro and 3,446 acres at Hingurana.
Sugar substitutes as jaggery, sugar syrup respectively were produced at Uda Walawe. of rectified spirits and 109,730 bulk gallons
Hingurana.--A record tonnage of 157,508 had been achieved, during 1976.
The full components on farm machines purch in Sri Lanka. This would help ease depen machinery required for development of new Overseas Development Mission (UK/ODM)
Kantale.--The sugar industry at Kantale year as against 9,051 tons the preceding year
The year would record a climax of one of of Sri Lanka in recent years. Water in the (1:5 feet) level long before the crushing season
Preliminary feasibility studies on Kantale This would involve development of appro envisaged would be nearly 9,500 acres.
The Canadian International Developmer The Sugar Corporation has obtained 1.5 mil Agency (IDA) for agricultural machines and e scheme.
Walawe.--The Jaggery industry at Walawe gallons of sugar syrup. Apart from saving problem of scarcity of sugar.
Sevanagala Project.--The corporation has Walawe Tank be taken up for factory devel suitable for purpose of financing.
Cane Industry.—The cane acreage in Bad in 1975 to 24,551 acres in 1976 largely due t cultivators by the cane Industry Service. Ca 282 to 414 in 1976. Jaggery production in the 13,600 tons.
As regards estates taken over by the corpo of a cane plantation at Pelwatte between W plantation is 1,000 acres and 125 acres of ci plantation was started in Kolongastanne, 6 mi were cleared and planted under nurseries. A New Crushing centres were installed at Mone A total of 198,591 pounds of jaggery and 8,57 The corporation pays a minimum price of Rs. jaggery prices.
On an estimated per capita consumption of be in the region of 144,000 tons. An output requirements is envisaged. Potential for an i district does not offer an impossibility within a

INDUSTRY
ning of the year was 3,000 acres at Kantale and 3,700 ought prevailed, 1,235 acres were planted at Kantale
amounting to 1,303,023 pounds and 100,406 gallons
The corporation produced 1,460,182 proof gallons of methylated spirits during the year.
cane and a production 13,881 metric tons of sugar
nased under A.D.B. Loan (US $ 28 million) have arrived dability on private contractors. Provision of farm land of 2,500 acres is being considered by the U.K.
produced 9,394 tons of sugar from cane during the
the worst spells of drought experienced in the history Kantale tank fell below the dangerous 500 acre feet a could be completed.
stage II were undertaken and completed in 1976. ximately 18,000 acres of land. The cropping area
nt Agency (CIDA) has prepared a feasibility report. lion US Dollars from the International Development quipment for completion of ctage I under the Kantale
has produced 1,303,023 pounds of jaggery and 100,406 valuable foreign exchange the industry has eased
proposed that Sevenagla project, irrigated under opment. The A.D.B. has identified the project as
illa and Moneragala districts increased from 12,416 o the extension services and other facilities afforded ne crushers in the two districts also increased from two districts more than doubled from 6,200 tons to
vration the most significant feature was the opening ellawaya and Buttala. The area ear-marked for this ane have already been planted. A second new cane les south of Koslanda in virgin jungles where 32 acres total of 847 acres have been planted in these estates. rakalle in Moneragala and Oakfield estate, Koslanda. 13 gallons of syrup were processed from farmers cane. 4 per pound of jaggery with a view to stabilising the
jaggery at an ounce per day production is expected to
of 25,000 tons, which is 18 per cent of the island's ncreased production of 75 per cent from the Uva, space of 3 to 4 years.

Page 133
STATE-SPONSORED CO
PRODUCTION STATIS:
Product
1. Sugar (long tons) 2. Cane (long tons) 3. By-products—
Jaggery (pounds) Syrup (ranwan) (gallons) Rectified spirits (proof gallons) Methylated Spirits (bottles) Dry Gin * (gallons) Lemon Gin* do. Brandy Std* do. Whisky* do. White Rum* do. Vodkał do. Special White Arrack* do.
Finest Blend Arak* do. Red Rum* do. Cabe Arak* do.
Orange liquor* do. (* Bulk Supply-Gallons) Employment.—There were 3,746 permanent employ comprising various grades of employment. Over 10, during the year. Ceylon Steel Corporation The Ceylon Steel Corporation was established in Septen tion (Act No. 49) of 1957 in pursuance of an agreemen in 1958.
The Production activities of the corporation are mai together with the steel foundry which commenced introduced to the market, welding electrodes, stains a standards. As regards the stage II of the project, consi The corporation was associated with the Department of iron ore for the third stage of development.
The production programme has been drawn up after the optimum runs in production of various profiles a productivity showed a considerable increase. The pr the rolling mill and the wire mill had to be curtailed di
PRODUCTION (METR
Rolled products
Wire and wire products Foundry products Fabrications
Machine tools Welding electrodes Stains
Soldering lead (* Production commenced in October 1975).

RPORATIONS
115
TICS–1976
Total Production 22,908.69 253,247.49
1,329,173
100,406 1,450,182 571,975 3,846
221 6,871 882 659 910 4,109 56,224
2.498 11,028
659
yees of the corporation as at end of 1976 000 persons were found casual employment
nber 1961 under the State Industrial Corporat signed between Sri Lanka and the U.S.S.R.
inly concentrated in the rolling and wire mills operation in October 1975. New products and soldering lead were improved in quality
derable progress in civil work had been made. E of Geological Survey on new discoveries
a careful study of the potential demand and und products. Output in 1976 and abour poduction in the two major production units,
e to short-fall in supply of raw materials.
IC TONS)
1975 21,243 10,344
234
1976 28,295 9,030
402
374
531
34
15*
*
| :

Page 134
116
Production at the Rolling mill recorded 28,295 metric tons, an increase of 33 per different sizes were rolled during 1976.
Tor Steel production was below target operations. Action was initiated to fabric
The production of rolled products during
Rounds Ribbed Bars Angles
The production of wire and Wire produc 1975 figure. Short supply of wire rods, a machine breakdown, and maintenance dela
Job galvanizing during 1976 showed sig milk crates and 7,778 shackle straps were
There were only two machines available wire production was introduced to save for costs.
The new Steel Foundry commissioned in target of 475 metric tons. Production for tons of Pig Iron, 113 metric tons of grino Experiments carried out to cast billets for have proved successful.
Machine Tools.—The machine tools depa two new products, viz. the bench drill and t produced for small and medium sized in
Besides machine tools imported from M made from Messrs. Kiroloskar Ltd., India, i 1975. It has also been planned to assemb
Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd., India.
Structural Shop.--The structural shop sh The total production of fabrications was in tons in the preceding year, a 40 per cent Government Departments and corporation Milk Board was accepted. Fabrication of Telecommunications was also handled.
Stains.—A stains project which commence from the wire mill, proved successful. A va year amounted to 30 metric tons.
Welding Electrodes._Welding Electrodes conform to international standards. 3 typ output during the year was 33 metric Tons
Soldering Lead.—Soldering lead manufac market in October 1975. A unit of 40 te production during 1975 was 9 metric tons.

INDUSTRY
1 an increase. The total output of the mill amounted to cent more than in the pieceding year. Profiles of 21
largely as a result of poor performance of the twisting cate an additional twisting machine.
the year were
(Metric Tons)
13,326 11,927
3,041
ts was 8,941 metric tons, a drop of 13 per cent over the - basic raw material for most of the wiring products, ay hampered production programme during the year.
nificant increase ; 58,334 d-brackets, 649 panels, 3,154
galvanized. e for production of barbed wire. Single-strand barbed eign exchange and also as a novelty to reduce production
October 1975 achieved 86 per cent of the set production the year was 402 metric tons comprising of 181 metric ling media and 108 metric tons of general gastings. the Co-operative Steel Industries Society at Ratmalane
rtment of the corporation ventured into production of he • Arbor' press. These two machines are specially
dustries.
lessrs. Stankoimport of U. S. S. R. imports were also a accordance with the agency agreement entered into in le a simple lathe under a collaboration agreement with
1owed considerable increase in production during 1976. Ehe order of 531 metric tons ascompared with 734 metric
increase in production. Orders were accepted from S. A bulk order for 200,00 crates from the National a large variety of components for the Department of
ed in October 1975 utilising the waste pickled “ liquor » ariety of colours were produced. Production during the
e prepared with fluxes developed by the corporation es of hardfacing Electrodes were produced. The total
ctured at the corporation was first intorduced to the ons capacity was installed during the year. The total

Page 135
STATE-SPONSORED
Engineering.—Regular maintenance work as ele was provided by the engineering division. Excess spares and services provided both to private and pu National Salt Corporation and Graphite Corpo Kosgama Plywood Corporation and winding of were among important items of work undertaker Rs. 210,000.
Stages II and III of the Steel Project.--Civil constr was in progress. A fair volume of work of the bulk material stores was completed during the yea and the extension to the compressor and refrigeratic
The Special Committee appointed by the Board of the third stage of the project also considered local ore to foundry grade. Specifications were di arc furnace. Other development projects were :
Calcium Carbide Project.--The required machis imported from Japan. The contract for civil wo
Corporation.
Lime Plant.—A contract was signed with Messrs for this plant. The construction work has been ha
Ilmenite Smelting Project.--The economic feasibi and tests carried out in the U.S.S.R.
Laboratory. The reaserch and control laborat control. Testing facilities of the laboratory were n
Sales. The volume of sale including internal issu the preceding year appears below:
Rolled Products
Wire and Wire Products Foundry Products
Machine Tools Fabrications Stains Soldering Lead
Welding Electrodes
Construction activities during the year showe these figures compare favourably with the precedi below anticipated targets attributable to scarcities manufacturing processes. Market surveys were e
Supply.–Supplies position as regards major instances of delayed deliveries resulted in the stopi were entered into with U.S.S.R and Indian sups respectively of steel billets. A contract was also 1,000 metric tons of low carbon wire rods for th Japanese and Indian suppliers were in respect

CORPORATIONS
117
rical, mechanical and other auxilliary services
workshop facilities were used to manufacture lic sectors. The manufacture of trolleys for the ation, modification of cranes required by the 1otors for the State Engineering Corporation . Customer services were in the region of
iction work of the State Engineering Corporation refractory stores, central stores extension and . Construction of the rolling mill extension a plants was commenced.
of Directors to investigate into commencement the various alternatives available for converting awn up and quotations called for an electric
iery and equipment for the project was to be k had been awarded to the State Engineering
. Milex of Hungary for the supply of equipment nded over to State Engineering Corporation.
lity of the project was taken into consideration
ory stressed emphasis on quality and process made available to other industrial organisations.
ses during 1976 with Corresponding figures for
1975
1976 (Metric Tons) 23,334
27,203 5,915
6,600 137
178 | 74
96 278
533
24
05 07
10
05 27
1 a relatively high demand for steel. Though ng year, nevertheless the volume of sales was far of tor steel, barbed wire and barbing wire in the rried out on sale of stains and pig iron.
aw materials were barely satisfactory. A few age of production for about a month. Contracts iers for supply of 10,000 and 7,000 metric tons ntered into with a Soviet supplier for supply of
wire mill. Other contracts signed with the 1,300 tons of low carbon wire rods and 550

Page 136
118
tons of hot rolled steel wire rods. Imports we while local purchases were approximately R adequate stocks of raw materials, accessories a allocations.
Employment.--There were 1,361 employe employees in 1975. Personnel strength of the
Staff (technical and ad Supervisory and clerica Skilled and semi-skilled
Unskilled
Ceylon State Hardware Corporation The Ceylon State Hardware Corporation was
Production and sales during 1976 were
Pro
Item
Mammoties Other agricultural implements Door and window fittings Brass water fittings Cutlery Engineering Tools Other items Foundry products
There were 1,600 employees as at end of 19 and labour grades.
National Textile Corporation The National Textile Corporation was establis! ment Gazette No. 11,237 of 10th January 195
Veyangoda Mill.--Output of the mill during
Yarn (lbs) Grey cloth (yds) NTC finished cloth (yds) Commissioned finished cloth (yds) 1 Sized beams (yds)
The increase in production was mainly due t the workers, efficient maintenance of machine
Sales during the year were :-
Yarn (lbs.) NTC finished cloth (yds.). Commissioned finished clo Sized beams (yds.)

NDUSTRY
ere in the region of Rs. 62 million (cost and freight) S. 21 million. A major constraint of maintaining and spares was the delay in obtaining foreign exchange
es as at end of December 1976 compared with 1,264 e corporation in various grades during the year was :
ministration)
111 322 863
65
1,361
established in August 1963.
Rs.
oduction Value
Sales
Value Units)
(Units)
Rs. 199,476 4,531,160 328,626 7,400,513
37,771 1,416,460 39,511 1,428,998 647,257 2,002,862 946,663 3,068,299
63,630 2,326,588 69,698 2,291,742 129,796 783,789
123,859
765,525 20,397 697,919
6,553
603,327 | 19,174 400,517 21,977 318,348
7,563,799
6,590,294
76 and comprised professional, administrative clerical
hed by an Incorporation Order published in Govern
1975
the year in relation to the budget was :
1975
Performance Actual
Budgeted 3,003,963
3,177,860
94•5 per cent 8,014,124 10,000,000 80•1 per cent 8,300,602 10,000,000 83-0 per cent 7,948,717
15,500,000
115•8 per cent 1,043,077
to effective co-operation between management and ry, etc.
1975 1,032,730 7,630,220 18,492,480 1,043,077
oth (yds.)

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STATE-SPONSOREDE
Polyester/Cotton Blended Materials.--The corporat production of polyester/cotton blended yarn on a had to be carried out in the existing machinery. W out satisfactorily although it is too early to take a d commercial venture.
Thulhirya Mills.--Output of the mill during the y
Yarn (16.) Grey cloth (yd.) NTC finished cloth (yd.) Commissioned finished cloth (yd.) Sized beams (yd.)
Total output during the year fell short of targets shortage of spares.
Sales during the year were :--
Yarn (lb.) NTC finished cloth (yd.). Commissioned finished cloth Sized beams (yd.)
Sodium hipochlorite (litres)
Pugoda.--The mill was opened for commercial ! The output of the mill during the year was :---
Yarn (16.)
Grey cloth (yd.) Sales during the year were :-
Yarn (lb.) NTC finished cloth (yd.)
Thultex show room and sales centre. This is the of quality textiles as poplins, printed fabrics, voile etc., p lengths are supplied to Sri Lanka State Trading (Te ranging from 2 to 10 yards are marketed through
Mattegama Project.--The Coarse Count Spinning 1 of the Government of the German Democratic R 4:43 million lb. of yarn per annum.
Besides the factory, the corporation is establishin site. Construction work on the factory buildings 1974.
The technical services unit of this project carried o for the other mills/projects of the corporation, th
which would under normal circumstances have be organisations.
Spinning Mill Project, Minneriya.--The spinning n of the Government of the People's Republic of C}

I CORPORATIONS
119
ion's mill at Veyangoda successfully undertook n experimental basis. Certain modifications leaving of grey cloth with this yarn was carried ecision on production of this type of cloth as a
rear in relation to budgetary provision was: 1975
1975
Performance ctual
Budgeted 1,942,513
10,646,000
74:6 percent ,875,628
10,375,900
47•0 percent 1,427,903
10,839,100
50-1 percent 5,775,171
17,600,300
95.3 percent 1,568,785
2,944,400
87-2 percent
due to reasons as high absenteesm and acute
1975 6,145,173 5,878,325 15,813,929 2,568,785 - 16,838
(yd.)
production on 14th March, 1975.
1975 1,699,048 6,126,966
1975 414,735 6,603,575
ne and only direct outlet for the marketing of Produced at the corporation's textile mills. Piece extiles) Corporation (Salu Sala) and cut lengths this outlet.
Mill at Mattegama is being set up with assistance epublic. This mill would have a capacity of
g a housing scheme in proximity to the factory and the housing scheme commenced in June,
at consultancy services in civil engineering work us saving a considerable amount of money en paid as consultancy fees to various other
ill at Minneriya is being set up with assistance ina.

Page 138
120
The mill is designed for an annual output proportion 1: 2. Annual raw cotton requiren
Finishing Plant at Pugoda.--In persuance o " letter " on construction of a fiinishing plan Governments of the People's Republic of Chi taken to set up a finishing plant within premis
This plant will have an annual capacity of 1
Sodium Alginate Project at Thulhiriya.--Sodit as a thickening component in the preparation i
Original research on the production of sod sargassum found along the coastal belt of Sri carried out successfully by the C. I. S. I. R.
A decision was taken to set up a pilot plan alginate and work commenced in October, 19 former providing assistance in setting up (brown sea weed) from its net work of collec
Trial runs conducted on the plant have pr improvements are necessary for operation of th
The pilot plant would have a capacity in the 3 shifts.
Employment.--There were 9,134 employees o ing of executive, supervisory, technical, clerici three textile mills, viz., Veyangoda, Thulhiriya
Weaving Supplies Corporation "The Weaving Supplies Corporation was establis Act, No. 33 of 1970, for purpose of organisir chemicals and weaving accessories for the textil
Stocks of cotton yarn as at end of 1976 were 10.02 million pounds cotton yarn were purchas viz., National Textile Corporation's Textile M Cotton Mills, United Spinning Mills and the Yarn supplies made available to local textiles ma giving an over-all distribution of 15•66 million
The break-down of this figure and percentage
Direct supplies through co-operatives and th
corporation for the handloom sector Co-operatives and private owned power looms Sel-scale industry power looms
Wellanatta Spirithe and Weaving Mills Hasiery industries Kandy Textiles

DUSTRY
f 3.5 million lb. of yarn of count 40s and 30s in the ents for the output is estimated at 3-9 million pounds. an agreement signed in Peking in June, 1972, and exchanged in Colombo in May 1974, between the na and the Republic of Sri Lanka, a decision has been
s of the Pugoda mill. --5 million yards of finished cotton goods.
m alginate is a product used in printing of textiles, of printing paste.
cum alginate using local raw material (sea weed), Lanka between Hikkaduwa and Hambantota, was
t at Thulhiriya Mill for the manufacture of sodium -74, with assistance of the S. E. C. and I. D. B., the Ehe plant and the latter in supplying raw material sing points in various parts of the island. oved successful. It was felt, however, that certain e plant on a larger scale.
e region of 7,500 kilogrammes per year operating on
n the corporation's staff as at end of 1976, consistal and manipulative grades. Employment at the
and Pugoda was in the region of 8,700.
shed under the Sri Lanka State Trading Corporation 1g supplies of cotton yarn, synthetic yarn, dyes and e weaving industry. in the region of 6·17 million pounds. A total of ed for distribution among textiles production units ; ills at Veyangoda, Pugoda and Thulhiriya, Asian
recently State vested Wellawatte Spinning Mills. nufacturers were in the region of 5-64 million pounds, pounds cotton yarn during 1976.
distribution to total requirements is:
Total
Quantity
Percent Requirements
Supplies
to total (Million pounds)
requirements 18:29
5•61
31
1.91 5-36
2.29 9:63 2-65 1:77 0-61
51
1:36 1:26 0-17
*
35-24
15.67

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STATE-SPONSORED
Apart from yarn supplies, the corporation has ma textile industry. A total of 12,300 lbs. batik dyes, dyes have been supplied during 1976. In addition among textile weavers during the year. Synthetic textile manufacturers was in the region of 5•94 millio
The corporation has also afforded necessary assi industry. Handloom weavers are supplied requireme of 10 handloom textile service centres.
The production of local handloom weavers is purc
Action has been installed in collaboration with S local handloom products and earn foreign exchangi
Sri Lanka State Flour Milling Corporation The State Flour Milling Corporation is one of the pi The corporation was established under the State II The construction of the mill, under the 1958 Econ with the U.S. S. R., was completed in 1968. Com same year.
In conformity with state policy, the entire product the Food Commissioner.
The corporation manufactures small quantities of consumer demand. Target of production was 126,8 corporation milled 132,339 metric tons exceeding the
Production figures as compared with the precedin
Flour Atta Semolina Bran Feed meal
The daily average milling rate was 485 metric tons ir
Total earnings from local sales and exports were were limited to 22,447 tons of wheat bran earning exchange. The profit before taxation was Rs. 30,39
Commercial purchase of 128,157 metric tons wheat Board. No consignment as gift wheat was received an optimum advantage to the corporation.
With the total silo storage capacity remaining at 20, metric tons of wheat milled per day, the corporatio cargoes of 21,000 tons of bulk wheat per shipment margin of about six days. This is largely attributable Efficiency and enthusiasm, with which the corporation in a foreign exchange gain of Rs. 340,882 as ‘Despate

CORPORATIONS
121
de available dyes and chemicals essential to the 56,000 lb. cotton dyes and 329,000 lbs. printing a 370,000 lbs. chemicals were also distributed yarn supplied to co-operatives and synthetic n pounds.
stance for the development of the handloom nts of yarn and warp beans through a net-work
hased by the corporation. ri Lanka Marketing Services for the export of
rojects financed by the U. S. S. R. Government. ndustrial Corporations Act (No. 49) of 1957. nomic and Technical Co-operation Agreement mercial production commenced in December the
tion of wheat flour continues to be supplied to
fatta flour and semolina (rulang) to meet 84 metric tons of wheat during the year. The target set by 5,455 metric tons.
year appear below:
1976 1975
(Metric Tons) 93,649
65,292 1,717
9,042 1,257
681 33,774
21,591
797
739
131,136
97,403
1976 as compared with 424 metric tons in 1975.
Rs. 226,846,620 excluding FEECs. Exports I F.O.B. Value of Rs. 14,346,429 in foreign 1,482.
rain was negotiated with the Australian Wheat during the year. Purchase was effected with
100 tons and a gristing capacity averaged at 485 | has secured maximum freight benefit to lift giving a bare replenishment and stock release to the gesture of the Australian Wheat Board. s staff had discharged these vessels, is reflected 1' earnings.

Page 140
122
Second Floor Mill.—A complete project pro to a total of 1,200 tons of wheat milled per da aid financing by donor countries is to be deter
Employment.—The total strength employed
Consequent to enhancement of production capacity utilisation a pressing need arose to f tion with the National Institute of Manageme
mented as from January 1976.
The first ever worker Education Seminar ga participation in management.
Welfare.--A fully equipped Medical Centr
Sri Lanka Tyre Corporation The Sri Lanka Tyre Corporation was establis tubes. The Corporation maintained its prod
The corporation's production figures for t
Truck Tyres Car and Jeep Tyres Agriculture Tyres Tubes and Flaps
The total production in standard tyre units and 122,493 respectively in 1976 and 1975. T in December, 1974 to meet the high cost of
materials, especially the petroleum-based pro Rs. 22:6 million in 1975 in contrast to a figur to passing on a share of the profit to the con cent as from January 1976 in spite of high c thus inevitable.
The value of production at net selling pri Rs. 87•0 million. The corporation has sav exchange during 1976. Cumulative foreign This figure is more than double the total for corporation.
Contribution to the Consolidated Fund w employees in the corporation's staff at the en
Under its development programme the co the installation of new bag-o-matic vulcaniz and 7.50-16 (van) tyres is envisaged.
Ceylon Ceramics Corporation The Ceylon Ceramics Corporation maintains state sector institutions in Sri Lanka. Apart ceramic-ware, bricks and tiles, the corporatio as well.

INDUSTRY
-posal for setting up a second mill to boost capacity y is under consideration. A feasibility study for capital
mined by government.
I at the end of 1976 was 505.
a capacity of the mill and the consistantly high level of Formulate a new incentive bonus scheme. In consultaent of the Ministry of Industries, the scheme was imple
ave a meaningful effect to concept of responsible worker
e for the corporation's staff was set up during the year.
shed in 1962 primarily for the manufacture of tyres and uction output at the same level as in the preceding year.
he two years 1975 and 1976 appear below:
1976
1975 (Units) 62,398
69,372 108,782
95,206 10,231
9,268 198,192
165,447
- was basically the same during the two years at 122,460 he selling prices of corporation products were increased production due to a sharp increase in the price of raw ducts. Price increases helped achieve a record profit of re of Rs. 17•1 million the preceding year. With a view nsumer, the corporation reduced selling prices by 5 per ost of production. An over-all reduction in profits was
ce for the year was Rs. 92:6 million and turnover was red approximately Rs. 16 million by way of foreign.
exchange saved upto end of 1976 was Rs. 90 million reign exchange component of capital investment in the
as Rs. 21 million as at end of 1975. There were 2,078 d of 1976 as compared with 2,002 employees in 1975.
rporation would increase its truck tyre capacity with ser presses. Manufacture of two sizes (scooter tyre)
s its unrivalled position as one of the most productive E from satisfying the local market with a wide range of n has displayed its dynamic role in the field of export

Page 141
STATE-SPONSORED CC
Porcelain tableware manufactured by Lanka Porc reached a record peak of Rs. 29•4 million, while mosa ware exports brought in a further Rs. 3-2 million in fo
The corporation made vast strides in diversificatio factories to manufacture wall tiles (Balangoda) grind ball clay (Kalutara), hydrated lime (Hungama) and A giant factory costing over Rs. 70 million is being ca of sheet glass. People's Republic of China is assist while a second factory for the manufacture of refra Czechoslovakian government would assist the corpora
The corporation made a profit of Rs. 11 million in Porcelain Ltd., a subsidiary of the corporation.
Targets for the production of crockery, sanitarywa and mining of (kaolin) were achieved during the year.
Sales during 1976 reached a figure of Rs. 63 million, ing year. Apart from expanding the corporation’s ow co-operatives in the respective administrative district agents, ensuring a wider dispersal of ceramicware.
The import substitution programme which comm considerable reduction in raw material imports. For using maximum utilisation of internal resources is other hand consumption of imported raw material i 10 per cent during 1976.
Continuation New Projects are :
(i) Ball Clay Plant (ii) Second Kaolin Refinery (iii) Grinding Wheels and Graphit (iv) Lime Plant
(v) Refractories (vi) Central Research Lab. (vii) Sheet Glass Factory (viii) Lanka Wall Tiles Ltd. (ix) Second Blue Factory (x) Plaster of Paris Project (ix) Ceramic Centre
Proposed Projects include :
(i) Titanium dioxide (ii) Vitreous enamel frit (iii) Tile adhesive (iv) Granite polishing

RPORATIONS
123
plain Ltd., a subsidiary of the corporation ic tiles and ceramic tableware and sanitaryIreign exchange.
I of the ceramic industry by setting up new ng wheels and graphite crucibles (Gampola),
a second (kaolin) refinery (Ambalangoda). instructed at Dankotuwa for the manufacture ng the ceramic corporation in this project, ctories is to be located at Hanwella. The tion to put up this Rs. 50 million factory.
1976 which excludes the profits of the Lanka
re and wall tiles, insulators, bricks and tiles,
an increase of Rs. 10.4 million over the preced
n retail chain with new shops, multi-purpose Is were appointed, corporation’s wholesale
enced in 1970 has been intensified effecting sign exchange saving in pursuance of a policy estimated annaully at Rs. 8 million. On the n ceramics has dropped appreciably to about
Capital Cost (Rs. Million)
1-37 5-00
ce Crucibles
3-38
4-09 49-19
4:75 70-00 16-00 2•50 0-90 2-00
159-18
Capital Cost (Rs. Million)
0-6 0-6 4-0 4-0
9-2

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124
Sri Lanka Tobacco Industries Corporation The Sri Lanka Tobacco Industries Corpora Industrial Corporations Act No. 49, of 195 distribution and sale of beedies and other tol cultivation of Kadumberiya, a wrapping le: imports from India nearly all its requirement being in the region of 4 million pounds. To The imported leaf is distributed to the corpora
Tobacco required for beedi manufacture districts. The corporation purchases the gr in 1975, amounted to Rs. 1,173,454, while ir The corporation has also commenced cultiva
The production capacity of the corporatio *Beedi’ wrapping being one of the most labo 22,000 persons through the corporation's employment for 50,000 inclusive of the privat
The corporation has also commenced produc varieties of tobacco for the purpose would carried out on an experimental basis. Sale Rs. 26,111,640 giving a gross profit of Rs. 18, was Rs. 11,445,186.
Jute Industries Corporation The jute project as a state enterprise commen by the National Small Industries Corporation is in the region of 25 million for use in the expo been met rather indirectly with the availabilit sumer goods.
The gunny trade has been the sole mono created artificial scarcities, hoarding and su pressure coupled with a net-work of subsid its full impact on nationals who endeavoured
The activities of the project have hithert gunnies from the co-operatives and their s
millers and for various packing purposes.
A total of 264 co-operatives enjoined in a s of 1975. Progressive development of the pro
Gunnies.
Purchased
1974
3,402,073 1975
6,510,437
The project apart from thwarting monopoli helped provide gainful employment to about reflected in figures below:
1974 Rs. 1,173,001 ; 1975 Rs. 1,856,045 (Approxim
hessian n
* Provisional : figures exclude closing stock

NDUSTRY
.tion was established in July, 1972, under the State 7. Major functions of the corporation are import, vacco products, promotion of tobacco cultivation and if material in the beedi industry. The corporation s of beedi wrapper leaf, average annual requirements tal value of imported leaf in 1975, was Rs. 3,333,262. ition's agents and to registered private manufacturers. s grown locally, mainly in Matale and Anuradhapura Dwers' tobacco at a guaranteed price. Total purchases I 1976, purchases were in the region of Rs. 4 million. tion of tobacco in its own farm at Kantale.
n is in the region of 150 million ‘beedies’ per month. ur-intensive industries provides employment to about agencies. The beedi industry as a whole provides
e sector.
ction of cigars with localtobacco. Cultivation of special be undertaken. Planting of Kadumberiya has been
of wrapper leaf earned the corporation a sum of 705,807. Net profit before taxation as at end of 1976,
ced in September, 1972, at Malwana and was handled
during initial stages. Annual requirement of gunnies irt trade as well as local consumption. This has hitherto y of gunnies as packing material in the import of con
poly of a small fraction of non-nationals who often bsequent disposal in the blackmarket. Monopolistic iary organisations scattered over the country exerted to enter the gunny trade.
o been confined to the collection of ‘second hand’ upply to state corporations, exporters, industrialists,
cheme of gunny supplies to the corporation as at end
ject is revealed in the information given below:
Value
Gunnies
Value Rs.
Sold 5,441,108
2,531,379
7,017,949 19,841,370
4,515,036
1,567,272*
Rs.
stic tendency of non-nationals in the gunny trade had 2,500. It has also proved a profitable state venture as
ately 75 per cent coverage of the jute market)

Page 143
PLANTATION IND
The jute project as a state enterprie had the follow
(i) The collection, processing and distribution of u (ii) Import and export of jute and other material rel (iii) Manufacture of gunnies or any other material
or raw material imported for such purposes ; an (iv) The cultivation of any planting material in Sri
packing industry. A fair measure of success has so far been achieved 1 objectives.
IV-PLANTATION IN
Coconut Copra.--Copra is manufactured in Sri Lanka by sur combination of both. Observations confirm that if coj and stored in well-ventilated dry stores at an even te No variation in oil content of local estate copra with the or situation of estates have been observed. About 68 p as a representative average figure for the oil content o recognised in Sri Lanka are edible white, estate no. 1, r
Copra exports in 1976, totalled 1,245 metric tons aga
Desiccated Coconut.—Desiccated coconut is manufact usually exported in plywood chests, (holding about 1301 with grease-proof paper (usually of the kraft type) and Desiccated coconut is very susceptible to attack of moul of moisture. By reason of its oil content (over 75 p. rancidity on prolonged storage or exposure to light.
Standard quality desiccated coconut as exported from and has the fresh taste of the nut. It contains from 68 is usually below 0-2 per cent. Total exports of 45,454 metric tons as against 51,121 metric tons in 197:
The laboratory set up by the Coconut Processing Boi for Salmonella and renders a great service to the desicca
Coconut Oil.--As ordinarily prepared in Sri Lanka, C yellow oil, having (unless refined), a more or less pro oil is characterised by the presence of high percentage proportions of the lower maturated fatty acids.
Coconut oil prepared from copra, or refined coconi
The coconut oil milling industry of the island is extensiv sing screw expellers and hydraulic presses. Various gr of copra used) are produced and are classed as "edible y the basis of their free fatty acid contents and colour. local soap industry also absorbs a fair quantity of coco1 58,978 metric tons as compared with 68,876 metric tons
Fibre.--Two kinds of coir fibre-bristle and mattress coconut. Husks for fibre mills are obtained from estate

USTRIES
125
ing objectives :- sed gunnies ; ated to the jute hessian industry ; From jute with locally available raw material
Lanka which could be processed for the
by the corporation in the fulfillment of these
EDUSTRIES
-drying, artifiicial drying (using kilns) or a pra is dried to 6-7 per cent moisture content mperature it will not seriously deteriorate. time of plucking, normal fertilizer treatment per cent of oil (dry weight) could be regarded -f Estate Copra. The usual grades of copra no. 2, no. 3 and mixed (fms).
minst 1,230 metric tons in 1975.
cured in Sri Lanka primarily for export. It is ps.) or Kraft paper bags. The chests are lined sometimes packed with light baling pressure. ds in excess of more than a minimum amount er cent) desiccated coconut is also liable to
a Sri Lanka is pure white in colour and crisp -72 per cent oil and the free fatty acid of oil desiccated coconut in 1976 amounted to
ard examines samples of desiccated coconut ated coconut industry.
coconut oil is a colourless to pale brownish
nounced odour of the nut. The vegetable Es of lauric and myristic acids and notable
at oil, keeps well for a fair length of time. ve, the bulk of the commercial oil is produced cades of oil (depending mostly on the quality white", "commercial" and "mill” oils on
Besides oil used for edible purposes, the nut oil. Exports of coconut oil in 1976 were the preceding year.
could be produced from the husk of the es and small holdings in proximity to these

Page 144
126
mills. A few dry decorticating palnts have of these plants appears to be elimination of colour.
Mattress fibre is used for making coi upholstery. Bristle fibre is widely used foi bristle and twisted fibre as estimated by the tones in 1976.
Arrack.--Arrack is a product of toddy. large excise revenue. The distillation and d under the supervision of the State Distillerie:
Toddy.--Toddy is mainly obtained from th of Sri Lanka. When the flowering stalks of juice supplied by the tree for the formation a sweet toddy is obtained. By a process of fe toddy. Toddy is also similarly obtained from and Eastern Provinces and from the Kitul Sale of toddy is controlled by government lic
Sweet Toddy.—Toddy is kept sweet (unfe slaked lime. Sweet toddy drawn from cocon jaggery by boiling. A permit is necessary to ing sweet toddy.
Vinegar manufacture.--Vinegar is produce complete the process.
State Distilleries Corporation The State Distilleries Corporation was est Corporation Act, No. 49 of 1957. The fur corporation on 1st December, 1973, with t processes of arrack on 1st January, 1974.
Production figures of coconut arrack in 19
Distillery
Seeduwa Beruwala Co-operative Sri Lanka Rockland
Wavulgala Dankotuwa Kaithady
Coconut arrack produced by private distil gallon from 1st January, 1976, an increase of This includes a payment of Rs. 4 per gallon of per gallon to the tapper.
The operation of the three estates taken ov (112 acres), Imbulgaswadiya (107 acres) and supply of 312,047 gallons of pure toddy whic

INDUSTRY
also been installed in the island. The chief advantage the retting process, so that resulting fibre is of a lighter
I yarn, rope and matting and for certain classes of e brush making. Coir fibre exports including mattress, Coconut Development Authority, totalled 84,495 metric
This industry is a state monopoly and earns a very istribution of arrack from January 1974 are being done s Corporation. ne coconut palm which thrives in the maritime provinces spadices, which contain a large quantity of sachcharine re tapped before they open out, a juicy liquid known as rmentation the sweet toddy is converted into fermented n the palmyrah palm found extensively in the Northern.
palm which grows in the hilly regions of the island. cences.
rmented) by the lime coating of pots daily with fresh aut, palmyrah and kitul palm is converted into treacle or tap coconut and palmyrah palms for purpose of obtain
ed by acetifying toddy and it takes 10 to 14 weeks to
ablished on 10th May, 1973, under State Industrial ictions of the State Distillery was taken over by the he subsequent take-over of blending and distribution
75 and 1976 were:
1975
1976 (gallons) 510,149 442,399 179,466
184,444 146,058
155,448 186,634 217,638 134,529
161,583 126,512
148,046 13,185
12,546 4,373
1,549
1,300,906 1,323,653
eries was purchased by the corporation at Rs. 38.40 a 30 cents per proof gallon over the price paid in 1975. pure toddy to the contractor and a payment of Rs. 1.50
er from the Land Reform Commission, Kimbulapitiya
Galawatte (60 acres) contributed substantially to the 1 when converted gave 39,006 proof gallons of arrack.

Page 145
PLANTATION IND
The Co-operative Arrack Distillation Society at D arrack in 1975.
The gallonage sold and value realised from different
Blend Special Arrack Coconut Arrack V.S.O.A. Old Seeduwa 10 Year Old Arrack
Total
An all round increase was recorded in price for all as from 7th July, 1976. Though there was a conse realised continues to be more than in the corresponding
TABLE 8.3—MONTHLY GALLONAGE OF ARRACKS
1975
Gallonage
January February
March April May June July August September October
November December
596,099 514.457 476,533 747,671 566,026 494,413 465,013 479,792 525,833 462,991 430,238 553,724
a w w w w u u uw w A
6,312,790
464
Contributions to government revenue during the thre breakdown in the over-all figure were :-
1974
(Rs. Millio. Excise Duty
195 B. T. T.
20 Income Tax Consolidated Fund Customs Duty
85
20
Total
322
* These figures differ from break-down totals appea

USTRIES
127
ankotuwa produced 12,546 gallons of crude
blend's of arrack in 1976 were :-
Gallons Value
sold
Rs. 3,975,028 312,669,518 1,828,505 179,842,151 55,156 8,370,930
2,058 378,048 2,028
476,580
5,862,775* 501,737,227*
* blends’ of arrack by Rs. 2 per quart (bottle) equent drop in the gallonage sold, income ; months for the preceding year.
JOLD AND VALUE REALISED—1975 AND 1976
1976
Value
Gallonage
Rs.
1,615,387 5,814,379 5,045,189 2,634,729 9,773,019 5,910,541 7,638,760 5,995,636 7,062,615 5,941,853 2,384,139 3,064,308
532,606 448,322 527,396 724,548 526,130 482,346 390,461, 379,684 386,315 471,586 436,344 557,035
Value
Rs. 41,160,358 34,165,248 42,369,555 55,909,313 40,579,934 39,711,951 37,860,127 37,407,208 38,055,591 43,955,446 39,472,216 50,640.280
4,880,555
5,862,773
501,287,227
ce years 1974, 1975 and 1976 with component
1975
1976 2) (Rs. Million) (Rs. Million)
187-1
2340 45:5
78-0 69-7
44-0 45•0
0:6
31:0
2-8
350•1.
3876
cing on table 8.3.

Page 146
128
Rubber Manufacture The State Rubber Manufacturing Corpora Corporation's Act (No. 49) of 1957 by Gaze
Objectives for which the industrial undert (1) The establishment and running of
process rubber, pale crepe, scrap crep (2) Conduct of demonstration and traini (3) Utilisation or promotion of utilisati
purposes ; (4) Promote establishment of any orga
necessary to attain objectives referred (5) Enter into partnership with any pr
or rubber products.
Initial capital of the corporation was Rs.
A block rubber factory was established culture Organisation of the United Nation The factory utilizes mainly small holders holders are participating in the scheme. Pi
1975 Metric T
1,429.
Steps have also been taken for establis in collaboration with a consortium of priva
In pursuance of a programme in provid holdings without such processing facilities up by the corporation. The two old facto corporation and are being renovated for th and Kuruwita commenced production du
The corporation maintains 14 collecting nayake, Buwelikada, Horewela, Ambagaha
Cashew State endeavours in the promotion and de the establishment of the Sri Lanka Cashew export market.
Plantations under management of the C
(a) Kondachchi (b) Mankerni (C) Kamandoluwa
(d) Welikanda (Em Kondachchi—The corporation has incurr of this plantation. The area under cashew The plantation has a labour-force of 296.
Mankerni. —A sum of Rs. 178•9 thousa September 1976. The plantation covers a A strip in proximity, infringing the coastal

INDUSTRY
tion was set up under Section 2 (1) of the State Industrial ette Extraordinary dated October 10, 1973. saking was constituted are : central factories for the manufacture and sale of new ie, centrifuged latex, latex and dry rubber derivatives ; ng programmes ; on of rubber seed or any other by-product for industrial
nisation or utilise any existing organisation considered to above ; rivate or state-sponsored undertaking dealing with rubber
15.1 million.
at Mawanella, in collaboration with the Food and Agris. This serves as a domonstration and training plant. latex to manufacture block rubber. Nearly 3,000 small roduction figures for the years 1975 and 1976 were :-
1976 onnes Metric Tonnes 49
1,624-82
49
hment of a block rubber factory based on scrap rubber te sector establishments. ling processing facilities for samll holder's latex and for 3, factories for manufacture of latex crepe are being set Dries at Yatideriya and Silverdale were taken over by the e purpose. Three new factories at Badureliya, Waharaka ring the year.
centres. New collecting centres envisaged are at Arawatta and Ekneligoda.
evelopment of the cashew industry became reality with a Corporation in 1973. The cashew crop has a potential
orporation and planted in Cashew are :
Mannar District Batticaloa District
Puttalam District bulpala) ... Polonnaruwa District ed Rs. 1:4 million up to September 1976, for maintenance is about, 2,000 acres, of which 1,467 acres are in bearing.
and has been spent as maintenance of the plantation upto n extent of 950 acres, of which 640 acres are in bearing. belt has been cultivated under coconut.

Page 147
BUREAU OF CEYLO
Kamandoluwa. A total of 165 acres have been veste reform law. An extent of about 100 acres is under cashe
Potential for the development of the plantation ex acres in Kumar Rajapakse Estate abutting Kamandol
Welikanda.--An extent of 600 acres of land ur Corporation has since been vested in the cashew corpo
These plantations grow paddy and other subsidiar grass used in the manufacture of paper.
The cashew industry is beset with problems particular conform to production standards and also availabilit neighbouring sub-continent, India which incidentally is products, would present stiff opposition unless quality s
Possibilities are also being explored in the manufactu from the "plum”. Preliminary “ tests” conducted by t augur well for the industry.
Based on available figures, the corporation's sales in Rs. 60,000. A pound of grade I cadju nuts fetches on a
VBUREAU OF CEYLO
The Bureau of Ceylon Standards commenced activiti functions are preparation of standard specifications compulsory standards and standardisation marks sch
weights and measures. The bureau has been recognised authority to operate the pre-export quality control scher
Bureau activities could broadly be categorised under (1) Standardization (2) Implementation and Training Division (3) Laboratory services (4) Library services.
Standardization Standardization activities fall under the following Divis
(a) Metric (6) Electrical Engineering (c) Mechanical Engineering (d) Civil Engineering (e) Agriculture and Chemicals
) Textiles.
Standards have been finalised in respect of 409 sut have been printed and available for sale to the public.
A total of 151 subjects are currently under the va were finalised whilst a further 25 standards were amended
It is proposed to finalise approximately 60 standard export-oriented items, those connected with import si safety and health. In the field of civil and electrical er more codes of practices which would eventually be docu LA 31485

N STANDARDS
129
d in the cashew corporation under the Land ew. ists in view of the availability of about 2,000
uwa Plantation.
der management of the state plantations oration.
y food crops, castor seed (oil) and Kenaf
-ly in the export of the "kernel" which should y of packing material. Competing with the the largest producer and exporter of cashew tandards are maintained.
re of C.N.S.L. from the shell and a beverage che Sri Lanka Institute of Scientific Research
cashew products have been in the region of an average Rs. 9 in the local market.
N STANDARDS
es in November 1966. Among its major
and codes of practice, administration of eme and adoption of the metric system of I by the government as the central certifying
ne.
the following divisions :-
ional Committees :-
pjects under these divisions, most of which
rious divisional committees. 28 standards during the year. s in 1977. High priority is being given to ubstitution and consumer items relating to ngineering, it is hoped to put forward many
mented to form national codes.

Page 148
130
* The bureau representatives had participi abroad.
Implementation and Training Division Activities under this division are :-
(a) Compulsory standards ; (6) Certification marking scheme ; (C) General implementation ; (d) Education and training ; (e) Pre-Export inspection.
Compulsory Standards.--At the moment and safety matches are under compulsor
would be incorporated into compulsory stan
A few other consumer items would be Industries and Scientific Affairs.
Certification Marking.--Permits would b An attempt would be made to issue mark canned food which are meant for export pur
Implementation work around 30 consum a standardization marking scheme.
Training.--The Bureau at present cond and quality control at both management ar at management level and two at technicia two at management level and four at technic
Pre-Export Inspection Scheme.-Export are being inspected and certified for quality Bunts, Frozen Prawns and Lobster products
Laboratory Services The Laboratory of the bureau is being devel The Laboratory development programme w testing work of the bureau. Tests are a 300 test reports have been issued to the burea testing was set up and is functioning a established to provide services for fabricatio A training programme has been arranged
Library Services The library provides literature and other standardization and quality control both services to the bureau's technical staff, institutions, state corporations and the priva
The bureau is also a sole agent for imp standards institutions.
The bureau continues its membership National Electro Technical Commission.

INDUSTRY
ted in divisional and regional standardization Meetings
only three items mainly razor blades, asbestos sheets
standards. Standards for stainless steel razor blades dards for razor blades.
under this scheme in consultation with the Ministry of
e issued for use of standardization mark to 10 products. es to jams and jellies, fruit cordials, fruit juices and poses.
aer items would be continued with a view to introducing
ucts training programmes on industrial standardization ad technical levels. Three porgrammes were held, one n level. It is proposed to have six more programmes, ian level in the future.
consignments of spices, cocoa beans and sesame seeds i standards under this Scheme. Other products as Betel
would be brought under this Scheme in due course.
oped with a view to providing testing laboratory services. as approved in 1974. It is handling about 50 percent of Llso being done for private sector industrialists. Over
u and to industrialists. A new unit for microbiological t present. The Laboratory work-shop is also being in of equipment, tuning and machining of components. o provide training abroad for personnel of the Bureau.
material including reference facilities of subjects of of local and foreign bodies. It provides adequate drafting committees, divisional committees, technical te sector.
ort and supply of standard publications of all foreign
of the International Standards Organization and the

Page 149
BUSINESS UNDERTAKINGS VESTED UNDER BUS
ACT, (NO. 15 o
VI–BUSINESS UNDERTAKINGS VESTED I
(ACQUISITION) ACT (I United Motors (Ltd.) and its Subsidiary Automobile The United Motors (Ltd.) and the Automobile Assem companies taken over on 8 March, 1972 under the E (15) of 1971. United Motors serve as sole local agent bishi Motors Corporation, Japan, Mahindra and Mahi U. K. and Motokov, Czechoslovakia.
Activities of these undertakings were mainly confine vehicles. Sale of passenger and commercial vehicles trucks recommenced during 1976.
Assembly of 5-ton Trucks.--A contract was conclud Import, Brasov, Rumania for purchase of 300, 5-ton such conditions to reduce foreign cost with locally sub
Jeep Vehicles. Consequent to successful discussions finalished to import Jeep vehicles in ‘ knocked down locally substituted items.
Buildings.—Action was initiated to construct require at Thalakotuwa, Narahenpita to overcome the problem
Commercial Profitability.--Net profit for the year was ] with a profit of Rs. 3.3 million the preceding year.
Staff.—Staff strength as at end of 1976 was 322 com
Business Undertaking of British Ceylon Corporation (I The Business Undertaking of British Ceylon Corporat Milling Company (Ltd.), Orient Company Ceylon (Lto vested in the government on 25th February, 1972, un Act (No. 35) of 1971. Business affairs of the undertak Authority.
The Business Undertaking of B. C. C. (Ltd.) is the la of approximately 30,000 tons of Oil per annum. Foreig oil is quite substantial. The soap factory of the busin of household and toilet soap and has a production caj per annum. The drum plant of the undertaking is steel drums for export of coconut oil. The plant also ma Corporation.
The Business Undertaking of B. C. M. (Ltd.) is pri various varieties of cattle, poultry and pig feed, and to from poonac.
Ceylon Oxygen Limited The Ceylon Oxygen Limited was vested in the govern
No. 35) of 1971. Manufacture of industrial oxygen, me acetylene, nitrogen and welding electrodes, is its main a
Other functions include supply of industrial and med equipment, including rods and fluxes, accessories, elect and automatic, welding transformers, generators, engine and quasi-arc electrodes and accessories.

131
INESS UNDERTAKINGS (ACQUISITION)
F 1971
UNDER BUSINESS UNDERTAKINGS
No. 15) OF 1971 Assembly and Manufacture (Ltd.) bly and Manufacture (Ltd.) were two private Business Undertakings (Acquisition) Act, No. s for American Motors (Ltd.) U.S.A., Mistundra (Ltd.) India, Chrysler International S.A.
ed to importation, sale and servicing of jeep
was introduced and assembly of jeeps and
led between United Motors and Auto Export
trucks. These trucks were imported under stituted components. s with Principals’ abroad, arrangements were ' condition to be assembled locally deleting
d buildings at premises of the Undertakings a of space availability. Rs. 4.5 million prior to taxation as compared
prising various grades of employees.
Ltd.) fion Ltd. and its subsidiaries, British Ceylon 1.), Ceylon Extraction Company (Ltd), were der the Business Undertakings Acquisition ing are being administered by a Competent
rgest Miller of Coconut Oil with a capacity in exchange earnings from export of coconut ess undertaking manufactures a wide range pacity of approximately 10,000 tons of soap the largest in the island and manufactures anufactures drums for the Ceylon Petroleum
marily concerned with the manufacture of - a lesser extent with solvent extraction of oll
ment under the Business Acquisition Act dical oxygen, high flying oxygen, dissolved ctivity. cal gases, oxyacetylene welding and cutting ric arc welding machinery, both manual driven welding sets, spot welding equipment

Page 150
132
* The business undertaking also manufactu unionmelt processes, welding manipulators nitrogen, refrigeration equipment for flash anaesthetic and analgestic equipment and ac
etc.
Vijaya Tiles Limited The Government-owned Business Undertaki roofing tiles, terrazzo floor tiles, refractory t
Total sales realised during the year were i was Rs. 344,562. The organization has a la
Shaw Industries Limited The tile and pipe manufacture of Shaw In vested in the government on 24th July, 197 (No. 35) of 1971.
Shaw Industries Ltd. recorded steady | appreciably while sales turnover also impro
The production of tiles during 1976 reach pipes increased to 60,587 units.
The volume of business transacted during against a back ground of a rise in cost of p due to external factors. There was a profit
Employee strength of the undertaking i demand for both tiles and earthenware pi increase production capacity.
VII—S
Apart from state-owned industrial ventures to be focussed on the development of sma traditional crafts using local raw materials.
Though a classification of the small-scal material not exceeding Rs. 10,000 neverthe ware with exquisite quality and design is si industries plays a vital role in this regard i of local textile materials.
The five-year plan of development envisa to counter local demand. The 38,895 co
million yards of cloth while production from yards. Production targets in the power lor attributable to fluctuations in textile prices.
Furnishing material for the hotel indus foreign exchange. Improvement in decor substitute for imports, not only helped bod Handloom requirements of the Hotel Obero

INDUSTRY
res equipment for argonarc, sigma, fusare CO, and
and positioners, ram type welding booms, liquid freezing, storage and transit, polarstream, etc., all cessories, equipment for resuscitation, oxygen therapy,
ng of Vijaya Tiles, Limited, Kelaniya, manufactures ricks and fire bricks.
n the region of Rs. 2.7 million. Profit before taxation bour force of 236 employees.
dustries, Ltd. located at Kelanimulla, Angoda, was 5 under the Business Undertakings (Acquisition) Act,
progress during 1976. Production capacity increased ved thus ensuring a higher profit.
ed 6.3 million units while production of earthenware
the year amounted to RS. 4.5 million. This was reached roduction and running expenditure of the organization
of Rs. 557,558 before taxation.
vas 369 comprising various grades. With a growing pes in the next few years, plans are being initiated to
SMALL INDUSTRIES
and private sector industries, much attention continues all-scale industry sector, particularly the production of
e industry as one with a maximum value of plant and less the production of cottage craft and such items of gnificantly important. While the Department of Small Its main activity however continues to be the production
ged both power loom and hand loom textile production operative handlooms of the department produced 19.3 n 56,999 private looms was in the region of 40.6 million pm and hand loom sectors could not be achieved mainly
stry was hitherto met from imports involving valuable
and design of the local furnishing material, an ideal st handloom production but also save foreign exchange. i and Holiday Inn were solely met from the local industry.

Page 151
SMALL INDUS
A design division was established to produce elegan local textile weavers. This has helped overcome a de
There were 67 powerloom units functioning with a and 3 shifts a day, 22.6 million yards of cloth, inclu cloth, etc., were produced during 1974. Most of the government departments. “Lama Salu', a popular by the Salu Sala. A pilot scheme has been initiated f
Six additional power loom units have been complete under 12 major projects with the department of sms
starch centre'.
Cottage Industries Apart from fostering industrial development promotio marketing facilities both locally and abroad. Coti work, brassware, weaving and cane industry.
The Department of Small Industries maintains 73 of over 500 workers including trainees and skilled cr various stages of production.
The carpentry division, apart from its training pr requirements of schools and various government ins were functioning during 1976, twenty-six of these be to open up a carpentry school in the Katugampola Ele these units was in the region of Rs. 807,958.
The department of small industries has 4 coir worl functioning under its aegis. The five workshops are of high quality. A demand both local and foreign fo corridor rugs were exported to West Germany.
Samples of coir products have been sent to various factures in these countries and earn foreign exchange Salt Corporation for the supply of 90,000 salt bags.
million.
Lak Sala, the departments' main sales centre in Co principal towns of the island. Total sales from Lak S Apart from export promotion, the Lak Sala executes tr in various international exhibitions and fairs, and also of Lak Sala products abroad.
Departmental participation in the various fairs and
FRANKFURT
Internati MILAN
Trade Fa BANGKOK
Red Cro: POLAND
Trade Fa BAGHDAD
Trade Fa ENGLAND
Internatie YUGOSLAVIA
Internatie
The Lak Sala earned a sum of Rs. 666,250 as foreigr from sales to foreign tourists visiting Sri Lanka.

'RIES
133
i and exquisite designs for distribution among iciency so significant in local production.
total of 3,000 weaving machines. Using 2 ling poplin, matt cloth, voile, cambric, grey se items would cater to the needs of various item of children's school-wear, distributed or the production of synthetics.
d. The power loom units have been grouped lll industries providing each such project a
on of cottage industries also entails enlarging tage crafts include pottery, carpentry, coir
pottery units and pottery societies. A total aftsmen are engaged at these societies in the
ogrammes, handles the supply of furniture stitutions. A total of 58 carpentry schools sing mechanised units. Action was initiated ctorate, Kurunegala. Total turnover from
kshops, 32 coir centres and 73 coir societies e mechanised and produce carpets and rugs or coir manufactures exists. A total of 5,000
countries abroad to ‘ popularise’ local manu- An order has been placed by the National The turnover from coir products was Rs. 1.2
-lombo has 11 retail shops functioning in the ala shops was in the region of Rs. 9.8 million. made orders from foreign countries, participates handles the 'gift parcels’ scheme for despatch
exhibitions during 1976 is shown below:- onal Spring Fair
s Fair
nal Spring Fair -nal Trade Fair
exchange from export of local products apart

Page 152
СЕ
SCIENT
-NATIONA
The National Science Council of Ceylon wa: (No. 9) of 1968, as an executive body to co
The functions and powers of the Nationa National Science Council Act, (No. 9) of 19 (i) to advise the Minister responsible fo
of science and technology in the econ (ii) to co-ordinate research in the variot
and applied research, (iii) to formulate a policy for Science and
The National Science Council of Ceylon A Council of Sri Lanka Law (No. 36) of 1975.
Seven members appointed by the Ministe members constitute the new council. In the by a working committees appointed by the Mi of Sri Lanka Law (No. 36) of 1975.
There are six such statutory working co research, science education research, science a and social science research.
Research Grants and Scholarships Board The research grants and scholarships boar grants to encourage and assist research ac research projects were undertaken during th
with funds provided by the council totalling chief funding agency for research activities degrees have been awarded to research grante for research in agricultural, biological, che and environmental sciences.
In view of the increasingly important role i in implementation of the scheme of research statutory working committee on research gra a statutory status within framework of the co
The research grants board has appointed evaluation of research grants applications in
Research Grants for Approved Projects—197 A total of 116 applications were received requ by the research grants board to the council.

APTER IX
FIC RESEARCH
L SCIENCE COUNCIL
set up by the government under Parliamentary Act, ordinate scientific activity in Sri Lanka.
1 Science Council as set out in sections 3 and 4 of the 68, could briefly be outlined thus:
r Science, on all matters pertaining to the application omic development of the country, Is fields of science and to promote both fundamental
Technology for Sri Lanka.
ct (No.9) of 1968, was replaced by the National Science
r of Industries and Scientific Affairs and six ex-officio e performances of its functions the council is assisted nister under section (19) of the National Science Council
mmittees in office covering fields of science policy nd technical information, research grants, environment
d continued to administer the scheme of research tivities in the island. Over two hundred and forty e past six years, by individuals and other institutions ! over Rs. 3 million. The council now functions as | in the university campuses. Fifteen post-graduate es of the national science council. Grants are provided mical, engineering, medical, physical, social sciences
played by the research grants and scholarships board
grants, the council recommended the creation of a nts which gives the body administering this function
uncil.
specialist panels on different fields to assist in the he respective fields.
esting research grants, of which 43 were recommended

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NATIONAL SCIEN
Manpower Training Programme-Plant Sciences The programme consisting of a scheme of grants f initiated in 1974. The programme directed towards on research in basic sciences connected with plant st
Working Committee on Science Policy Research A working committee on science policy was appoint Affairs in May 1976.
Its main task is to encourage and undertake researc nal science policy for Sri Lanka. With this objective action with reference to :-
(i) enunciation of a National Science Policy ; (ii) advise the government and other bodies to
by incorrect use of science ; (iii) to inculcate a scientific bias among people ai
of science ; (iv) to study the factors responsible for the sele
alternatives ; (v) to study the problems of instrumentation and (vi) to enlist maximum patronage and support
convince the Government that science should (vii) to request the Minister of Industries and Sc
up by UNESCO and other committees reg
Science Education Research The working committee on science education resear and Scientific Affairs in May 1976, fulfils the long-f The Ministry of Education has evinced a keen intere mittee by contributing to the working fund. Activitie The committee has initiated a research programme and the Ministry of Education.
Science and Technical Information, Environment and The working committee on science and technical in research have been appointed by the Minister of In of 1976. A suitable work programme in the respect
National Committees The Council co-ordinated working of the following {
(1) NATIONAL COMMITTEES FOR UNISIST The national science council has been designated of scientific and technical information activities. tituted under the aegis of the science council.
The UNISIST, national committee met several to be taken to strengthen material sources.
As follow-up action the library completed a surve

E COUNCIL
135
or research in the fields of plant science, was
training of scientific manpower with emphasis udies.
3d by the Minister of Industries and Scientific
hon science policy and thus formulate a natio> in view, the committee has initiated necessary
overcome and prevent problems, often caused
nd obtain their involvement in the development
action of grantees for fellowships and propose
1 related factors ; from the Government to develop science and [ be given its due place. ientific Affairs to implement resolutions drawn garding scientific personnel.
rch, appointed by the Minister of Industries elt need for research work in science education. est in this sphere and is also assisting the coms of the committee is administered by a director. as a co-operative venture between the council
Social Science Research formation, environment and on social science dustries and Scientific Affairs towards the end ive fields has been drawn up.
ommittees :
Es national focal point for the co-ordination Che UNISIST, national committee was cons
imes during the year, to determine the steps
- of computer facilities in Sri Lanka.

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SCIE
(2) THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON MAN ANI The national committee on man and tl the growth of its activities, five Sub-commi aspects of the programme. The Sub-com
mental pollution and pollution control, ec land ecosystems and on impact of human this regard relate to the following projects: (i) Demarcation of biosphere reserves i
areas as strict reserves. (ii) Pollution of water in the City of Col (iii) Preparation of background literature
Studies. (iv) Preparation of a check list of Flora a
(V) Studies on Montane Grasslands.
The committee initiated action on an ec under the Mahaweli project.
Seminars and Conferences Seminar on Science Policy and Planning. information service and the national scienc in January 1976. Thirty five participants attended the seminar. A report has been (No. 1).
Seminar on Man and His Environment.--T Cultural Institute) at the Sri Lanka For Dr. Hansjorg Oeltzchner of the Bavarian Republic of Germany as leading guest r campuses and other related institutions pa published as "National Science Council Sem
Seminar on Sun Drying Methodology.-T Research Institute, Colombo, in May, 197
mission in Sri Lanka. Mr. D. McBean, Fo guest speaker. Fifty scientists attached to part in the seminar.
Ninth Meeting of the Commonwealth Science The 9th meeting of the Commonwealth S science council, on behalf of the governme December, 1976, under the chairmanshi Secretary-General of the national science co countries participated in this meeting. Mer Britain, Canada, Cyprus, Fiji, Guyana, Ind Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago :
The formal meeting concluded on 3rd De gramme of visits to various scientific instituti Agricultural Research Institute and the Ceyl 10th meeting of the Commonwealth science cc

NTIFIC RESEARCH
- THE BIOSPHERE e biosphere programme commenced in 1971. With tees were appointed to assist the committee on different mittees relate to forestry and forest ecology, environucation and training in environmental studies, grassactivities on natural ecosystems. Work carried out in
n various parts of the island and classification of these
ombo, especially in the Kelani River.
for a proposed course at Degree Level on Environmental
nd Fauna in the island.
cological and agro-economic survey of selected areas
The seminar, organized jointly by the United States e council was held at the American Centre, Colombo, representing university campuses and other institutions published as "National Science Council Seminar Reporto
he Seminar was held (in collaboration with the German undation Institute, Colombo, in March 1976, with
State Authority on Environmental Protection, Federal participant. Sixty representatives from the university rticipated in the seminar. The proceedings are being inar Report' (No. 2).
he seminar was held at the Agricultural Training and 6, with the co-operation of the Australian High Comod Scientist attached to the CSIRO Australia, was the , the campuses and other research institutions took
Council-Colombo, Sri Lanka ience Council of Sri Lanka, hosted by the national nt, was held in Colombo, from 29th November to 3rd p of the Commonwealth science Council and the incil of Sri Lanka. Thirty six delegates from seventeen nber-countries represented were Australia, Bangladesh, ia, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, und Zambia.
ember, was followed by a post-conference tour, a proons in Sri Lanka, as the Tea Research Institute, Central in Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research. The uncil is due to be held in Georgetown, Guyana in 1978.

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NATIONAL SCIENCE COU
The Colombo meeting organized three symposia which (i) the possible alternative energy sources for use in r (ii) the need for science and technology to be fully
goals and developing national policies ; (iii) the need for comprehensive integrated plannin
development.
Third Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and SpicesPreliminary arrangements are being made for the symposi and an exhibition. This international seminar is organiz science council and the Sri Lanka foundation institute. Symposia held earlier in Peshawar, Pakistan in 1960 and
The purpose of the symposium is to portray an up-toon medicinal plants and spices from a botanical, phyto point of view.
Special Programmes Indo-Sri Lanka Scientific and Technological Co-operatic 1978.—The Council was named by the Minister of Industri ordinator of the above programme, entered into betwee government of India.
Workshop on Natural Products The Report of the natural workshop has been published by
Sri Lanka International Chemistry Programme A proposal to establish a Sri Lanka international chemist at the workshop on national products, in June 1975, in C and the Natural Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. affording opportunities for high level research facilities in an international consortium of chemical societies of approx proposals which would provide research facilities with bot been approved in principle by the Ministries of Industries
SAREC Programme In consequence of a report submitted to the government Agency for research co-operation with developing countr SAREC representatives in connection with a proposal to e
(a) Purchase of scientific equipment; (6) International travel to attend scientific meetings, se (C) An Exigencies Fund for spares for equipment and n
Proposals for the establishment of a National Institute on F At the request of the Ministry of Trade preliminary discuss and other institutions for the establishment of an institut activities on food science handled at present by different

CIL
137
focussed attention on : ural development ; integrated in plants for selecting national
g in developing infra-structure for rural
-Colombo
um, which include a workshop, a seminar ed by UNESCO, jointly with the national It would be a "follow-up' to UNESCO Kandy, Sri Lanka in 1964.
date picture of research carried out in Asia chemical, pharmacological and industrial
en Programme—March, 1976 to February es and Scientific Affairs as the national con the Government of Sri Lanka and the
the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.
ry programme (SLICHEM) was initiated olombo, jointly sponsored by the council The SLICHEM proposal aimed towards Sri Lanka in chemistry by the creation of imately twelve countries. The SLICHEM h local and international participation has and Scientific Affairs and External Affairs.
of Sri Lanka by a team from the Swedish es (SAREC) discussions were held with stablish a research fund for:
minars, etc.; ominal quantities of consumable material.
od Research ons were held with the relevant ministries on to centralise and co-ordinate research institutions.

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SCIE
National Scientific and Technical Information Arrangements have been made for the estab tion centre. Original proposals for a centre obtain UNDP assistance for the purpose.
Guinness Award for Scientific Achievements The Guinness Award for Scientific Achieve London. It was established with trustees i wealth Secretariat and the Arthur Guinness with the active collaboration of the Commo zations.
The awards are made in recognition of in science and technology in the service of the achievement with great potentialities in sat education. Awards are also made for work by other developing countries.
A nominee from Sri Lanka was one of Common-wealth, honoured with a Guinne essential oils and spices in Sri Lanka'.
Study Group on creation of Artificial Rain f A proposal on the creation of artificial rain by the Ministry of Industries, and Scientific scientists undertook studying the feasibility
National Academy of Sciences The Council considered a proposal made Science, for the establishment of an academ that there was a need for an academy of sc an academy should evolve from the present
Journal and Science News Bulletins Volume 4 (No. 1) was published in Decemt Volume 4 (No. 2) is in print.
Thirty one scripts were submitted for publ for publication. 'Vidurava’, the Science N and serves to disseminate current informatic of views.
International Membership The Council is the adhering member for Si
(a) Commonwealth Science Council (CSC (6) International Council of Scientific Un (C) Association for Science Co-operation (d) International Foundation for Science (e) International Union of Physiological (f) International Union of Nutritional Sc

NTIFIC RESEARCH
Centre ishment of a national scientific and technical informaof this sort was mooted in 1968 and it was expected to
GASA) ments (GASA) is a trust foundation, with its office in epresenting the Commonwealth Foundation, CommonSon and Co. Ltd. The GASA scheme is administered wealth science council and its national member organi
ividual or institutional achievement in the application of community in a developing country, as a demonstrated isfying basic human needs of food, health, shelter and done, where importance lies in its potential application
three scientists from the developing countries of the ss Award for work on 'Research and development in
or Agricultural Purposes
and its economic feasibility was referred to the council : Affairs. On the invitation of the council, a group of
of using artificial rain for agricultural purposes.
by the Sri Lanka Association for the advancement of y of sciences in Sri Lanka. It was accepted in principle ciences in Sri Lanka and that the establishment of such organizations concerned with science and technology.
ber, 1976 and
ication during the year. Of these, twelve were accepted Tews Bulletin is a quarterly publication of the Council on on scientific matters and also as a forum for exchange
ri Lanka on the following International organizations :
C) ;
ions (ICSU); in Asia (ASCA) ; (IFS) ; Sciences (IUPS) ; iences (IUNS) ;

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NATIONAL SCIENCE C
Library, Publications and Documentation Unit The activities of the library could be classified into (a) d tion of available information and (6) promotion of fa information on science and technology.
(a) Development (1) Acquisitions to the library exce
obtained as a gift from the Bi (2) Steps have been taken to prepai
(i) Utilization of solar energ (ii) Bibliography of scientifi
and coconut (in progr (iii) Science education (in pro
Information supplied by Unit during the year covered
(1) Periodicals on environmental p
to industrial pollution, (2) Publications on science develoj
for the development of scienco (3) Scientific organization in Non-a
(b) Promotion
(1) SLSTIC (Sri Lanka Scientific a
derable volume of preliminar progress of the centre. Put existing information facilities (a) Directory of Sri Lanka S (6) Union list of indexing an
serials in Sri Lanka. (C) Directory of research inst (d) Directory of Computer F
(2) Project Studies were prepared
to obtain financial assistanc IDRC visited Sri Lanka and
project proposals. (3) With a view to developing info
to the Central Agricultural Re
and draw up project plans. (4) Work was initiated towards est
network and a report outlinin
UNISIST Programme The UNISIST had evinced a keen interest in the develop
It has also taken an active interest in follow-up wo guidelines have been prepared in varied aspects of inform
A survey was undertaken for UNESCO to obtain i required for library and documentation services.

DUNCIL
139
evelopment of the collection and disseminacilities for development of the centre for
eded 3,000 volumes and part of this was ritish Council. ce these bulletins : sy (completed); - works in Sri Lanka in the field of tea ess);
pgress).
subject as : ollution with special emphasis been given
pment in Sri Lanka for Indian association
aligned countries.
and Technical Information Centre). Consiy work was done during the year, towards plications prepared to obtain material on
were : cientific and Technical Periodicals. d abstracting services and bibliographical
itutes in Sri Lanka. acilities in Sri Lanka.
for submission to UNESCO and IDRC e to establish a Centre. Personnel from assisted the council in the preparation on
rmation facilities, assistance was extended search Institute to obtain foreign assistance
ablishment of a co-ordinated information z workings of the centre was also prepared.
ment of information facilities in the island.
ck of the national centres. A number of native material.
nformation on ‘back issues of periodicals

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SC
I-CEYLON INSTITUTE OF
The principal organisation since 1955, foi advisory services to the industry has been popularly known as the CISIR.
The CISIR was established by an Act of as defined in the act are :-
(a) To undertake testing, investigations
processes and methods used in ind
promote the expansion of existing (6) To foster the training of research w (C) To undertake or to collaborate in
technical information; (d) To co-operate with departments o
bodies in order to promote scientific
in pure and applied science and of te Besides industrial research directed towar tion of raw materials and waste products u undertakes a wide range of testing and adv
The re-organisation and development laboratory building was constructed duri of 2 other 3-storey structures for the expa
Under an agreement between the govern were attached to the C.I.S.I.R, one in th techno-economic evaluation of industrial i
—ATOMI
Functions The basic functions of the Atomic Energy
(1) Promote and encourage developmer (2) Assist in research and training scient (3) Foster exchange of scientific and tec (4) Establish safeguards and standards
the general public; and also (5) Advise the government on atomic
The authority assists research institutic assistance from the International Atomic institutions to collaborate on matters of re programme and the regional co-operative
Apart from this, the authority co-or committees in Hydrology, Agriculture an related to the use of neutron moisture pro water in plantation crops in Sri Lanka" phosphate as against imported phosphate commenced. As regards hydrologs, two Studies" and "Seepage Studies " using i

LIENTIFIC RESEARCH
SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH r general industrial research, technical development and the Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research
Parliament dated 12th April, 1955. Its aims and functions
and researches with the object of improving the technical ustry, of discovering processes and methods which may
or the development of new industries ; orkers ; the preparation, publication and dissemination of useful
f government, universities, technical colleges and other - and industrial research and the training of investigators echnical experts, craftsmen and technicians. eds improvements in manufacturing technologies, investiga
nder local conditions applicable in Sri Lanka, the institute isory activities in both public and private sectors.
of the Institute continues. A 3-storey structure as a ing the year and work commenced on the construction
nsion of laboratory services. ment of Sri Lanka and the USSR, 3 specialists consultants me field of mineral raw material technology, another in research, and the third in the field of engineering.
C ENERGY AUTHORITY
Authority at present are : at of normal uses of atomic energy; Eists and techincians in the atomic energy fileld; chnical information on atomic energy; of safety for protection of persons engaged in this field and
energy matters.
ons and the university of Sri Lanka to obtain technical
Energy Agency (IAEA). The Authority also helps these esearch with the Agency, both under the research contract
agreement of the IAEA.
dinates research projects. For this purpose, specialist 1 Medicine have been set up. Two projects on " Studies. bbes for assessing availability and conservation of soil and and “Evaluation of efficiency of Eppawela apatite rock fertilizers using radioactive labelled fertilizers”, have been
projects are functioning at present, viz ; “ Groundwater nuclear techniques.

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ATOMIC ENERGY A
An “ Energy Committee ” is studying different for and also the possible use of nuclear power as an alterna supplement hydro-power, but also serve as a thermal !
Library facilities are afforded to persons and instit technology. A bulletin, “Nuclear News” is publishe is aimed towards creating a better awareness of ‘norm and also to impart a knowledge of the progress of suc
The authority assists research institutions using nu isotopes and spares for nucleonic equipment. This ha
would otherwise have been badly hampered.
The enforcement of atomic energy regulations for i general public, issuing licences to users of radioactive as routine activities of the Authority. A national radi and steps are being taken for expansion and improvem
Technical Assistance The atomic energy authority obtained IAEA assistance and radiation protection.
This form of assistance provides equipment and exp approved. Five training fellowships were in addition the field of nuclear science.
Under the 1976 research contract programme of the department of agriculture and the faculty of medicine, Lanka, received grants totalling US $ 5,000 to assist res
Agriculture The project entitled “Radioisotopes in Agriculture IAEA covered two different fields, viz., fertilizer efficiel
The first sub-project was executed by the authorit programme with participation of scientists from the 1 faculty of agriculture, Peradeniya campus, the centra zone agriculture research station at Mahailluppallama Research Centre, India, assists the authority personne
The second sub-project could not be carried out du regard has been carried out.
Hydrology Two projects of the Isotope hydrology programme foi commenced during the year 1976. Studies on Dir from dams and reservoirs were carried out with the as Expert.
A UNDP project for a study on coastal sedimet examined by the Ministry of Planning.
All these projects are implemented as co-ordinated r to relevant institutions in Sri Lanka.

ITHORITY
141
is of energy that are applicable to Sri Lanka tive to oil in the future. This would not only vackup ’ which is essential for this purpose.
utions interested in this field of science and d once in four months by the Authority, and al’ atomic energy uses among general public h uses in Sri Lanka and countries abroad.
·lear techniques in their work in purchasing 3 proved quite useful to scientists whose work
he protection of radiation workers and the material and irradiating apparatus continued ation protection service is being maintained ent.
in fields as food and agriculture, medicine
bert services for which US $ 54,000 had been , granted to Sri Lanka personnel engaged in
e IAEA, the veterinary research institute, the - Peradeniya campus of the university of Sri search projects,
for which assistance was received from the ncy studies and soil moisture studies.
y under an internally co-ordinated research tea, rubber and coconut research institutes, al agriculture research institute and the dry -. Dr. K. B. Mistry of the Bhabha Atomic El in the programme.
ring 1976, though preparatory work in this
mulated by the hydrology committee were ecto Recharge’ Measurements and Seepage esistance of Professor P. S. Goel, an IAEA
atology using nuclear techniques has been
esearch programmes with active participation

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SCIENT
Energy The energy committee of the authority formu
maintains a 'watching brief” on development countries abroad.
Medicine The medicine committee has made recommen Lanka. Of the main recommendations the N (a) for refunctioning of the radiation protecti (6) providing adequate technical facilities to tl division of the department of health services.
Other Research Studies A feasibility study group was formed during t vation by irradiation.
A techno-economic feasibility study was car IAEA expert. Based on his analysis it was con offer good prospects in Sri Lanka :-
(1) Disinfestation and shelf-life extension of (2) Disinfestation of dried fish, cashew nut a (3) Radicidation of spices and animal feed fo (4) Sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs.
Action is being initiated to obtain a multi-p help to sterilize some selected medicinal prodi and also preserve cutflowers for export purpose
Sri Lanka is a member of the Regional Conology of the IAEA. Projects which are unde
(1) Improving Grain Legume Production in (2) Regional Project for Industrial Radioisot (3) Regional Course on the Production and (4) Asian Regional Project on Radiation Pr
Project participation in this regard includes of fisheries.
The atomic energy authority continues assist i in nuclear science and technology and in nuclea
IV-AGRICULI
Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka The Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka establi industry. Facilities available to the tea res recommendations were expanded with the acc estates, which augmented area hitherto available
Research activities of the institute were orier encouraged an inter-disciplinary approach to ir tea industry. Intra-divisional projects as well : identified and formulated. This orientation of result in optimal utilization of the available mai

FIC RESEARCH
lates guidelines for a national energy policy and of nuclear power and alternative energy sources in
lations for development of nuclear medicine in Sri Ministry of Health has initiated appropriate action : on service at the government cancer institute and ne technical staff of the electro-medical engineering
he year to examine various aspects of food preser
ried out with the assistance of Mr. P. Sudarsan, an cluded that the following food irradiation application
fresh tropical fruits for export. und cocoa beans. or export.
urpose irradiator for this purpose. This would also acts, upgrade wood and bambo0-plastic composites
S.
-operative Agreement in Nuclear Science and Techer consideration under this Agreement are :
South East Asia using Nuclear Techniques. ope Technology ; Control of Radiopharmaceuticals, and ; eservation of Fish and Fishery Products. the department of agriculture and the department
the university of Sri Lanka in training programmes ir medicine.
TURAL RESEARCH
ished in 1925, is financed and maintained by the tea search institute for experimentation and testing quisition of Mattakelle, Waltrim and Dambatenne e to the T. R. I. by 1,350 hectares. ited with the organisation of project teams, which Ivestigations of the major problems confronting the as fundamental research problems were in addition, research activities of the institute would, it is hoped, npower and equipment.

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AGRICULTURAL RE
The new, laboratory complex has been completed.
Research A soil survey of all tea lands was initiated in collaborati department, with the object of preparing land-suitabili
A detailed study was made of the correlation betwee and level of potassium in foliage. Methods for extrac fractionation of inorganic forms of this element were i nutrient properties of Eppawela apatite rock phosphate Results were assessed of a field experiment laid down 4 levels of nitrogen in combination with 5 levels of pota followed by daily watering was superior to folia sprayin levels of sulphur had no effect on growth or leaf conte
Studies were carried out to ascertain the variation in 2,023), the shoot density in different zones of the bus of a harvest unit towards yield. About 75 per cent of of the bush. Assessments were made on seven cons clones and was found that the yield of a clone was pr rather than weight of an individual unit. The averag production of a new shoot was found to be 46•5 days unit of 0-317 centimetres over the entire period.
Field experiments in the low country indicated that s yields than urea or calcium ammonium nitrate. A co and zinc oxide), 3 levels of zinc, and two methods of : difference in yield between these treatments. The degr ciated with soil texture and depth, being most serious in
Measurement of growth of oil palm at the low countr of 0-50 kilogrammes sulphate of ammonia and 0-50 kil per palm per year, and no response to phosphate and
Trials with 'Roundup' (glyphosate) showed that thi period of about 5 months under field conditions. Re the control of 'illuk’ grass were published. Two othe reconditioning before replanting, and on nitrification
Cambial activity rather than shot hole borer popula regulating healing of shot hole borer brood galleries laboratory culture of shot hole borer and investigations of the beetle. The programme of work on the control during the year.
Use of sex attractants for the monitoring of field means of predicting outbreaks of infestation. Metho moths in the laboratory, and details of the life cycle of found to inhabit the population of tea tortrix.
Field observations on occurrence and behaviour of and rot following pruning seemed to facilitate termi high yielding, soft wooded, clonal tea receiving high growth conditions. Tea bushes pruned before the r better recovery than those pruned immediately after 1 tea termites appears to occur just prior to the onset of

EARCH
143
on with the land use division of the irrigation ty maps for tea and other crops.
i effect of soil application of potash on yield tion of various forms of phosphorus and the Ivestigated. A comparison was made of the , superphosphate and ammonium phosphate. years ago on the effect on yield of 6 different sh. It was found that broadcasting of urea g or injection of urea into the soil. Increasing nt of this element.
yield among individual bushes of clone (TRI h, and contribution of different components the yield was obtained from the central zone ecutive plucking rounds of similar different oportional to the number of units harvested e time taken from harvest of one shoot to ith an average rate of elongation of a harvest
ulphate of ammonia gave significantly higher mparison of two types of zinc (zinc sulphate application, on VP tea showed no significant ree of drought damage was found to be assopoor-textured gravelly soils of shallow depth. y station of the institute indicated a response logrammes of the institute muriate of potash
magnesium.
s compound could control cooch grass for a sults on the use of dalapon and paraquat for r papers were published on the effects of soil rates as an index of fertility of tea soils.
tion levels was found to be the critical factor and yield. Methods were developed for the s made of optimal conditions for development of shot hole borer was successfully completed
populations of tea tortrix moths provided a ds were developed for rearing of tea tortrix this insect were elucidated. Tea saponin was
the live wood termite indicated that die back ce attack. Die-back and rot was greatest in
levels of nitrogen fertilizers under unshaded ush crop suffered less die-back and showed che rush. Peak swarning of the low country
monsoonal months.

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SCIE
Morestan and kelthane were more effec Recovery of the nematodes from tea feeder r evidence was obtained that the presence of |
A study was made of the field performar of experiments indicated that treatment wit seemed as good as rehabilitation under Gau
Six new computer programmes were prep State Engineering Corporation. The relati borer infestation was studied and an investig an tea yield. Statistical data of a total of
Quality rating of new clones was investiga velocities, temperature and period of wither under undisturbed conditions. There was n 6 different clones of tea, indicating that it w during withering. Use of a short fermenta dhools was found to change quality and va longed period (12 hours) in a closed chamber on the table for a similar period of time. found to have no effect on made tea character period of fermentation and low humidity on m correlation of quality to a high level of poly
Manufacture experiments showed that the 1 that of orthodox or rotorvane-orthodox roll effect on the grade out-turns, provided the bis used did not have a severe cutting action. through the Fluid Bed Drier, the results indica rotorvane-orthodox dhools. A gift from Chi
Studies on the relationship between shot hol temperature, and the availability of spinasterol of operation of climatic factors in influencin of Dimbula Disease of tea was found to be collar region of the bush. Studies were made on chemical constituents of tea liquors was i phenolic constituents of different tea clones investigated. By-products obtainable from te out in collaboration with the University of Si and spent tea leaves could be useful supplemei
were continued. Investigations were made of and firing stages of black tea processing. Tri of mid-grown teas.
Laboratory studies indicated that waste te nitrate, a similar inhibitory effect was exerted of nitrogen and had a greater leaf area than
which made it possible to predict, at the begini to December in the wet zone hill country. I feeder roots controlled the functions of the To quality, which was itself determined by the cl stomatal, or refectance type antitranspirants te of compounds tried for defoliation, Ethrel api

ITIFIC RESEARCH
ve against mites than new acaricide, Omite 57 EC pots showed an inverse relationship to sample size, and
olyphenols reduced recovery.
ce of clones in nematodes infested fields. The results i nematicides in planting holes at the time of planting emala grass for 2 years.
ared in collaboraton with the computer division of the Fe efficacy methods of sampling to estimate shot holes ation made of the influence of metereological conditions
226 experiments were interpreted.
sed. An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of air on static pressure and moisture evaporation in troughs O difference in the rates of drying, during withering of as mainly the leaf surface moisture which was removed tion for early dhools and long fermentation for later luation of made tea. Dhools fermented for a pro
were found to have more quality than those fermented The presence or absence of light during withering was ristics. A study was made of the effect of temperature, made tea. The comparison of clones indicated a general phenol oxidase activity.
main grade out-turn with CRT rollers was lower than ing. It was also found that dhool out-turns had no
bulk was reduced to below 10 per cent, and the rollers In an experiment where CTC dhools were passed ted that efficiency of drying was similar as in the case of na of machinery for green tea production was received.
le borer and the tea plant showed that moisture content - were factors determining infestation. The mechanism g development of flavour was elucidated. The cause
a restriction of nutrient conducting vessels in the e of the enzymes present in tea roots. Effect of storage nvestigated. A comparison was made of some poly- The inhibitory effect of polyphenols on urea was ea were identified. Cattle feeding experiments, carried ri Lanka, Peradeniya campus, indicated that waste tea nts to feed material. Studies on instant tea production the chemical changes occurring during the fermentation als were made on methods for increasing the valuation
ea inhibited nitrification of ammonium and urea to I by shade. Vigorous clones showed a higher uptake
slow-growing clones. A weather term was derived, ning of the month, the monthly yield of tea from April Ring barking and grafting experiments indicated that pot and shoot systems, but had no effect on made tea haracteristics of the shoot system. None of the film, ested were found suitable for use on tea. Of a number peared to show promise. Several drought resistance

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AGRICULTURAL RES
characteristics were examined. It was found that a are resistant to desiccation increased resistance to dros influenced stomatal density, stomatal resistance, leaf growth regulator, ACR 1,093, was found to reduce p but increased the number and length of side shoots. growth of (a) application of extracts of tea shoots, ( of branches. Clonal selection trials were continued and pyrethrum and mint.
Detailed studies of incidence and the rate of spread of dations given for control of the five major root disease blister blight was greatest in the young shoots recoverin earlier finding that control measures need to be only n cycle. An investigation as made of the fundamental asp
with a research worker from the University of Cambridi of collar and branch canker disease was found u advantage of cultural methods of control, and the use susceptible to the disease. Experiments on the transmis
The causes of yield decline of old seedling tea were er was found to be neglect of the in-filling programme. were issued by the Institute.
Extension Activities Extension activities of the Institute saw a new orientatio and reorganization of the administrative structure of th of regional offices by the Sri Lanka state plantatio estates development board and the Janatha estates-devel out in close liaison with the regional managers of these for individual, estates, valleys and regions as a whole w three committees on (a) estates amalgamation and factory development and amalgamation were establish ed senior planters, and scientific personnel of the institi
The Valley Development concept of land utilizatio were collected from several locations, and analysis of fields which should be (a) retained in tea with intensifi diversified or (d) reserved for urbanization.
Much time and effort has been absorbed in carrying tion with the Tea New Planting Subsidy Scheme.
Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka The Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka was const (Cap. 302) of the legistative enactments.
The rubber plant was first introduced into South East the centenary year since introduction of the most imp International Rubber Conference in Colombo at the e sentatives from all rubber growing countries participat over a thousand. “Papers' presented at the conferenc tion of scientific material acclaiming it as the best ever

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145
deep feeding root system and leaves which ght. Potassium and phosphorus deficiencies
water potential, and transpiration. Plant lant height, dry weight, and leaf production,
Experiments were carried out on effects of ) different pruning heights and (c) number multiplication plots laid down for cardamom,
root diseases were conducted, and recommens of tea. It was found that susceptibility to g from pruning. This evidence supported the minimal during the latter part of the pruning ects of red rust disease of tea, in collaboration ge, U.K. The use of fungicides for the control neconomic. Recommendations stressed the of clones which were resistant or only rarely sion of phloem necrosis virus were continued.
camined on several estates. The major factor Recommendations on all aspects of in-filling
en consequent to the nationalisation of estates Le plantation industries. With the formation ins corporation, the Udarata co-operative opment board, extension work was carried e organizations. Development programmes ere formulated on a more scientific bias, and
extension, (b) crop diversification and (c) Led in Badulla. These committees comprisite and the department of agriculture.
1 was introduced and developed. Yield data such data permitted indentification of those ed cultivation programmes (b) replanted, (c)
ut preliminary inspections of land in connec
tuted under the Rubber Research Ordinance
Asia through Sri Lanka in 1876, incidentally ortant crop plant into this far region. An d of the year marked the occasion. Repreed in the conference which was attended by
maintained high standard in the produc. ield in this country.

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Prospects for Natural Rubber The break up of total rubber demand.—Ba of the demand will be met by natural rubber, either by natural rubber or synthetic rubt 40 per cent, there is a large potential market f
Natural rubber prices have been subject to set backs in marketing of natural rubber. The of a buffer stock system to stabilise prices is into the US market. A large swing in favour rather than in a short-term process. “Wear production a clear and accurate assessment natural rubber industry.
Malaysia has recognised this and she is plar 1980, as compared with her present production replanting 1-6 million acres of the original 2-4 by the end of the seventies a further 500,00 from jungle land.
Botany.—Over a 6-year span, clone (PB 86 cut, with the incidence of dry trees remaining in relation to the small-holders’ problems du
majority of them tap daily in periods of fine w on Estates in the wet zone. The clone, (PB 8 any other popular clones grown in Sri Lanka
The recommended clones (IRCI 2 and 9, maintain high yields in all large scale trails. all trials sited in both the wet and dry plantin clone (RRIC 101) has recorded a yield of ov year of tapping.
All polyclone plantings have continued to mai scale planting, a yield of over 1,000 kilogramm in second year of tapping. None of the clone clone plantings.
The clonal seed of all commercially planted root-stocks as regards both growth and yiel periodic thinning of poor growers in seedling point of increasing the percentage of plants re improves growth of seedlings remaining in t
The interplanting of rubber during immatur pineapple and fodder grass has not adversely these subsidiary crops have been adequately fe has been recorded.
Genetics and Plant Breeding.--Studies on 1 environment, have shown that there is a signif therefore, have to be selected on this basis for y
The clone (rric 110) was found to mato Clones, (rric 100) and (102) showed later hig and develop a spreading canopy in areas as B for planting on a large scale in these areas.

TIFIC RESEARCH
ased on expert opinion, in future 20–25 per cent
40 per cent by synthetic rubber and 35–40 per cent per. Considering the " floating” demand of up to or Natural Rubber in the future.
violent fluctuations. This is one of the most important recent multi-national agreements on the establishment bound to increase the penetration of natural rubber of natural rubber in the USA is more likely in a long down” in existing plant and machinery in systhetic of future investment would swing in favour of the
aning to produce 2:25 million tons of natural rubber by 1 of 1.5 million tons. She has started a programme for
million acres of seedling rubber already replanted and -0 acres would be replanted or brought under rubber
5) has responded well to tapping daily on a half spiral
within acceptable limits. This is of special significance aring periods following prolonged wet weather, when a weather. This also has a bearing on ' recovery’ tapping 36) appears to be better adopted for daily tapping than
at present. PR 252, RRIC 36 and 48 and RRIM 600) continued
Clone (RRIM 600) has recorded the highest yields in g districts. Among the clones of the RRIC 100 series, er 100 kilogrammes dry rubber per hectare in the first
intain higher yields than monoclone plantings. In large es per hectare has been recorded in a polyclone planting s included in this trial has reached this level in mono
a clones in Sri Lanka appears to be suitable for use as d of the scion clones. There is no advantage in the g nurseries, planted at normal spacing, from the view aching the buddable girth. The thinning out, however, ne nursery.
-e phase with perennial crops as bananas, passion fruit, v affected growth of rubber. On the contrary, where rtilized, a distinct improvement in the growth of rubber
O modern clones, to assess the effect of genotype on Gcant interaction between these two factors. The clones various districts. This study is being pursued. ch (rric 101) on consideration of early high yields. h yields and (rric 103) was found resistant to drought ibile and Moneragala. This makes the clone suitable

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AGRICULTURAL RE
One of the first small-holdings to plant clones of the ( was found to yield over 800 kilogrammes 1 hectare dry
Pathology.--The wintering pattern, host phenology and tion by Oidium Heveae was recorded on four cultivar first time in Sri Lanka, to trap Oidium spores. The pre on several cultivars were examined. Seanning electron 0.Heveae, showed several interesting morphological fea
A useful technique was developed to examine the stri growing fungus on a smear of Lima bean agar on a micr resistance to Phytophthora spp.showed that there were di in different Heveae clones. Some of those compou phytophthoras isolated from rubber. Clone (rric 101)
The content of phenolics was significantly higher in infected by bark rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Th to bark rot had a higher bark moisture content than re no significant difference in the number of latex vessel ri the excision of bark rot-infected bark in the curative tr in reduction of yeild, if there is a direct relationship be bark and yield. There were no significant differences b tions on the rate of bark renewal. Use of expensive renewal, after surgical treatment for bark rot cont observed however that bark of clones (rric 52) and evenly after injury, than that of clone (PB 86). Use of p gave promising results in controlling Bark Rot.
Clonal susceptibility to Oidium, Phytophthora and Glo Root disease were determined under labortory and fi Eastern clones were susceptible to Oidium and Gloeosp (IAN) origin were resistant. It was found that clones o early age. Varying degrees of clonal resistance were no
Soil Chemistry.—Studies on the uptake of soil phosp phosphatic fertilizers more efficiently when crushed ro ground cover is grown in the area concerned. Incubatic shown that local apatite may be substituted for imported into the soil has been found to ensure a uniform distribu
A field experiment has confirmed that the growth and can be imposed by the addition of potassium. It has t grown in areas previously planted in tea, can produce than those recommended by the Institute areas where tl
Studies on ground cover have shown that.-(a) Mimosa the practice of applying rock phosphate to covers is qu grow a suitable legume cover in all replanted areas. In i of nitrogen fertilizer must be applied to the rubber i period.
It has been shown that there is a direct relati and phosphorous in Pueraria plants. The significance investigated.
Rubber Chemistry.—A market survey has shown a grea markets. Steps are being taken, to step up the present least another 4,000 tons annually in the future. Sri

EARCH
147
RRIC 100 series) was tapped and (RRIC 103) rubber in the first year of tapping.
incidence of secondary leaf-fall due to infec5. Rod traps were successfully used for the and post-penetration behaviour of 0.heveae | microscopy of leaves, naturally infected by tures.
ictural details of Phytophthora species, by pscope slide. Biochemical investigations on fferences in the phenolic compounds present nds inhibited spore germination in the had the highest phenolic content in pods. healthy bark of clone (pb 86) than in bark e clones which are known to be susceptible sistant clones. It was found that there was ngs in virgin and callused bark. Therefore, eatment of this disease is not likely to result tween the number of latex vessel rings in the etween several proprietory and local formulaproprietory formulations to encourage bark rol is therefore not warranted. It was (rrim SB) call uses even more rapidly and reserved latex as an adjuvant with fungicides
peosporium leaf diseases, Bark Rot and White -eld conditions. Most of the high yielding
orium leaf disease, but clones of (F, Fx) and could be screened for bark rot control at an ted for Bark Rot.
horus have shown that rubber trees absorb sk phosphate is placed in bands and a good on studies, pot and nursery experiments have -saphos phosphate. Forking rock phosphate ation of the fertilizer in the soil.
1 yield of rubber trees planted on boralu soils been shown experimentally that rubber trees,
good growth on lower dosages of fertilizer ne former crop was also rubber.
invisa does not fix nitrogen efectively, (6) ite beneficial, and (c) it is most important to its absence about thrice the normal quantity For comparable growth during its immature
onship between the uptake of aluminium e of this in the nutrition of Heveae is being
t potential for sale of sole crepe in overseas production of 4,500 tons of sole crepe by at Lanka is unique amongst natural rubber

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SCIE
producing countries, in that she produces moi red rubber. The rubber research institute, is in major consuming countries to promote s
Vigorous promotional work of other produ large quantities of SNR (SL) is being used in
Steps are being taken to develop resear commercial scale. This is one of the mos field of rubber chemistry.
The establishment of small units for manuf factories has commenced. Sri Lanka has ab water supply, workshop facilities and manage produce high quality rubber goods and gene on a given investment of capital. Rubber pro and at the block rubber factory, Mawanella
(1) Cyclised rubber for use in paints and a (2) Road marking paints using cyclised ri (3) Prevulcanised formaldehyde stabilised
proofing concrete structures (block rul
Advisory Services. The construction of gr quality sheet rubber from smallholders’ latex gpes have been completed to date under the from this, 3,009 coagulating pans were dist
monel metal mesh sold at subsidy rates to sm
A survey on economics of production of analysis was conducted on the effect of fuel cr despite an increase in the cost of labour an profitable venture.
Coconut Research Board A scheme for coconut research was initiate Coconut Research Institute. Functions of tl 58 (i) of the coconut development act, no. 46 (1) Conducting and furthering of scientific
the coconut palm, growing of other CTC plantations and prevention and cure o
(2) Establishment and maintenance of expe (3) Establishment and maintenance of pilo
cation of experimental processing equip (4) Guiding and advising the coconut indu
Hybridisation, selection and breeding.-Sev CRIC 60 (typica X typica) and CRIC 65 (t) drought experienced during the year, yield pollination for commercial production seedn of 250 mother palms, where research studies seednut is Rs. 8.44. At a rejection rate of : Cost Rs. 16.88, plus nursery upkeep costs. TI

ATIFIC RESEARCH
Fe than one third of her output in the form of light colouof the opinion that rubber trade centres should be set up, ales and at least maintain Sri Lanka’s rubber markets. cing countries is eroding the international market and place of pale crepe. ch finding on a network bound antioxmidants on a et important contributions made by the Institute in the
acturing rubber products as extensions to existing rubber out 150 crepe rubber factories with the required power, ment skills to develop this scheme. These factories could rate more employment opportunities at minimum cost ducts manufactured on estates managed by the institute are :
sa reinforcing filler (elston estate, Puwakpitiya).
abber (elston estate), Puwakpitiya).
field latex for use in emulsion paints and for waterbber factory, Mawanella).
Foup processing centres (gpcs) for manufacture of high | has been given priority. One hundred and two (102) - scheme and another 38 have been planned. Apart ributed to gpcs at a subsidised rate and 308 sq. ft. of nallholders and gpcs.
E smallholders was commenced during the year. An risis on the natural rubber industry. It was found that, ed all inputs the national rubber industry continues a
d in the early twenties with the establishment of the The coconut research board established under section 5 of 1971, have been specified to include inter alia :
- research in respect of the growth and cultivation of pps and engagement in animal husbandry in coconut -f diseases and pests. erimental stations and nurseries. at plants for processing of coconut products and fabripment.
istry on all matters of a technical nature.
Fen hand pollination stations were functioning where Prpica X pumila) seednuts are produced. Due to severe of hand pollinated nuts may likely to drop. Hand uts is somewhat costly. A pollination unit consisting
were conducted revealed that cost of production of a 50 percent, a hand pollinated seedling would therefore he hand pollinated seedlings are heavily subsidised and

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AGRICULTURAL I
sold to the grower at 75 cents each. In view of the be of optimum production within two years, a rec pollination be progressively contracted as seed produ
Research Nurseries.—9,091 typica X typica 30,766 seednuts were planted in nurseries at Bandirippuwa 13,079 (cric 60) and 22,748 (cric 65) hand pollinate seasons of the year.
A trial on methods of mulching nursery beds to of seedlings is being conducted.
A total of 1,144,460 selected seednuts were sup 15 source estates. During the year 5,059 palms at A wila estate were selected as mother palms for seed pu
At the first seed garden, Ambakelle 54,978 pur emasculations done in 1975, on 812 palms were hai seednuts per palm in a drought year is indeed a sati developing from emasculations done during perio Ensuring quality of seed produced from a seed garo seedlings were screened and it was observed that 97 p pure dwarfs, a very high degree of legitimacy.
Successive droughts have taken heavy toll of the d seed garden Horrekelle. An additional 3,000 dwa field (7).
The botany division supplied 363 (f.) hybrids for rippuwa estate. The planting material consisted of
(1) typica X pumila (cric 65) F, seedlings ; (2) typica X typica (cric 60) F, seedlings ; (3) (F) seedlings of crosses between unselected
“ fix " the perennial bearing habit as ‘king co (4) (F), seedlings of crosses between the form gon t
of the variety Nana
The performance of the CRIC (65) hybrid was p earlier. This may be attributed to the effect of ne parental combinations. Six king coconut palms hav are now being used in an extensive crossing progi regular bearing (i.e. non-seasonal) 'king coconut’ p proved failure, as the purpose of the cross was not i
|Coconut nutrition and management techniques.- Ten long-term field experiments were maintained Bingiriya, Veyangoda, Andigedera estate and Maha
One experiment on comparison of ammonium Mannankulama estate, Kakkapalliya and another o and potassium chlorides) were commenced during tl
The 'magnesium experimento at Bandirippuwa s of height of palms and leaf production had been lin

ESEARCH
149
ict that the first seed garden may reasonably ommendation has been made such that hand ction from seed gardens becomes sufficient.
typica X pumilar and 44,683 pumila X typica estate and the first seed garden, Ambakelle. d seedlings were issued for the two planting
eliminate weeding and also improve quality
slied to the planting division nurseries from ndigedera Estate and 3,553 palms at Marandarposes.
nila X typica natural cross hybrid seeds from vested. An average production of 68 hybrid sfactory performance ; 55,869 button nuts are d January–September, in fields (5) and (9). len is an important factor. A total of 5,000 ercent were true hybrid with less than 2 percent
warf seedlings that were planted at the second urf green (pumila) seedlings were planted in
purpose of under-planting block (3) of Bandi
‘king coconut palms, the objective being to conut’ palms are generally seasonal bearers. hambili of the variety Typica and the form regia
por as compared with its performance reported
glect or the poor combining ability of certain e been identified to be regular bearers and these amme to breed a population of high-yielding, alms. The gon thambili x regia F, hybrid has ealized due to insipidity of nut juice.
-Field Experiments—Short and Long-Term: at Bandirippuwa Ratmalagara, Pothukulama, raya estate.
chloride, urea and sulphate of ammonia at a the effect of two sources of chlorine (sodium
e year.
howed that response to magnesium in respect car and highly significant.

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SCIENTIFIC
The downward movement and transformat experiment (at Pothukulama) showed that con phosphate in dry zone sandy soils.
Soil Moisture Experiments.--The two soil moi: were maintained and moisture readings were i
Pot Experiments.-Studies on the performance i podzolic soil from Sirikandura estate, Gonapin using Paspalum commersonii, proved inferior t
The Sand culture experiment on iron, man! Height of seedlings increased significantly at (ph of iron was increased. Manganese uptake was 1 was affected by (pH) but showed no uniformity
An experiment on the comparison of Eppaw: P-32 labelled super-phosphate was conducted o
Laboratory Investigations. The study on the dis was concluded. The study on the adsorption belonging to ultisols, alfisols and entisols. UI phosphorus. Adsorption was related to the f
An experiment on changes in the labile phosph saphos phosphate and concentrated superphost
Analysis of leaf, soil and nut juice from fertiliz soil, leaf and nut juice tests in determining fertili
Soil Survey.–Detailed reconnaissance soil sur Soil survey of the Pothukulama “ Forms of ‘N
Effect of irrigation of leaf nutrient concentration.- concentration of coconut with irrigation, sampl 6th, 9th and 14th leaves from an irrigation expe
A sample of 240 sub-samples collected from th analysed for major nutrients. Statistical analys younger and less mature leaves but the 14th leaf i content.
Planting systems Pasture Development etc.—Ve height of palm, girth of trunk, period for initia Trial were analysed. Although nut yields have is a useful planting distance for permanent inte an annual to study growth and yield of cowpea seven densities of coconuts. The results suggest with annuals such as cowpea provided that the e light penetration to the intercrop.
Studies were made during the year to measure Pueraria phaseoloides growing alone and in asso of added soil nitrogen. The data collected indicat legumes with rhizobia collected from the field. no nitrogen is excreted to the soil. (c) Amount and is not influenced by an associate grass plant

RESEARCH
on of phosphorus in the “ forms of phosphorus ” entrated superphosphate is much superior to saphos
cure experiments at Bandirippuwa and Ratmalagara egularly recorded.
f Eppawala Apatite were continued. A red yellow
wala was used. Performance of Eppawala Apatite, - rock phosphate.
anese and reaction of the medium was concluded. 04 and decreased significantly at (pH) 7 when supply argely related to the level of supply, while iron uptake
n relation to the level of supply.
Lla apatite and saphos phosphate on two soils using n 8–10 months old coconut seedlings.
tribution of micronutrients in nuts of coconut palm of (p) by soils was extended to a total of 10 soils tisols had the highest capacity for adsorption of Free iron oxides and active aluminium in the soils.
Eorus with time was conducted on Eppawala apatite, ohate treated soils in the laboratory using (P–32).
er experiments were commenced to study the use of zer requirement of the coconut.
vey of Dandagamuwa 1" sheet was completed. and 'P' " experiment was carried out.
-With a view to studying changes in leaf nutrient es were collected from the mid-portion of the 1st, riment at Ratmalagara estate.
e 60 palms under different irrigation treatment were is of data showed some degree of response in the ailed to display any response in variation of nutrient
etative characters (leaf production, length of leaf, I flowering) of the palms in the Planting Distance yet to be studied, it would appear that 35' x 24' cropping. This same trial was intercropped with (Vigna Catiang Burm. Walp. Var, MI 35) under hat coconut land could be intercropped successfully oconut plants are widely spaced to allow sufficient
he amount of N fixed by Centrosema pubescens and ation with Paspalum commersonii at different levels s that (a) Considerable amount of N is fixed by these b) The fixed N is entirely retained in the plant and of N fixed is determined by the soil nitrogen level

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AGRICULTURAL R
These findings were incorporated into a field trial usi total nitrogen output from a mixture of these two plar
Although several experiments were planned to be s of pasture and fodder grasses only two could be succe of the year. These two experiments were on Brach Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens). Apart from th milk production of Sinhala x Jersey cross bred cows { with those that receive concentrates in addition to the r showed that there is no significant difference between duction potentials of these animals could be obtained f
A trial as part of an ecological study was carried o different pasture and fodder grasses in that ecologica B. dactynura and B. ruziziensis as far superior to B. Further trials have to be carried out in different ecologi
The soils from Sirikandura estate, Dodanduwa w nutrients. This area receives an annual rainfall of ove with a high density of plams showing signs of leaf sco is lateritic gravel. Soil analysis by the Bio. assay techr in (P) and (Mg) and to a lesser extent in (N) (K) and (
Crops other than grass fodder The project at “ Crumo Estate", Mahakumbukkada
The three intercropping projects at Delgolla, Muller year. At Mulleriyawa the principal intercrop Bana the operations still continue to run at a loss. Some an passion fruit showed profits during the year. From crops for this high rainfall area appear to be peren Delgolla too, the project continued to run at a loss. Mo produced at a profit excepting vegetables like luffa a crop at the project appear to be very severely affected
Trials with perennial and long-term intercrops carrie
(a) Observational trials continued at Bandirippuwa planted under coconut.
(6) A trial commenced at Walpita with Robusta ca
levels of fertilizer. (C) A trial with four cocoa varieties at three fertili (d) At Bandirippuwa, a trial was commenced with
fertilizer supply. (e) An observation trial on mulberry under coc
maintained. 6) A trial to study performance of ten sugarcane
De Soysa Estate, Kirimetiyana. Early growth
Animal Husbandry.–Rotational cross breeding pro was no outbreak of any serious disease and health of a hundred head of animals were transferred to de S acres of grass have been established at Kirimetiyana.

ESEARCH
151
g Ceintrosema and B. miliiformis to determine ts at different levels of applied nitrogen.
t up during the year with promising varieties ssfully established and these too towards end 'aria ruziziensis and virus resistant strain of ese, a trial was commenced to compare the beding only on fertilized B. miliiformis pasture ormal estate grazing. The data so far obtained he two managments showing that the full procom well manured B. milliiformis pasture.
it at Dodanduwa to ascertain performance of I region. Data so far collected indicate that miliiformis the grass generally recommended. cal regions of coconut growing areas.
ere studied during the year to ascertain soil er 90 inches and coconut yields are rather low rch decline. The principal soil of the region mique indicates that the soil is actuely deficcient
a).
wela was terminated during the year.
riyawa and Ingiriya were continued during the na, continues to show a profit. At Ingiriya, nual crops however as Cassava, Dioscorea and the initial observations made, most suitable nial crops like coffee, cocoa and pepper. At ost of the annual short term crops could not be
nd capsicums under irrigation. The banana - by the drought.
ed out by the research board were:-
and Pothukulama on several cocoa selections
offee planted at three densities and using three
zer levels was commenced at Walpita. ten Robusta coffee selections at three levels of
onut at De Soysa Estate, Kirimetiyana was
varieties under coconut was commenced at the of some varieties showed considerable promise.
gramme was continued during the year. There the herd was satisfactorily maintained. Over pysa estate, Kirimetiyana. Already about 75

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SCIEN
Due to the failure of the south west monsoon, sharp drop in production of milk and an incre view.
Crop Protection. —Biological control activities and Mylambavelly (E.P). Promising indicatio insecticides were obtained.
(i) Coconut Caterpillar : Nephantis Serinope
During the early part of the year severec These were effectively controlled by re continued at the two Insectories at I Ptychemyia remota was imported, bred in of Perisierola nephantidis, Eriborus troch
and the egg parasite, Trichogramma brazi (ii) Coconut Scale : Asipidiotus destructor
Several reports of Coconut Scale were r
Mass-breeding and release of the cocir liberations, only indigenous predators, CI
recovered. (iii) The Red Weevil : (Rhyncophorus Ferrugin
Reports of the Red Weevil infestations we insecticide Metasystox, was not available
(iv) Promecotheca Cumingi
Promecotheca cumingi control project has it was noted that the original outbreak h pocket of infestation was observed in pro
The pest was brought under control by tł (V) The Black Beetle : Oryctes rhinoceros
Occasional infestations of this pest were: oryctes, capable of controlling black beetle
(vi) Biological Control of Eupatorium Odoratur
The breeding and release of the defoliati economically important weed, Eupatoriun Brunneonigrum, was imported from the Trinidad and released.
Coconut Products—Preparation of sugar from SW Although the process is simple, side reactions crystallization. The use of different antiferment investigated.
Sugar yields of about 16 ozs. per gallon of swee
Jagger) Jagges samples produced in the laboratory were water insolubie matter, and other contaminants
Fermentation of Sweet Toddy The present practice of allowing the sap to ferm the atmosphere was found unsatisfactory.

IFIC RESEARCH
pasture production was severely affected resulting in a se in the concentrate feeds from a financial point of
were continued through the insectories at Lunuwila is for control of several pests by the use of systemic
utbreaks were recorded in different parts of the island. ease of parasites. The breeding programme was unuwila and Mylambaveli. A tachinid parasite the laboratories and released in the field. Breeding anteratus, Spoggosia bezziana, Elasmus Nephantidis Liensis was in addition carried out by the board.
eceived, especially during first quarter of the year.
ellid predators was continued. Despite repeated silocorus nigritus and Pullus xerampelinus, have been
eus)
re received from several districts. The recommended and alternative insecticides were recommended.
s been terminated. After a period of surveillance, Las now been brought under complete control. A Dximity to the international airport, Katunayake. ne parasite, Dimmockia javanica.
recorded during the year. A virus, Rhabdionvirus , was imported and multiplied in the laboratory.
ng caterpillar, Ammalo insulata, which feeds on 1 odoratum has been continued. A weevil, Apion Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control,
et toddy and inversion of sugar, causes complications in
and effects on various side reactions are being
toddy were obtained under laboratory conditions.
inalysed for total sugar, reducing sugar, total ash, b draw up quality standards for the product.
nt by natural microflora (yeasts and bacteria) in

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AGRICULTURAL
Issues of Planting Material Fifteen nurseries continue to be maintained. The nu to De Soysa estate, Kirimetiyana.
Operations carried out in the nurseries were :
May|June Seednuts planted
502,905 Seedlings booked
123,300 Seedlings issued
220,422
In addition 401,768 seedlings from previous seasons over-aged seedlings issued free to government ins cultural productivity committees, multipurpose co-op
Biometry and Crop Forecasting A statistical service to the research divisions, cro supervision of three meteorological stations were mai
An irrigation, trial at Ratmalagara demonstrated si irrigated.
Conferences Abroad.--The board's representation below : First meeting of the working group internati on coconut in Jamaica 27-29 May, 1976.
The Asian and Pacific coconut community “ cocot Highlands, Malaysia 17–22 May, 1976.
International symposium on coconut research crops research institute, Kasaragod, Kerala, India 25
Agrarian Research and Training The Agrarian Research and Training Institute, spons ciation with the UNDP/FAO was established by an UNDP/FAO callaboration terminated in 1976 and the bility. The board of governors of the institute whos culture and Lands is responsible for the management ment departments and other institutions associated v governing board. The institute is headed by a direct and training personnel.
Objectives of the Institute are : (a) conduct and co-ordinate research on socio-ec
agricultural development ; (6) provide training to state officers, members of ri (C) serve as a centre for the collection and dissemina
The research and training programmes of the instit rural farmers and are associated with new measure institutional development and agrarian reform.
Much of the research work undertaken by the ins The institute works closely with the various ministries planning and implementation and also provides necess

RESEARCH
153
ursery at Bandirippuwa estate has been shifted
Oct./Nov. 899,151 305,032 216,952
Total 1,402,056
428,332 437,374
plantings were issued. Of these 220,694 were titutions through government agencies, agriperatives and rural development societies.
op forecasting, production statistics and the Cntained.
gnificant improvements of coconut yields when
at the various conferences abroad is outlined onal board for plant genetic resources (ibpgr)
cech ” workshop on intercropping at Cameron
and development at the central plantation -31 December, 1976.
ored by the government of Sri Lanka in asso
Act of Parliament in February, 1972. The e institute now functions as a national responsie Chairman, the Secretary, Ministry of Agri
of the institute. Several Ministries, governwith the agrarian sector are represented on the For and has a permanent cadre of research
conomic and institutional factors relating to
ural institutions and farmers ; tion of information on agrarian problems.
cute are directly concerned with problems of es for increasing productivity in agriculture,
titute is inter-disciplinary and action-oriented. and government departments concerned with sary data for policy formulation.

Page 172
154
SCI
The institute has established close liaison various parts of the world. Several joint i sponsored in collaboration with these instit
In the field of training, the institute's methodologies which could be adopted to mee members of rural institutions and farmers. Necessary changes are made in training meth
The institute has established a well-equippe in sinhala and Tamil, a newsletter, a synopsis of the institute are also printed and publishe the mid-country wet zone has been established innovations. The institute collaborates witl Agriculture of the University of Sri Lanka i
The institute has also set up an agrarian da and related socio-economic fields in Sri Lank to planners as well as research workers in va
V–GOVERNMENT
The government Analyst's Department prov other government departments and governme are rendered, with the approval of the Minis also trains officers of other departments in spe courses to police officers, state counsel, medi
These services also include scientific analys Police and local bodies for administration o factories, poisons, opium and dangerous d drugs, offensive weapons, firearms, explosives are furnished on sepecimen sent by the port
ments for tariff classifications and quality con of texicology, ballistics, serology explosives drugs, water, liquor, textiles and other miscell
The government analyst functions as app the food and drugs Act.
The department is also represented on va act, explosives act and on also committees app

ENTIFIC RESEARCH
with similar institutions within the region and also in résearch and training programmes have already been
utions.
main function is to develop appropriate training et training needs of the various grades of state personnel,
The training programmes are constantly evaluated. Lods and curricula in the light of these evaluations.
d communication unit which issues a farmers' journal E series, etc. Research reports and ad hoc publications d by the communication unit. A field laboratory in
for purpose of conducting in-depth studies and testing a the department of Agriculture and the Faculty of
n its research work.
ta bank which would store data relevant to agrarian ca. This would eventually provide information useful
rious agro-socio-eonomic fields.
ANALYST'S DEPARTMENT
Gides analytical, investigative and advisory services to ent sponsored institutions. In certain cases, services try of Justice, to the private sector. The department cialised analytical techniques and offers lecture-training
cal officers, etc.
es and issue of reports on productions sent by Courts, of the criminal procedure code : viz ; evidence, excise, rugs, petroleum and customs Ordinances, food and and port of Colombo (Administration) Acts. Reports commission, customs, excise, health and other departntrol purposes. Work of the department covers fields , questioned documents, the examination of food, Caneous articles.
proved public analyst for 83 local authorities under
rious committees dealing with the food and drugs pointed by the Bureau of Ceylon Standards.

Page 173
CHAPTE
MINERAL RES
-ECONOMIC M
The major economic minerals of Sri Lanka being n sands, industrial clays, limestone, silica sand, feldspar a
Gems Precious and semi-precious stones in large varieties o gravels of quarternary age in the valleys of Ratnapi These have been derived mainly from the weatherin schists of precambrian age.
The most important gems are delicately coloured crysoberyl (alexandrite and catseye), beryl (aquamarine Moonstone ( a variety of feldspar) is mined from dec Ambalangoda area.
Mining of gem stones in Sri Lanka is carried out panning gem-bearing gravels extracted from these pits assessed at Rs. 287,147,710. Lapidary and polishin techniques. The State Gem Corporation has been acti
Graphite Graphite mining at present constitutes the most im amount of foreign exchange. Three mines and several s
The total production of graphite is from deposits in t are found in well-marked zones or bands. Present w which go down to 500–1,850 feet in depth. A large q and classifying is exported. Exports in 1976 were 7,887
Mineral Sands The extensive black sand deposit at Pulmoddai to the
Mineral Sands Corporation for ilmenite. Total of il long tons valued at Rs. 5,657,996.
Monazite Monazite, a substance mixed with sand is found in se gets collected during south-west monsoon due to tidal w in addition 25 tons of zircon valued at Rs. 11,391 were al
Industrial Clays Alluvial clay used in the manufacture of tiles and bric the major rivers in the island, largest deposits being fou and Kalu Ganga. Manufacture of brick and tile is however, is carried on almost everywhere where suitab clay were used in the manufacture of tiles and bricks wo

R X
OURCES
INERALS
nined at present are gems, graphite, mineral nd quartz.
cur within layers of older alluvium and river ure district in the south-west of the island. g of pegmatities and crystalline gneisses and
varieties of corundum (sapphire and ruby), ), topaz, spinel, garnet, zircon and tourmaline. omposed pegmatities at Meetiyagoda in the
by the traditional method, sinking pits and 3. Value of gems exported in 1976 has been g operations are being carried out by modern ve in these operations.
portant activity and ensures a considerable smaller ones are being worked.
he south-west of Sri Lanka and most of these Forkings are mainly mechanised deep mines aantity of graphite powdered after processing
long tons.
south of Trincomalee is exploited by the menite produced during the year, was 54,932
-eral places on the western coast. The sand -ave action. A ton of monazite was produced, so produced during 1976.
ks is found in the flood basins of almost all nd in the basins of Maha Oya, Kelani Ganga done mostly in these basins. This industry, le clay is found. In 1976, 50,208 long tons of rth Rs. 303,214.

Page 174
156
MINE)
Extensive kaolin deposits are found at 1 Meetiyagoda in the Galle District. Kaolin rocks rich in feldspar, like granite and pegmati of kaolin worth Rs. 1,501,850 were produk ceramics corporation at Boralesgamuwa.
Clay that could be used in the production areas in the north. 56,402 long tons of cla cement in 1976.
Limestone A large reserve of sedimentary limestone is of Puttalam. This limestone is used at the K by the Ceylon Cement Corporation ; 636,9:
manufacture worth Rs. 9,846,243. Pure cry: for the manufacture of lime. The powderet
magnesia in soil component. Raw materials for Ceramieware Pure feldspar and crystalline quartz are being of feldspar valued at Rs. 90,000 were used 1 vein quartz too were used in the manufactu used 1,220 tons of silica sand worth Rs. 28,06
Iron-ore Deposits Iron-ore deposits in the island are of two main iron stone. Superficial iron ores are genera as large boulders and surface cappings and ar High grade iron ore contains about 40 per c 30 to 40 per cent. The iron ore deposit in th magnetite bands. In between these bands, The iron ore deposits discovered recently at Based on these investigations, copper-bearnig
Peat
Nearly 40,000,000 tons of peat are known to o in an area of 3,000 acres. The peat occurs a the deposit is poorly drained, normal water 6 inches to a foot above it during the rainy sea
I-GEOL
Functions of the Geological Survey Departm
(1) Systematic mapping of the country and (2) Prospecting, exploration and appraisal (3) Engineering geology and groundwater i (4) Administration of mining enactments, si (5) Fundamental research on earth scienc
industrial purposes.
Geological Maps Among primary functions of the department 27 to a mile and publishing geological map on basic information obtained during geolog

RAL RESOURCES
Boralesgamuwa near Colombo and small deposits at
deposits at Boralesgamuwa formed by weathering or Cte, contain pure kaolin of the highest grade. 4,291 tons ced in 1976 at the refinery set up by the Ceylon
of cement is available in the Murunkan and Ralmadu y worth Rs. 930,633 were used in the manufacture of
found in the Jaffna peninsula and Aruwakkalu north ankesanthurai and Puttalam factories as a raw material 51 tons of limestone have been used in 1976 in cement stalline limestone as well as coral deposits are burnt 1 dolomite limestone is used to remedy deficiency of
g used by the Ceylon Ceramic Corporation. 750 tons by the corporation in 1976. In addition 168 tons of re of ceramic-ware. The ceramics corporation also
types namely (a) superficial limonitic ores, (b) banded lly composed of limonitic and goethite. These occur Fe found mainly in the south-west sector of the island. ent metallic iron while the lower grade contains about e Wilagedera-Panirendawa area consists of solidified calc-granulite, quartzite and basic rock bands occur. Seruwila the largest in the island are being explored. E minerals like calco-pyrite have been found to occur.
ccur at Muthurajawela immediately north of Colombo Ls a bed with an average thickness of 12 to 15 feet but -level being at the surface during the dry season and son.
DGICAL SURVEY
ent are: -preparation of geological maps. of the island's mineral resources. nvestigations. apervision of mining and collection of mineral statistics. es and applied research on mineral raw materials for
are geological mapping of the island on the scale of s of 1' to a mile scale. Other functions finally depend sical survey work. Systematic geological mapping on

Page 175
GEMMIN
the scale of 1' to a mile, of areas covered by 1' topo mannar, Kala-oya, Marichchikadai, Kudiramalai, K Nilaveli, Iranamadu, Puliyankulam, Mulaitivu, and K of an area of 3,000 square miles, mapping of the enti
Mineral Exploration A serpentine deposit has been discovered near Gini gation of this deposit has commenced. The deposit been carried out in Matale, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya to world market. These tests were carried out wi corporation.
Water Supply Investigations Investigations were carried out in premises of the nati to obtain good quality water. A report was subsequen out to locate suitable ‘spots’ for two tube wells. The water supply to factories of the Ceylon Ceramic Cori
Engineering Geological Investigations Investigations were carried out to test nature of terra kanda urea factory, and a private firm Messrs Jinas
Geophysical Surveys Geophysical surveys have been carried out in Jaffna, carried out at Mannar, Jaffna and Delft areas relate respect of graphite deposits.
Laboratory Services Rock and mineral samples collected during geologici tories. The Rock samples obtained from areas duri Scheme and soit samples durnig investigations on private firm Messrs Jinasena and Co., were subject t samples too were occasionally tested. A number investigations were tested at the engineering labor
IIIGEMIN State Gem Corporation The State Gem Corporation was established under | No. 13 of November 1, 1971. Authorised capital of
Development of the gem industry and prevention the island are among its main objectives.
Action was initiated during the year to reorganis Lapidarists and gem merchants were also registered the issue of permits for various processes of the gem
Year
1973 1974 1975 1976
Gemming Permits issued
3,547 3,027 2,977 3,637

157
raphical sheets of Murunkan, Mantai, Talailapitiya, Trincomalee, Kathiravelu, Padaviya ikilai have been completed. With a coverage e island has virtually been concluded.
jalpelessa in the Uda-Walawe area. Investipreads over an area of 250 acres. Tests have Districts to ascertain prospects of mica supply h active participation of the state graphite
inal milk board at Ambewela to locate a spot tly prepared. Investigations were also carried sites for tube wells were located to augment loration, Piliyandala.
in for the Nattandiya glass factory, Sapugasena and Co., Ekala.
Tannar, Rangala and Delft areas. The surveys > to petroleum and those at Rangala were in
al mapping were subject to analysis at laborang work in connection with Samanala Wewa che proposed factory premises at Ekala for a o further studies. Water samples and mineral of soil samples collected during foundation atory.
ING
provisions of the State Gem Corporation Act, the corporation is Rs. 500 million.
of large-scale smuggling of local gems out of
the scheme of permits for gemming purposes.
This course of action ensured an increase in industry as revealed in the figures below:-
Trade
Auctions
2,335 1,737 2,160 2,544
425 460 483 638

Page 176
158
MINE
Gemming sites of state land were surveyed, sed prospecting for gems.
Local gem auctions realised an income of the preceding year.
The corporation's participation in the gem dealers who virtually dominated sale and < established at Ratnapura, Eheliyagoda, Mat: two years 1975 and 1976 were respectively in
Export of Sri Lanka gems earned Rs. 287:1 of Rs. 98-2 million over the preceding year.
Japan, Hongkong, Switzerland, the U.S. an Tourists visiting Sri Lanka are afforded the sol at the corporation's sales centres located Katunayake International Air Port, Ceylo Bentota National Holiday Resort.
A sum of Rs. 3,931,975 was realised from s substantially to Rs. 9,072,406 (exclusive of F
Lapidary and polishing processes are being availability of new techniques, thus ensuring
Gem exhibitions have been conducted abi dealers.

CAL RESOURCES
lemarcated and auctioned in lots to thwart unauthori
Rs. 1,361,905 in 1976, as compared with Rs. 488,147
industry saw a 'break' in the monopoly of local gem xport of Sri Lanka gems. Purchasing centres were le and Colombo. Gem purchases effected during the the region of Rs. 6-13 million and Rs. 8•08 million.
million (exclusive of FEECs) in 1976, giving an increase
I France were among principal buyers of local gems e opportunity to purchase local gems in foreign currency in Macan Markar building, York Street, Fort, n Inter-Continental Hotel, Hotel Lanka Oberoi and
ale of gems to tourists in 1975. This figure increased EECs) in 1976.
g carried out under ultra-modern conditions with the
an 'optimum' price for local gems.
coad with the participation of local and foreign gem

Page 177
С НАРТЕ
FORESTS, BOTANIC GARDENS ANI
-FOREST
Extent of Land The total extent of forest reserves under the manage 2:36 million acres or 14:53 per cent of total land area as "other Crown Forest '" continues to be administe ernment agencies. Forest plantations exclusive of li of 210,000 acres by the end of 1976.
Reforestation The reforested extents during the year were —
Species
Teak Pinus Eucalyptus Albizzia
Mahogany (Enrichment-pla *Miscellaneous species
*As Margosa, Casua
Under the special project for the reforestation of unproductive areas a total of 1,825 acres were refores
Pinus
Eucalyptus—Grandis
Teak, the largest extent, was planted under the which this species was intercropped with other a approximately Rs. 12 million were cultivated in this n
Two new central teak nurseries were opened to incre teak stumps.
Plantations, Working Plans and Management Approximately 13,965 acres of plantations were surve Mocal extent surveyed at the end of 1976, as 90,158 ac am 116,597 acres.

R XI
) WILD LIFE CONSERVATION
TRY
ment of Sri Lanka’s Forest Department was of the island. Category of forest land known red both by the forest department and govne-planted Mahogany area were in the region
(Extent acres)
12,981 2,326 1,605
228 1,260 378
anting)
Total
18,778
rina, Alstonia
uneconomic tea and rubber lands and other ted.
(Extent
Acres) 1,700
125
1,825
co-operative reforestation or Taungya' by gricultural crops. Food crops estimated at manner.
ease output of planting material to 10,000,000
eyed and stockmapped during the year, giving res. The unmapped areas continue to remain

Page 178
160
FORESTS, BOTANIC GARDI
A total of 3,035 acres were marked for tt of forest produce as :-
Logs Sleepers Sawn timber Transmission pole Poles Fence posts Firewood
The value of timber so extracted was Rs. 13 extent of 200 acres of mature teak plantations
Hazards of forest fire continue unabated. Ti Fire damage could be effectively reduced i equipment.
Research Silvicultural Research. Species trials initiat
1. Pint 2. Pinu 3. Pinu 4. Pinu 5. Pinu
Provenance trials were conducted with prov
1. Pinu 2. Pinu 3. Pinu
Provenance trials of teak and eucalyptus w opened during the year, covering an extent continue to be maintained. Routine germina seed species.
Entomological Research Studies on the life cycle of teak defoliatora-Hy Several parasites of Hybalea have been collecte envisaged.
Timber Utilization Research Strength tests were conducted on welipenna, trunk. Air seasoning trials were initiated on preservation of alstonia macrophylla poles Diffusion treatment of teak poles using boron the Kottapulun (ceiba pentandra) was done us
The control of blue satin fungus on pinus ca pentachorophenol and found somewhat effect
A pilot project was initiated to control spli sodium arsenite. Routine identification of tir institutions and the general public.

NS AND WILD LIFE CONSERVATION
innings in forest plantations yielding the categories
454,459 cubic feet
18,278 (nos.)
9,744 cubic feet 14,362 (nos.) 12,590 (nos.) 15,961 (nos.)
20,457 cubic yards ,034,898. Coverage of timber extraction includes an which had been ‘clear-felled’ on reaching rotation age. ne firelines did not prove quite effective in certain areas. with the availability of fully-equipped fire fighting
ed were as khasiya
s merkusii is eliottii
s halapensis as oocarpa
enances of species as— Is caribaea Is oocarpa
s merkusii
ere maintained. Two new seed nurseries of teak were of 110 acres. The increment and thinning of plots tion and viability trials were carried out with different
blaea puera, and Hepalia macheralis were conducted. d and studies on the biological control of the past are
kunumella, eucalyptus grandis poles and the coconut banakka. The boucherie process of treatment for the vas carried out obtaining satisfactory penetration. salts proved quite effective. A Similar treatment of ing borax and boric acid.
ribaea and pinus patula was carried out using sodium ve though costly.
tting in eucalyptus grandis timber by poisoning with aber was also carried out for the benefit of state

Page 179
FORESTRY
Education.—Regular training courses were conductes grade employees of the Forest Department and State |
Management A total of 7,343 forest offences as illicit felling, clearing during the year. In several cases offenders were imp
Under section 28 of the Forest Ordinance 712 pri
An extent of 4,291.5 acres was released from fores initiated by the government. The release of forest land forests. An impetus to conservation was given with a in December, 1976, giving further incentive to conser
2,72
State Timber Corporation The extraction and supply of timber during the year contractors and the State Timber Corporation's extra Production. The total production during the year wi
Hardwood logs Plywood logs Ebony logs Sawn timber Railway sleepers Transmission poles Firewood
3
11
There has been a noticeable shortfall in extraction a logs during the year. This has been mainly attributabl
(a) limitation of forest resources (6) inadequate transport facilities as well as increasin (C) lower output of mechanised operations.
Railway sleepers and sawn timber production exceede as compared with the preceding year.
The corporation continues to season timber at its seas Jogs were seasoned during the year realising an incom concessional kiln seasoning rates to the industrial dev export rubber wood on overseas orders.
Export of Timber.--Timber to the value of Rs. 1,259,9 export. A policy decision was made in August 1976, 1 atin, mahogany and teak in log or sawn form and eb
Sinharaja Mechanised Logging Project.--Activities of motherto managed with Canadian advisers were taken ov 1976. A policy of selective felling system, where harvesti and 800 acres per year with a maximum annual yield o
Staf Personnel. There was a total of 1,606 technical and labour grades in the corporation's employ
A 31485

161
a at the Sri Lanka forest college for middle imber Corporation.
and illicit transport of timber were recorded risoned without the option of a fine.
vate timber depots were registered.
it reserves for urgent development projects B was however kept a minimum to conserve e national tree planting campaign launched zation of forest lands in Sri Lanka.
were carried out by the agency of private: ction units.
as— 12,295 cubic feet 87,169 cubic feet
4,502 cubic feet 27,157 cubic feet
8,150 (No.) 8,206 (No.) 0,180 cubic yards
nd supply of both hardwood and plywood e to—
y transport costs
d by 18 per cent and 4 per cent respectively
vning kilns, ; a total of 4,262-9 cubic feet of e of Rs. 13,873. The corporation offered elopment board thus helping the IDB to
65 was sold from corporation's depots for o prevent export of all species other than, Dny through the CONSOLEXPO.
he Sinharaja Mechanised Logging Project er in toto by the corporation from 1st June, g would not exceed 800 cubic feet per acre f 640,000 cubic feet is followed.
mployees comprising executive, clerical, nent as at end of 1976.

Page 180
162
BOT
I-BOT The three botanic gardens in Sri Lanka, v Hakgala Botanic Gardens and the Henarath by the Department of Agriculture. Thes climatic zones are supervised by the superin
Primarily established for the purpose of introduction of economic crops as tea, rubber centres of botanical research and floricultura
collections of tropical and temperate plants f i Gardens, Peradeniya, are of international
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya The history of these gardens dates back to t the throne and kept court at Peradeniya. for the reception of exotic plants and enjoy
Situated 68 miles from Colombo along the Co
mean sea level and covering an area of 147 a average rainfall of over 80 inches.
Improvement.—A small section of the flow miniature Japanese garden with a summer ho
New Orchid Show House.--Work on the i completed. This would provide a source of a present a colourful spectacle.
Exchange of Plants and Seeds, Exhibitions seeds from Botanical Gardens and allied ins Institutions abroad.
At the Delhi Flower Show, Sri Lanka was a display, the first prize in the international si show were sent by the Royal Botanic Garden and orchid flowers have been made availal the Ram Subhag Singh award at the Agro The orchid and anthurium breeding and (
Anthuriums.--Anthurium crosses are being Orchid. —Pollinations are being done thoug
Floricultural Extension Programme Floriculturists in the central region and distar were visited and advised on improvement of c their activities considerably in recent years. have been organised at the Peradeniya garden
The botanic gardens continue to attract Among distinguished visitors as state guests Parliamentary Delegations, Army and Naval
Botanic Gardens, Hakgala These gardens, 55 acres in extent, are situat Nuwara-Eliya, at an elevation of 5,581 feet a

ANIC GARDENS
NIC GARDENS z., the Royal Botanic Gardens at Peradeniya, the zoda Botanic Gardens at Gampaha are administered ; three botanic gardens, situated in three different endent of gardens with headquarters at Peradeniya. investigating into the flora of the island and the , cocoa and cinchona, these gardens have now becomes | development. All these gardens have representative tom different parts of the world. The Royal Botanic repute.
ne year 1371, when King Wickremabahu III ascended In 1821, the Royal Botanic Gardens were established vorld-wide fame for the wealth of tropical vegetation. lombo-Kandy road, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above .cres, the gardens enjoy an equable climate with an
er garden had been remodelled and converted into a use, a rivulet and a pond.
new 'show' house, designed on modern lines has been ttraction to these gardens. The orchid plants in bloom
and Flower Shows.--The gardens receive varieties of titutions and also despatch packets of seeds to similar
warded the Jawaharlal Nehru cup for the most attractive ection of the annual flower show. Flowers for this B, Peradeniya, from locally grown varieties. Anthuriums ole for various flower shows. The gardens also won -Horticultural flower show in New Delhi.
ut-flower development programme :-
made of the red variety and seed pans sown. h some of these have suffered pod rot at early stages.
i places as Chilaw, Galle, Matara, Ratnapura, Badulla altural techniques. These floriculturists have expanded Short-term training courses on cut-flower production
large number of visitors particularly foreign tourists. who have visited these gardens were Prime Ministers, Chiefs, Foreign Ministers and Trade Delegations.
d in a temperate or sub-tropical climate six miles off ove sea level. It was first established as an experimental

Page 181
WILD LIFE CONSER
station for the cultivation of cinchona in 1861. The
many temperate plants introduced from Europe, Nort satisfactorily.
The Cymbidium orchid culture introduced during Cymbidium mericlones produced by meristem culture well, New species ferns were introduced during the y
The seed drying room and storage rooms have been co
Botanic Gardens, Henerathgoda, Gampaha These gardens were established in 1871 for the receptic The gardens, 37 acres in extent, are situated 17 miles fr sea level. The original rubber plantation could still be se
Levy of Admission Fees The levy of an admission fee from visitors to the garden at Hakgala and Gampaha as well. Admission fees c Rs. 585,800.
IIIWILD LIFE CON
Conservation of wild life in Sri Lanka is an important a protection ordinance (chapter 469), as amended by a provides for declaration of any specified area as a natior protection of its fauna and flora. Enforcement of the o ment of Wild Life Conservation.
No new areas were declared in 1976. A total of 2,39 constituting the land surface of Sri Lanka were absolutely
Coverage of ‘ absolute protection was afforded 5 na natural reserves, a nature reserve and a jungle “ corridor
Breakdown of the protected area is shown below:
National Parks Intermediate Zones Strict Natural Reserves
Nature Reserve Jungle “ Corridor Sanctuaries
Total 2,
The proclaimed area of 2,392-93 square miles constitu Strict national reserves are state lands with access only
Wild Life Conservation. Sanctuaries include privately largest national parks are Wilpattu national park (cons of approximately 130 miles length and Ruhunu and Y 447-87 contiguous sq. miles of land with a boundary of a

VATION
163
vegetation is predominantly sub-tropical and h India, the Far East and Australia thrive
the preceding years had been successful. at Peradeniya gardens continue to thrive ear.
mpleted.
on of the original Para rubber from Brazil. pm Colombo, at an elevation of 35 feet above
pen.
s has been extended to cover botanic gardens ollected during 1976 were in the region of
SERVATION
spect of state policy. The fauna and flora st (No. 44) of 1964 and (no. 1) of 1970 nal reserve or sanctuary, to ensure absolute ordinance is the responsibility of the Depart
2:93 square miles of the 25,332 square miles u protected.
ational parks, 2 intermediate zones, 4 strict
" and 43 sanctuaries.
175-40 sq. miles 139.29 234-42 12.20 40-00 791•62
do.
do. do. do. do.
392-93
tes a little over 9 per cent of total land area. - on permits issued by the Department of -wned lands as well as State lands. The two Esting of 507•53 sq. miles with a boundary ala east national parks together comprising pproximately 120 miles length.

Page 182
{ 164
NATIONA
The Ruhunu and Wilpattu national park tourist attraction. The Ruhunu national nmaintained by the Department of Wild commenced construction of a “vishramas accommodate about 80 to 100 persons who
A severe spell of drought in the dry Zone and sanctuaries saw a great effort on the protection society of Sri Lanka, to provid tanks and water holes, thus ensuring the av department is grateful for the assistance it gave necessary assistance. On representa agreed to provide funds for sinking of tube and also where geological structure is conc
Steady expansion of permanently cultiv elephant species. Instances of unhappy resulting in 75 deaths of the species mainly d
Large scale damage to sugar cane p particularly relished by the elephant. Ar serious problem and thwart departmental e reserves. The Elephant orphanage at Pinna : for orphaned baby elephants and injured during the year. “ Shanthi " the gift fro States, in commemoration of the bicenten Export of animals, birds, and reptiles foi so, as it was felt that commercial export of -time result in complete extinction. Expo
scrutiny of the university of Sri Lanka.
The department of wild life ensures protec and enforcement of the fauna and flora ord initiating preventive measures and detection
A total of 271 offences were detected in 1 sale of wild boar meat, possession of hides [nclude those detected by Police and othe staff at the disposal of the Department wit greater than those already detected. Depai both head office and field staff.
IV-NATIONAL
The National Zoological Gardens of S
metropolis are maintained by the state. I sentative collection of fauna displayed aesti
laid-out undulating land. The Zoo has th - in Asia and is acknowledged the world ove scenic splendour of the landscape are adde

- ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS
s have been quite popular among visitors and a source of
park had 64,400 visitors in 1976. Holiday bungalows Life remained static during the year. The department alawa' at Palatupana in the Ruhunu national park to could not afford much spending on pleasure.
of the Island, which comprise almost all national reserves part of the departmental staff and Wild Life and Nature - water to thirst stricken animals, restore and augment ailability of a greater volume of water in the future. The received from the society referred to and to others who tion made by the department in 1976, the government
wells to supply water during such spells of severe drought lucive to sinking of these wells.
ated area continues to erode ‘ natural habitat of the contact between elephants and human beings increased,
ue to gun shot injuries.
lantations is not uncommon as the sugar cane is ea abutting national reserves and sanctuaries poses a efforts in the protection of elephants outside demarcated
wela, 5 miles off Kegalle town serves as “ model home ” sub-adults. There were 13 elephants at the orphanage
m the children of Sri Lanka to the children of United nial Year, has been a product' from the orphanage e commercial purposes has been restricted, particularly unprotected animals, birds and reptiles would in a short rts for scientific purposes are allowed subject to close
stion of boundaries of national reserves and sanctuaries linance by educative propaganda on wild life protection, I of such offences and lastly prosecution of offenders.
976. Offences so detected, include possession of venison, and skins of protected animals. These offences do not r prescribed authorities under the Ordinance. Limited h large coverage infers that offences undetected is much tmental employees during the year totalled 298 including
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS
i Lanka, situated at Dehiwela, 6 miles south of the ehiwela Zoo as known popularly has a rich and repreetically in enclosures spread over 52 acres of beautifully ! best collection of mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes
as one of the best of its kind. The natural setting and | attractions these gardens could provide visitors.

Page 183
NATIONAL ZOOLOG
The zoological gardens continue to maintain poj various walks in life. A total of 754,984 people in receipts were Rs. 1,600,027.
A noteworthy improvement during the year was spacious air-conditioned enclosure.
The student guides scheme which trains senior si in conducting school children on lecture tours arou total of 2,235 schools availed of this facility during
"Min Medura "the zoo's aquarium complex has a fishes and invertebrates, displayed in surroundings a
" Suli ” a Californian sea lion trained by the aqı The aquarium is quite popular and attracts a large
An auditorium and lecture room has been compl added amenity to school children visiting the zoo.
The cultivation of animal food at ‘Lihiniya' the zo year. Local production at the farm was in the re over Rs. 200,000 in the food bill.

CAL GARDENS
165
ularity and attract all classes of people from cluding tourists visited the zoo in 1976. Gate
un exhibition of a pair of polar bears under a
udents from schools in the city and suburbs ad zoo environs has become very popular. A 976, involving 155,722 children.
very large collection of large and small tropical Imost akin to their natural habitat.
tarium staff performs daily to large crowds. number of visitors.
eted. When equipped it would provide an
Po farm at Ratmalana was extended during the gion of 620 cwts. representing a saving of

Page 184
CH.
-
A coastline extending 1,100 miles is the ma Lanka are concerned. The other features are t which form the inland waters of the island. Th fish which live on or near the sea-bed and near the surface. The best known species ar and Kumbala, Bolla, Herrings, Sardiues, Spr:
waters are the Tilapia, Carp and the Giant G trated on the coastal waters, fresh water fish
A separate Ministry, exclusively for fishery of giving the industry a special significance.
The taking of policy decisions regarding : production and distribution rests with the through the Department of Fisheries, the
Harbours Corporation.
The Department of Fisheries undertakes t ordinances such as pearl fishing, whaling a fishermen, development of co-operatives, tra brackish water fisheries. Provision of credit functions under its purview.
II-EXTENSION
Sri Lanka Fisheries Training Institute was est of two years each, are being conducted at th skills for persons to work as officers in off Japan has provided a fully equipped training
Courses of training were held at the traini in regard to the training of fishermen in fisi to vessels. The courses consisted of : fishe all centres ; training course for new fisheryi training course, for certain pupils of Matara as a pre-vocational subject, at Tangalle ; ar navigation and fishing methods for ex-train
Propaganda Four exhibitions and film shows were held b modern methods of fishing in important fisi inboard diesel engines and mechanised boa published and distributed among fishermen
Marine Fishing The total estimated quantity of fish produce coastal fisheries amounted to about 114,00

PTER XII
SHERIES
GENERAL
n feature, so far as the fisheries of the island of Sri 1e rivers, artificial lakes, irrigation tanks and reservoirs : coastal waters teem with fish of many kinds, demersed pelagic varieties which live in intermediate waters or 2 Thora, Paraw, Blood fish, Sharks, Skates, Rock fish Its, etc. Among other known varieties of fish in inland ouramy. At present, fish production is mainly conceneries however, being very negligible. Levelopment was set up in 1970, with the prime objective
Idministration and execution of such functions as fish
Ministry of Fisheries and these are as implemented Ceylon Fisheries Corporation and the Ceylon Fishery
ne administration of the fisheries ordinance and related nd chank ordinances, provision of welfare services to ining and extension work, development of inland and facilities to fishermen and fisheries research are other
AND DEVELOPMENT
ablished in April 1975. Two regular courses, duration e institute to impart fishing techniques and engineering -shore and deep-sea fishing vessels. For this purpose,
vessel for use of the training staff of the institute. ng centres of Negombo, Tangalle, Jaffna and Batticaloa ning techniques, and in effecting mechanical repairs
men's training, repair mechanics and field training at nspectors at Negombo, Tangalle and Jaffna ; a special and Hambantota districts who have followed fisheries d two courses each lasting five months in advanced ces at Negombo.
- the department of fisheries as a means to popularise ing villages. Informative leaflets on " maintenance of s", and "maintenance of outboard engines " were to improve their knowledge.
during the year 1975, was nearly 127,000 tons of which O tons.

Page 185
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACI
The value of imports and exports of fish and fish produ
Imports Exports
22
There had been a decline in exports both in quantitie year.
Mechanisation of Fishing Industry The issue of mechanised boats solely to co-operative socie boats issued under the hire-purchase scheme was 117. inception of the scheme to end of 1975 was 2,744. Co ordered by the department was under way. This was also issued to fishermen under the outright purchase scheme for installation of hulls. There are 22 boatyards register of hulls. 765 outboard motors were issued under outrig as compared with 538 in the previous year.
Fishing Disputes and Regulations Under section 20 of the fisheries ordinance, inquiries reg. by the commissions.
Permits were issued to 24 fishermen under the Hikkadi
Ten cases of dynamiting and possession of dynamited 1 law.
Registration of Fishing Crafts The total number of fishing crafts registered in 1975 v cancelled during the year.
Since inception, the total number of registrations of cr
ISOCIO-ECONOMIC
While 45 primary fishing co-operative societies were in operative fishing societies were registered during the year to co-operative societies to be given to their members, in t to purchase 174 fibre-glass boats, other types of craft, o loans issued from co-operative advanced account to c and Rs. 552,180 was issued for additional fishing gear making a total of Rs. 2,578,527 in 1975.
Recovery of Loans A sum of Rs. 2,346 as principal and Rs. 1,345 as interest, the year,.
Out of loans given to mechanised fishing craft, Rs. 699 seized for non-payment of dues.
Fishermen's insurance An insurance scheme to insure fishermen and their craft Corporation with the concurrence of the Department of F
(a) A scheme of personal accident insurance for fishe (6) Boat owning fishermen’s insurance scheme for mech (c) An insurance scheme for mechanised boats.

TIVITIES
167
acts for the year was as follows:
Rs. -,000,000 ,200,000 es and value as compared with the previous
eties was continued in 1975. The number of
The total number of boats issued since nstructional work regarding the 155 boats, o the position as regards 60 inboard engines, e and 125 engines, issued to the boatyards ed with the department for the construction ht purchase scheme free of FEECs in 1975,
arding two fishing disputes were completed
awa regulations.
ish were detected and referred to Courts of
vas 2,503. Registration of 28 crafts were
-afts stands at 42,491.
ACTIVITIES
Full operation in 1975, four fresh water co-. A large amount of money was released che form of individual loans to enable them ut-board motors and fishing gear. These 0-operatives amounted to Rs. 2,026,347 from the mechanisation advance account
was recovered from individual loans during
9,864 was recovered, and eight boats were
vas introduced by the Sri Lanka Insurance fisheries on the following lines : Ermen. aanised and non-mechanised craft.

Page 186
168 :
Fishermen's housing An allocation for the payment of subsidies government agents from the decentralized b
Roads Fishery roads were constructed on priori Committees.
Fishermen's Accident Compensation A sum of Rs. 125,000 was allocated for the pa
IV—INI
Development activities on the inland fisher
The inland fisheries at Polonnaruwa Static almost doubled. The work on separate y The Polonnaruwa station continues to be t produced 149,000 common Carp, 7,500 Giar bution. The construction of ponds and tl completed in 1975. A consignment of 20,00 of 20,000 was imported from New Zealand stocked and distributed by the Nuwara Eliya the year 200,000 fingerlings of Tilapia, C
headquarters.
A batch of 90 youths were trained in fres tributed among 12 schools for the construct
V—BRACKISH WATE
A topographical survey of Nanthikadal molluse resources both in the marine and br south-west coasts was carried out in 1975. and Kalpitiya and was grown in nursery ] among prospective pisciculturists in the area
VI-COMM
Beche-de-mer The beche-de-mer factory which was set up January–May 1975, while the factory at Ka first three months of operation. The total its value was Rs. 3,207,671.
VII–RESE
Research and Marketing The centre for the development and marketi fisheries research institute is under constructi

FISHERIES
- for fishermen's houses was made by the respective adget.
y basis recommended by the district development
yment of accident compensation for 40 accidents in 1975.
LAND FISHERIES
les were further expanded during the year.
on were expanded in recent years, and the pond-area had vater supply for the station is yet under construction. he main inland fish breeding centre in Sri Lanka. It at Gouramy and 165,000 Tilapia for stocking and distrine buildings at Ginigathhena fresh-water station was -0 trout eggs was received from U.K. and a second batch
during the year. These eggs were successfully hatched, - trout hatchery to prospective fish “farmers." During Tarp and Giant Gouramy were distributed from the
h-water fisheries during the year. Rs. 107,319 was disTion of ponds for schools agricultural programme.
ER FISHERIES AND SURVEYS
lagoon was completed in 1975. A survey of bi-valve rackish water areas along the north-east, north-west and A batch of 83,000 chanos fry was collected from Mannar ponds at Pitipana. The fingerlings were distributed
ERCIAL ACTIVITIES
at Mannar had shown a net profit of Rs. 41,000 during lpitiya showed a net profit of Rs. 25,000 during the export of beche-de-mer for 1975, was 2,409 cwts. and
EARCH ACTIVITIES
ng of fish products is nearing completion. The centrai on.

Page 187
CEYLON FISHERIES CC
Investigations and research carried out in 1975, were
(1) Marine Fishery Research and surveys ; (2) Pearl Oyster and edible oyster survey : (3) Survey on incidence of Crown of Thorns star
programme of this starfish ; (4) U. N. D. P./Sri Lanka Fishery Development Pr (5) Squid and cuttle fish survey ; (6) Vertical temperature structure of the coastal wa (7) Exploratory fishing survey in coastal waters ; (8) Coastal fisheries ; (9) Survey on fishing gear used in Sri Lanka ; (10) Survey on various types of fishing boats in opei (11) Programme to study the catch and effort on fisł (12) Quality study of dried fish ; (13) Quality analysis of frozen fish products ; (14) Anti bacterial properties of marine algae ; (15) Chemical analysis of whole fish ; (16) Commercial utilization of sea weeds ; (17) Routine chemical analysis.
VIII-CEYLON FISHERIES
The Ceylon Fisheries Corporation was established on 1 Corporations Act, No. 49 of 1957.
Total quantity of fish produced by the Fisheries compared with 9,143,871 lbs. in the previous year. The during 1976.
Performance made by the corporation under different
Trawlers Tuna boats 11-ton boats Buying from private dealers Fishery projects
Among these activities, the significant increase is i imesed to 8,248,352 lbs.
Dried fish, jaadi (preserved fish) fish meal, shark liv the by-products of the corporation. Processing of dried its were carried out in Mutwal, Ethukal Kudamaduw wo varieties of shark liver oil (Medicinal and Veter Fuentiary. Production of fish meal was done at the Mu

RPORATION
169
Gish (Acanthaster planci) and the eradication
pject ;
ters ;
ration in coastal waters ; ning in coastal waters ;
! CORPORATION
st October, 1964, under the State Industrial
Corporation in 1976, was 9,456,832 lbs. as corporation vessels brought in 1,208,480 lbs.
categories is given below :-
1975
1976 Ibs.
| lbs. 1,486,524
725,984 61,260
172,256 559,188
310,240 4,558,826
8,248,352 2,478,073
9,143,871
9,456,832
i private buying of fish in 1976, which has
er oil both medicinal and veterinary were ish, preservation of jaadi and dried shark i and Manilla processing units. As usuall inary) were manufactured at the Mutwal
wal and Pesalai factories,

Page 188
170
Statistics of by-products are given belo
Dried fish jaadi Fish meal. Dried shark fins Shark liver oil
Medicinal
Veterinary In addition to what was produced by th trade in 1976 ; as compared with 273,99
A total of 118,838 cans (07 oz. and 15 203,009 in 1975.
The production of ice for the respective
Block ice Flake ice
The increase in production for 1975 wa 1976 is only 898 tons of ice.
Sales A total of 7,643,680 lbs. of fish were mark was 6,651,643.
The marketing of by-product was as f
Dried fish jaadi Fish meal Shark liver oil
Medicinal Veterinary
(07 oz. and 15 oz.) From the sales of these by-products th Rs. 1,006,268 more than in the previous
Exports The exports consisted of prawns, lobsters, Mattakkuliya, boat yard. These export Rs. 5,335,687, compared with Rs. 1,691,01
Fishing gear A revenue of Rs. 16,451,140 was collected the collection was Rs. 10,406,659.
Marketing Activities The activities of Mutwal cold rooms were at price park, Colombo, was established in lished at Kandy ; and a retail centre at M

FISHERIES
W :-
1bs.
1975 246,217 372,498
670
1976 695,968 419,104
1bs.
1bs.
gals.
4,129
236 gals.
278
308 e corporation, 604,128 lbs. were bought through the private 9 lbs, in 1975. Dz, tins) were produced at Pesalai in 1976 compared with
years was :-
1975 Ibs. 5,896 4,628
1976 Ibs. 5,832 5,590
10,524
11,422
s 1,044 lbs. as compared with 1974 while the increase in
eted by the corporation in 1976 ; while in 1975, the figure
bllows :--
1bs.
1975 521,138 339,903
1976 695,968 419,104
1bs.
gals.
236
5,070
273
gals.
308
cans
146,783
127,957 e corporation earned a revenue of Rs. 4,209,348 which is
year.
crabs, cuttle-fish and also 34 ton boats, manufactured at s brought in foreign exchange (inclusive of FEECs) of 16 of the preceding year.
by fishing gear depots of the corporation ; while in 1975.
re-organised and a wholesale depot for the sale of fish
1975. In 1976, a wholesale and a retail centre was estabatale.

Page 189
CEYLON FISHERY HARB
IX-CEYLON FISHERY HAR
The Ceylon Fishery Harbours Corporation was estal Fisheries under section 8 of the State Industrial Cor] Government Gazette Extraordinary No. 14,996/18 of relating to construction, maintenance and operation Ceylon Fisheries Corporation, allowing the latter production and distribution of fish.
Prime objectives as set out in the incorporation or
(i) Establishment, construction and maintenance
facilities for fishing operations ; (ii) Operation and management of fishery harbou (iii) Provision of repair and maintenance facilities (iv) Establishment, maintenance and hiring out of
facilities, and the sale of ice ; (v) Carrying out of investigations and studies f
anchorages ; (vi) Imposition and recovery of charges and fees
fishery harbours and anchorages of the corpor
Harbours The Ceylon Fishery Harbours Corporation took ove Tangalle, Mirissa and Myliddy. At the time the corp was fully operational. Subsequently, work on the commissioned on 03.12.76. The other harbours are
Galle.—The harbour is located within the Galle comm and shore facilities have now been completed. It pr extent. The maximum dredged depth being 20 feet ! width 50 feet is available with side berthing facilities i Tower of capacity 25 tons per day and a storage caf quay wall of length 630 feet is available for smaller b above facilities four mid stream berths for large fishing
The harbour is, also, equipped to provide repair capacities 500 tons and 65 tons are available with m handle all types of repairs.
Fresh water and shore power are available at the facilities that are being provided.
Mirissa.—The construction of the harbour and the provides a basin area of approximately 17 acres in 10 feet below LWOST.

DURS CORPORATION
171
BOURS CORPORATION
lished by an order made by the Minister of porations Act, No. 49 of 1957, as published in 11th February, 1972. It took over functions of fishery harbours and anchorages from the to concentrate on its primary function of
ler are :-
of fishery harbours, anchorages and shore
es and anchorages for fishing operations ; for fishing craft ;
cold rooms, ice plants and other refrigeration
or the development of fishery harbours and
for the facilities and services provided at the ration.
er six harbours viz., Galle, Cod Bay, Beruwela, -oration took over, only Galle fishery harbour
Mirissa fishery harbour was ceremonially e in varying stages of construction.
Lercial harbour. Construction of the harbour rovides a basin area of approximately 12 acres in below LWOST. A Jetty of length 300 feet and Eor four vessels of draft up to 18 ft. A Flake Ice pacity of 100 tons is located on this Jetty. A
oats of draft up to 8 feet. In addition to the E vessels up to 350 gross tons are being provided.
facilities for fishing vessels. Two slipways of echanical and timber work-shops equipped to
e jetty and the quay in addition to bunkering
shore facilities was completed. This harbour extent. The maximum dredged depth being

Page 190
172
Shore installations provided in the vicinity
(a) Storage Room for Fish on Ice (6) Ice Storage
Fresh water is available at the quay. It is a fishing craft up to 20 cwt including a slipy facilities would also be provided.
Tangalla.--The construction of a breakwat mechanical engineering workshop was compl
This harbour provides a basin area of approx LWOST in the first stage of dredging and 10 fe
The shore installations at this harbour is exp the following facilities :-
Storage room for fish Block ice Ice storage
Provision of additional facilities at this. ] envisaged.
It is hoped to make water, electricity and bunk June 1977.
Trincomalee (Cold Bay). The fishery harbour The area allocated for the fishery harbour is aro sion. The dredged depth envisaged at this harb
The construction of buildings to house cold sto quarters for resident officers, water supply schem completed. The quay wall would provide aloj 18 feet.
Shore facilities available are :-
Storage room for fish on Storage room for wet fish Frozen fish storage Freezing capacity Block ice Ice storage
Repair facilities for small fishing craft compi equipped workshop have already been provided

HERIES
the quay wall comprise the following facilities :-
capacity 5 tons 10 tons
so programmed to provide repair facilities for small ay for such boats. Shore power and bunkering
r, a groyne, a quay wall, a 20 ton slipway and a eted.
mately 42 acres with a dredged depth of 8 feet below et below LWOST at the second stage if required.
ected to be completed by June 1977 and comprise
on ice
50 tons 10 tons 20 tons
harbour for freezing and storage of frozen fish is
tering facilities available at the quay side by end of
is located within the natural harbour at Trincomalee. and 50 acres with ample accommodation for expanour is 20 feet below, LWOST.
rage plant, freezers and ice plant, workshop, offices, e and refrigeration plant installation work has been igside berthing facilities for vessels up to a draft of
ce
| | | | | |
25 tons 50 tons 200 tons
10 tons (per day) 10 tons (per day) 60 tons
sing a slipway for boats up to 20 DWT and well

Page 191
CEYLON FISHERY HARBOURS
Bunkering facilities available are in proximity to tl power are available at the quay.
Myliddy.--The construction of the breakwater for fishe expected to be completed by the end of 1977. The basin a depth of 8 feet below LWOST, in the first stage and 10 Shore facilities in the first stage of construction would con fishing craft. Other facilities would be provided at a
Beruwela.--The construction of the break waters and 30 feet has already been completed. The harbour prov
Shore installations under construction are programmed comprise the following facilities :-
Storage room for fish on ice Handling room for wet fish Frozen fish storage Freezing capacity Flake ice
Ice storage
The construction of the workshop at the harbour had 65 tons is to be constructed. Electricity and Bunkering fa scheme is being installed by the national water supply an
Construction work on the following anchorages were c (1) Wennappuwa (construction of an experimental groy (2) Hambantota (jetty).
A Jetty has been constructed at Panadura at the river are being continued at Kalmunai, Batticaloa and Punnail
Marine surverys were carried out at—Galle, Ambala Kalutara river mouth and Devinuwara.
Dredging operations were continued at Tangalle fishery work was completed.
The mechanical workshops at Chilaw and Kalpitiya wer work was completed. It is programmed to provide worl Jaffna, Valaichchenai and Pesalai.
Work on the ice plants and fish storage rooms at Neg and is nearing completion. These facilities will be extende

CORPORATION
173'
e Petroleum Corporation Jetty. Water
ry harbour at Myliddy is in progress and is , cea is 74 acres and would provide a dredged i feet below LWOST is the second stage. prise only of a repair workshiop for small later stage.
the jetty of length 180 feet and width ides a basin area of 25 acres.
- to be completed in November 1977 and
25 tons — 20 tons 200. tons
10 tons — 10 tons
50 tons
been completed. A slipway of capacity cilities were provided. The water supply d drainage board.
ommenced in 1976 :-
ne),
outfall. " Hydrographical investigations udah.
igoda, Tangalle, Beruwela, Panaduara,
harbour and about 90 per cent of the
in progress and about 90 per cent of the shops at Myliddy, Mirissa, Mullaitivu,
ombo, Chilaw, Kalpitiya was continued Il to Thoduwawa and Ulla as well.

Page 192
172
FIS
Shore installations provided in the vicinity of
(a) Storage Room for Fish on Ice (6) Ice Storage
Fresh water is available at the quay. It is als fishing craft up to 20 cwt including a slipwa facilities would also be provided.
Tangalla.—The construction of a breakwate: mechanical engineering workshop was comple
This harbour provides a basin area of approxir LWOST in the first stage of dredging and 10 fee
The shore installations at this harbour is expe the following facilities :-
Storage room for fish o Block ice Ice storage
Provision of additional facilities at this. h envisaged.
It is hoped to make water, electricity and bunk June 1977.
Trincomalee (Cold Bay).—The fishery harbour i The area allocated for the fishery harbour is arou sion. The dredged depth envisaged at this harbo
The construction of buildings to house cold stor quarters for resident officers, water supply schem completed. The quay wall would provide alon 18 feet.
Shore facilities available are :-
Storage room for fish on i Storage room for wet fish Frozen fish storage Freezing capacity Block ice Ice storage
Repair facilities for small fishing craft compri equipped workshop have already been provided

TERIES
Ehe quay wall comprise the following facilities :-
capacity 5 tons 10 tons
o programmed to provide repair facilities for small y for such boats. Shore power and bunkering
, a groyne, a quay wall, a 20 ton slipway and a
ced.
mately 42 acres with a dredged depth of 8 feet below It below LWOST at the second stage if required.
cted to be completed by June 1977 and comprise
n ice
50 tons - 10 tons - 20 tons
arbour for freezing and storage of frozen fish is
ering facilities available at the quay side by end of
s located within the natural harbour at Trincomalee. ind 50 acres with ample accommodation for expanpur is 20 feet below, LWOST.
rage plant, freezers and ice plant, workshop, offices, e and refrigeration plant installation work has been gside berthing facilities for vessels up to a draft of
ce
25 tons 50 tons 200 tons
10 tons (per day) 10 tons (per day) 60 tons
sing a slipway for boats up to 20 DWT and well

Page 193
CEYLON FISHERY HARBOURS C
Bunkering facilities available are in proximity to the power are available at the quay.
Myliddy.--The construction of the breakwater for fisher expected to be completed by the end of 1977. The basin are depth of 8 feet below LWOST, in the first stage and 10 Shore facilities in the first stage of construction would com fishing craft. Other facilities would be provided at a 1
Beruwela.—The construction of the break waters and 30 feet has already been completed. The harbour provio
Shore installations under construction are programmed comprise the following facilities :-
Storage room for fish on ice Handling room for wet fish Frozen fish storage Freezing capacity Flake ice
Ice storage
The construction of the workshop at the harbour had 65 tons is to be constructed. Electricity and Bunkering fa scheme is being installed by the national water supply an
Construction work on the following anchorages were co (1) Wennappuwa (construction of an experimental groy (2) Hambantota (jetty).
A Jetty has been constructed at Panadura at the river - are being continued at Kalmunai, Batticaloa and Punnaik
Marine surverys were carried out at—Galle, Ambalan Kalutara river mouth and Devinuwara.
Dredging operations were continued at Tangalle fishery work was completed.
The mechanical workshops at Chilaw and Kalpitiya were work was completed. It is programmed to provide worl
affna, Valaichchenai and Pesalai.
Work on the ice plants and fish storage rooms at Neg and is nearing completion. These facilities will be extende

DRPORATION
173
- Petroleum Corporation Jetty. Water
y harbour at Myliddy is in progress and is, ea is 74 acres and would provide a dredged i feet below LWOST is the second stage. prise only of a repair workshiop for small ater stage.
the jetty of length 180 feet and width des a basin area of 25 acres.
to be completed in November 1977 and
- 25 tons
20 tons
- 200. tons
| | | | |
10 tons
10 tons
50 tons
been completed. A slipway of capacity cilities were provided. The water supply d drainage board.
ommenced in 1976 :-
ne),
outfall." Hydrographical investigations Eudah.
ngoda, Tangalle, Beruwela, Panaduara,
harbour and about 90 per cent of the
e in progress and about 90 per cent of the kshops at Myliddy, Mirissa, Mullaitivu,
gombo, Chilaw, Kalpitiya was continued
d to Thoduwawa and Ulla as well.

Page 194
174
Production (a) Fish Processing Division. The handl fish and shellfish are carried out by this d export or local consumption are subject 1 qualified and trained personnel to ensure food processors and exporters of Sri Lan
Harbour in processing, freezing and stor
(6) The quantity of fish and shell fish tons and 203 metric tons respectively, bri
Engineering works In addition to fish processing, sale of ice, ing assignments were carried out during earned amounted to Rs. 367,265.
Foreign Exchange earnings Foreign exchange earned by the corpora
Personnel Staff of the corporation at the end of 19
Finance At the beginning of the year 1976, the Rs. 18 million has been invested for const fishing industry during 1976.

FISHERIES
1g, processing, freezing, packaging, storage and delivery of vision. All products processed, packaged and stored for
stringent inspections for quality, by a team of technically nternational standards. A good majority of frozen marine a, utilize optimum facilities available at the Galle Fishery ging of fish and fish-products. processed and frozen during the year, 1976 was 65 metric
ging an income of Rs. 938,000.
upply of water, etc., various civil and mechanical engineerthe year at Galle, God Bay and Tangalla. The revenue
ion was Rs. 129,000.
16 consisted of 568.
capital of the corporation stood at Rs. 78 million. Over Eruction of harbours and provision of shore facilities for the

Page 195
CHAPTER
FOREIGN T
-GENERAL I
Sri Lanka's export earnings as Customs records revea to Rs. 4,815 million in 1976, an increase of Rs. 882 n Imports which showed a sharp increase in 1975, fell í 1976, a drop of Rs. 563 million or approximately 11 p of trade of Rs. 127 million in 1976, a reversal of a de international trade since 1966.
A comparative study of Sri Lanka’s international is made in the Table below :-
TABLE 13.1-SRI LANKA'S
Year
Exports
Imports (Rs. million
1972
2,009
2,064
2,617
1973 1974
3,472 3,933
2,715 4,554 5,251 4,688
1975
1976
4,815
Composition of International Trade Exports.--The three plantation crops, viz., tea, rut international export market. Export earnings from from 75-8 per cent in 1975 to 70-1 in 1976.
Tea exports fell by 12:8 million kilogrammes (6 p over the preceding year. Rubber exports too declin with 1975 exports, though contrary to an appreciable pi Earnings from rubber exports increased from Rs. 6: coconut products, viz., copra, coconut oil, desiccated contribution with a slight drop in overall export earn in 1976.
Precious and semi-precious stones contributed 5.41 year with Rs. 261 million, while other domestic exps to Rs. 1,167 million.

XIII
RADE
REVIEW
1 increased from Rb. 3,933 million in 1975, million or 22 per cent over the preceding year. rom Rs. 5,251 million to Rs. 4,688 million in er cent. There was thus a favourable balance clining trend, hitherto recorded in Sri Lanka's
trade during the 5-year period 1972-1976
FOREIGN TRADE 1972–1976
Balance of Trade
Terms of Trade
55
**
98
+ | | | |
1,082
1,318
+ 127
62
Source: Central Bank of Ceylon.
-ber and coconut continue to dominate the this source however, dropped significantly
er cent) though a price increase was recorded ed by 24 million kilogrammes as compared ice increase, in the international rubber market. 14 million to Rs. 890 million in 1976. Major
coconut and fresh nuts showed no substantial ings from Rs. 397 million to Rs. 383 million
mer cent of the total export earnings during the rts increased substantially from Rs. 760 million

Page 196
176
FOR
The composition of exports by major comn Table 13.2.
TABLE 13.2-COMPOSITION OF EXP
1972
Commodity
Tea
1,162
Rubber
263
266
Coconut products (a) Precious and Semi-precious
stones
12
218
Other Exports
Total (b) Re-Exports
1,993
16
Total Exports
2,009
(a) Major coconut products : viz. copra, co (6) Including value of Bunkers.
TABLE 13.3—IMPORTS CLASSIFIED BY MAJOR CAT
Value |
Major Categories
1972 1973 1.
Consumer goods Intermediate goods Investment goods Imports (other) Total Imports
1,069 1,424 2 502 815 1 438 451
55 25 2,064 2,715 4,
Imports.--The imports of consumer goods de 1976 with a corresponding percentage drop frsi on the other hand increased substantially to R: the preceding year.
The import of investment goods remained so
Value of imports classified by major categor the period 1972–1976 appear in Table 13.3.

EIGN TRADE
nodities for the five-year period 1972-1976 appears in
ORTS BY MAJOR COMMODITIES-1972-1976
1973
1975
1976
1974 (Rs. million)
1,261
1,360
1,932
2,100
592
738
654
890
145
397
397
383
141
109
180
261
346
843
760
1,167
2,598
3,447
3,923
4,801
21
25
10
14
2,617
3,472
3,933
4,815
Source : Central Bank of Ceylon.
conut oil, desiccated coconut and fresh nuts.
"EGORIES AND PERCENTAGE TO TOTAL IMPORTS (VALUE)
Ps. million Percentage to total imports
U 974 1975 1976 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
2,138 2,651 1,732 51:8 52:5 47.0 50•5 36:9 ,920 1,888 2,259 24:3 30-0 42:1 36-0, 48:2 457 653 643 21-2 16:6 10-0 12:4 13.7
39 59 54 2:7 0-9 0-9 1:1 1:2- 554 5,251 4,688 100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0
Source : Central Bank of Ceylon.
clined from Rs. 2,658 million to Rs. 1,732 million in m 50.5 to 36.9. The category of intermediate goods B. 2,259 million as compared with Rs. 1,888 million
omewhat static during the year.
ies and the relative percentage to total imports for

Page 197
GENERAL REVI
CHART No. 5.--BALANCE OF
for see eacRS.
u i C & OUTU 'RUPIE 5 MILLION.
5500m
es) 50oo n DmäGioban
JIMPORTS I
Cat.
vzul 2
ТЕА 2 63
இறப்பர்
RUBBER God Bleh Og nibii MunchLLET
gan w 6DU
сосомur 400o
OTHER
F
na
3500
A 3000
1 250o
I 2000
500
. 1000
5ool
1966 1967 1968 1969, 1970 1971
STL 'a'an AN.
II-DEPARTMENT OF
Trade Promotion Increased incentives afforded by the department to the businessmen into the export trade, invariably with new feature in this regard was that more exporters were re comers to the export trade were found markets abroad f from abroad for various local products were passed on t tions and local firms for necessary action. Services of Sr cial secretaries abroad were sought increasingly for specially new products which exporters were able to off
The department continues to assist local and foreign and settle such disputes to ensure continuing business
Trade Fairs and Exhibitions The Department of Commerce organised Sri Lanka's promote traditional as well as non-traditional products International Spring Fair, Partners for Progress Fair a Germany, Leipzig Spring Fair in the German Demo Yugoslavia, Baghdad International Fair in Iraq and M was stressed on the promotion of a number of local no

EW
177
TRADE, 1966-1976
“ජන යන
PRODUCTS ABI otsin
EXPORTS
1972
- 1973 1974 1975 - 1976
*:: Silva
COMMERCE
exporters helped bring in a large number of products for purpose of export. A notable gistered than in the preceding years. Newor their products. Trade enquiries received o government departments, state corporai Lanka trade commissioners and commerthe promotion of non-traditional products
Per.
businessmen in the matter of trade disputes relations.
participation in seven overseas trade fairs to E, Trade fairs participated were : Frankfurt _nd Ikofa Food Fair in Federal Republic of ocratic Republic, Zagreb Autumn Fair in Cilan International Fair in Italy. Emphasis
n-traditional exports.

Page 198
178
CHART No. 6.--INDICES
BASE: 1:
yƏ S. Se
28o
240
20o B
AnchroonmoonIITTITUIUITIT
1966 1967 1968 1969 191 E-C. DE SILVA.
Trade and Payment Agreements German Democratic Republic.—A Trade Ag for payments in freely convertible currency w
ment replaced earlier trade and payment agre from 1 January, 1976.
People's Republic of Bulgaria.—A new tra providing for payments in freely convertit agreement became effective from 1 January,
People's Republic of China. A trade pro goods during the year 1977 was signed in De
U. S. S. R.A trade protocol for the year Agreement of February 1958 was signed wit
Bangladesh.—A trade delegation from B negotiate a trade agreement between the tw
Special Trading Agreement with M/s. Su agreement signed by the Director of Comme 1974 was extended for three years commenci

FOREIGN TRADE
OF EXPORTS (QUANTUM AND PRICE) 967 = 100, 1966-1976
合成了能量綱
3 anowy
l
1967 = Q
PRICE
0 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
5TZ''MAN
seement between Sri Lanka and the G. D. R. providing -as signed in Colombo in December, 1975. This Agreecement signed on 12 March, 1971 and came into effect
de agreement with the People's Republic of Bulgaria ble currency was signed in December, 1975. This
1976. otocol between Sri Lanka and China for exchange of cember 1976.
1976 under the framework of the Trade and Payments Eh the USSR in February, 1976. angaladesh visited Sri Lanka in December, 1976 to wo countries.
kab Sweden. The validity of the special trading erce with Messrs. AB Sukab of Sweden on 28 October,
ng 4 December, 1976.

Page 199
DEPARTMENT OF
CHART No. 7.–INDICES OF IMPORTS (QUANTUM
IIIIIIID
) En es am 4
350
300
TOInnominatındanntnoutunuItmintunutronoom
15o
1966
1967 1968 1969 1970 197
Esde Silva.
International Commercial Relations United Nations Conference of Trade and Developmen 4th session of UNCTAD held in Nairobi, Kenya, fr Trade. A point of interest to developing countries w There were various conferences held during the sec discussions. It was agreed at the Nairobi conference ing conference on the common fund by March
negotiations on individual commodities were also h UNCTAD had convened preparatory meetings on Fibres by end of the year.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT initiated in 1973 with the object of achieving an ex
and securing additional benefits for the developing Sri Lanka was the group on “ tropical products ” v 1976. Work in other groups of the multilateral tr

COMMERCE
179
AND PRICE) BASE : 1967= 100, 1966-1976
QUANTUM
1967=100
PRICE
1 1972 1973 1974
19ts 1976
t (UNCTAD).--The Sri Lanka delegation to the om 5 to 31 May, 1976 was led by the Minister of Pas the Integrated Programme for Commodities. cond half of 1976 as a follow to UNCTAD IV that steps would be taken to covene a Negotiat1977. Preparatory meetings for international eld during September and October 1976. The three comodities, viz., copper, Jute and Hard
5.—The GATT multilateral trade negotiations pansion and greater liberalization of world trade
countries, continued. Of particular interest to which virtually concluded its work by the end of made negotiations, continued though gradually.

Page 200
180
FORI
Agreement with the European Economic Con Sri Lanka and the EEC signed in July 1975 pre which would oversee the agreement. The firs was held in Brussels in October, 1976. It was agreement was signed.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and it
made its ratification to the Bangkok Agreemen to be a member of the Agreement with Banglad
The Bangkok agreement provides for the liber ing member-countries of the ESCAP region. Un was set up to administer and oversee the treaty standing committee. Two meetings of the star 1976.
Commodities The Department of Commerce maintains a close local export products both traditional and nonand adopt suitable policies so that local products
Sri Lanka with four other countries, viz. Male international rubber agreement at Djakarta in N was the stabilisation of rubber prices to help b
III–TEA EXPO
Propaganda activities as regards tea promotion :
Active consideration was given to public relatic the export trade. This includes organising visi Lanka, seminars and initial workings of a trade cover tea export trade.
Public operations in Sri Lanka were expanded would be on foreign tourists visiting the island
Activities of the tea centres were reviewed wi consideration continues to be the promotional as
Apart from promotional work, attention y opportunities to boost the tea trade.
Considerable reduction in expenditure has b which include closing down offices in some c briefed to ensure a better turnout of publicity ma originality and often failed to achieve fundament
Where tea councils are concerned the major dev India and Sri Lanka, agreed many years ago to and Canada. The principle of contributions to a
The boards area of activity has thus been lar expenditure. This policy was justified to a certa available for export.
There is a significant difference in the pattern o In the period 1962 to 1971, Sri Lanka's exports during period 1972-1974 was 426 million pounds

GN TRADE
-munity (EEC). In terms of the agreement between ision exists for the setting up of a joint commission
meeting of the EEC/Sri Lanka joint commission possible to review the progress made since the
e Pacific (ESCAP).--The government of Sri Lanka
on 2 June, 1976 thus becoming the fourth country esh, India and the Republic of Korea. lization and expansion of trade among the developder the terms of the agreement, a standing committee
The four participating states are members of the ding committee were held in July and September
contact with world market developments in regard to raditional. Special studies were made to formulate
would be competitive in world markets. Lysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore signed the
ovember 1976. The main purpose of the agreement oth producing and consuming countries.
RT PROMOTION
are channelled through the Tea Propaganda Board. ins work and trade information which would benefit ts by the tea trade in consuming countries to Sri information service through the bureaux abroad to
but mainly concentrated in areas where the impact
th a view to making them viable units. Prime pect. ras focussed on market evaluation abroad and
een achieved following evaluation of campaigns ontinental countries. Advertising agencies were erial. Such material was invariably found lacking il objectives. elopment was the break up of a formula by which contribute to tea councils of the U.S., Germany Il tea councils is one of market shares at present.
gely one of reducing and eliminating unnecessary n extent, in the light of reduced quantities of tea
exports since Pakistan emerged as a large buyer. averaged 458 million pounds though the average
The average for the years 1972, 1973 and 1974

Page 201
TEA EXPORT PRODU
is about 60 million pounds since Pakistan commenced b offered in the years 1972–1974 about 92 million pounds buyers.
A considerable improvement in the crop was recorded the tea export trade as the tea crop in certain other producit
In this context the present situation seems promising and in many markets.
Sri Lanka's tea promotional campaigns continue United Kingdom, France, Federal Republic of Germany, in the Middle East region, Japan, Pakistan, Australia, promotional work with other tea producing countries and United States, United Kingdom, France, Australia, Canad Zealand.
Improved economic conditions in Middle East countr of the tea trade towards that region particularly Sri Lanka whilst in many of the traditional markets, demand for tea
Promotional activities in the U.K. amidst economic dil towards maintaining a marginal increase in sales of exist effective basis and take advantage of opportunities for ex Limited tactical advertising was employed, particularly and a television campaign in London and the Southern i packs.
France
With a view to achieving a measurable sales growth for best selling Sri Lanka packs were undertaken with domi important hyper-markets. Sri Lanka tea was also featı item fairs in the country.
Federal Republic of Germany The Limited Sri Lanka, tea promotion campaign was c fairs as “The Green Week Fair' in West Berlin, HAFA
Munich and support predominantly Sri Lanka packs thr in support of “ Windsor Castle ” Sri Lanka, tea was unde
minary trade negotiations were held, with certain packers support.
Netherlands The promotional campaign during 1976, was arranged campaign was geared to off-take Sri Lanka tea. The bu Householders Fair where Sri Lanka tea was sampled among the many visitors to the stand.
Scandinavia in Denmark a reminder advertising campaign for th newspapers and 'Grocers' weekly. A joint promotion ca macker in Gothenburg, Sweden and Stockholm. Large sc another distributor geared to direct off-take tea from Sri

CTION
181
uying. Sri Lanka, has in effect therefore ess each year to her traditional pre-1972
- in 1975. This was a tremendous filip to ng countries recorded a drop in production.
I also help Sri Lanka, to regain her position
to be conducted by the board in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, countries New Zealand, and South Africa. Joint d the tea trade was also carried out in the a, Federal Republic of Germany and New
ies during 1976, saw a greater expansion a tea for which a marked preference exists, was virtually static or on a declining trend.
ficulties and rapid inflation, were directed cing Sri Lanka identified brands on a cost pansion when market conditions improve. to support individual brand promotions region featuring the best selling Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka tea, in-store promotions of the nance at point-of-sale particularly, in the ired at the principal food and consumer
onfined to participation in selected trade in Bremen and Ikofa International Fair in ough in-store promotions. A promotion ertaken in 6 selected supermarkets. Prelito draw up details for future promotional
with major packers and retailers. The ireau participated in the international Rai
and educative information distributed
e "Lion' symbol was undertaken in 18 impaign was launched with an important tale promotion was also carried out with Lanka.

Page 202
182
Italy Promotional activities were recommencec packers thus entailing joint promotion f chains. The bureau also participated in
Austria The bureau launched a limited campaig liquid sampling promotions at a leading
The Middle East Much attention continues to be focussed market potential for Sri Lanka tea. All offices. The Dubai office controls promo Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Saudi outdoor media as posters and hoardings, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia are also covere
Tea promotion work in the Lebanon ha the country.
In Iraq, a major consumer of Sri Lanl Government Purchasing Board. Distrib campaign.
The bureau office in Cairo, conducts ce Ethiopia, Somalia and Libya. The cine advertising constitute main types of pron been curtailed in view of high costs invo
Pakistan Pakistan has become leading buyer of Sri television advertising in the various lan competitions for school children and part
Australia and New Zealand Due to high cost of television advertising, a major part of the promotional work. exhibitions were also undertaken though o
Japan The general campaign for “Lion” identit programme. This includes distribution o exhibitions.
South Africa Sri Lanka enjoys a favourable share of S all available media—including posters, h European minority who are nevertheless and coloured natives.

FOREIGN TRADE
in 1976. Discussions were held with some of the leading r Sri Lanka tea to be carried out through supermarket he international trade fair, Milan.
- through lady demonstrators who carried out a series of
hain store.
on promotional activities in this region with its increasing he markets in this area are being covered from bureau ional activities in United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Oman, Arabia and Iran. These activities are in the form of radio advertising with participation of the local tea trade.
d virtually been at a standstill due to chaotic conditions in
ka tea promotional work is “ controlled" by the Iraqi ution of publicity material forms a major part of the
ampaigns in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, ema, out-door media, the trade and the press and radio
notional work so conducted. Television advertising has plved.
Lanka tea. Much emphasis is laid on radio, cinema and guage media in the country. Public relations work, ticipation in exhibitions were carried out.
other types of advertising, especially out-door media form
Public relations and participation in selected fairs and n a limited scale.
ied Sri Lanka tea continued, through lady demonstrator f publicity material and participation in trade fairs and
uth African market. Tea promotion campaign has used iardings and other out-door activities. Apart from the heavy consumers, promotion campaigns covered Asians

Page 203
IMPORT AND EXPOF
CHART No. 8.--EXPORTS OF TEA, RUBBER AND
67&os en ese பத்திலட்சம் ரூபா RUPEES MILLION
nas
CID
தேயிலை இறப்பர் தெங்குப் பொ
-eos cume 3863as
Dominion Internatio
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 19:
LSTITIE TISAL DRAUGISMAA
IV-IMPORT AND E
The Import and Export (Control) Act, No. 1 of 1968 and Export Control.
The floor price scheme was itroduced on a trial from 1 January, 1975. Eighteen minor export I cocoa, coffee, cloves, gingelly seed, gingelly oil, mus leaves, pepper, shark fins and fish maws were br control notice (no. 1/75) published in Gazette Ex Citronella oil was also brought under this schem published in the "Ceylon Daily News” of 14 May,

T CONTROL
183
locONUT PRODUCTS—(BY-VALUE) 1966-1976
TE A
நபிகள்
RUBBER CoCoMUT PROutrs
I 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
PPORT CONTROL
, is administered by the Department of Import
basis in December 1974, and came into effect, roducts, viz. ; cardamom, cinnamon bark oil, card, nutmeg, nutmeg oil, mace, papain, papaya ught under the floor price scheme by export raordinary (no. 147/65) of 23 January, 1975.
by export control notice of 12 May, 1975, 975.

Page 204
184
FO
In terms of a decision taken at the floor circular was issued by the Controller of Ex export pepper oil, clove oil, cocoa oil or bu would prevent these essential oils from being to seek assistance of Ceylon national chamb to issue certificates of conformity in respect prices fixed.
There were certain difficulties in complying no. 1/75, appearing in the Gazette Extraor. export of minor products. With the concurre in this regard were :-
(a) Payment for consignments to be effect
90 days originally stipulated.
(6) Where terms of payment were based on I
of 11 per cent of F. O. B. price as aga
(C) The period of time allowed to inform
shipments to be increased from 14 to 21
The item “ timber ” listed in the schedule Gazette Extraordinary no. 120/5, of July 16, 19 no. 3/75, was published in Gazette Extraord export of boron processed rubber wood and an processed rubber wood including goods packe
Imports
Free exchange licences issued by the controlle of debits against licences so issued appear in T
The spell of drought experienced in the count to a shortfall in the production of coffee and into forward contracts in respect of these tw their contracts. World prices of these two co
With a view to preventing further forward o suspended with effect from 21st May, 1976, fo position gradually improved towards end of t quota.
Quality control was introduced in respect Standards.
Much publicity is given to the floor price sch through the medium of the press, and the radio products.

REIGN TRADE
price committee meeting on 14th November, 1975, a change to authorized traders requesting them not to etter and mustard oil without an export permit. This - exported without a check. Action was also initiated er of commerce and Ceylon chamber of commerce of items where standards are not stipulated but floor
with conditions as set out in the export control notice dinary no. 147/65, of January 23, 1975, relating to ence of the floor price committee, concessions granted
ed within 180 days from date of shipment as against
etters of credit, sales would be allowed with a discount inst the 1 per cent originally allowed.
Department of Import and Export Control as regards
days.
to the new export control regulations published in 974, was further classified and Export Control Notice, linary no. 162/8, of May 7, 1975. This relates to rticles thereof, packings, boxes and crates from boron 1 therein.
r of imports and exports, revalidations and value able 13:4.
ry as well as in other producing countries contributed | cocoa. A number of exporters who had entered D commodities were consequently unable to execute mmodities also spiralled by more than 100 per cent. ontracts being entered into, sales were temporarily r coffee and 2nd July, 1976, for cocoa exports. The he year and exports were resumed on a restricted
I of gingelly exports by the Bureau of Ceylon
eme and f. o. b. export prices for each commodity > to assist producers in obtaining fair prices for their

Page 205
IMPORT AND EXPOR
TABLE 134FREE EXCHANGE LICENCES ISSUED (INCLUI
DEBITSYEARS 197:
Valu
inc
Description of Imports
Food Items (other than Food Commissioner’s) Textiles (Piece Goods) Drugs
Fertilizer
Petroleum Products.
Direct User:
(a) Special Agricultural Projects (b) Machinery and spares (C) Existing Hotels and Hotel Projects (d) Local Bodies
(e) Other Direct User Imports Other Trade Quote Items Government Departments Non-Industrial State Corporations
(Other than these under the Ministry of Industries
and Scientific Affairs) Manufacturing Industries
State Industrial Corporations (under the Ministry
of Industries and Scientific Affairs) Convertible rupees Imports
(a) Including short-term credit. (6) Computer data available with the Department
Ceylon.
With a view to conserving as much of the available ti in log or sawn form, other than mahogany, satin, teak a are permitted only through consolexpo while mahogan if these various of timber are purchased from the state
Steps are being taken to enforce stringent measures o articles of archaeological, cultural and historical ir

T CONTROL
185
JDING REVALIDATED LICENCES) AND VALUE OF 5 AND 1976
e of licence issued in cluding (revalidated Debits against licences
Itcences)
(Rs. Million) (R, Million)
1975་་1976
1975
7976
119.67
144:16
_95:43112-18
29:19
35:27 42-26 12:73
32:48) 63:77 (6)
29.53
19:11
32:83
27-67 ) 11:14 16:52 (6)
0•46
0:89
5:26
5:88
1:90
10:98 5.41
4:02
20:45
27.94 126:43
140.77 268:2924521 230:35 172:45 371:21602:70 (6)
0:32
0.57
0:32
2.97
1:58
9.60 1:07
2-04 9:10
1667 79:21
81:44 90:17 105:63 101:8081:34 201-65355:44 (6)
£53.55 1,653:91 40-4689:26
870:99 969:22 (6)
28:9237:37
732:51 3.225.00
1,554-06 1,837-77
of Economic Research, Central Bank of
mber for loal industries, export of all timber nd ebony has been banned. Ebony exports , satin and teak exports are permitted only
timber.corporation.
a indiscriminate export of antiques, and other terest. The antiquites ordinance is being

Page 206
186
FO
amended for the purpose by the Ministry of prevent antiques smuggled out of Sri Lai Principal Collector of Customs.
Exports of metal scrap has been banned to
The c. w. e. has been allowed to export bet which have hitherto exported this item. Ai
Export licences under the ‘floor price' sc 1976, were :-
FLOC
Aralu
Cardamom Cardamom oil Cinnamon Cinnamon leaf oil Cinnamon bark oil Citronella oil. Cloves Cocoa Cocoa (off grades) Coffee Shark fins and fish maws
Gingelly seed Gingelly oil Mustard Mace Nutmeg Nutmeg oil - Papain Papaya leaves Pepper Pepper oil Rubber seed oil Cardamom (seed and other prod Other cinnamon products Cocoa powder

REIGN TRADE
Cultural Affairs. Effective measures are now taken to ka by the Commissioner of Archaeology and the
conserve metal scrap for local industries.
el leaves in addition to the consolexpo and markfed,
ninimum export price is fixed for Betel leaves.
neme giving quantity and f.o.b. value of exports in
R PRICE ITEMS
Quantity Kilogrammes
206,641 142,257
1,097 6,746,000 116,826
1,426
F.O.B. value
Rs.
278,715 11,708,994
1,118,013 74,762,542 4,886,873 1,008,322 3,463,816 19,373,735 14,068,108
134,405 24,109,797
3,122,679 26,474,659
220,356 500,217 1,126,908
25,000 1,615,128
67,811 6,153,606
312,001
32,923 264,116
7,797 48,535
9,780 96,825
550 231,000
3,000
1,054,123
670,015 2,662,013
726,864 2,308,560
24,617 1,802,225 164,261 651,382 32,882
cts)
10,000
172,383
Total
17,939,800
194,789,883

Page 207
IMPORT AND EXPORT
Selected items of non-floor price exports giving qi 1976, were :-
NON-FLOOR PRICE EXPOR Commodity
Quantity
2,330,54 130,31 456,19
20,34 44,579,1 14,737,84
Betel leaves Beche de Mer Flowers Jewellery
Mineral sands Graphite Timber Fish products Fruit products Live fish and plants Grains and pulses Ayurvedic drugs
Gems Metal Hides Garments Scrap metal and metal Exports to Maldives Animal food
4,174,88 3,010,65 2,529,23
5,76
22,679,91
3,67 414,99
11,681,1
3,30
Convertible Rupee Accounts Imports under convertible rupee accounts continued licences issued during 1976, totalled Rs. 89,254,434.
Breakdown of this total is shown below :-
Motor cars Motor cycles Coaches Station wagons Road tractors and trailers Agricultural tractors Scooters Commercial vehicles Cycles (motorised) Prime movers Jeeps Delivery vans Chassis Buses
Mini buses Trucks. Tankers Raw material (industries) Industrial machinery Trade Items (not included elsewher Direct user-items

CONTROL
187
antity and f.o.b. value covering licences in
IS ITEMS–1976
) (kilogrammes) 3 (kilogrammes) 3 (units)
(units) ) (kilogrammes) 7 (kilogrammes)
0 (lb.) 3 (lb.) 2 (units) 2 (metric tons)
F.O.B. Value
Rs. 21,378,765 4,327,534
686,747 4,482,179 10,209,889 20,475,672
2,326,449 71,805,687 5,577,463
891,571 4,045,627
4,067,176 275,709,552
3,516,003 8,452,641 65,166,455 11,133,729 7,442,691 3,729,351
9 (carats) 1 (tons) 3 (units)
17 (kilogrammes)
19 (metric tons)
i unabated throughout the year. Value of
Rs. 13,047,967
120,766
14,780 690,924 1,167,934
104,065 335,698
8,201
7,053 145,137
622,349 3,190,122 1,807,490 348,667 164,870 1,544,659 3,697,288 5,198,565 9,635,523 41,409,710
5,992,666 89,254,434

Page 208
188
An expanded convertible rupee acco 1976. Under this scheme a number of
were authorised. Among items so autt foods, scooters and other utility and co of Rs. 22:5 million.
V—DEPARTMEN
Departmental activities as in the precedi
(1) Fixing of “ fair prices” daily for 1 (2) Purchase of rubber at fair prices
(a) from registered wholesale licen
(6) from registered small-holders at (3) Transport and packing for export (4) Monopoly export of RSS 1, 2 and 3 (5) Export of RSS 4 and 5 (purchased : (6) Export control and issue of licences
(block). (7) Sale of acid to small holders registe
Rubber Purchasing Depots No new rubber depots were opened dur continue to be maintained in the followin
Colombo District Avissawella Dompe Gampaha Homagama Kirindiwela Kosgama Padukka
Kalutara District Meegahatenna Panadura Alutgama Baduraliya Bulathsinhala
Horana Ittapana Kalutara
Matugama
Matara District Akuressa Kamburupitiya
Matara
Ratnapura District Ayagama Kela
Kurumita Peimadulla Ratnapura Udakarawita

FOREIGN TRADE
nts liberalisation scheme was introduced in early June ew items subject to ceilings, to the value of Rs. 31 million prised were machine tools, commercial vehicles, invalid sumer goods. These import licences were in the region
E OF COMMODITY PURCHASE
ng year were confined to :- pcal sheet rubber.
ed dealers (shippers), 49 depots situated in rubber producing areas. of rubber purchased at the Depots. rubber, viz., under bi-lateral trade contracts. et depots) sold under bi-lateral contracts or free exchange. for all exports of raw rubber whether sheet, crepe or crumb
red at the 49 depots.
ing the year. The 49 existing rubber purchasing depots g major rubber growing areas of the island :-
Galle District Ambalangoda Baddegama Elpitiya Galle Hiniduma Kahaduwa Pitigala Yatalamatta
Kegalle District Aranayake Bulathkohupitiya Dehiowita Deraniyagala Kegalle Kotiyakumbura
Mawanella Rambukkana Ruwanwella Tuntota Udukumbura
Warakapola Yatiyantota
Kandy District Galagedera
Matale District Matale
Badulla District Koslanda

Page 209
DEPARTMENT OF COMMO
These depots continued to be of assistance to th planting material and fertilizers under the rubber rel
Purchase of Rubber The department purchased 20,650 metric tonnes (tons of scrap rubber through its 49 outstation depots.
Quantities of sheet and scrap rubber purchased at th December 1976, appear on table 13.6.
TABLE 13:5MONTHLY PURCHASES OF RUE
Month
January
February
March April
May
June July August September October
November December
Sheet Rubbe Kilogramme
2,366,096 1,957,743 1,533,533 1,517,147 1,748,076 1,570,265 2,209,053 1,660,572 1,796,840 1,287,524 1,563,760 1,439,993
20,650,602
Rubber Prices The price range as paid for RSS (1) per kilogramme 1976, is shown below:
1976
January February
March April
May June July August September October November December
Highest Rs. cts.
3 83 4 05 4 44 4 41 5 034 5 13; 4 671 4 721 4 59 4 663 4 59 4 57.

DDITY PURCHASE
189
1e rubber control department in distributing habilitation scheme.
of sheet rubber and 20 metric tonnes (tons)
Le 49 rubber depots during 12 months ending
BBER AT OUTSTATION DEPOTS-1976
'r
Scrap Rubber Kilogrammes
2,106 1,686 1131
CLASS 1,782
NO. 1,356mmene
319/STA
69.)
1,62ACCN. 1,645 N 1 sus No.
979 1,736 829
1,252 1936
17,059
at the outstation depots each month during
Lowest Rs. Cts.
3 32 3 66 3 82 3 903 4 314 4 36 4 08 4 313 4 27 4 303 4 19 4 164

Page 210
190
Exports In accordance with the agreement signed in tons of RSS (1) (2) and (3) to the People's R the entire quantity was shipped during 1976.
was also shipped to China. An agreement f (3) to that country during 1977, was conclud
Prices for the shipments of rubber to Chin Inarket closing prices plus a handling charge
A quantity of 1,500 metric tons of sheet ru in Europe and Pakistan earning foreign exc
CHART No. 9.-EXPORTS OF T
හා හඩර දඟක්. ஆயிரம் அந்தர்கள் THOUS AND CWTS.
800 m
7200
6400
5600
4800 H
4000
3200
2400 -
1600
800
1966 1967 1968 1969 |
Caudas TG 698 QDBUT RU
cd.

REIGN TRADE
November 1975, to supply a quantity of 67,000 metric epublic of China under the bilateral trade agreement, In addition, a quantity of 2,340 metric tons of RSS (4) or the supply of 49,000 metric tons of RSS (1) (2) and ed in December 1976.
a were based on the monthly average of the Singapore
Ibber mainly of RSS (4) and (5) was shipped to buyers
hange to the value of Rs. 9,440,510.
IA AND RUBBER (BY VOLUME) 1966-1976
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976.
A IBBER
STATISTCAL. DRAUGHTSALA

Page 211
REGISTRATION OF C
The sheet rubber shipped under bilateral trade surveyors to ensure quality and packing in accordanc of natural rubber.
Local Sales.—Sheet rubber is sold to the Ceylon Commodity Purchase. A quantity of 1,795 tons was so of cuttings, clippings and other off-grades were sold lo
VIREGISTRATION OI
The Department of the Registrar of Companies admini
Marks, Designs, Societies, Cheetus and Copyright Ordinance and Registration of Auditors for Compan scope of its functions. In the administration of these public every form of service incidental to the grant of
would be necessary for the conduct of business.
The main activity of the department is registration. concerns makes it possible for the department to maint and volume of business activities. At the same time, p ensured by registration stimulates advancement of tech country.
Limited Liability Company The present law is embodied in the Companies Ordina have been added from time to time. The Minister o
Mr. Ronnie De Mel, M.P.,* to revise the companies orc the terms of reference to examine and report on this la the country and Government programmes enunciated to provisions law (no. 19) of 1974, required all foreign co on business in Sri Lanka to incorporate themselves Ordinance (No. 51) of 1938.
New Registrations The popularity of the corporate company concept is ev part of businessmen to join themselves into limited liab tained by the department. Aggregate authorised capita of 338 and 282 companies respectively were Rs. 1,392 263 registrations in 1976, with an aggregate authorised
Classification Statistics in respect of investment of capital in various industry, commerce, etc., indicate prevailing trends a business activity in Sri Lanka.
*Now Minister of Finance and Planning.

DMPANIES
191
agreements is surveyed by a panel of with accepted standards for various grades
Tyre Corporation by the Department of Id to the corporation, 683,150 kilogrammes cally on a system of tender.
COMPANIES
sters the Companies Business Names, Trade Ordinance. Administration of the Patents i and Society Accounts also fall within the
ordinances the department renders to the legal status and sanction of certification that
The requirements of registration for business ain statistics pertaining to the nature, extent protection of trade marks and patent rights nology and stabilises the industrial life of the
nce, No. 51 of 1938, to which amendments f Trade appointed a committee chaired by linance with particular emphasis as given in
w considering present development needs of o meet these needs. The companies special mpanies incorporated abroad and carrying under the principal enactment Companies
dently on the increase. The desire on the lity companies is reflected in statistics main1 for the two years 1974 and 1975, in respect 777,500 and Rs. 737,645,000. There were
capital of Rs. 706,541,000.
fields of private enterprise as agriculture, nd progress made in different spheres of

Page 212
TABLE 13•6-CLASSIFICATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT - 1974, 1975 AND 1976
192
No. of
Companies
1974
Nominal
capital
Issued
capital
1975 I No. of Nominal. Companies
capital
Issued No. of
capital
Companies
1976
Nominal
capital
Issued
capital
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
| 62
| 75
1,327,320
761,590
429,580
1,590,660
70
Rs.
86,720,000
196,464,500
150,768,000
651,525,000
11,300,000
Industry
Commerce
Tourism and Hotels
Agriculture
Finance
434,942
203,600
| 88
460,672
53
69,636
| 35
510
153,490,000
158,100,000
195,360,000
157,300,000
32,000,000
322,800
51
198.075,000
143,506,000
60,115,000
7,550,000
105,000,000
851,890
27,485
08
1,24002
04
07
12,200
90

Engineering and Construc
tion
84,030
17
27,330
07
04
21,700,000
11,100,000
454,840
116,880
19,025,000
820,000
127,600,000
13,425,000
DREIGN TRADE
Management
04
670
14
20,640
Associations
Guarantee
Others
.
02
02
16
263,200,000
5,290
15
21,550,000
30,210
25
51,270,000
5,800
338
1,392,777,500
1,746,370
282
737,645,000
2,555,345
263
706,541,000
2,938,190

Page 213
REGISTRATION OF COI
Business Names The law relating to the registration of business names (no. 6) of 1918. Registration under business nam maintenance of records which provide the public w proprietors of the business concerns as well as othe proceeding, foreign trade commissions, embassies tion of Business Names is decentralized. Registration while those in other provincial centres are done at 1 exercises supervision over the administration of the names registered in the Western Province for the ti whilst removals respectively were 268 and 436. ( 5,390, registrations agsinst 221 removals. Trade Marks, Patents and Designs The trade marks ordinance (no. 15) of 1925 as sup constitutes the present law under the ordinance.
Appreciation by businessmen of the value of trade is indicative by the number of applications which had gives protection of trade marks or inventors a moi and preclude others from copying and passing off the s certain period varying from 5 to 14 years with the o businessman is also given the opportunity to sell or tr could register and protect their trade marks, designs a
The Committee appointed to examine revision of and also examine the drafting of the copyright act The new bill is being examined by the Legal Draftsma
International Conventions The trade marks, patent and copyright laws are worl tional conventions viz.; the the Paris and Berne con Berne convention has been revised at a diplomatic co at Paris, due to non-accession of developed count embodied in the revision at Stockholm in 1967. The tions for educational works in to national languages necessary.
An ad hoc committee of member states appoin Intellectual Property Organisation W.I.P.O. is initia the Paris union on industrial property.
Mutual Societies Apart from registration of companies, societies are: the Societies Ordinance (Cap. 105). The Societies (a) Mutual Provident Societies, established with th
to members in times of illness or distress or assi
for making provision for their widows and or! (6) specially authorised societies for
(i) The advancement of education ; (ii) Religion ; (ii) The promotion of industry ;
(iv) Social services and other subjects as approve —A 31485

MPANIES
193
is contained in the business names ordinance Les ordinance is compulsory and facilitates ith particulars of the names and addresses of r useful information to those instituting legal and government departments. The registraa in Western Province is done by the department Ehe Kachcheries. The registrar of companies
ordinance through out the island. Business vo years 1974 and 1975 were 4,215 and 3,990 Corresponding figures for the year 1976 were
plemented by the trade marks rules of 1926
e marks protection in commercial enterprise
steadily increased in recent years. Registration nopoly to use such trade marks or inventions same trade mark or using such inventions for a eption of further extension of such period. A -ansfer his right to others. Sri Lanka nationals and patent rights in other countries as well.
patents,t trade marks and designs Ordinance for Sri Lanka has completed its assignment. in.
dwide in application and subject to Internatentions to which Sri Lanka has ratified. The onference of all member states in July, 1971 iries to the protocol for developing countries present revision concedes rights of translaand also issue of compulsory licences, where
ed by the Director-General of the World ting suitable action to consider revisions of
Iso registered with certain privileges under
consist of : e object of promoting thrift, granting relief iting them when in pecuniary difficulties and hans ; and,
d by the Minister of Trade.

Page 214
194
These Societies are obviously meant for ar encouraged by the government, giving spe capital of Rs. 10,000 to be registered. The registration and in consultation with gover advisability of registration. The departme requirements of the ordinance as to the filin of each year.
VII—COCONU The Coconut Marketing Board was establis Export Trade (a) Regulation and control of export and e desiccated coconut, fresh nuts, coconut fibr ekel) to ensure that the country receives a fa
(6) Registration of exporters of coconut laid down by the Board.
(C) Issue of Export licences for coconut (d) Assistance to exporters in matters rel. (e) Control of issue of kraft paper sacks a (f) Participation in international trade relating to coconut products, in buying cou
(8) Study of the international market coconut products.
(H) Publication of a monthly bulletin givi coconut products both locally and abroad.
(i) Implementation of the emergency (co
In view of an estimated 10 percent drop in all foreign sales of copra and fresh nuts as fi cated coconut and coconut oil (all kernel p of fresh nuts and coconut oil for local cor
Internal Trade Assistance afforded to small producer to ens (a) Co-operatives and Janawasas were h
grit to obtain the best possible price fo (6) Organising coconut Purchasing units
reasonable price to the small holder
nuts to co-operative units direct, whicl (C) Conducting copra auctions in the boa
copra based on factors as supply and (d) Declaration of local market prices of
and traders. (e) Registration of dealers and brokers i
local trade. (f) Discuss trade matters at the trading
help solve problems facing the con (g) Operation of the price stabilisation se
is the sole buyer of coconut oil for ex coconut oil, irrespective of world pri price for fresh nuts, thus encouraging

REIGN TRADE
Lelirating the conditions of the people of the Island and cial concessions. Normally a society should have a lepartment examines the draft rules of societies seeking iment agents reports to the Minister of Trade on the It also ensures that a registered society complies with ; accounts, lists of membes, office bearers, etc., in respect
I MARKETING BOARD hed under Coconut Development Act (No. 46) of 1971,
cport price of coconut products (copra, coconut oil, > and yarn, coconut shell grit, other shell products and r value for its exports. products to ensure that exporters confirm to standards
products. ating to freight and shipping. nd liners for the desiccated coconut export trade. fairs and exhibitions for trade promotion activities ntries. situation and collection of market data in relation to
ng statistical data and reviewing market situation for
conut products) regulations. coconut production during the year, the Board suspended com August, 1976 and also restricted the export of desicroducts) to ensure the availability of sufficient supplies sumption at reasonable prices.
sure a fair price for his produce were :
elped to market copra, fresh nuts and coconut shell r these products.
in the primary co-operatives to guarantee a fair and py encouraging all member-producers to sell their fresh a in effect would eliminate the middlemen. rd's sales room to establish a realistic market price for
demand. all coconut products daily for information of producers
coconut products to maintain certain standards in the
E committee level and recommend suitable measures to Dnut industry.
heme for coconut oil. Under this scheme, the board port and guarantees a fair and reasonable price for local ce fluctuations. This guarantees a fair and reasonable coconut producers to boost produciton.

Page 215
COCONUT MARKETI
Administration The board conducted training programmes to familian of coconut products.
CHART No. 10.—EXPORTS OF COCONUT PE
masarearen
- Serg 01 UF63
oaoae ei ose Ginkageaae Sax » aus y nue LOLLE ABSir E om vervra& GUI ed
MILLION CW7s. Essen, og
2:
27
Thrt
. : x w R é á S 2 5 & R G a 3 a w N N N Y
W W + - 0 N R ÚR
* Les ocas
rrtarrbrint
IartharlotTotorrtandintretto
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 19 assassisə susdc mệ, ngemiensAge går u no Ndig soy, doğma58 Si öy, Diya sulp, OTHER INCLUDES COIR BRISTLE FIBRE,COIR MATI

NG BOARD
195
se the staff in the manufacture and marketing
ODUCTS-(BY VOLUME) 1966-1976
கொடபா} -
உு ஓRA ; - தேங் காய என ரெனாய gெு AUT ஓ!!. - தேங்கர்யந துருவல் DEst< N VF TR Rs At M LIT ) .
* * *"".32 3 *
* * * * > *. }} .
* *
R****மம்படிச்***
HilrTTIாாாாtபIIIm
12 1973 1974 1975 1976 2,03, 63094652ess. இரட்டைக் கரி என்பவற்றை அடக்கும் RESS FIBRE, COIR YARN, AND SHELLGRIT,

Page 216
196
FOR
VIIISRI LANKA STATE TRADING ( The Sri Lanka State Trading (Consolidated Lanka State Trading Corporations Act (No. Government Gazette (No. 14,996/10) of 8th F
Main objectives of the corporation were (a) Conversion of consolidated exports (C
state trading Corporations act and pum individuals and other institutions.
(6) Progressive expansion of the State's shar (i) That bi-lateral trade agreements of
effectively carried out. (ii) That new markets are explored for (C) Conducting of any other business which
ously carried on by the corporation as as There was a considerable expansion in the turnover in 1976 was Rs. 488 million as agains during the year amounted to Rs. 455•5 milli Rs. 57,702,413.
Trading Activities Tea.—A total quantity of 61,192,313 pounds year giving a gross profit of Rs. 9•97 million. profit as compared with the preceding year.
Egypt purchased the largest quantity of Sri L land and Tunisia.
A marked increase was also evinced in sale o Italy, Jordan and Switzerland.
Other Products A total of 3,603,635 pounds cinnamon were e The corporation contined to be sole exporter totalled 8,973,975 pounds valued at Rs. 16,83
Coconut oil exported by the corporation di total quantity of coconut oil shipped from Sr Fresh nuts valued at Rs. 279,674 and coconut during the year.
Substantial profits were made on sale of ca
As regards pepper, however, the corporation fact that the corporation entered into a contr of 50 tons, in March, 1976. Price of local signed resulting in a financial loss to the corps
A total of 4363,767 pounds rubber were e Rs. 238451. Export of 1.004,150 kilos betel buyer.

3IGN TRADE
CONSOLIDATED EXPORTS) CORPORATION
Exports) Corporation was established under the Sri 33) of 1970 by order under Section 2, published in ebruary, 1972.
eylon) limited into a trading corporation under the chase by the government of private shares issued to
e in export trade to ensure :
the government with other countries are duly and
Sri Lanka's traditional and non-traditional exports in the opinion of the board of directors be advantageacillary to its normal business activities.
activities of the corporation during 1976. The gross E Rs. 446 million in 1975. Foreign exchange earnings on. The contribution to government revenue was
i tea valued at Rs. 247,356,974 were sold during the
This was an increase of Rs. 3•07 million on gross
anka tea, followed by U.S.S.R., Syria, Iraq, Switzer
f packeted tea to individual buyers in U. S. A., Egypt,
xported in 1976 giving a gross profit of Rs. 11,125,600. of cinnamon to Mexico. Desiccated coconut exports 37,515.
uring the year amounted to 40,311 long tons. Of the i Lanka, 70•53 per cent was shipped by “Consolexpo”. fibre valued at Rs. 69,939 were sold to foreign buyers
rdamoms and cloves. a experienced a loss. Main reason for this loss was the act with the German Democratic Republic for supply pepper rose considerably soon after the contract was oration. Profit on the sale of cloves was Rs. 204,214.
xported during the year resulting in a gross profit of leaves earned Rs. 23,113,496. Pakistan was the main

Page 217
SRI LANKA STATE TRADING (GI
Non-Traditional Products Other non-traditional items, as coffee, nutmeg, ekel, oil and cut flowers, were exported. Gross profit eai miscellaneous items was in the region of Rs. 1,903,34 CHART NO. 11-ANNUAL AVERAGE MARKET
DESICCATED CocONI
61šos Gunu RUPEES
3.60
OST,
as ES 6@o$
இறப்பர் aso) Sv6), lan UUM,
OS 20253 Gr92 d’CS VAIasmus 8
est, 628. evo Mongooid 618fnen. தேயிலை, இறப்பர், தேங்காய்த்துருவல் இருத்தல வீதம் TEA. RUBBER AND DESICCATED COCONUT PERUB
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
7A75τιςΑιρά A CHTIMA. International Fairs The corporation participated in the Ikofa Food Fair,
A Sri Lanka Stall was organised at the Zagreb F several inquiries from the European importers and tl traditional exports.
IX-SRI LANKA STATE TRADING The Sri Lanka State Trading (General) Corporation act, (no. 33) of 1970. The corporation is manage
Minister of Trade. Imports The Sri Lanka State Trading (General) Corporation is a large number of items under 226 main categories.
motor spares, formic acid, photographic materials cquipment, diesel engines, lamps and lanterns, cycl and raw materials for local industries.

NERAL) CORPORATION
197
bamboo, canned fruits, handicrafts, citronella ned by the corporation on the export of these
PRICES OF TEA, RUBBER, COPRA AND T, 1966–1976
qě
ருபாய் KUPEES
p640-00 TE A RUBBER
COPRA bersDISISCATED cocgwm
1560.00
320.00
e todo 69 61 »e 560 29 dibəbl. 580 இதாகம் கொண்ட ஒரு வாரம் கொப்பரு COPRA PER CANDY OF 560 LBS.
240.00
972 1973 1974 1975 1976
:C-de-SLA
Munich, Germany, in 1976. kir. These international fairs have resulted in ius help establish new markets for local non
(GENERAL) CORPORATION was established in January, 1971, under the d by a board of directors appointed by the
he premier state import organisation, handling Large scale imports include tea chest panels,
ferrous and non-ferrous base metals, office > accessories, explosives, cartridges and guns

Page 218
198
FOI
Excepting ferrous base metal, welding ro and motor spares, all other items are import allocation of foreign exchange for motor spa the private sector effects imports on the bala horns, plugs and autobulbs are however, imp
The corporation's total imports for 1975, an over the preceding year. This increase was imported in 1975, especially raw materials for
Foreign Exchange Savings The corporation was established primarily to in this regard has helped make the optimum
(a) Inviting competitive tenders, instead o
at prices fixed by them thus making su
(6) Introducing non-traditional sources i
monopolistic pressure of the tradition imported cover 38 foreign countries
(C) Bulking purchases and shipments obt:
60 per cent and reducing shipping, pac
Distribution The distribution policy for goods imported appointed by the Ministry of Trade consistir and representatives of the Chairman, C. W Sri Lanka Co-operative Marketing Federa decides on the distribution procedures of g policy as laid down by the Ministry of Trade
Items imported for the export trade are e
The general policy is to issue goods for sale C. W. E. shops and the private sector. Wh when approved distributors did not collect devised to effect direct sales to industrialist successful and quite popular but also helped
The distribution process of the corporat pricing of incoming goods and preparation ( arrive. This process facilitates reduction o
Pricing The pricing policy of the corporation is forr turnover covering its costs and providing prices broad guide-lines adhered to are :-
(a) Costs to the corporation ; (6) Market prices of the item ; (C) Essential or semi-essential nature of th (d) Expected increase in prices due to rise

LEIGN TRADE
Is and electrodes, cycle spares, motor cycle spares ed by the corporation as a monopoly. Of the total ires, the corporation receives only 30 per cent while nce 70 per cent. Three items under motor spares, i.e., orted by the corporation on a monopoly basis. Lounted to Rs. 200,986,708 an increase of Rs. 87,919319 to a great extent, due to the large quantities of goods
· local industries.
effect savings in foreign exchange. Procedures adopted use of foreign exchange allocated. These were :
of obtaining goods from established foreign exporters ppliers compete with one another in effecting supplies ; to the local market and consequently breaking the nal and established suppliers. At present the items
sining discounts which at times were in the region of king and even banking charges.
| by the corporation is formulated by a committee ig of the chairman, two directors of the corporation, .E., Commissioner of Co-operative Development, the tion and the Controller of Prices. The committee pods that arrive during each month within the general,
generally distributed direct to the exporters.
e at prices fixed by the corporation to the co-operatives, enever it was found beneficial to the ultimate user or import quotas due to liquidity problems, schemes were s and bona fide’ users. These schemes were not only build up a sound liquidity position for the corporation.
cion commences with the placing of the order. The of distribution schedules are finalised long before goods f stocks held in the corporation stores.
nulated on the principle of a small-margin and a large - for reasonable profits. In determining the selling.
e item ;
in world prices, freight, parity, etc.

Page 219
SRI LANKA STATE TRADING (T)
In this process the corporation prices are fixed a heads and absence of unnecessary wastage. As reg 30 per cent of the quota while the private sector imp selling prices of motor spares have always been consi
Finance The corporation commenced business activities with { I s. 282-87 million to State coffers by way of :-
(i) Income Tax (already paid and (ii) Direct contribution to the Cons (iii) Duty, FEECs, Business Turno
Contributions to State coffers in 1975, were in the re
Sales turnover during 1975, was Rs. 201•56 million, R: year. Net profit for 1975, (after taxation) was Rs. over the 1974 figure.
X-SRI LANKA STATE TRADING ( The Sri Lanka State Trading (Tractor) Corporation Trading Corporation Act (No. 33) of 1970 and comm
The prime objective of the Corporation is the import: and spares thereof for purposes of distribution to the
Other objectives of the corporation include provisio and earth-moving machines and training of personnel agricultural machinery.
Important steps, taken during 1976 saw an expansio covering all government departments and Statutory C
Foreign exchange released for the import quotas of f million and covered heavy machinery, tractor spares, ty Items to the value of Rs. 41:6 million were received
A novel feature in the corporation's activities during t dealers and stockists in the various parts of the island. sales units of the corporation specially during the m Central, Eastern and Southern Provinces with due pu of the district administration and the Sri Lanka Broado mobile sales units were in the region of Rs. 823-6 tho
Finance The corporation had a gross turnover of Rs. 101-1 milli the year.
Staff Personnel There were 216 employees comprising executive, cler service as at end of 1976.

ACTOR) CORPORATION
199
low levels especially with its minimum overards motor spares, the corporation importS orts balance 70 per cent. The corporation's Ierably lower than those in the private sector.
nly a grant of Rs. 500,000 and has so far paid
provided) olidated Fund rer Tax
Rs. million
48:10 16. O 218•77
Total
282:87
egion of Rs. 94,225,111. 5.88-50 million more than that of the preceding 10-38 million, an increase of Rs. 3·50 million
TRACTOR) CORPORATION
was established under the Sri Lanka State enced operations in July 1971. ation of tractors, other agricultural machinery local trade. n of facilities for repair and servicing tractors in the use and maintenance of tractors and
n of the corporation's activities, incidentally orporations. oreign suppliers was in the region of Rs. 73.8 res and tubes and trailer components. luring the year. he year saw the availability of spares through
Sales were also effected through the mobile aha season. These units covered Northblicity being given by government agencies asting Corporation. Sales generated through usand.
on and gross profit of Rs. 14.5 million during
cal and minor grades in the corporation's

Page 220
С НА
MONEY, BANK
Banking and financial institutions in Sri La
(1) The Central Bank of Ceylon. (2) Commercial Banks. (3) State-sponsored long-term credit instit
and Industrial Credit Corporation and (4) Saving Institutions, viz., the National
Post Office Savings Bank, Ceylon Savi Corporation of Ceylon and the Emplo
IIBANKI
The Central Bank of Ceylon The Central Bank of Ceylon, which was est Act, No. 58 of 1949, with a capital of Rs. 15 tion and regulation of the monetary and bar
The overall responsibility for the managem rests with the monetary board, consisting of Chairman, Secretary to the Ministry of Finan Affairs and a fourth member appointed by th the Prime Minister.
The Central Bank is statutorily charged inte cost and international exchange of money as
(a) the stabilisation of domestic monetary (b) the preservation of the par value of the
current international transactions ; (c) the promotion and maintenance of a h
Sri Lanka ; and (d) the encouragement and promotion of
Lanka.
The Central Bank has the sole right and : bankers’ bank and lender of last resort to t continuous supervision and periodical exami various research and surveys in monetary and implementing and executing its policies and i Other functions performed by the Central Bé tion of exchange control affairs and the finan
In performing the functions enjoined on it array of monetary weapons, as the authorit asset ratios of banks, to vary the Bank rate, 1 requirements on letters of credit opened by

PTER XIV
ING AND INSURANCE
-GENERAL
nka may be classified as follows :-
utions, viz., the State Mortgage Bank, the Agricultural 1 the Development Finance Corporation. Savings Bank (which was formed by amalgamating the ngs Bank and the Savings Certificate Fund), Insuranceyees Provident Fund.
NG INSTITUTIONS
ablished on August 28, 1950, under the Monetary Law
million, is the authority responsible for the administranking system in Sri Lanka.
nent operations and administration of the Central Bank the Governor of the Central Bank who shall be the ace, Secretary to the Ministry of Planning and Economic ne President of the Republic on the recommendation of
er alia, with the duty of regulating the supply, availability, E to secure the following objects : I values ; e Sri Lanka rupee and the free use of the rupee for
igh level of production, employment and real income in
the full development of the productive resources of Sri
authority to issue currency in Sri Lanka. It acts as a he banking system and is empowered to carry out the nation of banking business in Sri Lanka. It conducts - socio-economic fields, for the guidance in formulating,
measures and for the information of the general public. ank are the management of public debt, the administra--
cial management of the employees provident fund.
by the statute, the Central Bank is equipped with a wide cy to fix statutory reserve ratios and minimum capital to conduct open market operations, to impose marginal commercial banks.

Page 221
BANKING INSTIT
Central Banking in 1976.—The total assets/liabilitie million during the year to record Rs. 5,364•5 million increased by Rs. 1,201•4 million in 1976 and reache International reserves rose by Rs. 385 million while in during 1976. Among domestic assets, the increase he accounts' which rose by Rs. 639.1 million as compa the preceding year.
TABLE 14.1—ASSETS AND LIABILITI
Assets : INTERNATIONAL RESERVE
Cash and Balances abroad including Treasury Foreign Bills discounted Foreign Government Securities Special Drawing Rights
Domestic Assets :
Loans and Advances to Government Loans and Advances to Others Government and Government guaranteed secum Other assets and accounts
Total Assets/Liabilitie
Liabilities : CAPITAL AccOUNTS
Capital Surplus
Currency issue :
Notes in circulation Coins in circulation
Securities outstanding Borrowings from abroad Deposits—Government Government Agencies and Institutions Commercial Banks International Organisations and foreign Banki
Others
Other liabilities and accounts

UTIONS
201
| of the Central Bank increased by Rs. 278-2
at the end of December 1975. This figure 1 Rs. 6,565·9 million as at end of the year. rease, in domestic assets was Rs. 815•6 million wever, was seen mainly in 'Other assets and red with an increase of Rs. 169-1 million in
IS OF THE CENTRAL BANK
1975
1976 December December
(Rs. Million)
Bills
230•3
561-3
114:4 93•4
140-6 1210
Total
438•0
822.9
588:6 574-2 2,2723 1,491:3
599-1 388:5 2,6240 2,130•4
rities
5,364:5
6,565:9
15-0 61-0
150 62:0
Total
76•0
770
1,788•1
102:3
2,290-8
116-3
Total
1,890-4
2,407-1
3089 24-9
15-0
302-3 14-1
11-1 242-9 873-6 58-1
ng Institutions
277-7 946-5 69-2
1,199.8
1,333•2
1,895-9
2,439-6

Page 222
202
MONEY, BAN
On the liabilities side, the currency issue o in 1975 rose substantially by Rs. 516.7 mil and liabilities of the Central Bank as at end
The Central Bank introduced certain modif with a view to exercising a restraining influer private sector. Most important changes wer Although the Bank rate was allowed remain ul the magnitude of Central Bank capacity ava selected assets of each bank as at 31st Decen
CHART No. 12—COMME
රුපියල් දශලක්‍ෂ
பத்திலட்சம் ரூபா
RUPEES MILLION 5000 m
4500
4000 8
3500
3000
ILULIITILIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
2500
2000
5063
1966 1967 1968 1969 197
CD2-SVE

KING AND INSURANCE
f the Central Bank which increased by Rs. 61:4 million lion during 1976. Table 14.1 provides data on assets
of 1975 and 1976.
ications to the existing instruments of monetary control, nce on the expansion of commercial bank credit for the
e made as regards Bank rate and reserve requirements. mchanged at 65 per cent, with effect from 8th April, 1975, ilable at the Bank rate was restricted to 8 per cent of aber, 1974.
RCIAL BANK DEPOSITS, 1966-1976
BEAUCES
0 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
SZATISTICAL

Page 223
BANKING INS
Total refinance loans granted by the Central Bar amounted to Rs. 15 million in 1975, while repayment Of the loans granted, more than half had been ava while loans for industrial purposes and hotel proje Rs. 4 million. The rates of interest charged on re un-changed during the year.
Commercial Banks The commercial banking system in Sri Lanka consi People's Bank, Hatton National Bank Ltd., and t foreign-owned banks. The total number of branch 562 during the year. Of these 554 branch offices y about 85 per cent of total deposits of the banking sy
Bank of Ceylon The Bank of Ceylon was established in 1939 in term rin consequence of a recommendation of the Bankin nationalised in 1961 by the Finance Act, No. 65 of 1975. Of these, 97 were agricultural service cent those opened at Hasalaka and Pettah.
People's Bank The People's Bank was established in 1961, replaci objective as outlined in the People's Bank Act (No. in Sri Lanka, rural banking and agricultural credi co-operative societies, approved societies--cultiva People's Bank has a considerably wider scope and its predecessor, including the provision of short-term and industry in the rural and other sectors.
The bank opened 5 new branches during the ye Manikhinne and Senkadagala giving a total of 1591
Hatton National Bank Ltd. The Hatton National Bank was established in M
National and Grindlays Bank Ltd. and the Hatton and liabilities of Mercantile Bank Ltd. and conseq No new branches were opened during the year and 22 as at end of 1975.
Commercial Bank of Ceylon Ltd. The Eastern Bank Ltd. which was a British Bank wa Sri Lanka ownership and commenced operations i Ceylon Ltd. from November 1969. The Bank took It opened a new branch in Colombo during 1975 i
Foreign banks which continued to operate in 197 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, In India and Habid (Overseas) Ltd.
Statistics of the total deposits of the commercial in table 14:2.
Tables 14:3 and 14•4 give figures of assets and 1 relating to bank clearings.

TITUTIONS
203
k under the medium and long-term credit fund received was also in the region of Rs. 15 million. nilable for the tea factory modernisation projects cts respectively amounted to Rs. 3 million and finance loans, granted from this fund remained
sts of four local banks, viz., the Bank of Ceylon, he Commercial Bank of Ceylon Ltd. and seven nes of all commercial banks increased by 105 to vere owned by Sri Lanka banks which also held
stem.
s of Bank of Ceylon Ordinance, No. 53 of 1938, g Commission of 1934. The Bank of Ceylon was 1961. The Bank opened 99 branch offices during re branches while the other two branches were
ng the Co-operative Federal Bank with the main 29) of 1961 to develop the co-operative movement t by providing financial and other assistance to tion committees and similar institutions. The range of functions when compared with those of , medium-term and long-term credit to agriculture
tar, at Balapitiya, Kahawatte, Uva Paranagama, branches as at end of 1975.
ay 1970, by amalgamating two branches of the Bank Ltd. In May 1974, it took over the assets uently the two branches were also vested in it. the total number of branches remained static at
Is converted into a Rupee Company with majority under the new name of the Commercial Bank of
over 3 branches of Mercantile Bank Ltd. in 1973. ncreasing its total number of branches to 10. 5 were the Grindlays Bank Ltd., Chartered Bank, dian Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, State Bank of
banks during the years 1960–1976 are presented
iabilities of commercial banks and also statistics

Page 224
204
MONEY, BANE
| CHART No. 13 CoMMER
රුපියල් දශ ලක්‍ෂ பத்திலட்சம் தபா 8 M LLINN,
72 අර ස
LTTrrrrrrIT
6600
මුළු මහ නම් 1
වහ වහල් බටහියා ළ බිල
BILLS Dis අගක් ඉතිරි මු
கையிருப்பு
5400
උA දී 4 1N H A
48GE
420
අILLITTLETTIntuTuLLitLinuTTITTLTTI}g_IALTE
RAWA
35c02.
3ooo.
AAA A
77 71
12 - 2
HP )
80
2
ඬන ක් බැං ක වලිහිලෑ
++-+++
1971 | 1972 LETATISTICAL_DRAU SEITSMAN
22

KING AND INSURANCE
CIAL BANK ASSETS, 1971-1976
மாத்தச் சொத்துக்கள்TOTAL A55:ாம் 5 மற்றைய OTHER A5EET5. 332. கழிவு செய்த உண்டியல்கள் ScouNTED.
> *சொத்:07 H E R A
{}
: D
ණය ළග අකිකාරම් உடன்களும் முற்பங்களும்
LOANS AND ADVANCE5
முதலீடுகள்INVESTMENTS
மறைய வங்கிகளிலிருந்து பெற
?? வேண்டிய மிக்கும் AேLANCES 'ல S3 4puE FROM 8THER இAN(3
+++++++ 973 I 1974 I975 ! 1976
கீழ்க !

Page 225
BANKING ]
CHART No. 14-COMMERCIAL
6638 a 28 பத்திலட்சம் தபா R5. M ILLION. 1200
அல் க
டூ &00
மொ.
| பார்
6002 6004
மற்றை
oTHE 5 54008 05 ல ை
48003
ப்யுட்டப்பட்டப்படிப்புப்படம்
மற்றைய அங்க்களுக்கு. வேண்டிய மிச்சம் 8 ALAN C?5 THER BA ## ?
42008
36008
3000 H
24008
1&oo G
ஒ0 2
மொத்த TOTA
12008
9ே0
9}
11972 STATISTICAL DRAUGHTSMAN.

NSTITUTIONS
205
BANK LIABILITIES, 1971-1976
3 673.
மதப் பொறுப்புகள்
0TAL (1A IேLITIE5. 33 256(3)
- பொறுப்புகள் 2 tiA800 17185. -ு 63 2 9:€) பக்கம் -
\\\\\\\\\
6 *6
පක් මුදල வைப்புகள் L DE Pos115
'3 I 1974 14975 14973 -
ஜேகே

Page 226
206
MONEY, BANKING
Money Supply The money supply increased by Rs. 143 million or preceding year. The total money supply stood a with Rs. 4,166 million at the end of 1976.
III-STATE SPONSORED LONG
Agricultural and Industrial Credit Corporation The Agricultural and Industrial Credit Corporat medium and long-term loans for agricultural a Agricultural and Industrial Credit Corporation corporate bodies only on mortgage of immovable permanently installed) with valid titles.
CHART No. 15—NOTE CIRC
රුපියල් දශ ලම් பத்தலட்சம் ரூபா RUPE E5 MILLION.
2400
2100LL
Igool
ISOOLI
9oo|
60o1L
30o
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 !

AND INSURANCE
4-8 per cent in 1975 over the level as at end of the Rs. 3,088-1 million as at end of 1975, compared
-TERM CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
lon was established in December 1943, to provide nd industrial purposes. Loans in terms of the
Act could be granted to both individuals and property (including industrial plant and machinery
ULATION ACTIVE, 1966–1976
971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
F.C. de Silva

Page 227
STATE-SPONSORED LONG-TERM
There was no major change in the corporation's loa during the year 1975. The corporation continued to borrower for development purposes and to a total of E purposes. The rates of interest remained unchange 10 per cent for non-development loans. The corpor in 1975.
CHART No. 16—NOTE CIRCULA
67&cs.ęA CAS பத்திலட்சம் தபா RUPEES MILLION.
2700
2400
200
1800
150oll
1200
960
600
30 0
7
1966 1967 1968 1969 970 197 EILBAALE

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
207
a policy, legal structure or operation procedures
grant loans up to a total of Rs. 500,000 each Es. 100,000 each borrower for non-development d at 9 per cent for development loans and at sation granted 72 loans totalling Rs. 1,480,544
ATION, GRoss, 1966-1976
P1 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
E-ce S

Page 228
TABLE 14.2-DISTRIBUTION OF BANK OFFICES AND DEPOSITS
208
Total
Sri Lanka Banks
British Banks
Indian and Pakistani Banks
Deposits
Deposits
Deposits
No. of Deposits
Offices
Amount
Rs. M.
Year
No. of
Offices
Amount
Rs. M.
No. of Amount Offices Rs. M.
•/.
%
No. of
Offices
Amount
Rs. M.
%
1960
1961
| 28
12
45
48
12
71
* * * &
2
1,057
| 100
1,041 100
1,182 100
100
1,447
100
1,546 100
1962
1963
1964
1965
36
*
1,301
A A A A U
472
506
48
503
467
45
683 58
429 683 58 12 429 36 801 61
412
32 801 61 12 412 324 943 65
415
29
1,023
12 431
28
72
81
a a v
MONEY, BANE
66

89
28
_67
. 11
12
25
1966
1967
1968
1969
ܜ ܜ ܠܛ
[73
12
73_܂ 11 73_܂
ING AND INSURANCE
1970
105
133
141
155
165
189
204
303
457
562
639
117
125
140
152
176
191
293
1,502 100
1,637 100
1,808
.100
1,917
.100
2,394 100
2,516100
3,277 10
3,169 100
3,555 100
3,611_100
4,943 100
ܝܼ ܨ 8 ܩ
1971
1,003
1,157
1,329
1,405
1,831
1,951
2,707
2,584
3,036
3,076
4,323
76
76_9
[77]9
77
[419
404
409
437
472
471
471
14
15
407
11
426
481 481_10
ܟ ܗ ܠܨ ܠܜ ܛ ܛ ܚ ܚ ܝ ܚ ܚ
1972
܀ ܀ ܀ ܩ ܗ ܘ ܗ =
82
r r ܕܲܢ ܨܲܢ ܡܸܢ + ;
82
487
449
85
1973
1974
1975
1976
98
112
109
139
85
554
631
[87

Page 229
TABLE 14:3-SELECTED ASSEETS AND LIABILITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS
(Rs. Million)
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Assets : Cash in hand and deposits at
Central Bank
Foreign Balances Loans and Advances
Investments*
176 141 171 170 214 233 192 229 248 258 371 378 488 703 755 506 577 56 46
33 54 45 60 66 77 52 4470 128 95 90 78 93 544 563 564 709 783 850 858 1,153 1,323 1,660 1,548 1,765 2,159 2,252 3,297 3,533 4,251 335 357 428 423 423 456 441 379 389 308 644 694 741 501 389 379 653
| 88 8è 3
e B 3 x %
38
STATE-SPONSORED LONG-TREM
Liabilities:
Demand Deposits Time and Savings Deposits
685 657 756 802 896 939 899 936 982 931 1,169 1,199 1,752 1,757 1,895 1,882 2,751 372 364 426 499 551 607 603 701 826 986 1,169 1,317 1,525 1,412 1,661 1,728 2,191
Total Assets/Liabilitiesį
1,197 1,262 1,380 1,528 1,658 1,814 1,846 2,123 2,343 2,564 3,122 3,475 4,785 4,285 5,360 5,296 6,587

(as at end of period)
* Investments including Treasury Bills. fBanking data as at end of December 1972, were highly distorted by a prolonged stircke of commercial bank employees which commenced on
lat September and ended on 17th December. 1972. ¡Only selected items are included and sub totals would therefore not aggregate to the overal assets/liabilities.
CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
209

Page 230
210
MONEY, BA
TABLE 14.4–B
(Monthly
Year
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950 1951 1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971 1972*
1973
1974
1975
1976
* Clearings statistics during the period s prolonged strike of commercial bank employe on 17th December, 1972.

NKING AND INSURANCE
ANK CLEARINGS—1946-1976
Average) (Rs. Million)
Amount
305-2
349.3 390-7
418-0
549.4
691•4
687-8
670-6
684:8
757:7
734-8
730-4
661-4
713-8
742.9
742:8
711-6
786-4
835:7
889.6
928-5
990•4
1,114.4
1,212-0
1,413.6 1,269.5
1,158.6
1,601-4
2,063•6
2,254.3
2,586:9
eptember to December 1972, were highly distorted by zes which commenced on 1st September, 1972 and ended

Page 231
TABLE 14.5-MONEY SUPPLY 1956-1975
(Rupees Million)
Y
Period ending
Currency
I/
Held by Held by Held by Total Government Banks
Public
(I-II-III)
Demand Deposits
VI.
VII -VIII
IX Held by Held by Held by Money VIII as Total Government Banks
Public Supply
o IX
(-VI-VI) (VI+- VII)
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
44.3:4
475•
578:3
621:3
644:6
763:8
789-4
8•4
9•8
17:7
12:7
10:0
14-2
10:0
33:9
30:4
30.8
43:5
39.3
57-4
66:8
401:1
434:9
529-8
565-0
595:3
692:2
712:6
1,011:1
804:1
812:0
853:4
892:7
873:6
1,053:9
127.8
87:2
122:6
67:7
73:4
58:9
126:8
157:6
111:6
142:5
173:0
205:7
218:3
297:0
725:7
11,126:8
605:2
1,040:1
546:9
1,076:8
612:7
1,177:7
613:6
1,208:9
596:4
1,288:6
630:0
1,342.7
64:4
58:2
50:8
52:0
50-8
46:2
46:9
STATE.SPONSORED LONG-TERM

1963
8:8
8:2
909
932:1
1,002:8
993:7
1,072.8
1964
1965
1966
1967
6:6
63:7
70-9
94:7
104:5
84-8
106:6
121:5
6:7
8:0
126:9
131:0
133:9
218:2
164:7
232:2
430
47-4
47.5
46:8
45:8
CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
1968
9.1
44:3
1969
7:2
828:41,124-2
853:0
1,265:4
901:4
1,355:7
882:5
1,429:6
*979:91,643:8
1,066:2
1,878:2
1,083:9
1,734:5
935:1
2,063:5
1,115.3
1,9255
1,202:3
2,581:8
1,436:7
2,768:4
1,5393
3,064.3
160:9
319.7
677:71,0000
365:5
768:8
1,621:8
407:6
814:3
1,715:7
435:0
776:4
1,658:9
651:4
827:7
1.807:6
799:0
847:0
1,913:2
774:4
799:2
1,883:1
753:3 1,031:5
1,966:6
683:6 1,033:8
2,149:1
803:1 1,278:8
2,481:1
997-1 1,341:0
2,777:7
1,111:0 ༡ 1,406:3
2,945:6
42-4
1970
1,1819
1,212:7
1,090:4
1,285:1
1,444:8
1,653:0
1,829.()
52:4
1971
9-6
1:6
2:9
145-7
168:1
239.5
278:6
208:1
499.9
48:1
1972*
51:5
48:3
0-9
215:4
430:2
1973
1974
1:2
288:5
547:1
47:7
211

Page 232
TABLE 14.5---MONEY SUPPLY 1956-1975—-contd.)
212
ཟླ
(Rs. Million)
Currency
Denmand Deposits
I། II III
V
FI།
PIT VIIIIX
Held by Held by Held by
Held by Held by Held by oney VIII as %
Total Government Banks Public
Public Total Government Banks Public Supply of IX (I-II-III)
(Y-VI-VI) (VI+PIII)
Period ending
1:4
49:9
49:5
1975 January
February
March
April
May
1,800-4
1,761:6
1,826:5
1,851:0
1,868.5
3:1
1:6
3:2
2:7
326:61,472:43,040:2495:61,078:71,465•82,938:2 2802 1,478:3 3,001:7
513:21,036:91,451:6 2,929:9
268:9 1,556:0 3,041:2
444:1 1,109:6 1,487.5
3,043.5
280:6 1,567:22,753:8
438:5 836:3 1,479.1
3,046:3
302:01,563:8
2,768.5 540:6 819-8 1,408:1
2,972:0
489
48.5
47-4
MONEY,

1-0
47.4
49-1
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
1,828-6
1,778-0
1,799-8
1,822-7
1,815-7
1,834.4
1,890-4
15
3-1
1.4
3-1
1:5
0-3
234-8
258.9
262:8
276-7
254-7
246-3
280-3
1,592:8
1,517•6
| 1.533.9
1,5446
1,557.9
1,586•7
1,609.8
2709-3
2,784-4
2,727-2
2,7298
2,598-2
2,615•6
3,024-2
473-3
534-5
536-3
486·3
357-5
398-2
426-8
803-2
786-0
792:5
770-6
752-1
756•6
1,1190
1,432:7 3,025-5
1,463-9
2,981:5
1,398-4
2,932:3
1,472:8
3,0175
1,488-6
3,0465
1,460-7
| 3,047•4
1,478-4
* 3,088•1
47:7
48-8
48.9
BANKING AND INSURANCE
48-0
47.9
17th December, 1972.
*These figures are highly distorted by a prolonged strike of commercial bank employees which commenced on 1st September, 1972 and ended on

Page 233
STATE-SPONSORED LONG-TERM
The Ceylon State Mortgage Bank The Ceylon State Mortgage Bank was established on
Mortgage Bank Ordinance of 1931 to grant long-term specified purposes on the primary mortgage of immova
ments made to the State Mortgage Bank Ordinance i the bank enabling it to play an increasingly vital role a for agricultural development. The bank now accepts guarantees of suitable third parties, life insurance polic promisory notes signed by directors of companies.
The bank lent a total sum of Rs. 8,923,337 in respe the year. Funds for the bank's lending operations we by its borrowers and also operating on overdrafts from
There were no changes in the rates of interest charged per annum for development purposes depending on tl and purpose for which the loan was to be utilized. The in purposes or for loans to be utilised partly for developm
Statistics on loans granted, repaid and the amount o
Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon The Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon was government to assist in the promotion, establishmer industrial, agricultural and commercial enterprises in S
within the prime objectives of the corporation.
TABLE 14.6--AGRICULTURAL AND INDUS
LOANS GRANTED, REPAID ANI
Period
Loans granted during the Capital i
period
ved du
1953–54 1954-55 1955-56 1956–57 1957-58 1958-59 1959.-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72(a) 1973 1974 1975(6) 1976(6)
5,518 5,928 6,305 4,018 3,590 4,538 5,111 3,202 2,347 3,449 4,777 5,311 3,941 3,527 2,739 4,109 4,846 3,476 2,399 1,049 1,927 1,481 1,727
Note.-1944-45 was the Corporation's firs tcomplete financial ye was from 1st October to 30th September till 1971. From 1972, fin
(a) Figures relating to 1971-72 includes a period of 15 months (1 (6) Provisional.
During the year ended 31st December 1975, the corpo million and share investments amonting Rs. 9.7 millior ending 31 December 1975.

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS
213
6th December, 1931 under the Ceylon State loans for agricultural development and other ble property situated in Sri Lanka. Amendn 1968 broadended the scope of activities of ind to make loans available on easier termsas security, land, with valid titles, personal ies, share certificates, government stock and
ct of 451 loan transactions finalised during ere mainly obtained from repayments made I the bankers.
during 1975 and varied from 7 to 113 per cent. 1e source of funds, type of security offered terest charged for loans for non-development tent purposes was 12 per cent. utstanding appear in table 14.7.
} established in 1955 on the initiative of the it, expansion and modernization of private ri Lanka and also encourage such enterprises.
STRIAL CREDIT CORPORATION
OUTSTANDING
(Rs. Thousand) repayments recei- Total loans outstanding at ering the period the end of the period
5,025 4,667 5,069 5,368 4,022 3,831 4,250 4,010 3,377 3,789 4,168 3,427 4,002 3,903 3,806 3,910 3,586 4,012 4,146 2,618 2,467 2,182 2,344
29,485 30,745 31,981 30,631 30,199 30,906 31,766 30,958 29,929 29,589 30,198 32,082 32,021 31,645 30,577 30,864 32,125 31,589 29,842 28,272 27,732 27,088 26,452
car of operation. (Financial year of the corporation
ancial year is from January to December). st October 1971 to 31st December 1972).
oration approved loans amounting to Rs. 28.5 - totalling Rs. 38.2 million during the period

Page 234
214
MONEY, BA
Disbursements of loans during the year totalled Rs. 8.8 million. The corporation were in the region of Rs. 83 million as at en
IV-SAVI The National Savings Bank The National Savings Bank was established objective of providing an efficient institut the assets and liabilities of the Ceylon Savi Certificates Fund and commenced business
CHART No. 17—
drves deu em ubbato già surr RUP EES MILLION
4400
4000
3600
320o
280o.
2400
2000
1600
Plasmond Salvaterrara
go
1966 1967 1968 1969
1STL'D AMA

ANKING AND INSURANCE
amounted to Rs. 18.2 million. Repayments by client a's transactions in the grant of loans and investments nd of December 1975.
NGS INSTITUTIONS
lby the National Saivngs Bank Act No 30 of 1971 with the ional framework for mobilising savings. It took over ngs Bank, the Post Office Savings Bank and the Savings
n early 1972. SAYINGS DEPOSITS, 1966-1976
「第二
月月月且目目目目目自負目目自同月月自 自目国国自月且自月自国目目月自制員月且自目目目目自自目
目目目目自有其自有自用自自
且目月月月自自身目目
1970 1971972 1973 1974 1975 1976
ご・. Stい。

Page 235
SAVINGS INSTIT
The Bank's Savings scheme includes ordinary savin for salaried employees, fixed deposits, Savings Certific of interest and tax concessions afforded account ho its position as an organised institution specialised in sa
The scheme of school savings banks commenced in The number of school savings bank branches increase A total of 33,153 new accounts were opened with a accounts.
The National Savings Bank opened a branch at Mor to 20 as at end of 1975. The bank's net savings for t
TABLE 14.7–CEYLON STATE MORTGA
REPAID AND OUTS
Period
Louns granted repo during the period du
1952–53 1953-54 1954-55 1955–56 1956–57 1957-58 1958–59 1959–60 1960-61 1961-62 1962–63 1963–64 1964–65
1965-66 1966–67 1967-68 1968–69 1969–70 1970-71 1971-72(a) 1973 1974 1975 1976(6)
4,225 4,935 5,380
5,586 12,605 9,403
8,628 11,797
4,284 2,670 2,900 3,653 3,596 4,501 5,022 6,005
8,315 10,903 5,947 6,137 6,393 7,966 8,913 9,366
Notes.--Until 1971 the Financial Year was from 1st (@) Figures relatihg to 1971-72 inculdes a period of 1. (b) Provisional,

TIONS
215
s account, a “ Save As You Earn Scheme » ates and Gift Tokens. With attractive rates dres, the National Savings Bank improved rings schemes.
1973 expanded considerably during the year. d to 205 with the opening of 127 branches. zum of Rs. 247,919 been deposited in these
ituwa, bringing the total number of branches e year was Rs. 175 million.
GE BANK-LOANS GRANTED, TANDING
(Rs. Thousand)
Capital
Total loans tyments received outstanding at the ring the period end of the period
1,425 1.358 2,541 2,060 2,833 2,536 3,016 4,040 4,147 3,851 3,782 4,095 3,986 4,138 4,644 4,467 4,280 4,923 5,058 6,116 6,298 5,325 5.056 5,774
16,187 19,763 22,602 26,128 35,900 42,767 48,380 56,135 56,272 55,359 54,477 55,558 53,645 54,006 54,425 55,616 58,924 64,714 74,893 66,347 66,42 69,083 72,940 76,532
October to 30th September. 5 months (1st October-31st December 1971).

Page 236
216
MONEY, BAN
TABLE 14•8 : DEVELOPMENT FINANCE C
Loans g durin
per
May 1956–March 1957 (a)
April 1957—March 1958
April 1958–March 1959
April 1959–March 1960
April 1960–March 1961
April 1961–March 1962
April 1962–March 1963
April 1963–March 1964
April 1964–March 1965
April 1965–March 1966
wo a Cw w Aw Aw w Neur w
April 1966–March 1967
April 1967—March 1968
April 1968–March 1969
April 1969–March 1970
April 1970–March 1971
April 1971–March 1972
April 1972–March 1973
April 1973–March 1974
April 1974—March 1975
April 1975–March 1976
21
(e) Tine Corporation commenced business on

KING AND INSURANCE
ORPORATION OF CEYLON-FINANCIAL OPERATIONS
(Rs. Thousaiid )
ranted Equity invest- Capital Repay- Total loans , the
ments in de ments during and equities od
velopment
outstanding at projects
the end of the
period
560
441
1,001
,275
304
185
6,395
206
913
531
9,983
,342
1,030
835
15,520
£293
463
917
19,359
,884
400
1,672
20,971
,481
400
1,686*
23,166
་ ༔ ༔ ༔ ༔ ༔ ༔ ཚེ ༔ ༔
,175
350
2,375
24,316
775
1,300
2,894
27,497
,723
200
3,598
27,824
,625
1,000
2,837
29,612
£042
3,284
29,370
,547
1,000
4,678
37,339
926
1,250
3,426
59,089
,589
500
4,941
71,237
དུ572
7,140
70,669
,478
7,779
66,368
135
2,500
11,328
68,675
,316
7,950
78,041
263
4,317
9,366
94,255
ཟླ 9th y, 1956,

Page 237
INSURAN
Employees' Provident Fund The Employees' Provident Fund, established in term Fund Act (No. 15) of 1958, is an important institu channelled to Government investment. Total conti Fund amounted to Rs. 230.7 million in 1975 compare
TABLE 14.9 : NATIONAL SAVINGS
1972.03.16 1972.12.31 1973.
848-8
9130
1,0.
Savings Deposits ..
Fixed Deposits Savings Certificates
30-1
53•6
76-8
65-2
Total
955-7
1,031-8
*Provisional
V—INSUR
Insurance Corporation of Ceylon The Insurance Corporation of Ceylon which was esi (No. 2) of 1961 commenced functioning in January, 1 in the Island. The Finance Act (No. 11) of 1963 i transacting general insurance as from January, 1964
The corporation issued 19,439 new life policies w 1975. There were 184,473 life policies in force as at i policies being Rs. 1,553·3 million. Revenue collecte million, while in 1976 it increased to Rs. 82:9 millioi
The life insurance fund of the corporation investi 1975 giving a total investment of Rs. 436.4 million i The corporation invested a sum of Rs. 76.9 millio: government securities increased to Rs. 510.8 million
A sum of Rs. 43-3 million of the general insurance during 1975. With an investment of Rs. 46 million fund of the corporation in these securities increased 1
Coverage under general insurance includes all risk plant break-down, etc. Reinsurance business is also

217
of the provision of the Employees Provident ional device for mobilising savings which are butions received by the Employees' Provident ! with Rs. 208.9 million the preceding year.
BANK AND TOTAL SAVINGS
(Rs. million)
!2.31 1974.12.31 1975.12.31 1976.12.31
1,244:1
1,413•7
3-2 13:7
1,580-3
307•6
249•7
1724 18-0 106-9
18:0
106.9
14:9
1,523•4
135•8
137-8
1,799-2
2,025•7*
ANCE
tablished under the Insurance Corporation Act
962 as the sole insurer transacting life insurance also vested in the corporation the sole right of
ith an assured sum of Rs. 208-3 million during end of 1976, the assured sum in respect of these d as premia from life policies in 1975 was Rs. 76
ed Rs. 71.5 million in government securities in n these securities as at end of December, 1975. a in 1976. Overall investment of the fund as
as at end of 1976. fund was also invested in government securities in 1976, total invested by the general insurance O Rs. 391 million as at end of 1976. s against fire, marine, motor accident, sickness,
accepted from foreign countries.

Page 238
СЕ
PUBLIC FINA
FISCAL ANI
Fiscal Operations The government budgetary operations for 15 deficit of Rs. 128 million with an overall exĘ summary of fiscal operations of the goveri figures for the two preceding years.
Revenue Receipts The total revenue based on provisional es Rs. 5,084 million in 1975. This was an inci year. The increase in revenue in 1976 was di million), turnover taxes (Rs. 70 million), sel million), tea tax (RS. 111 million). Net re revenue from liquor, export duties and tob
million and Rs. 8 million. Arrears of inco tax collections by Rs. 165 million. There w transport and banking sectors resulting in ir
The decline in export duties was attribu products and a drop in the quantum of te
Revenue collections during the year exc levies, import duties and foreign exchange the government revenue during 1976, whi
The government revenue continues to be economy. Table 15.2 outlines revenue str 1973-1976.
Expenditure The total expenditure for 1976 was estimated
million from advance account operations. reflecting an increase of 8 per cent over the pr inclusive of supplementary estimates of Rs. 30 ture figure of about 4 per cent. Exclusive of development expenditure in 1976 showed an increase of 42 per cent over the preceding y total development expenditure was rupees 3 cent far below the normally observed range

APTER X V
NCE AND TAXATION
- MONETARY MEASURES
76 as based on provisional data showed a current account ansionary impact of Rs. 605 million. Table 15.1 gives a ament of Sri Lanka for the year 1976 with comparative
timates for 1976 was Rs. 5,739 million. compared with -ease of Rs. 655 million or 13 per cent over the preceding ue to increased revenue receipts from income tax (Rs. 165 ective sales taxes (Rs. 87 million) import duties (Rs. 140 eceipts from FEECs increased by Rs. 19 million while -acco tax declined respectively by Rs. 16 million, Rs. 9
me tax and back assessments by tax payers helped swell Fas also an improved performance in the manufacturing,
icreased collections from these sources.
table to the ‘withdrawal’ of export duty on coconut a exports.
eeded approved estimates by Rs. 94 million. Export } entitlement certificates accounted for 39 per cent of
e turnover taxes constituted 13 per cent.
influenced by the external trade sector of the national ucture of the government of Sri Lanka for the years
at Rs.9,314 million, inclusive of a net payment of Rs. 312 Expenditure under recurrent votes was Rs. 5,554 million eceding year. The total allocation under recurrent votes 5 million was Rs. 5,764 million giving an under-expendisinking fund contributions and direct payment of loans, appreciable increase at Rs. 2,786 million. This was an var. With supplementary provision of Rs. 624 million, 056 million resulting in an under-expenditure of 9 per 20–25 per cent.

Page 239
FISCAL AND MONETAR
CHART No. 18—NATIONAL
48 ea res pumwe blood caeme soo 8. S 219:
வ திதுர அங்குலம்
50 லட்சம் ம்.
தேசிய வருவா EDHE IS: INCH
RUPE3 seo Leite.
NATIONAL REV
TITITAS
1976
2553.6
1875
420 -9
1974
226 5-3
m.
63
obs ered.
gos ag. quin B6rae. Qia de ம தா ட ஆ ரவுகள்
O est
ஏமானவர் ஏற்றுமதித் தீர்வை இறகத HER RECEIPTS. EXCISE RIVERA, INCOE TAA. EL PORT DU 1165 EMPOL AT:STES ER AFGHT SALAN
309
TABLE 15.1-GOVERNMENT )
Items
1974
I st.
Revenue( ) Recurrent Expenditure Advance Accounts Operations
(deficit – /Surplus +). Current Account
(+ Surplus/deficit – ). Capital Expenditure
Of which Sinking Fund and Amortization
payments and contributions to Interna
tional Financial Organisations Budget deficit Financing of the deficit 1. Domestic Source
A. Non-bank market borrowing B. Non-market borrowing C. Banking System) Foreign Finance Project loans
Commodity loans
Grants 3. Use of cash balances Expansionary impact of Government Fiscal
Operations
(0) Excludes Capital Grants in Revenue shown under Foreign ( () Includes Special Advances from Central Bank to meet
abroad ; 1974 Rs. 2.7 million and 1975 Rs. 2.6 million. * On account of the Committee Stage amendments to increase

MEASURES
VENUE, 1974-1976
ནྟི ?
u£
དུ 7
£975
འབའ +255
རཱཛ|
sas- seed evence€3©c@ @se. தித்தீர்வை அரசாங்கமுடிற்சிகளில் மொத்த வரவுகள்
བྱ $ ® . மொத்த வருவாய் *1& € ¥E + !E•
.: >
rport R€s; f€ctiPr of Govtx= # &
ENTERPRISES.
FISCAL OPERATIONS
(Rs. Milltor)
1977 1976 Provisional
Approved Estimates
1975
£787
5,084 5,153
5,739 5,554
6,062 5,888
£506
-39
- 73
-312
-242 £841
- 142 2,556
- 128 3,448
+1742,904
564) 599
(596) 2.699
(562) 3,576
(848) 2,730
910
1,610 ༣.075
1,370 1,3O)
976
379
-54 - 12
650
£359
2,270 1,160
471 639 1,3
༢༡ 533 380 -33 605
156 1,059
275 380
¢
79 319
252
39
3
10*
24
184
10
urces : Central Bank of Ceylon and General Treasury
ants. ontributions to International Financial Organisations
ailway expenditure by Rs. 10 million.

Page 240
220
PUBLIC FI
CHART No. 19-REVENUE AND EXPENI
3ெம் ஆடி 2
2 பத்திலடசம் தபாய
RUPE ES MILLION 10o007
2000
0888 வருவ gooo+ அ S889 செல
7000!
நீ, 064
9ே091
4000
3900
((((((((((
(((ITTTார்
)))))))))))))))))))))
2000
1000
11101ா)))))))))
11110)11))))))))))
55-55 56875%88 58 ஓ9 சg Av4.

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDID))
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD)))
DITURE, 1965–1966 TO 1971-1972 AND 1973-1976
ST2' DRAUGAT SA 69-70, 70-Zt Z-72 1973 1974 1975 1976.
DD)
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD)))))
EXPENDITURE
NANCE AND TAXATION
mw REVENUE
DID))))))))))))))))))))))

Page 241
FISCAL AND MONETAR
TABLE 15.2–REVENUE OF THE GOVERNM
1973
Heads of Revenue
(Rs. Mil.
2,5
3
(1) Taxes on production and expenditure (2) Taxes on corporate and non-corporate
Income (3) Gross receipts from government trading
enterprises (4) Interest, profits and dividends received (5) Sales and charges (6) Social security contributions (7) Other current transfers and receipts (8) Capital transfers and sales of existing
capital goods (9) Payments of loans and advances
- H
Total
4,0
Revenue figures for the fiscal years 1973, 1974, 1975 a published figures in Government accounts due to ex equipment, gifts and other aid from foreign governments
TABLE 15.3––SOURCES OF FINANCE FOR CA
1974 Amount
(Rs. Million)
(1) Current Account surplus or deficit* 107-4 (2) Revenue from taxes on capital and
49.9 from sale of existing capital goods (3) Repayment of direct loans and advances
64:4 (4) Capital transfers from abroad (grants)
252:4 (5) Direct borrowings from abroad
125.9 (6) Net domestic borrowings
617.8 (7) Decline in cash balances and net pay- 27•1
ments on Advance Account operations
Total Capital Expenditure
1,244:9
* Current account surplus or deficit (-) is the excess or shortfa

| MEASURES
221
NT OF SRI LANKA-1973-1976
1974
1975
1976
Provisional io༧) (Rs. Million) (R. Millior) (Rs. Milliorg)
543
3,366:4
598:6
3,422:7
770:1
3,730:8
935.5
$9:9
51:2
434-0
454:0
483:8
19.5 53:9
198
1177 81:1 19.7 54:9 49:9
148:2 97:0 24:0 558 65•3
2257 112:4 29:5 81:4 84:7
58:2 54:9
62:2
64.4
46:4
56.1
34:0
4,786:7
5,083.5
5,738:9
source : Central Bank of Ceylon.
Ind provisional estivinutes for 1976 difer /ioin clusion of transfers to revenue and value of - and International Agencies
PITAL EXPENDITURE—1974-1976
1976 1975
Provisional Amount
Amount PercenPercet- (Rs, Percen
tage tage Million) tage
illion)
(Rs.
8:6 -293:6-148-4.0 4:0
65:33:384:7
-0.1
3.2
2:1
14-2
5:246:4 20:34042 10.1309:3 49:6 1,3592:296
2:456:1 20:3380-2 156 50དེུས <5 48 - #08-0
D 72-) - 15-2
100:01,986:8100-0_2,676:4
100:0
Source Central Bank of Ceylon. I of current receipts over current payments.

Page 242
222
PUBLIC
The under-utilization of allocation on caf Budgetary provision, actual expenditure, an ture during the three-year period 1974, 197:
Budget Provis
(Rs. millioi
1974
1,690
1975
2,421 3,056
1976
The capital expenditure under votes of the million, Agriculture and Lands Rs. 188 mill million, Postal and Telecommunication Se Rs. 498 million and Planning including (Eco
The budget deficit for the year was Rs. 3 sinking fund contributions, the net cash defi
In financing the budgetary deficit, the go sources (Rs. 2,270 million), while external re to cover the deficit gap. Domestic sector
market, Rs. 639 million from the banking sy tive borrowings. External resources include project loans and Rs. 380 million as grants.
Of the government expenditure in 1976, 2 education and public health, food subsidies : while pensions bill accounted for 7 per cen of government expenditure declined to 17 pe the year.
Net Expansionary Impact.--The net expa Rs. 605-4 million. Domestic resources avai borrowings constituted Rs. 971 million. The over resources available.
Public Debt The gross public debt showed a significant inc million as at end of 1976. The domestic million rose to Rs. 12,691 million, an increa debt, inclusive of sinking fund contribution Rs. 4,968 million, a rise of 34 per cent, almos
Rupee securities constituted a major share million over the preceding year. Treasury (Rs. 48 million) and Central Bank advan
million) contributed substantially to the over

INANCE AND TAXATION
ital yotes shows a decreasing trend during the past years. ount unspent and relative percentage of under-expendiand 1976 were
ary Actual Under Percentage on Expendi- Expendi- of Under
ture
ture
Expendi(Rs. (Rs.
ture =) million) million)
1,277
413
24:5
1,960
461
19-0
2,786
269
8:8
Ministry of Irrigation, Power and Highways, was Rs. 553 ion, Home Affairs (including Local Government) Rs. 90 rvices Rs. 51 million, Industries and Scientific Affairs nomic Affairs) Rs. 372 million.
576 million with adjustment for debt repayment under cit was in the region of Rs. 2,914 million.
overnment as in preceding years resorted to domestic =Sources consisting of Rs.1,340 million were far in excess
sources comprised Rs. 1,160 million from non-bank -stem and Rs. 471 million from non-market administra| Rs. 633 million as commodity loans, Rs. 327 million
2 per cent was absorbed by social services including another 17 per cent, public debt claimed 15 per cent t. The food subsidy which had claimed 23 per cent : cent, attributable to lower commodity prices during
isionary impact of government's fiscal operations was lable were in the region of Rs. 1,977 million, external e was a surplus of Rs. 33 million as excess of borrowings
rease of 21 per cent from Rs.14,564 million to Rs. 17,569 lebt, which in the preceding year stood at Rs, 10,859 se of 17 per cent over the 1975 figure. Gross external
on sterling loans increased from Rs. 3,705 million to : double that of its local counterpart.
of the domestic debt reflecting an increase of Rs. 1,007 bills (Rs. 350 million), other miscellaneous receipts es under section 89 of the monetary law act (Rs. 11 all figure.

Page 243
THE BUDGET
Table 15.4 details composition of the Public Debt
TABLE 15.4-COMPOSITION OF THE
Year (end of
period)
External Debt (Rs. Million)
Gross
Net
1972
2,392
2,352
2,751
1973
2,795
2,936
1974
2,884
1975
3,705
3,705
1976
4,968
4,968
(1) Figures relate to Calendar year which now coinc
Figures for the year 1972 include a 15-month perio
(2) There were no Sinking Fund contributions under S
Project and commodity loans constitute the main s million during the year. The percentage share of pro balance (Rs. 633 million) 66 per cent accounted for co
The external debt-service ratio declined from 22:9 per ble to favourable exports earnings recorded during th
II—THE BUDGI
Provision under total recurrent expenditure in the Allocation in the approved estimates including capita ments totalled Rs, 8,792 million.
Pre-budget estimates of revenue at Rs. 5,951 million resultant budget deficit of Rs. 2,720 million. With an contributions, the net cash deficit works out to Rs. 1,
The anticipated budget deficit would be financer non-bank sources (Rs. 1,376 million), foreign loans an “withdrawal” of cash balances (Rs. 10 million).
In financing the net cash deficit, government would (Rs. 954 million), external borrowings (Rs. 918 millic million) giving an expansionary impact of Rs. 10 mill

1977
223
s at end of 1976.
PUBLIC DEBT–1972–1976
Domestic Debt (Rs. million)
Total Debt (Rs. million)
iross
Net
Gross
Net
,926
7,096
10,319
9,448
7,530
11,380
10,281
,585
,444
8,143
12,380
11,026
1859
9,255
14,564
12,960
1,691
10,653
17,659
15,621
Source : Central Bank of Ceylon •
ides with the fiscal year.
d.
reling Loans during the two years 1975 and 1976
Jource of external assistance totalling Rs. 960 pject loans (Rs. 327 million) was 34, while the ommodity aid.
cent in 1975 to 20-1 per cent in 1976 attributae latter year.
ET-–1977
pre-budget estimates was Rs. 5,827 million. - expenditure and advance account out-pay
und expenditure at Rs. 8,671 million showed a llocation of Rs. 848 million for sinting found 72 million.
mainly through borrowings from domestic grants would consist of Rs. 1,350 million and
have recourse to domestic non-bank sources 1) and mobilization of cash balances (Rs. 10
n.

Page 244
224
PUBLIC
Overall budgetary position in 1977 is su
TABLE 15.5–OVEF
Items
1. Re-current expenditure
Less : under-expenditure (2 pe
2. Capital expenditure
Less : under-expenditure (26 |
3. Advance accounts 4. Total expenditure 5. Total revenue 6. Budget deficit
Less : contributions to sinking 7. Net cash deficit 8. Financing of the budget deficit (1) Domestic market borrow
bank sources (2) External finances :
(i) Project loans and (ii) Commodity aid
funds (3) Increase in cash balances 9. Financing of the net cash defic (1) Domestic market borrow
bank sources (2) External finance :
(i) Project loans and
(ii) Non-project (com (3) Increase in cash balance
Major sources of revenue as anticipated i (a) Operation of FEECs Scheme (Rs. 1,3 (6) Income tax (Rs. 890 million) ; ( Sales and turnover taxes (Rs. 719 mill (d) Import duties (Rs. 535 milion); (e) Tobacco tax (Rs. 520 million) ; and (S) Export uties (Rs. 427 million).

NANCE AND TAXATION
amarized in Table 15.5.
ALL BUDGETARY POSITION—1977
(Rs. Million)
Pre-Budget Estimates
Budgetary Provision
5,946
119
6,007 119
- cent)
5,827 3,509
665
5,888 3,569
665
er cent)
2,844
2,904
—
8,792
8,671 5,951 2,720
6,062 2,730
848 1,882
funds etc.
848
1,872
ving from non
1,370
1,370
500
500
grants
counterpart
850
850
-10
t
ngs from non
954
954
grants nodity) loans
1918
918
-10
Source : Central Bank of Ceylon.
the 1977 budgetary proposals were--
million) ;
on) ;

Page 245
EXTERNAL RESC
I-EXTERNAL R Loans Agreements entered into with foreign government commodity aid covered a capital repayment of Rs. 1, of interest varying from 0:5 per cent and 8•8 per cent. grace' ranged from 2 to 40 years. Significant among tiated with the Canadian Government in October 197 Of the total loan made available by the Canadian Go of agricultural development, while 6•0 million doll: under Stage II of the Mahaweli Project.
The United States of America, Japan, Federal Rej Organization, United Arab Emirates, India and the C
Grants
Commodity grants including raw material supplies, fe rural works programmes covered a total of Rs. 45 countries include Sweden, the Netherlands, United I Programme' contributed 15.7 million U.S. Dollars a currency.
—À 31485

DURCES
225.
ESOURCES
3 for purpose of negotiating financial and 118•2 million, in Sri Lanka currency with rate
The repayment period exclusive of ‘ period of E ‘interest free' loans was an agreement nego6, for Rs. 88•9 million in Sri Lanka currency. vernment 4-0 million dollars were for purpose ars covered financial commitments involved
public of Germany, the Netherlands, OPEC hinese Republic were countries so negotiated.
ertilizer, restoration of inland water-ways and 56·3 million, in Sri Lanka currency. These Kingdom and Australia. The World Food en equivalent of Rs. 136•0 million in local

Page 246
С НА
LABOUR A
Sri Lanka's Department of Labour function purposes the department falls broadly into fund and enforcement, industrial relations
divisions, viz., the factories division and occ respectively under the Chief Inspector of fac
-EMPLOYEES' P
A major piece of social legislation recom a reality with the enactment of the employ does not embody all the recommendations of
mendations relating to the setting up of t employees' provident fund is a contributory
The employers and employees in employ L. G. S. C.) declared by the Minister of Lat of the Act, are required to contribute to the f of the “ total earnings " of employees. The 21 per cent on the monies lying in the Fund i are paid if the return on the investments of t} 1975, was 6 per cent as compared with 54 pe rate of interest paid during 1976.
The monetary board of the Central Bank i payment of benefits to claimants entitled u of monies of the fund.
The objects of the act, being provision of r fits on the attainment of the age of 55 years i Provision also exists for the payment of bene stances. The act does not preclude, howeve these years. In such cases both the emplo contributions to the fund.
· Employments employing one or more per order made by the Minister of Labour, und made in stages, to allow the administration 14 such orders in existence at present. Em or social service institution and (c) in institut orphans and destitutes, dumb, deaf or blind i contribute to the fund.
Provision exists under section 27 of the act,1 funds and contributory pension schemes, wl that the rules of such funds and schemes cc The act also provides for setting up of new approval of the Commissioner of Labour. pension schemes. The total amount of mo balance sheets furnished by the administ
membership of 115,000.

PTER XVI
ND EMPLOYMENT
| under the Ministry of Labour. For administrative | divisions viz. ; administration, employees provident ind employment. There are in addition two other upational health and research division which function
ories and the Labour Medical Officer.
ROVIDENT FUND SCHEME
mended by the social services commission became ees’ provident fund act, (No. 15) of 1958. The act, the commission but as far as practicabie those recomhe provident fund have been given effect to. The scheme.
ments (other than those under government and the pour to be “ covered employments” under provisions und at the rate of 9 per cent and 6 per cent respectively È state guarantees a minimum interest of not less than to the credit of every member. Higher rates of interest ne fund is sufficientyl high. The rate of interest paid in er cent the preceding year. There was no change in the
s responsible for the receipt of monies due to the fund, nder the act, accounting procedures and investments
etirement benefits, it provides for the payment of benen the case of males and 50 years in the case of females. fits at an earlier date on account of exceptional circumer, the continuance in employment of persons beyond yers and employees will continue to make the normal
sons have been brought into the E. P. F. scheme by an er section 10 (3) of the Act. These orders have been o cope up with the expanding membership. There are ployments (a) in domestic service, (b) in any charitable Fons where industrial training is given juvenile offenders, re exempted. All employees irrespective of nationality
pr approval by the Commissioner of Labour of provident ich have been set up prior to the E. P. F. act provided nform to the provisions of the act and its regulations. private provident funds, and pension schemes with the There are at present 227 approved provident funds and nies lying in these funds and schemes according to the cators is approximately Rs. 835 million with a total

Page 247
WAGES BOARDS OF
Up to end of 1976 about 78,776 employers have be The number of employees who have been enrolled as 2:3 million. The total contributions so far collected ar from investments is Rs. 703 million. Claims for refun during the year. A sum of Rs. 104-3 million was p claimants.
—WAGES BOARDS
Minimum wage legislation in Sri Lanka originated Ordinance of 1927, the application of which was co
Ministry of Labour, Industry and Commerce approved the setting up of Wages Board machinery to cover indig appeared in the Statute Book in the shape of the Wage
with a number of subsequent amendments continues Island today. The law now appears as Chapter 136 o together with Wages Boards (Amendment) Act (No. 2 1966 and as amended by the Holidays Regulations ma and the Holidays Act (No. 29) of 1971. A set of conso has been published in Govrenment Gazette No. 14, 196
Part I of the ordinance deals with employers and v Part II provides for the application of the ordinance to wages board machinery for these trades. Part III deale under the ordinance and with offences and penalties d
Time limits are placed under part I, which is applica and maximum deductions from wages which could only are limited to 50 per cent of the wages due for any wa worker in any trade specified by the Minister of Lab. procedure for applying it to a particular trade and es and ancillary matters in that trade. It also prescribes p Part III of the ordinance show conditions under which rates, intervals at which wages shall be paid, hours of board may determine different rates of wages, hours of for special circumstances.
A total of 33 trades are at present covered by Part II been referred to in the 1975 issue of the Sri Lanka ye
A wages board for any trade is composed of perso equal number representing workers in the trade, and r must have no connection or interest in the trade as e it may appoint a district wages committee which would any subjects referred them by the board.
The existence of wages boards has proved in Sri Lank a common meeting ground for discussion and solution c able interests. Their value in preventing industrial un but their activities have resulted in an increase in the m to which the ordinance has been applied, as disclosed the Commissioner of Labour.



Page 248
228
LABOUR
While the determination of terms and con board, the task of enforcing these decisions large staff of labour officers for this purpose the law and also assures his duty to educate e under the ordinance.
Work of the Wages Boards.--Three meetin during the year ended December 31, 1975.
(a) Revision of wages for workers in the c (6) Objections received from members of th
an increse in the current wages appli
rebuilding, rubber and plastic goods (c) Declaration of a weekly holiday w
manufacturing trade.
The wages board for the cinema trade de both within and outside municipal areas. T 1975.
New Appointments.--The personnel of wag during the year and new appointments made
Nursing home trade ; Cigar manufacturing trade ; Tyre and tube manufacturing, tyre rebuildi Baking trade ; *Cinema trade ;
Beedi manufacturing trade ; Biscuit manufacturing trade.
Inspections under the Wages Boards Ordi wages boards ordinance during the year ende
1. Number of inspections 2. Total number of wo1
checked
3. Short payments detecte
Legislation (1) The Emergency (Private Sector) Additior under the Public Security Ordinance, for pi workers in the private sector whose total allowance which shall amount to, not less th whichever is less. The allowance, payable t Rs. 800 but less than Rs. 875 shall in respect between Rs. 875 and the amount drawn as :
(2) The Emergency (Tea Estate Workers' enacted under the Public Security Ordinan in adɖition to wages of a wage supplement
monthly average net sale price for all mid-gi 1975, to all workers employed in any tea es

AND EMPLOYMENT
itions applicable to a trade is the function of a wages 3 cast on the department of labour which employs a
The labour officer in the course of his duties enforces nployers and workers as to their rights and obligations
!s of wages boards in respect of three trades were held
hese meetings were held to consider.
nema trade. e public as regards fixing monthly wages while affecting cable to the tyre and tube manufacturing, tyre anufacturing trade. th pay on Sunday to all workers in the match
ided to increase the wages of all workers employed his decision came into force with effect from 1 April,
es boards for the following trades went out of office
ng, rubber and plastic goods manufacturing trade ;
France.--Details of inspections carried out under the
d 31, December 1976, were :
3,410
kers, whose wages were
107,697
Rs. 1,300,025
al Allowance Regulations (No. 1) of 1975, were enacted urpose of granting with effect from 1 March, 1975, to earnings for the month did not exceed Rs. 800, an en 10 per cent of total earnings for the month or Rs. 25 o a worker whose total earnings for the month exceeds of each month be an amount equivalent to the difference alary or wages for that month.
Wage Supplement) Regulations (No. 1) of 1975, were e. The purpose of these regulations is the payment, computed in terms of a given schedule based on the own teas and made effective from the month of April.
ate not less than one hundred acres in extent.

Page 249
THE SHOP AND OFFICE
(3) The Emergency (Fuel Conservation-five day mulgated (vide Regulations No. 1 of 1974), were amer in Gazette of the Republic of Sri Lanka No. 147|34 from the application of the provisions of these Regul relief allowance regulations were enacted in 1976, une
III—THE SHOP AND OFFICE EM EMPLOYMENT AND REMUNERA
The shop and office employees act, popularly kno force on August 9, 1954. The legislation appeared ir office employees (regulation of employment and rem by 5 amendment acts the latest being the amendm provide for regulation of remuneration, conditions public holidays, intervals for rest and meals and facil and protects white collar workers against exploitation
The main benefits that accrue employees as a resu a weekly holiday of 14 days, a spell of 14 days anni holidays a year with full pay. A sense of security o that every employee should be issued with a letter of service applicable to him. Though there is no I general minimum wages for various categories of emf
made for the determination of remuneration by the employees consent to such determination. Provision ration tribunals for determination of remuneration considers that such-determination of remuneration is in force at present.
The act, also provides for the making of Closing 0 for business on specified days in the week and betw now operative in all municipal and urban council area
In view of the fact that the maternity benefits Or special provision has been made in the Act, for grar female employees in shops and offices.
Almost the whole field of white-collar’ employmen establishments and categories of employees who are workers and are therefore not covered by any social le be made good in the near future when the scope of t
Details of inspections under the act, during the ye
(a) Number of inspections (6) Total number of workers whose remur
were checked (C) Short payments detected
Section 3 of the Shop and Office employees' Act of Sub-section (1) of section 3 of the act to any pe position in a public institution and who is in receipt
which is not less than Rs. 6,720 per annum.

EMPLOYEES ACT
229
week) Regulations which were originally pronded by Regulations No. 1 of 1975, published - dated January 19, 1975, to exempt any shop ations. Emergency (Private Sector) Budgetary der Public Security Ordinance.
PLOYEES (REGULATION OF TION) ACT, (CHAPTER 129)
Dwn as “ The Mercantile Act", came into a the statute book in the shape of the shop and muneration) act. It was subsequently amended ent act, (No. 7) of 1975. The act, seeks to governing payment of remuneration, grant of ities affecting health and comfort of employees
Llt of this act, are an eight-hour working day, ial leave and 7 days casual leave and 9 public of employment is provided by the requirement
of appointment stating terms and conditions provision under the act, for determination of ployees in shops and offices, provision has been Commissioner of Labour where employers and i also exists for the appointment of Remuneof employees where the Minister of labour expedient. There are ten such determinations
rders which require that shops be kept closed Feen specified hours. Such a Closing Order is as in the island.
dinance does not apply to shops and offices, at of maternity leave of six weeks with pay to
t is now covered by the act, but there are still
strictly neither 'industrial’ nor 'white collar egislation. This deficiency, it is hoped, would
he act is further extended.
ar ended 31 December, 1976 were :-
Shops
029 4,197
144 nerations
8,978
151 Rs. 588,390 Rs. 41,447
was amended to provide for non-application rson, who holds an executive or managerial of a consolidated salary, initial of the scale of

Page 250
230
LABOUR A
Remuneration Tribunals Five meetings in respect of 4 remuneration minimum remuneration to workers engaged in
(i) Fifty nine petrol filling stations in the o (ii) Sixty seven shops in Kandy. (iii) Fifty nine cigarette distribution agencie (iv) Forty three book shops in the city of C
Minimum rates of remuneration in respect stations in the city of Colombo were increase from 1 March, 1975.
Minimum rates of remuneration in respect Kandy were determined. The determination
IV—OTHER ORI
The Interim Devaluation Allowance of Emplo This act is being intensively enforced and in insi of the law have been made appropriate action
The Maternity Benefits Ordinance (Chapter 1 This Ordinance together with the Maternity ) of 1962 ; No. 1 of 1966 and the regulations pub 22, 1946 ; No. 11,046 of January 11, 1957, an relating to the grant of maternity benefits to w and Office Employees Act which applies to ‘w
It applies to women workers employed in may be prescribed. ‘mine', 'factory' and its application is very extensive and covers alm in the industrial sector.
The ordinance prohibits employment of we of four weeks immediately following confinei before and after confinement. A wonman We absent herself from work for a period of one n
worker is entitled to receive maternity benefi and four weeks after confinement) at the rate for at least 150 days within the year precedir period certain days of absence due to specifiec
An employer who has made arrangement estate may, in lieu of payment, provide such latter will then not be entitled to full cash bei
It is unlawful for an employer to give noti of confinement during the period of absence during the period of absence due to her con maternity benefits by reason of a notice of dis before her confinement. Any contract whic henefits will be null and void. A woman y denied maternity leave, even though such le qualified for paid leave. The ordinance appli are employed.

D EMPLOYMENT
ribunals were held during the year to determine :he following establishments :- y of Colombo.
in Sri Lanka. lombo.
of the remuneration tribunal for the 59 petrol filling 1 and the determination came to force with effect
of the remuneration tribunal for the 67 shops in ame into force with effect from 1 May, 1975.
DINANCES AND ACTS
Fees Act No. 40 of 1968 ances in which complaints and detections of violation has been taken by the department of labour.
40) Benefits (Amendments) Act, No. 6 of 1958 ; No. 24 lished in Government Gazette No. 9,634 of November d No. 13,387 of November 9, 1962 comprise the law pomen workers other than those covered by the Shop -hite collar' workers. nines, factories, estates and other establishments which estate’ have been so defined in the ordinance that ost the whole of the female population in employment
omen workers on any type of work during a period
ment and on work which is injurious to health both orker who gives notice of confinement is entitled to month before and four weeks after confinement. Such s from the employer for six weeks (two weeks before
of 6/7th of her daily wage provided she has worked g date of confinement. In computing the qualifying reasons are to be counted as days worked. for providing prescribed maternity services on his alternative benefits to these female labourers and the efits.
e of dismissal to a worker who has given due notice O such manner that the notice of dismissal will expire nement. A woman worker may not be deprived of nissal given without sufficient cause within five months - seeks to evade payment of or receipt of maternity orker who gives notice of confinement may not be ve may be without pay by reason of her not having s only to establishments in which five or more persons

Page 251
OTHER ORDINANCE
There were 295 estates providing alternative materi
The Employment of Women, Young Persons and I The employment of Children Regulations, the em Employment of Young Persons at night in Industrii of Young Persons at Sea Regulations and the Regu industry from agriculture, commerce and other non-i Gazette No. 11,302 of April 25, 1958 regulate in the i and children.
The act prohibits the employment of women, yo work in industrial undertakings other than those Provision for making exceptions in certain cases has gencies (which have to be notified) or where work likely to deteriorate in which case permission of an the field of employment which prohibits night work a 18 years of age than in the case of those over 18 yeai of children below 12 years of age in any occupation and 14 years of age may be employed in family unc which maintains the undertaking. There are, howe children between 12 and 14 years of age may not be e The employment of children and young persons in pe hawking is also prohibited. Young persons betweer for such performances provided a licence for the pu who will ascertain whether or not such training wo and whether there is any objection from the Police to persons under 14 years of age in certain agricultura certain others. However, there are provisions which during school hours or in work involving lifting, carry which are injurious to health and entail the possibilit work. They cannot be employed in filling and s dispensaries and such other institutions maintained i destitute, the aged and the infirm, in slaughter houses sick or wounded animals), in work connected with th in the business of an undertaker, the operation and appliance. Children between 12 and 14 years of age 1 they are sent to school, allowed uninterrupted period holiday of 7 consecutive days every 3 months. The years. The restriction does not apply to those emp only members of the same family are employed. A age, may with authority of the Commissioner of Labo
Employment of Women, Young Persons and Chil promulgated with effect from August 3, 1973, to en departments as authorized officers.
Three court cases were field during the year under
The Minimum Wages (Indian) Ordinance (Chapter 1 This Ordinance provides for the fixation of minimum and the free issue of 1/8th bushel of rice every mont labourer over 16 years of age and every widow wit resident on the estate. The provisions relating to fix:
y the Wages Boards Ordinance since its promulgati

S AND ACTS
231
nity benefits to their workers as at end of 1975.
nildren Act, (No. 47 of 1956) ployment of Young Persons Regulations, the al Undertakings Regulations, the Employment lations relating to the demarcation separating ndustrial occupations published in Government main the employment of women, young persons
ung persons and children at night in manual which employ members of the same family. been made as in the case of unforeseen emerhas to be done with raw materials which are authorised officer is required. Restrictions in are more stringent in the case of women under s. The act totally prohibits the employment
even by their parents. Children between 12 dertakings provided they belong to the family ever, certain specified undertakings in which employed even if they are family undertakings. erformances of dangerous nature and in street a the ages of 14 and 16 years may be trained rpose is obtained from an authorized officer, uld be injurious to the health of the trainees a licence being granted. The employment of Il occupations is prohibited and permitted in I require that children shall not be employed ing or moving heavy objects or in occupations y of employment of children in all spheres of ervicing stations, hospitals, nursing homes, or the purpose of looking after the sick, the i, salterns, veterinary hospitals (in the case of e hunting, trapping, training of wild animals,
maintenance of any engine, motor or other nay be employed in domestic service provided l of 10 hours a day for rest and sleep and a | minimum age for employment at sea is 15 loyed in training ships and vessels in which person over 14 years but under 15 years of ur be employed at sea.
Iren (Amendment) Act, No. 29 of 1973 was ible appointment of personnel from other
he Act.
35)
wages payable to Indian labour on plantations | by the employer to every such Indian male
at least one dependant child under 10 years tion of minimum wages have been superceded on in 1941.

Page 252
232
LABOUR
A total of 208 estates provided free meals free rice at a overall cost of Rs. 4,074,336 duri
The Estate Labour (Indian) Ordinance (Chap This ordinance requires employers of Indian 1 week and pay wages if work cannot be so pro issue of identification and discharge certificates and separation of members of a family on te is also provision under which labourers canno other than their minor children or wives.
Indian Immigrant Labour Ordinance (Chapter This ordinance deals with the imposition of : labour. Fees so paid are credited to the imm government of Sri Lanka in the recruitment, v are disbursed.
V—INDUSTI
The industrial relations division of the depa industrial courts and termination of employm
The industrial relations division primarily d industrial disputes by conciliation. Approxi during the year. 91 cases were referred for set for voluntary arbitration under provisions of i
Collective Agreement 11 collective agreements were registered under 1975.
Industrial Courts
A panel of 59 members for constituting indu: commencing 3 March, 1975.
Four disputes were referred for settlement t
Termination of Employment There were 348 applications supplementary to approval of the Commissioner iof Labour to of 448 applications have been dsposed of. B. 727 in 1974 made by workmen and trade un
While termination of employment of 200 wo1 respect of 548 workers who were laid off for ordered. A sum of Rs. 1,609,276 was awarde
Of a total of 1,098 complaints received d Rs. 436,347 was awarded as terminal benefits.

ND EMPLOYMENT
at a cost of Rs. 797,701 while 537 estates provided ng twelve months ending 31 December, 1975.
er 133) bour on estates to provide work for six days in the vided. The ordinance also makes provision for the to Indian immigrant labour on estates, by employers
mination of services of one of its members. There i be compelled to share their line rooms with persons
132) Lcreage fees on estates employing Indian immigrant igration fund from which expenses incurred by the zelfare and repatriation of Indian immigrant labour
RIAL RELATIONS
rtment of labour consists of industrial relations, ent sections.
eals with prevention, investigation and settlement of
mately 19,677 disputes were settled by conciliation tlement by compulsory arbitration and 5 cases referred the industrial disputes act.
- the provisions of the industrial disputes act during
strial courts was appointed for a period of one year
o Industrial Courts.
the balance 143 in 1974 made by employers seeking terminate employment of their employees. A total sides, 1,226 complaints supplementary to the balance ons have been received and 1,428 were concluded. kmen had been prevented, payment of half wages in periods ranging from one to three months had been d as terminal benefits to workmen so displaced.
uring 1976, 1,019 were inquired into and a sum of

Page 253
TRADE I
VI-TRADE
Trade Unions A total of 147 trade unions were registered during 1 as at end of 1975, with a total membership of 1,26 the year 1975, is set out in table 16·1.
TABLE 16.1-TRADE UNIONS—
1970
19
175
(i) (a) Number of Unions Regis
tered during the year (6) Number of Unions
cancelled during the
year
20
1,439
1,5
(C) Number of Unions
functioning at the end
of the year (ii) Figures relating to Unions
of Public Sector Employees included above (a) Number registered
during the year (6) Number functioning at
the end of the year (iii) Membership of Workers'
Unions* (iv) Membership of Workers'*
Unions in the plantation trade
830
883,492 1,266,0
529,346 933,6
*These figures are in respect of only trade unions prescribed date.
†Less coverage than in preceding years.
VII—EMPLO Employment There were 36 employment exchanges and 58 regis registering and providing employment opportunit serve both public and private Sectors. Work of e with the assistance of employment assistants who hav
A“dictionary" of job classifications at 3 digit code analyst unit of the department with the assistance o the re-organisation of the employment service and of Planning as well as authorities engaged in the pre
Vocational Training Under the training programme of the labour Dep skilled craftsmen in a host of engineering and other t distributed island-wide through a net work of mobi Colombo. It is proposed to link up the training pro development projects.

UNIONS
233
UNIONS
975. There were 1,568 trade unions functioning 5,271. Particulars of trade union activity during
-NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP
271
1972
1973
1974
1975
45
141
135
116
147 :-
40
76 91 168. 171
44 1,578 1,644 1,592 1,568
69 73 49 51 —
94
937
959
960
35 773,056 1,216,252 398,446† 1,266,271
53 447,939 861,932 60,185
which had furnished Annual Return before the
YMENT
stration centres in the island for purpose of cies for those unemployed. These eachings Employment axchanges have been Streamlined
e been trained in this field by anLO.espert e level has been compiled by the occupational of an I.L.O. expert. This would be used in - would also be of assistance to the Ministry eparation of vocational guidance.
artment, unskilled job seekers are trained as -rades. Available training facilities have been le units and two all-island centres located in pgramme with manpower needs of the district

Page 254
234
LABOUR A
Work of the proposed vocational developme I.L.O./S.I.D.A. with main objectives as
(i) re-training and upgrading of workers en (ii) establishment of a national drade skills
VIII—INDUSTRIAL SAFE
Factories Ordinance The factories ordinance no. 45 of 1942 (as ame on 1st January, 1950. The ordinance (cap. 12 ments of Ceylon 1956, incorporating the enacti ment) act no. 54 of 1961 and by regulation Government Gazette no. 14,984/44 of 15 Nov introduced by the factories (amendment) law no.
The provisions of the factories Ordinance a Great Britain. It lays down various requiren employed in factories.
The definition of a "factory" is fairly cor Ordinance as amended by the factories (amendn of a “factory’as a “place where persons are em for gain” would be found to cover the great ma does not cover employment in certain premise could apply, thus allowing cases to be decided decisions, the definition of “factory" has been r this section is that premises are not exclude Premises under the control of government and i by reason only that work is not carried on by w however, is given in the case of premises V employed.
Certain provisions of the factories ordinanc premises forming part of an institution carrie persons are employed in manual labour for etc., of articles not intended for the use of th used, docks, wharfs and quays etc., loading, or canal, work carried on in a harbour or wet of ships and building and other construction y
The factories ordinance places the onus of shoulders of the occupiers of factories. The duties and obligations with which persons emp and ‘owner' are defined in section 127, as amer
Section 2 of the Amendment Law No. 12 requires occupiers of premises deemed to be fai approval of factory buildings and give notice local authorities licences to carry on any trade unless it is registered as a factory.
The provisions relating to safety deal with s ransmission machinery, dangerous parts of corrosive, toxic substances or harmful liquid:

D EMPLOYMENT
nt project was commenced with the assistance of
iployed in the industrial sector levelopment and testing scheme.
CY, HEALTH AND WELFARE
ided by ordinance no. 22 of 1946) came into force 8) of the revised edition of the legislative enactnents has since been amended by factories (amend
no. 1 of 1971 under holidays act no. 29 of 1971 ember, 1971, and read together with amendments 12 of 1976. re based generally on the factories act (1937) of Lents affecting safety, health and welfare of persons
nprehensively dealt with under section 126 of this lent) law, no. 12 of 1976. A more simple definition ployed in manual labour in the making of any article jority of factories. Such a simple definition, however, sand doubt would arise as to whether the ordinance | in courts of law. To avoid confusion or else court nade as explicit as possible. One of the provisions in 1 by reasons only that they are open-air premises. municipal, local or public authorities are not excluded ray of trade or for purposes of gain. Exemption, vherein only members of the occupier's family are
e also apply to premises such as electrical stations, d on for charitable or reformatory purposes, where making of an article, altering, repairing, ornamenting e institution, warehouses where mechanical power is unloading or coaling of ships in any dock, harbour
dock in constructing, reconstructing, repairing, etc., vork undertaken by way of trade or business.
compliance with its requirements squarely on the e ordinance, however, provides for certain specific loyed are expected to comply. The term ‘occupier" ded by Factories (Amendment) Act, No. 54 of 1961.
of 1976 replaces part I of the factories ordinance and stories to register and to licence their factories, to seek of intention of their use. It also prohibits issue by or business to which the factories ordinance applies
ach matters as fencing (or guarding) of primemovers, ther machinery, pits or vessels containing scalding or where a deficiency of oxygen is liable to occur

Page 255
OCCUPATIONAL
The other section covers the import and sale of ne training of young persons on machines, protection access, precautions against gassing, inhalation of du
It is also necessary to make arrangements for pr and lifting tackle, cranes and winches, and their peric boilers, steam and air receivers should also be well cc examined. Unauthorised persons are prohibited fro
Notification of accidents causing loss of life or dis be reported. Dangerous occurrences, as, bursting of of a building or failure of a crane and certain fires or not injury results.
The health sections deal with such matters as the prevention of over-crowding of the persons emple ventilation, lighting, temperature and sanitary accom in certain dangerous trades, protection of eyes in ce radiation and excessive sound.
The use of underground workrooms is only all conditions. Lifting or moving of excessive loads by
Whenever industrial poisoning or disease is disci have arisen from the patient's employment in a fact factory inspecting engineer.
Under the welfare sections, there are requiremer water, washing facilities, clothing accommodation,
Other parts of the ordinance deal with miscellaneo amendment changes designations of enforcement off
The prescribed form of the general register to be statutory forms are found in factories regulations (n
Other regulations framed under the ordinance are(a) Factories (Steam Boiler Attendants Certificat (6) Factories (Dangerous Occurrences Notification (C) Factories (Sanitary Conveniences) Regulations, (d) Factories (Washing Facilities—General) Regul (e) Factories (General Standards of Lighting) Reg (f) Factories (Protection of Eyes) Regulations, 19 (8) Factories (Meal Rooms) Regulations, 1965. (h) Factories (First Aid) Regulations, 1969. (i) Factories (Notifiable Industrial Diseases) Regu
IX-OCCUPATION, The division of occupational hygiene was constitut the Department of Labour in January, 1975, to deal pollution incidental to industrial development and af
The ILO/DANIDA assisted Sri Lanka institute of mental pollution (SLIOSHEP) is being planned. TI services were made available for the developmen assignment and final report submitted to ILO head qı

HYGIENE
235
w machines, cleaning of machinery in motion,
of eyes, construction of floors, safe means of sts and fumes, explosions and fire.
pper maintenance of hoists, lifts, chains, ropes dical inspections by competent persons. Steam nstructed, properly maintained and periodically
m handling steam boilers. sabling a worker for more than three days must
a revolving vessel, wheel or grindstone, collapse and explosions should also be notified whether
= cleanliness of workrooms, drainage of floors, pyed, provision and maintenance of adequate
modation, meals, removal of dusts or fumes, ertain processes and protection from vibration,
pwed, subject to stringent requirements as to persons is prohibited.
overed by a registered medical practitioner to -ory, a report has to be furnished to the chief
hts regarding supply of wholesome drinking eating and first aid.
pus, legal and administration matters. A recent cers.
maintained in each factory and various other 2. 1) of 1960.
? of Competency) Regulations, 1965. s) Regulations, 1965.
1965. ations, 1965. ulations, 1965.
55.
lations, 1972.
AL HYGIENE
ed as a separate administrative division of with the increasing problems of environmental ecting working classes of the population.
occupational safety and health and environne ILO senior adviser, Professor Rao, whose E of the SLIOSHEP Project, completed his
arters in Geneva.

Page 256
236
LABOUR
Training An education and training programme on le to planned environmental and biological m cases in major lead consuming industries.
Research Specialist investigations in work places as saw during the year. The report on health hazar health hazards in timber mills has been mad working women are being subject to scientif to assess prevailing working conditions of e
central telegraphic office.
Scientists of the National Science Council discharge, pollution and agro chemical hazar
A sum of Rs. 6,589 has been collected as rev
X-COST OF Cost of Living Since 1939, there has been a steady increase i with there were two cost of living index numbe to the cost of ilving of working class families in estate labourers. These two index numbers we " Colombo consumers' price index number ” v in January 1953. This index number is work and Statistics. The following table gives the and the Indian estate labourers' cost of livin 1952 and the Colombo consumers’ price index
TABLE 16.2–Costi
Year
1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952
* Base : November 1938 – April 1939
Base :
July - September 1939

ND EMPLOYMENT
d hygiene to the lead industry workers consequent nitoring has helped reduce excessive lead absorption
nills and chillie grinding mills have been undertaken s of the fibre mill has been finalised. A study of
For the first time in Sri Lanka the conditions of investigation. A special survey is being carried out nployees attached to the telephone exchange at the
Ive undertaken preliminary studies on industrial waste
nue by the division during the year.
LIVING AND WAGES
n the cost of living and wages in the island. To start :S computed and published in Sri Lanka. One related Colombo and the other to the cost of living of Indian :re discontinued and a new index number called the vith average prices in 1952 as the base was introduced ed and published monthly by the Director of Census Colombo working class cost of living index numbers g index numbers respectively for the period 1939 to a number for each of the years 1953 to 1976.
OF LIVING INDEX NUMBERS
Colombo Working Class*
Estate Labourt
108 112 122 162 197 200 221 229
100 107 119 150 199 211 222 228 239 259 264 274 288 287
252
260 258 272 283 281
= 100
= 100

Page 257
COST OF LIVING A
CHART No. 20—CONSUMERS' PRICE INI
edado கட்டேன் INDEX
2008
ISO UP53.5
. olo II
ΠΤΤΤΤΤΤΤΤΤΤΙΓΙ ago.av.aredze :aja.GM,7ą fou.Ə)$ oryg. Jiach)-operova 9, 8, AU ,DTI, 66.0...QS5. 3. 8.4u.wm.g.Co. W.. 616, e.6.96. ON. AGA
.FM. A. M. J. J. A.S.O.N.D. J.F.M. A.M. J.J.A.S.O.N. 2. 12
1973
1974
TABLE 16:3—COLOMBO CONSUMEI
(BASE : AVERAGE PRICE
Year
1953
1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Wages An Index number of wage rates which can be said to be yet available. Details of the minimum wages payable however, readily available since the inception of the La

HD WAGES
237
EX, DECEMBER, 1972, 1973-1976
BB7
1 pa Eo
|2Yglaag
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTT p.arya@opgedoop-qər:fy -tornog J.Cio.y.y.9.68.9.6.1.8.6u..g. Cio.-.ą.8.0.0.. A. M. J. J. A. 5.0. N. D. J.F.M-A. M. J.J.A..O.D.
1975
1976
EcoloSR
RS' PRICE INDEX NUMBER
1952 = 100)
Index Number
101-6 101-1 100-5 100-2 1028 1050 105:2 105°5 1048 105:3 103-8 112-2 1125 112•3 114•8 1215 130-5 1382 1419 150-9 1654 185-8 1983 2007
applicable to the country as a whole is no to workers in tea and rubber estates are, pur Department in 1923.

Page 258
238
LABC
A relative study of the movement of wag the following table which shows the average of or these workers, wage rate index number TABLE 16.4.–CosT OF LIVING INDICES, V
REAL WAGES 1939–1976 OF TE
| Year
Average Minimui daily rates of
wages
1955
1957
Rs. cts. 1939
0 41 1940
0 41 1941
0 45 1942
0 68 1943
O 83 1944
O 87 1945
100 1946
1 15 1947
1 20 1948
1 29 1949
1 31 1950
1 53 1951
1 90 1952
1 92 1953
1 95 1954
1 99
2 06 1956
2 08
2 10 1958
2 14 1959
2 14 1960
2 12 1961 1961-62 1962-63
2 18 1963-64
2 23 1964-65 1965–66 1966-67 1967-68 1968–69
2 68 1969–70
2 70 1970-71
2 72 1971-72
2 82 1973 1974
4 06 1975
4 66 1976
4 76 * Equivalent of Colombo Consumers' Pric
† Index number of money wages : cost of 1 information as given for the estate labourers in Government employment.
N N N N N N N N N N N m
2 63
3 25

R AND EMPLOYMENT
s and cost of living of estate workers can be had from inimum daily rate of wages, cost of living index numbers nd index numbers of real wages for the period 1939–1976. AGE RATES INDEX NUMBERS AND INDEX NUMBERS OF
WORKERS IN TEA AND RUBBER ESTATES Cost of living
Wage Rates Index Numbers Index Numbers Index Number of
for estate
(Average Wage real Wagest workers (Base
1939= 100) 1939= 100 July–Sept.)
100
93
92
100 107 119 150 199 211
111
102
222
228 239 259 264 274 288 287 291* 290* 288* 287* 295*
100 100 110 166 202 212 244 280 293 315 320 373 463 468 476 486 502 507
101 110 123 123 122 121 136 161 163 164
168
512
301*
522 522
301*
519
297* 300* 304* 309*
174 177 174 173 173 174 173 173 172 171 170 170 170 187 178 168 165
520 527 532 544 549 549 554 641
319* 323* 322* 325*
432*
654
368* 393*
659
mwWWWWS Swwwww
401*
161
428* 474*
663 688 795
990 1,136 1,161
532*
167 186 200 202
568
575
e Index in terms of the estate cost of living index number. ving index number = Index Number of real wages. Similar s shown in Table 16.5 in respect of un-skilled male worker.

Page 259
COST OF LIVING AN
TABLE 16.5-AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES, COST OF LI CLASS, WAGES INDEX NUMBERS AND REAL WAG
MALE WORKERS–1
Year
Average monthly rate of wages
Cost of i Index Ni
of Colo working families base shifi 1939=1
100 104 115 150
182
185
1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950
205
212
233 241 239
252
1951 1952
262 260
2651
1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960
2634 2611 261
Rs. cts. 16 64 16 64 18 45 24 25 28 98 34 03 41 92 68 52 75 74 78 16 77 81 83 11 89 79 99 97 91 04 94 94 96 24 99 16 99 16 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 113 74 119 99 148 74 150 56 156 00 156 00 156 00 159 90 183 30 208 03 212 20
2681
1961
1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968
2734 2741 2691 2724 2774 2831 2921 293 2934
2994
3161
1969
340Ť
1970 1971
359 399 4241
1972
4647
1973 1974
5221
1975
557
1976
564
* Index Number of Money, Wages - Cost of Living Inde
Í Equivalent of the Colombo Consumers’ Price Index Colombo Town with base shifted to 1939=100.

- WAGES
239
NG INDEX NUMBER OF COLOMBO WORKING B INDEX NUMBER OF UN-SKILLED
39–1976
Eving
nber Wages Index
Real wages abo No. of un-skilled Index Number lass male workers of un-skilled with in Colombo inale workers ed to (Base 1939= 100) in Colombo*
100
100
96
100 115 145 174 204 252 412 455 470 468 499 540 540 547 547
98 97 96 110 123 194 195 195 196 198 206 207 206 208 219 221 221 251 250 254 251 247 242 234 233
571
578 596 684 684 684 684 684 684 684 684 684 721 894 905 938 938 938
961 1,102 1,250 1,275
234
241
262
247 242 235 221 207
211
224 226
: Number=Index Number of Real Wages. n terms of the cost of living Index Number

Page 260
240
LABOUR
Index Number of Wage Rates and Earnings Index number of wage rates (minimum) and following trades are being compiled by the
(1) Agricultural trades
... Tea g
mar (2) Trades other than agriculture..Cocon
facta
tran
and
Table 16.6 shows the minimum daily rates these trades as from 1952.
TABLE 16.6—MINIMUM AVERAGE RATES
AGRICULTURE AND
Agriculture
Year
Minimum Average daily rate of wages
Minimum wage rate
Index Number
Rs. c. 1 96 1 99
2 02
1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958
1959
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1958–69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1973 1974 1975 1976
2 09 2 10 2 13 2 16 2 16 2 16 2 17 2 19 2 22 2 27 2 28 2 28 2 30 2 67 2 72 2 74 2 76 2 86 3 29 4 11 4 73 4 83
100-00 101:53 103-06 106•63 107:14 108•67 110-20 110-20 110-20 110:71 111:73 113-27 115•82 116•63 116°33 117:35 136:22 138•78 139•80 140-82 14596 168•07 209.91 241:20 246•43

AND EMPLOYMENT
parnings with the year 1952 as base for workers in the
department of labour.
owing and manufacturing, rubber growing and ufacturing and coconut growing. it manufacturing, engineering, printing, match manuring, motor transport, dock, harbour and port port, tea export, rubber export, cinema, building baking. of wages and minimum wage rate index numbers for
DE WAGES, MINIMUM WAGE RATE INDEX NUMBERS—
OTHER TRADES—1952–1976
Trades other than
Agriculture
Agriculture and Trades other than Agriculture
combined
Minimum
Average
Minimum Average daily rate of wages
Minimum wage rate
Index Number
Minimum wage rate
Index Number
daily, rate of wages
Rs. C. 2 92 2 95 2 94 2 95 3 00 3 15 3 39 3 76 3 74
Rs. c. 2 04 2 07. 2 09 2 16 2 17 2 20 2 26
2 29
2 28
3 75
3 78
دیا بن بنا دیا دیا دیا در بی
2 29 2 32 2 35 2 40
3 82
100.00 101:03 100•68 100-37 103-74 107•88 116-10 128:77 128:08 128•42 129.45 130•82 132:88 132·88 132:88 135:27 158-56 161-64 163-01 173·34 180•37 199•74 235-81 275-20 282:30
3 88 3 88 3 88
100-00 101:47 102:47 105•88 106:37 107•84 110-78 112:25 111:76 112:25 113•73 115-20 117:65 118•14 117•89 119-12 133:24 141•18 142:16 144:61 149.55 171-24 212:38 244:52 250-00
2 41
3 95
4 63 4 72 4 76 5 12
2 41 2 43 2 82 2 88 2 90 2 95 3 05 3 49 4 33 4 99 5 10
5 27
5 83 6 88 8 04 8 24

Page 261
COST OF LIVING AN
A table showing the average earnings per day and these trades from 1952, onwards is given below:
TABLE 16.7-AVERAGE EARNINGS PER DAY AND IND
AND OTHER TRADES
Earnings
Tra
Agriculture
Year
Avera.
Average earnings per day
Index No.
earnin per da
Rs.
4.:
4.4
Rs. C.
2:17 2:24 2:26 2:32 2:31 2:38
5.
2:38
2:39 2:40 2:44
2:47
1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974
2:56 2:59 2:63 2•62 2•67 3:05
100.00 103.23 104.15 106.91 106.45 109.68 109.68 110.14 110.60 112.44 113.82 117.97 119.35 121.20 120.74 123.04 140.55 141.94 143.32 155.30 163.59 176.04 211.06 259.45
3•08
10.4
3:11 3:37 3:55 3-82 4:58 5•63
11.3 10.3 13.
1975
14.
Cost of Living Allowance Cost of living allowances payable to workers in some been set up were based on the cost of living index ni workers in the other trades, such allowances were ba: living index number till June 1953. With effect from in all trades for which wages boards have been set u price index.
An allowance called Interim devaluation allowance October 1973, an additional 10 per cent salary or wages to all employees drawing a salary or wages not exceed (private sector) special allowance regulation (no. 1 20 per cent or Rs. 50 (whichever is less) to all emplo: Rs. 800 per month under the emergency (private sector with effect from April 1974.

WAGES
241
Le index number of earnings in respect of
( NUMBERS OF EARNINGS—AGRICULTURE 1952-1975
Adult Workers
2s other than griculture
All Trades
Index No.
Index No.
a o ob o 5 a s Sn Nuwo w co A w w w O.
Average earnings per day Rs. c.
2-34 241 2-43 250 2-50 2-59 2-66 2-68 2-75 2-81 2-83
2-93
100.00 100.91 100.91 105.47 107.29 114.81 136.22 139.64 154.90 162.41 159.91 164.46 172.89 173.80 183.37 192.26 208.68 218.91 236.90 233.71 257.18 245.10 312.30 335.31
100.00 102.99 108.85 106.84 106.84 110.68 113.68 114.53 117.52 120.09 120.94 125.21 127.35 129.06 130.34 133.33 150.85 153.42 157.26 167.09 177.78 186.75 226.50 271.37
2-98 3-02 3-05 3-12 3-53 3:59 3:68 3-91 4•16 4:37 5:30 6:35
N -
of the trades for which wages boards have mber of estate labour, while in the case of ed on the Colombo working class cost of July 1953, allowances payable to workers O were based on the colombo consumers
was introduced in December 1967. From or Rs. 20 (whichever is less) became payable ng Rs. 400 per month under the emergency
of 1973. This allowance was increased to ees drawing a salary or wages not exceeding special allowance regulation (no. 5) of 1974,

Page 262
242
LABO
Government employees who were draw entitled to a consolidated salary with an 1969. From October 1973, governmen
month also became entitled to a special all similar to that payable to employees in the allowance regulation (no. 1) of 1973. T. (whichever is less) to all employees drawing thd emergency (private sector) special alle April 1974.
On or after first February 1975, all wor to an additional emergency (private secto. month in terms of regulations under the categories of workers the allowance payabl
(a) Plantation workers ; (6) Workers covered by the manual word (C) Daily rated and piece rates workers.
Categories of employees not entitled to tl (a) Those to whom collective agreement (b) To whom the employer, voluntarily
living gratuity which are not less favo
agreement referred to in (a) above. (C) To whom the employer pays a cost o
Colombo consumers’ index. (d) A person employed in an institution i
of the inland revenue act, and ; (e) An employee whose employer is bou
disputes act, in respect of the manual non-recurring cost of living gratuity i Workers employed by such employer is
On or after January 1, 1976, every emple workers was requested to pay to each work eight hundred rupees, in respect of each mon which is not less than fifteen rupees :-
Provided, that (a) Where such employer is an employer
Rubber growing and manufacturing ti and manufacturing trade or the coc Trade, the allowance payable shall be s wages for the number of days worked and such allowance shall be payable iri
employer ; (6) Where such employer is a co-operativ
number of workers employed by such portion to the number of days he has v
Where a worker is employed on a piece rat these regulations shall be a sum not less than rate or daily rate basis, as the case may be. fifteen rupees per month.

: AND EMPLOYMENT
ag cost of living, special and rent allowances became llowance for married officers with effect from October employees whose earnings did not exceed Rs. 400 per vance of 10 per cent of salary or Rs. 20 (whichever is less) private sector, under the emergency (private sector) special s allowance was increased to 20 per cent or Rs. 50 a salary or wages not exceeding Rs. 800 per month under vance regulation (no. 5) also of 1974, with effect from
cers drawing less than Rs. 800 per month were entitled O special allowance which is not less than Rs. 25 per ublic security ordinance. In the case of the following is ten per cent of the rate or wages for January 1975.
cers agreement of 1971 ;
mis allowance were :-
no. 5) of 1967, applies ; or otherwise, pays wages and a non-recurring cost of Durable than the amount payable under the collective
f living allowance determined in accordance with the
declared to be an approved charity within the meaning
nd by an order under section 10 (2) of the Industrial | workers agreements of 1971, and pays wages and a
terms of such agreements where the total number of . less than 25.
pyer in any trade employing not less than twenty-five er whose total earnings for the month did not exceed th including the month of January 1976 an allowance
in the tea growing and manufacturing trade, or the ade or the cocoa, cardamom and pepper growing onut growing trade, or the cinnamon or the tobacco x per centum of the amount payable to such worker as during the month or fifteen rupees whichever is less, espective of the number of workers employed by such
e, the allowance shall be payable irrespective of the
mployer, and in the case of a casual worker, in proorked for the month.
basis or a daily rate basis the amount payable under six per-centum of the wages payable to him on a piece The amount payable in this case shall not exceed

Page 263
WORKERS’ EDU
Every employer of a worker whose total earnings f less than eight hundred and ninety rupees shall, in i January, 1976, pay to such worker as allowance, an eight hundred and ninety rupees and the amount dra month.
Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of these shall not be payable to a worker—
(a) to whom the collective agreement (no. 5) of 19 (6) to whom the employer, voluntarily or otherwi
living gratuity which are not less favourable
agreement referred of 1967; (c) to whom the employer pays a cost of living
Colombo consumers' price index ; (d) employed in an institution declared to be an ap
revenue act, (no. 4) of 1963, as amended by act (e) whose employer is bound by an order under s
respect of any collective agreement published in and pays wages and a non-recurring cost of liv total number of workers employed by such em
The amount payable under these regulations to of any written law be deemed to constitute part of his such sum within the period he is liable to pay the W
Every worker who has been employed by an employ 1976, shall for so long as he continues to be a worker by such employer on such terms and conditions rela money not less favourable than those which such wo ceding January 1, 1976, the allowance payable under salary, allowance or other payments.
XI-WORKERS’ I
Three projects, viz., (i) workers’ education project, family planning (plantation sector) project and ( family planning (urban sector) project are being im
Workers’ Education Project This project is designed to educate trade union of and corporation sectors to organise and develop tł create an awareness of their rights, duties and obligat vities of the department have been expanded to cov increasing demand from the non 'metropolis'. A approximately 1,457 trade union officials as well participated at these courses.
Workers’ Education on Population and Family Pla The project is being implemented with the assistan this project is to create an awareness of populatio union leaders and supervisory personnel in the plant planning practices “ enmasse” by worker population

ATION
243
• the month exceed eight hundred rupees but spect of each month including the month of
mount equivalent to the difference between n by such worker as salary or wages for that
regulations the allowance referred to therein
7, applies ; ? pays wages and a non-recurring cost of nan the amount payable under the collective
llowance determined in accordance with the
proved charity under section 16A of the inland
(no. 6) of 1969 ; ction 10 (2) of the Industrial Dispute Act, in Gazette No. 14, 1975, of September 10, 1971, ng gratuity in terms of such Agreement, where ployer is less than twenty-five.
vorker in any trade shall for the purposes
wages and accordingly the employer shall pay ages of such a worker.
rer in any trade immediately prior to January 1, - of such employer, continue to be so employed ting to salary, allowance or other payments in orker had enjoyed on the day immediately pre- these regulations shall be in addition to such
CDUCATION
(ii) workers’ education on population and ii) workers’ education on population and plemented by the department of labour.
cials in the public, private, local government eir unions efficiently and effectively and also ons to the members and society at large. Actier districts and cater to the persistent and ever total of 54 such courses were conducted and s representatives at management level have
uning (Plantation Sector) Project e of ILO and the UNFPA. The objective of
problems amongst workers as well as trade tions and thus stimulate acceptance of family
An ILO expert is attached to this project.

Page 264
244
LABOI
There were 36 motivational training co1 trade union personnel and supervisory sta 291 females and 724 males giving a tot training courses.
Discussions were held on estates for pu family planning practices among worker p
A total of 54 one-day courses for grassestate level.
Coverage in this regard was extended to
Workers’ Education on Population and Fam This project is being implemented with of an ILO Expert. Under this project edu in-plant motivator courses, employer o
workshops for school teachers, ten worksh in-plant motivator courses and sixteen emple parts of the island with approximately 1,80
ΧΠ-INTERNATIO
The 61 session of the International Labour Agenda of the conference is set out below:
I. Report of the Director-General ; II. Programme and budget proposals ar III. Information and reports on the appl IV. Establishment of tripartite machin
labour standards (second discussion) V. Working environment (first discussio VI. Employment and conditions of work VII. Report of the working party on Stru
Sri Lanka was represented at this confer
Gor
(1) Secretary, Ministry of Labour and Co. (2) Permanent Representative, Geneva.
(1) First Secretary, Permanent Mission, G (2) Representative, Ministry of Industries (3) President, Nursing Association of Sri
En
Secretary, Employers' Federation of Sri La
(1) Joint Secretary, Sri Lanka Independen

E AND EMPLOYMENT
ses for grass-root level workers and 6 workshops for - These courses were of 5 days duration. A total of 1 of 1,015 participants attended worker motivational
pose of introducing worker motivators and popularise pulation.
pot level workers on family planning were also held at
346 estates and 214 estate level committees formed.
ly Planning (Urban Sector) Project inancial assistance of the UNFPA under the guidance -ational activities are carried out by way of workshops, rientation courses, etc. One educator course, eight ops for trade union leaders and supervisors and four
yer orientation courses were conducted in the various O participants.
NAL LABOUR ORGANISATION
Conference was held in Geneva from 2–23 June, 1976
ad other financial questions ; ication of conventions and recommendations ; ery to promote the implementation of international
n) ;
: and life of nursing personnel (first discussion) ; cture.
ence by a tripartite delegation consisting of :-
erninent Delegates nmissioner of Labour.
vernment Advisers
eneva. ind Scientific Affairs, and anka.
ployers’ Delegate
aka.
rkers’ Delegates
Trade Union Federation.

Page 265
NATIONAL YOUTH SERV
Seventh session of the Committee on plantations wa The agenda of the conference was :-
I. General report. II. Collective Bargaining problems and practices o
rights. III. Housing, medical and welfare facilities and on
Sri Lanka was represented at this meeting by a trip 1. Secretary, Ministry of Labour and Comm
Labour 2. Permanent Representative, Geneva 3. First Secretary, Permanent Mission, Geneva 4. Chairman, Sri Lanka State Plantations Corp 5. General Manager, Janawasama, Janatha Es
lopment Board 6. President, Sri Lanka Independent Estate
Congress and the 7. International Representative, Ceylon Workers
Convention (No. 135) concerning workers’ represen
XIII—NATIONAL YOUTH
Under the National Service—Youth Development F Council, 1,022 youths had participated in the training pri during 1975. Youths in co-operative Farms in Badul Vocational training facilities were provided for youths tional training centre established at Akmeemana. Actic centres at several other districts is being completed.
On a request made by the national committee on were held at the Eraminiyaya training centre for 400 wo
Apart from opportunities being provided for youth ti operative farm at Sirimavopura has earned an income o soya bean, green gram, Lanka parippu, etc. An inco from the cultivation of paddy, coconut, pineapples ( Janawasa with an area of 469 acres and a membership commenced during the year in addition to cultivation Batangala co-operative farm.
Tractor units at Sirimavopura, Tissamaharamaya ar in those areas in their agricultural activities.
As a part of a cultural development scheme a radio p by the Sri Lanka broadcasting Corporation. Action w on cultural activities. All-island competitions, cultu children and establishment of cultural committees for the year.

B COUNCIL
245
held in Geneva from 8-16 December, 1976.
plantations and the exercise of trade union
ipational safety and health on plantations.
rtite delegation consisting of the following: sioner of )
Government delegates
Alternate delegate
ration ate Deve- }
Employers' delegates
Workers' )
Workers' delegates 'Congress J atives 1971, was also ratified.
SERVICE COUNCIL
Programme of the National Youth Service pgramme at the Eraminiyaya Training Centre la District were also trained at this centre. s of the Akmeemana area at the new vocaon as regards establishment of new training
nternational women's year, two seminars nen.
o participate in development projects, the coFRs. 650,000 from the cultivation of chillies, ne of Rs. 290,000 has also been obtained tc. at the Walakumburumulle co-operative of 150 youths. Animal husbandry was also of tea, rubber, coconut and paddy at the
1 Hingurakgoda have been useful to farmers
pgramme “ Tharuna Sewa” was commenced s also taken to publish a quarterly magazine al seminars, award of scholarships to school youth services were also commenced during

Page 266
246
LABI
The council maintained close relation exchange programme with Canada was in were sent to Canada for a period of abs visited Sri Lanka for a similar period.
A national seminar at the Sri Lanka f divisional basis was mooted with the as:
XIV-EMPLOYMEN
There were 298 graduate trainees who ren of 4,116 trainees admitted to the gradua it was possible to secure permanent emplo government departments and 37 in state
A total of 320 graduates were recruited ili ed under the divisional development cour permanent posts in the regional developm graduates were deployed in training dur trainees in 1976, of whom 246 were in go statutory boards.
Studies were undertaken as regards empl supply, surplus and outflow of skilled manf for surplus manpower categories in manpo
Training Unit The training unit of the department of lab in the various departmental grades. Sta
Commissioner of Labour.
Seven refresher courses for senior labo recruits and a recapitulation course for sit
These courses, each of which was of tv Instructions were imparted solely in the f

R AND EMPLOYMENT
hip with international youth organizations and a youthern tiated. Under this programme, 35 youths from Sri Lamilian at 4 months and on their return 38 youths from Canadiens
undation institute for 35 youth workers selected on stance of the UNESCO.
T AND MANPOWER PLANNING
mained unabsorbed in permanent employment from a total e training scheme as at end of 1975. Of this number,
ment for 234 trainees during 1976, of whom 197 were in corporations.
- 1975 for training in development co-operatives establish
cil Programme. Among them 220 were absorbed into ent division. The programme was continued and 1,340 ing 1976. Permanent employment was secured for 323 Fernment departments and 77 in state corporations and
oyment generation, out-turn of graduates from universities, power categories and possibilities in obtaining employment Dwer importing countries.
our was intended to cater to training needs of the staff ff attached to the unit is headed by a senior assistant
vur officers, an induction course for thirty three new nilar officials were held during the year.
1o weeks duration, were held at the labour secretariat. \rm of lectures, followed by discussions.

Page 267
CHAPTER
EDUCATI
-THE MINISTRY OF Administration The Department of Education that held the responsib system of Sri Lanka for well over a hundred years was o of this change was the devolution of authority and resp who were entrusted with the management of educat over-all charge of the education system, with regard t the Ministry of Education.
The Island is divided into seventeen regions, each be directly responsible to the Director-General of Educat.
CHART NO. 21-EXPENDITURE ON
67 se face
Bevci su RUPEES MILLION
800
700
400
300
200
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 ERIC.C pr· SEVA
The Ministry of Education is composed of the follov (a) Administration and foreign agencies ; (6) Elementary, secondary and technical education (c) Regional organisation; (d) Finance ; (e) School works ; (f) UNESCO national commission; (8) Education publications.

(VII
N
EDUCATION
ity for the development of the educational ecentralized in October 1966. The outcome onsibility on regional directors of education, lon in all its aspects at regional level. The
policy decisions and directions rests with
ng placed under a regional director who is on.
EDUCATION, 1966–1976
A B C O £F ry:5
+ P)
5607
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
ing divisions

Page 268
248
Educational Planning Implementation of the educational reform
also effected as regards higher education. 1, 2 and 3. Arrangements were made to 6, 7 and 9 and senior secondary programr helped selection of subject streams for thes development.
A national committee to undertake resear
A school census was conducted successfu
Curriculum Development The necessary syllabuses and curricula for th prepared and in-service training classes wer This centre has organised educational tour the services of an educational expert who vi
Action was initiated on the population e with the United Nations Population Fund implemented to enable pupils to acquire a !
During the year 1976, an integrated educi tional regions for visually handicapped through 209 ordinary schools in the regio
Technical Education There are 14 technical education institutions, were iunior technical institutions. Three
Matara and Samanthurai, the technical co technical institution in 1975. A junior techn the year. Approximately 5,300 students were : the total number on roll to about 10,000. A was given to 107 pupils who completed t The vocational training programme that was further extended. The technical education s courses in management science and mathemati undergone the national diploma course in t corporations and private sector Institutions i
with a view to providing an in-plant training training to those following the course in con curricular unit was opened at the Sri Lanka te
Scholarships A total of 625 scholarships with financial air awarded on the results of the grade 5 schola examination, 480 with financial aid and 1,800 certificate of education (ordinary level) exar scholarships and also 135 grade 5 scholarshi Rs. 550,000 were spent on library books an
Recruitment A total of 8,850 teachers were recruited duri

EDUCATION
- introduced in 1972 was continued, and changes were pew primary grogrammes were implemented in grades
implement junior secondary programmes in grades nes in grade 10. Preliminary work done in this regard, e grades with the commencement of work on curricular
ch activities in education was set up in 1974.
Ily on 1st March, 1976, on an islandwide basis.
e implementation of the new education programmes were e organised by the curriculum development centre. s, educational sessions and training courses, to enlist sited the island during the year.
ducational project in keeping with an agreement made -- An in-plant training programme was initiated and Enowledge in factory work,
ational programme was organised in seventeen educachildren. 268 blind children were imparted education
ns.
7 of which are polytechnical institutions while three new technical institutions were opened at Kalutara, llege at Badulla was raised to the status of a polyrical institution at Ratnapura was also opened during admitted to these junior technical institutions bringing | course of practical training of 3-6 months duration he, national diploma course in business studies.
organised as a pilot project for school leavers was ervice too, was extended by providing correspondence cs for the higher national diploma. Candidates who have echnology were attached to government departments n collaboration with the national apprentice board 3. Arrangements were, also made to give a practical Imerce and business studies. A technical education
chnical college in April 1975.
1 and 2,619 scholarships without financial aid were irship examination held in 1976; and on the grade 7 | without financial aid. On the results of the general nination, 71 general scholarships, 60 special aptitude ps in Tamil medium have been awarded. A sum of I periodicals during the year.
ig 1976.

Page 269
UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA AND COU
II—THE DEPARTMENT (
A total of 129,484 candidates from 4,657 schools recei of 1972 and sat the National Certificate of Genera examination 23,946 candidates were qualified for the examination. Of these 10,000 were qualified for science in 1976.
The General Certificate of Education (ordinary level) department was also held in December 1975. 563,00 1976 there were 434,871 candidates.
A total of 43,484 school candidates and 18,274 priva Education (advanced level) examination in 1976.
The following examinations were also conducted by t (1) Technical college entrance examination, (2) Sinhala proficiency examination, (3) Competitive examinations for recruitment to Sri 1 (4) Examination for recruitment to accountant's servi (5) Guru vidyalaya final examination, (6) Scholarship examinations.
Computer A Computer was installed at the data processing brar facilitated quick release of examination results to prosp
ILUNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA AND CO
University of Sri Lanka-Colombo Campus Post Graduate courses such as M.A., M.Sc., PhD. W. campuses of Peradeniya, Vidyodaya and Vidyalankara w at the Colombo campus since 1975. In 1976, pos (M. Ed.) Master of Philosophy (M. Phil.), Modern Ec statistics and post graduate diplomas as land settl handicapped children were introduced as new courses C courses were under the faculty of education, faculty of i
The faculty of education was centralized in 1975 a divisions :
(1) Division of psychology of education, (2) Division of sociology, (3) Division of humanities, (4) Division of scientific and industrial education.
The demographic research and training unit was shift road, Colombo 7. Timely aid from the United Nation Staff attached to each of the faculties of the Colombo
Faculty of medicine Faculty of education Faculty of natural sciences Faculty of arts Faculty of law

(CIL OF LEGAL EDUCATION
249
F EXAMINATIONS
ed their education under the new curricula | Education examination in 1975. At this
Higher National Certificate of Education . 226,998 candidates sat this examination
examination, the largest examination of the ) candidates sat this examination while in
te candidates sat the General Certificate of
e department of examinations :-
Lanka administrative service, ce,
ich of the department during 1976. This ective candidates.
PUNCIL OF LEGAL EDUCATION
hich were formerly conducted by the three ere centralized and are now being conducted t graduate degrees, Master of Education conomics special degree, M. Sc. in applied ement and development and the teaching -f study. These post-graduate and diploma urts and faculty of natural sciences.
nd was brought under the following four
ed to its new premises at No. 202, Buller's = Development Project helped in doing so.
campus were:
***

Page 270
250
Total number of students registered for 1,553 females. The new admissions for tl
Following were the results of the 1976 e
M.B.B.S. LL. B. (External) LL. B. (Internal) General Science Special Science
General Arts Public Finance and Estate Management Bachelor of Philoso] M. A. (Geography) M. Sc. Ph. D. M. D.
A total of 573 students had received Rs. 526 first year students received Rs. 873,680
University of Sri Lanka—Peradeniya Campi The Peradeniya campus was known earlier as a campus of the University of Sri Lanka. of study in arts, medicine inclusive of dent and agriculture.
Number of students registered under var
Arts
Medicine Dental Surgery Veterinary Scien Engineering Science Agriculture
The following were the details of the e 1976: —
Name of Es Bachelor of Arts (General)—r Bachelor of Arts (Special)--re Bachelor of Science (General) Bachelor of Science (Special) Bachelor of Medicine and Ba Bachelor of Science Agricultu Bachelor of Science (Engineeri
Master of Medical Science Master of Arts (Geography) Doctor of Philosophy (Chemi Doctor of Philosophy (History Bachelor of Science (Engineer

EDUCATION
degrees in 1976 is 3,344 ; of whom 1,791 were males and Fe year were 1,749.
xamination conducted by the University:-
Durse
Number of Students
70
46
36
94
47
13
97
Taxation and Valuation
159
phy
12
01
02
10
939,360 as loans for their educational activities in 1976 • ; while 47 others Rs. 65,680.
US
as the university of Ceylon, Peradeniya. It now functions
The Peradeniya campus continues to provide courses al surgery and veterinary science, engineering, science
lous courses and faculties during 1976 appear below :-
2,079
417 191 109
ce
604
631 405
kaminations conducted by the Peradeniya Campus in
Number Passed
amination esults not released sults not released
-results not released
| | das
helor of Surgery
ig) —repeat examination August 28
.. 02
try)
*
ng)—results not released

Page 271
UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA AND COUNCIL
University of Sri Lanka–Vidyodaya Campus The Vidyodaya university of Ceylon was founded on Janua University and Vidyalankara University Act (No. 45) February 18, 1959. The nucleus of the university was Vidy
With the enactment of the higher education act, No former universities to be constituted as transferred u higher education was co-ordinated to the needs of the st education. In terms of the University Act, No.1 of 1972 campuses of the University of Sri Lanka with effect from the President became the academic and administrative He: of the faculties devolved on the Deans.
A campus board, faculty councils of Buddhism, lai trative matters and academic committees of the faculties for academic matters were the new authorities of a camp
In addition to the above authorities, a Board of Go penultimate authorities of the university to decide on adı authorities function only in an advisory capacity, the Vic
The three faculties of study are as follows :-
Arts ;
Management Studies and Commerce ;
Applied Sciences and cover the following subjects :-
Sinhala, Pali, Sanskrit, geography, economics, social administration, business administration, commerce mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, biology and 1
Sinhala is the medium of instruction at the campus. for non-Sinhalese students. Facilities are also being prov tration, business administration and commerce courses degrees in public and business administration in the Eng
There were 2,378 students registered for various cours Of these 1,439 were males ; and 939 females.
Distribution of teaching staff (Faculty-wise) was as fo
Faculty of Arts
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Faculty of Management Stud
and Commerce
Tota

OF LEGAL EDUCATION
251
y 1, 1959, with the enactment of Vidyodaya f 1958 and was formally inaugurated on sdaya Pirivena at Maligakanda, Colombo.
. 20 of 1966, provision was made for the niversities. In accordance with this act, ate through the national council of higher . Vidyodaya University became one of the 15th February, 1972. Under the new act, d of the campus, whilst the responsibilities
Iguages, arts and sciences for adminisof Buddhism, languages, arts and science
us.
vernors and a Senate were established as ninistrative and academic matters. These e-Chancellor being the final authority.
science, Tamil, English, history, public , estate management and valuation Food science.
However, courses are provided in English ided for the first degrees in public adminis
in the Tamil medium and post graduate lish medium.
es of study during the academic year 1976.
lows :-
.. 98
56
27
181

Page 272
252
Number of students passed as graduate
Examination
1975 Diploma in statistics examination
1976 January 1975 Bachelor of science degree exami
nation (general)—1976 February
March 1976 B.Sc. (public and business adminis.
tration)—special degree exami
nation—1976 March 1975 B.Sc. (Polymer Sc. & technology
degree examination—1976 April 1975 Honours B. A. examination (philo
sophy)–1976 May M.Sc. degree examination 1975 B.A. degree examination (external)
—1976 May/June M.A. degree examination-economics
history Do.
sinhala Do. Do.
buddhism
Do.
pali
449 students have received loans to the a
A campus board, faculty board, faculty during the year to deal with the various af
University of Sri Lanka--Vidyalankara Car The origin of the Vidyalankara campus was It developed into an important seat of lear 1959. The Vidyalankara University becam the integrated University of Ceylon on 15th sity of Ceylon Act, No. 1 of 1972. The is a body corporate, consisting of a C Governors and a Senate duly nominated, a of the university act.
The four faculties of the Vidyalankara cai were reconstituted as from 14th June, 197. two Deans.
Arts
Sinihala, English, Tamil and I Islamic culture, Western cla Pali, Sanskrit, modern lang Russian), mass media, stat geography, economics, librar

EDUCATION
(relevant subjects) during academic year 1975 :-
No.
No.
First class
Second upper
Second lower
sat
passed
53 26 7 5 11
149
88 1 9 88
6
N
N
| a | | | * | | | |
462
318
| || - ||
| | | | | | | |
- N O N N
܂ܝ ܗ ܛ
amount of Rs. 2,782,500.
| meetings and departmental committees were formed fairs of the campus.
npus
: the Vidyalankara Pirivena, which was founded in 1875. ning and was constituted as a university on Ist January, e one of the campuses of the University of Sri Lanka as | February, 1972, in terms of the provisions of the univer
· Vidyalankara campus of the University of Sri Lanka hancellor, Pro-Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Board of ppointed or elected by or in accordance with provisions
npus, viz., languages, Buddhist studies, arts and science 3 to function as two faculties of arts and science under
Hindi culture, linguistics, Buddhist studies, Arabic and ssical Culture (including Latin and Greek languages), 1ages (including Hindi, Chinese, German, French and istical systems, philosophy, history and archaeology | science and educational science.

Page 273
UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA AND COUN
Science : Mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany Staf : Strength of the Vidyalankara campus in 1
Professors Co-Professors Senior Lecturers ... Lecturers Assistant Lecturers Assistant Lecturers (Temp Visiting Lecturers Instructors (English) Instructor (Chemistry) Tutors
Out of 2,293 students registered during the academic of arts had a registration of 2,059 students, while the b of Science.
Library facilities were extended with the availability o
University of Sri LankaKatubedda Campus The Katubedda Campus of the University of Sri engineering, architecture, applied science and post g neering. The campus in addition conducts courses at in technology course, a certificate course for technic for middle grade technical personnel.
A new department of applied science was established It is being developed in liaison with the University of L ment Ministry of the United Kingdom. The course needs of the industry to meet immediate demand for ap leading to an honours degree.
The Town and Country Planning Department set up town and country planning and would be of two yeai leads to the award of Master of Science degree. The p geared to special needs of Sri Lanka.
The Master's degree course in civil engineering (bui during the year 1974.
Full-time courses
Undergraduate courses in engineering (civil, mechani Undergraduate course in built environment Undergraduate course in applied science (mining, mineral processing and extraction ; m
chemical engineering and fuel science) Postgraduate course in architecture Post-graduate course in civil engineering (building sc National diploma in technology Certificate in technical teacher-training.

IL OF LEGAL EDUCATION
253
zoology and Industrial Administration. 976, consists of :-
16
A 3 S 3
orary)
... 32 ... 01
... 12
year 1976 975 were females. The faculty alance 234 were registrations for the faculty
'books and magazines in sufficient numbers.
Lanka provides undergraduate courses in raduate courses in architecture and engi
technical level, viz., the national diploma al teachers and various part-time courses
in 1974 within the faculty of engineering. eeds and assisted by the Overseas Developin applied science is closely geared to the plied scientists and is of four-year duration
in 1974, provides a post-graduate course in s duration. The course would eventually -oposed course would be project-based and
Iding science and technology) commenced
cal, electrical and electronics)
etallurgy material science and ceramics ;
ence and technology)

Page 274
254
Part-time courses include
Rubber technology Geology Gemmology Engineering (mechanical and electrical) Architecture Builders quantities Building construction Course for engineering apprentices
Course for professional examination of t} Student Population There were 1,283 students, in respect of ful in 1974. Student intake increased by 2 per courses over the preceding year.
The staff position at the end of 1976 is o Faculty of engineering and architecture—
Professors Associate Profes Senior Lecturers Lecturers Assitant Lecture
Courses conducted and number of freshei
(i) Postgraduate courses :
M. Sc. in Town and Country Planni
M. Sc. in Architecture (ii) Full-time Degree Courses :
(a) B. Sc. Engineering (6) Bachelor of Applied Science (B. .
(C) B. Sc. Built Environment (iii) Full-time Technician Level Diploma (
(a) Technical Teacher and Instructor
(6) National Diploma in Technology (iv) Part-time Engineering Courses :
(a) Engineering Apprentices (6) Gemmology (C) Rubber Technology (d) Geology (e) Builders Quantities II (f) Building Construction (8) Electrical Engineering (h) Mechanical Engineering
(i) Surveying and Levelling Total number of students at the campus
Men
Women
Total

EDUCATION
ne institute of engineers, Sri Lanka.
[1-time course and 1,074 in respect of part-time courses - ent for full-time courses and 22 per cent for part-time
utlined below:
...08 ....01
-sors
...13 ...51
ers
rs admitted (1976) :-
1g
05 04
4. Sc.)
119 ...20 ...31
ourses : Training
...28 ... 220
%%
¢
... 176
。,,14
s given below:
Full-tinue ,1,127
162
Part-ttitle 1,243
58
1,289
* །
1,301

Page 275
UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA AND COUNCIL
New Courses (1976) Textile technology and rubber technology under the nati course.
Number of graduates passed out—
(a) M. Sc. in architecture (6) B. Sc. engineering
(C) B. Sc. built environment 598 students received bank loans to the amount of Rs. 9
University of Sri Lanka-Jaffna Campus The Jaffna campus of the University of Sri Lanka with ti humanities and department of physical education was est 1974, by Gazette Extraordinary No. 121/15 of July 25, 197
The higher education section of Jaffna college at Va at Tirunelvely were brought under the University Act in setti
In terms of the university of Sri Lanka Act. No. 1 of President shall be the administrative head of the campus.
Faculties and Deans Of the proposed faculties, only two faculties, viz., the science Each faculty functions under a Dean and there are a num faculty. Every department is headed by either a professor or English, geography, Hindu civilization, history, philos are functioning under the faculty of humanities and mathematics and statistics are functioning under the facult
Finance The expenditure of the campus is met by the annual grants
Land Acquisition Land to the extent of nearly 6 acres at Vaddukoddai ; ai acquired by the campus at the inception. Arrangements extent of 25 acres of land in the neighbourhood of Thirune!
Student Hostels Separate hostel facilities were being provided for men and w
Teaching Staff The teaching staff consists of 7 professors, 1 associate prof 39 instructors and 15 visiting lecturers.
Students There were 114 students at the inception and this increased 35 candidates have been registered for post graduate degree
Candidates who have registered for the post-graduate deg
No
Courses Science (M.Sc) Humanities (M.A.) Doctorate

OF LEGAL EDUCATION
255
ɔnal diploma in technology (full-time)
... 03 ... 100
09 0,620 in 1976.
ne proposed Faculties of science, law, ablished with effect from 1st August,
ddukoddai and Parameshwaram college ng up the campus.
1972. Section No. 8 (1) clause (a) the
and the humanities have been established. 1ber of departments of study under each
· a head. The departments of economics, sophy, Sanskrit, Sinhala and Tamil
botany, chemistry, physics, zoology, y of science at present.
voted by the government.
ad about 21 acres at Tirunelvely were vere being made to acquire a further vely.
omen at Vaddukoddai.
Essor, 9 lecturers, 58 assistant lecturers,
to 605 during the academic year 1976.
ree in the academic year 1976 were :-
of Candidates
07 24
04

Page 276
256
Legal Education Apart from the courses of study in law that of Sri Lanka legal education for students Court is provided by the Sri Lanka Law of Legal Education. The Council consits of General and persons of standing in th Admission to the law college takes place i students were admitted to the college du examinations during the year totalled 1,00 includes candidates who withdrew ther examinations.
IV-RESIDENTIAL UN
Buddhasrawaka Dharmapeetaya This Institution, inaugurated on 13th June established under the provisions of Act of I
The objects of the University are :- (a) to train Bikkhus in accordance with i (6) to promote meditation among the sti (C) to train Bikkhus for the propagation (d) to encourage the study and research (e) to promote Buddhist culture.
Examinations and courses of study are give The University provides a five year course of consists of the following subjects :-
(1) Tripitaka (Sutra, Vinaya, Abhidhamr (2) Buddhist philosophy and logic ; (3) Buddhist history and culture ; (4) Languages consisting of Sinhala, Pali (5) Meditation.
The University comprises four departm and consists of Buddhist monks and layn education is the responsibility of the Peetad
All the subjects mentioned in the curric constitute a qualifying examination for the are designated “ degree first year " and students are required to select only one language so selected shall be a compu in meditation consists of two tests,

EDUCATION
are available at the Colombo campus of the University who wish to qualify as Attorneys-at-law of the Supreme College which is controlled by the Incorporated Council the Chief Justice, Secretary, Ministry of Justice, Attorneye legal profession appointed by the Minister of Justice. in the month of September each year. A total of 249 ring 1976. Attorney-at law students who entered for 08, of whom 559 students were successful. This figure mselves and candidates who did not appear for these
NIVERSITY FOR BUDDHIST MONKS
, 1969, is a residential University for Buddhist monks Parliament No. 16 of 1968.
Ehe teachings of the Buddha ; adents of the University ;
of the teachings of the Buddha in Sri Lanka and abroad; on Buddhism ; and
en below: Estudy leading to Tripitakavedi degree. The curriculam
na);
, Sanskrit, English and Tamil ;
ents of study each of which is headed by a professor men as lecturers. The organisation and supervision of Thipathi the Head of the faculty.
ulum are compulsory during the first three years which degree. The fourth and the fifth years of the course degree final year respectively. “ Degree first year o
of the languages, mentioned in the curriculam. The alsory subject in the final year. The examination
namely a test in theory and a practical test.

Page 277
RESIDENTIAL UNIVERSITY FOR
Students are expected to pass in both these tests. only after the board of education and adminis submitted by him at the end of the five year course.
The First Year Examination Sixteen students who entered the University in 1969 no completing the five year course. The results of th
Passes with honours
Passes in the first divsion Passes in the second division
(upper)
Passes in the second division
(lower)
Ordinary passes
Degrees were conferred on these students at the conyo
The results of the Tripitakavedi examination held in 19
First Class Second Class (Upper) Second Class (Lower) Ordinary Passes
Meditation Special emphasis is laid on the teaching of meditation are designed to provide instruction in the theory of mer afforded under the guidance of an instructor.
Propagation of the Dhamma Religious activities were organized in the villages train students in the propagation of the Dhamma. These various religious needs of the villagers as delivering house visits begging for alms.
The following publications were released by the instit 1. Buddha Sravaka Sangrahaya—1974, (The a
Buddhist monks of the Dharmapeethaya) ; 2. Administration report—1975
3. Administration report—1976
4. The publication ‘Buddha Sravaka Dhamma Pe
of the Dhamma Peethaya.
10—A 31485

UDDHIST MONKS
257
A degree will be conferred on a student ration has approved the dissertation
at the final examination in August 1974, ; examination were as follows:
Number of Students
2 2
cation held in January 1975.
76 are as follows:
Number of Students
Nil
21
in the Theravada tradition. While lectures litation practical experience in meditation is
of Nallamudawa and Pullimuddai to students rendered valuable service in meeting religious sermons and conducting house to
ation : anual publication of the Brotherhood of
ethaya’ issued on the occasion of the opening

Page 278
258
Educational Publications Department The Educational Publications Department w publications section of the official language Education Department. Functions assigned
(1) Preparation and publication of reader
students ; (2) Preparation and publication of text be
curriculum ; (3) Writing and encouraging others to wri
in the syllabus for grades 10 and 11
and publication of these texts ; (4) Writing new Sinhala and Tamil book:
of necessary English books into Sinhal: (5) Preparation and publication in Sinhala (6) Preparation and publication of Sinha
subjects taught in schools ; (7) Writing and publication of biographies (8) Writing and publication, in Sinhala an (9) Writing and publication, in Sinhala an
Veduma ” and “ Arivichchudar "; (10) Writing and publication of two studer
and “ Valarmathie” respectively ; (11) Preparation for publication of a Sinh
the UNESCO.
Distribution of Books The department distributes all the books it p Mawatha, Colombo 10. Books are dirtribut multi-purpose co-operative societies register book sellers at the end of 1976 was 1,064. accrued from the sale of books during the ye
23
221,
Books published in 1976 were : School Books
New prints— Sinhala
Tamil
English Reprints
Sinhala Tamil English
116,
59,
1,697, 575, 289,
Higher Education Books New prints— Sinhala Reprints – Sinhala
w un
Other Books New printsTamil
Magazines Issues
— Sinhala
Tamil
Details of all books published by the der

DUCATION
as established in October 1966, by incorporating the E department and the book writing' section of the
to the department were :- -s in Sinhala, Tamil and English for grades 1 to IX
moks in Sinhala and Tamil in all subjects in the school
te books in Sinhala, Tamil and English on all subjects in accordance with the new educational programme
s that are essential for higher education and translation a and publication ;
and Tamil of dictionaries and encyclopaedia. La and Tamil glossaries that are necessary for various
- in Sinhala ; d in English of supplementary story books for children ; 1 Tamil, of a series of books under the titles “ Denuma
ats’ monthlies, in Sinhala and Tamil titled “ Nuwana >>
ala version of the “ Courier ?" magazine published by
publishes. A sales point has been established at Olcott sed in the outstations through book sellers and district ced with the department. The number of registered
M. P. C. SS. so registered were 212. The total income car was Rs. 24,635,813.
483 copies 336
39
477 99"
645 copies 124 29 381 39
962 copies 714 copies
000 copies
_000 copies _849
partment are included in a catalogue.

Page 279
LIBRARIES AND DOCUM
V-LIBRARIES AND DOCU
The establishment of a central library agency to orga considered essential for a plan of library developm legislation was accordingly enacted in Sri Lanka, f national library services act, No. 17 of 1970.
Development programmes originated in 1972 with school library at least from each electorate with a adequacy so that it could function as a district centra of Local Government and Education were available i provision of accommodation, furniture, and library Co-operate reference, lending and children's services.
were the appointment of qualified full-time librarians the management of libraries. Necessary bye-laws ha
The next stage in the development programme was based on district central public libraries and school assistance of voluntary workers. An objective of this prevented from procuring books they desired either di books with convenience. These services, the hom popularity.
Book clubs and readers’ societies were being orgar reading habit, while book exhibitions had been organ book development council where facilities were afford prices.
Library statistics, available for the year give the tota as 1,075. There were in addition, a fair number of li buted throughout the Island. Of the total enumerat assistance of the library services board, while others tl by various government departments and institutions +
Public Libraries totalled 388 ; school libraries 595 ; those of university campuses 43 ; and special libraries accounted for 3,000,333 books, 12,325 Manuscripts
Best libraries are found in the University of Sri Lan among the best. Of the six campus libraries those i barely adequate, while others are in the process of de
During the year 1976, a total of 7,484 books from public and school libraries in the island.
Floor space of libraries available was in the region city of 14,894. There were 450,151 registered readers tion served by the 3 principal library categories is:
(1) 94 per cent in institutions of higher education ;
(2) 14 per cent in schools ; (3) 19 per cent in public libraries.
These figures reveal that the population yet served and improvements in this regard would be the main

ENTATION SERVICE
259
MENTATION SERVICES
nise the national library infra-structure was sent to be successfully implemented. Library or the first time with the promulgation of the
the selection of one public library and one
view to maintaining a minimum standard of 1 library. The assistance of the Departments in this effort. These activities per se included equipment, and adequate collection of books
Other aspects in the scheme of development and library advisory Committees to supervise ve been framed.
s the operation of mobile book supply services
libraries. This service was initiated with the service is to provide readers who were hitherto de to poverty or vocational difficulties to obtain e delivery services in particular are gaining
aised in various towns and villages, to foster nised with the collaboration of the national ded readers to purchase books at reasonable
al number of libraries functioning in the Island braries in various stages of organisation distried more than half were those organised with hat were established during last two decades nad limited objectives.
libraries in educational institutions including totalled 49. Collections in all these libraries and 680,816 journals.
ka. Peradeniya Campus library is considered in the Colombo and Vidyodaya campuses are velopment.
the Ranfurly Scheme were distributed among
of 266,791 sq. metres, providing a seating capa1. Percentage wise distribution of the popula
by schools and public libraries is inadequate development objective in ensuing years.

Page 280
260
There is no national library in Sri Lanka. are now discharged partly by Colombo Nat by the legal deposit library maintained by the I Library services board took over the posse construction of buildings for the national lib in extent is situated at Torrington Avenue, C to the buildings department for commenceme
There were 1,393 librarians in service of wl 203 librarians had obtained professional quali of 1970 empowered the Ceylon National developing library education in the Island. in initiating action to open a Department of Sri Lanka University where this subject is no
The library science course at preliminary Lanka library associations since 1960 has be seeking employment in the library professic
A recommendation has been made to the M minimal course in library science to teachers in their library services. Some of the Guru Vidy The board itself has also conducted regularl Lanka. The organisation of library materia sought in this regard from librarians is on the
Sri Lanka National Publications Development Sri Lanka National Publications Developmen unit in the Ministry of Education, and was S.
The institution is located at the educa Maligawatte, Colombo 10.
Membership of the institution is a broad ba officials and others are drawn from the respect printers and book-sellers.
The objectives of the board are to develop bution, including exports and imports and w and institutions for the promotion and sale libraries also come under the purview of the
VI-SRI LANKA ACADEMY
The courses of study conducted at the Sri I for government officials. The courses consist supervisory and any course of study at the reg
The academy conducted 19 courses in Sinha the year 1976.
Total number of officers who attended ti English media.
The courses are of short-term duration conducted for accountants are of nine months,
A sum of Rs. 10,130 was levied from those

DUCATION
Some of the services provided by a national library ional Museum Library established in 1877 and partly Department of National Archives. The Ceylon National ession of a site released by the government for the rary of Sri Lanka in 1976. This site about 2 acres Colombo 7. The work had been already handed over nt of work. nom 219 were employed in part-time service and only fications in library science. The Library Act, (No. 17) Library services board to assist the government in a pursuance of this authority, the board was successful Library Science, at the Vidyalankara campus of the w taught at graduate and post-graduate levels. -, intermediate and final levels, provided by the Sri en of much use to school-leavers particularly those
Pn.
Tinistry of Education that, steps be taken to provide a training at the Guru Vidyalayas with a view to improving palayas, it is hoped, would commence the course early. y short-trem courses in various urban centres in Sri 1 has become somewhat systematic, while assistance increase.
Board at Board is an institute which functions as a separate et up by the Ministry of Education in 1972. tional publications department, new secretariat,
sed one, many of whom are high ranking government ive private sectors, which include editors, publishers,
the institution of reading, writing, production, distrizork hand in hand with international organisations
of books. The establishment and development of e Board.
OF ADMINISTRATIVE STUDIES
Lanka Academy of Administrative Studies are mainly of financial management, administrative, managerial, [uest of certain government departments. la and 16 in English media making a total of 35 in
hese courses was 1,023 ; 569 in Sinhala and 454 in
usually up to one-week or one-month ; courses
who attended these courses of study.

Page 281
CHAPTER À
MUSEUMS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES, A
AND CULTURAL A
-MUSEUM
The Colombo Museum established on 1 January, 18 January, 1977. The most important and the largest of th has within its walls objects of cultural, historical and art past years. Provincial museums at Kandy and Ratnapu pura display cultural objects with a local background are located.
The natural history museum, constructed under th Museum when complete would exhibit objects of na would be utilised to exhibit ethnological and anthropolo galleries in the Colombo Museum for objects of Anura periods, as lamps, coins, crafts, costumes, anthropolo, fine arts and the regalia.
The Colombo Museum consists of sections of ethn zoology and botany conducting research in their resp are published in the Spolia Zeylanica, the official public works of the department of National Museum were :-
(1) Some of the statues in Colombo Museum. (2) A few historic places in Siyane Korale. (3) Foreign policy in international movement of plan
Publications of historical volumes undertaken by t below:
(1) Ephigraphia zeylanica–Volume 1. (2) Coins and Currency—by Codrington. (3) Bronzes in Colombo Museum_-by Dr. Ananda C (4) Ceylon National Congress—by S. W. R. D. Band (5) Banners and Standards--by E. W. Perera.
Besides Spolia Zeylanica–Volume 32, Part 2,, Volu scripts of the Colombo Museum library are under print
Under the education programmes, 19,250 students we while public lectures and film shows were also held “ Singithi " is published by the department. Three ec released. All publications of the national museums ar provincial museums.
The museum library, the oldest and the largest in the and about 3,500 palm leaf inscriptions. A copy of ei
Museum Library by the Registrar of Books and News access to the library. Research workers are eligible registered readers in 1975. -

VIII
RCHAEOLOGY, FINE ARTS .CTIVITIES
77 completed a century of its existence in e National Museums, the Colombo Museum istic significance safely deposited over the ira and the Folk Museum at Anuradhaparticularly of the respective regions these
e extension programme of the Colombo tural history. The old museum building gical objects. There are at present separate lhapura, Polonnaruwa, Kotte and Kandyan gical objects, objects of Dutch era, ancient
ology, anthropology, geology, entomology, ective fields. The results of such research ation of the department. Among research
ts.
ne department during the year is outlined
Coomaraswamy. Laranaike.
me 34, and the catalogue of palm leaf
re benefited by the free guide lecture service,
during one year. A children's magazine itions of this magazine have already been e available for sale in Colombo and in the
island consists of more than 350,000 books ch publication in the island is sent to the papers. Only approved readers are allowed to be approved readers. There were 248

Page 282
262
MUSEUMS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES, AR
The national museums have collected the year. Two boxes of pressed plants w joint survey conducted in collaboration helped collect 1,500 specimens.
The department held a photographic e Conference and an exhibition of gifts pres museums.
The number of visitors to the Colomb the region of 236,115 and 118,303. A s Income from other sources totalled Rs. 34
All national museums are open daily, Sinhalese New year day and the Vesak ful
The national museums continue mainta Museums, Paris.
II—NA
The functions of the Department are Archives Law, state records more than 25 administration and historical research a. deposit. The department also conducts sui to select documents of national importano repairing these documents. It also enco documents, to deposit them in the nati used by research students. The departmer reprographers and records managers in assistance to individuals and organisations of records. The Director, National Arci the Printers and publishers ordinance and archives is also the legal depository for al the island.
Construction work on the second two-s divisions of the department housed under storeyed special repository commenced in .
Departmental officers completed 19 recor A total of 122 linear feet of records, accru during 1976. Final documents for preser 16 (h) of the National Archives Law NC of the Ministry of Justice. Preliminary d State institutions. viz : Ministry of Educat Department, Petroleum Corporation, Sri L kele), Port Cargo Corporation. Specimen during 1976 were transmitted by the Pos currency notes issued during the year were si Other records obtained for permanent prese of le-Fle and Mulkirigala constituencies.
During the year 18 temple libraries were these, 9 libraries were given necessary tech and books. A large collection of docume

CHAEOLOGY, FINE ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
273 objects and 1,814 zoological specimens during the ere received from the Smithsonian Institution as gift. A
with the Smithsonian Institution during the year 1976
xhibition in connection with the Non-Alligned Summit ented by the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka to the national
O museum and provincial museums were respectively in um of Rs. 47,519 has been collected as admission fees. _991.
9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. excepting Fridays, Saturdays, the I moon day. ain cultural relations with the International Council of
TIONAL ARCHIVES
governed by Law No. 48 of 1973. According to the = years old and selected for preservation for development, re transferred to the National Archives for permanent
veys among temple libraries and other private collections ce, and also render assistance in listing, calendering and
urages individuals and institutions possessing valuable Dnal archives for permanent preservation and to be nt affords training facilities to binders, document repairers, government and semi-government offices and renders in organising their record rooms and in the preservation hives also administers the printing presses ordinance, the newspapers ordinance (cap. 178-180). The national Il publications and newspapers printed and published in
storeyed block of the north wing was completed and all - one “ roof. Work of the first two storeys of the six
December, 1976.
ed rooms of various state and state-sponsored institutions. med for permanent preservation from 66 such institutions cvation and destruction of public records under section 2. 48 of 1973 were signed in respect of court records locuments were also prepared in respect of the following tion, Kachcheries, Police Department, Land Development Lanka Electricity Board, Tea Research Institute (Talawa
s of new issues of Stamps and first day covers' issued st and Telecommunications Department. Specimens of imilarly transmitted by the Central Bank to the archives. ervation include election material of the two by-elections
examined by the Department of National Archives. Of anical assistance for purpose of preserving documents ents and other literature in the possession of individuals

Page 283
ARCHAEOLOG
were received as donations. Some manuscripts of h individuals, were microfilmed for departmental purpo conservation work. Two public exhibitions were held o
Under requirements of the printers and publishers o have been received for registration and under the newSI have been registered. A total of 51 declarations were rec while 57 printing presses were closed down during the Lanka registered as at end of 1976.
III–ARCHAEOI
Activities of the Department of Archaeology were expan projects, viz., lifting of colossal Buddha statue at Mali Avukana Buddha statue were taken in hand.
Excavations The excavation in the ancient city and the seaport of Ma continued. Various 'finds’ recovered from the site a
Excavations at the Yatala Vihara and Sandagiri Dago excavated sections of these monuments were conserved
Further excavations were undertaken to expose subter at Sigiriya. The excavation and conservation of the do continued.
Chemical Conservation of Ancient Paintings and Monum Ancient paintings at Ridivihara in Kurunegala district Rajamahavihara in Colombo district were cleaned up an Ganegodellavihara, Kivulpane Vihara, Sunandarama examined.
The Buddha statues at Galvihara, Polonnaruwa a conserved. Lighting of Ancient Monuments and sites An expert from UNESCO was consulted as regards ligt in Matale district. A blue print was prepared under tr Potgul Vihara and Thuparama in Polonnaruwa.
New Museums The construction of buildings in connection with the i 'affna, Galle and Isurumuniya Vihara in Anuradhapu
made at the end of the year.
Exhibitions A cultural exhibition was held at the National Museum Non-alligned Summit Conference.
Publications A total of 2,101,000 picture post cards of ancient mon of Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa were printed and publish archaeological map of Sri Lanka.

263
storical value brought from temples and ses and originals returned to owners after uring the year. rdinance (chapter 179) 3,807 publication apers ordinance (cap. 180), 192 newspaper eived for registration of new printing presses, ear. There were 908 printing presses in Sr!
LOGY
ded during 1976 and two major conservation gavila and construction of a shelter for the
ntota in Mannar district were expanded and te being examined at the laboratory.
ba in Tissamaharama were contined and the
ranean water channels in the pleasure garden me and pesava of the Dighavapi-dagoba was
ments and Pokunuvita Rajamavihara and Kelani d conserved. Paintings at Kosgoda Vihara, - Vihara and Yataththevela Vihara were
nd Avukana were chemically treated and
iting of the ancient cave temple of Dambulla ne guidance of the expert for the lighting of
establishment of archaeological museums in ca was undertaken and satisfactory progress
a premises, Colombo in connection with the
aments and two guide books to ancient sites ed. Action was also initiated to prepare an

Page 284
264
MUSEUMS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES,
Antiquities Ordinance Draft amendments to the antiquities ordina prepared.
Inspections A number of sites were inspected and necess cal reserves and protected monuments.
Routine Excavation and Conservation Work Repairs to the Audiance hall, Kandy, were at the following sites were continued :-
Kantharodai, Polonnaruwa, Riti Velgam vehara, Seruvila, Muđu Maha Yapahuwa, Rajangane, Kotte, Tantirimale
Inscriptions Forty nine inscriptions were discovered an
The pictorial traditions of Sri Lanka goes introduced from India in the missionary en Painting came with other aspects of culture, were reared to the glory of the Buddha, pair tion and less of aesthetic decoration. Th Jataka stories which were connected with th home the value of the Paramitas or Strivin
The remains of these ancient paintings are the researches of the archaeological depa however, datable no earlier than the 5th ce but are not patently religious. The Kandy own methods of painting technique.
In the opinion of an Indian expert, Sri L India. The folk art of the Island, known persists to this day. During the Kandyan ti its best expression. With the coming of th Island there appeared a new trend in art wl
Folk Art The tradition in the folk art is what has b history. The golden age of Sinhala folk the system of service tenure which ensured t was so profound that it took shape in the fourteen departments of the Kandyan publi
Among the most colourful of the folk art folk mind, as distinguished from the
masks are of the two categories ; those use the past are vigourously danced out to the in Kolam, which is the popular masquerade roles.

ARCHAEOLOGY, FINE ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
nce for purpose of restricting export of antiquities were
ary action taken to declare important sites as archaeologi
completed. The excavation and conservation of remains
gala, Padaviya, Anuradhapura, Mihintale, Tiriyaya, Jihare, Neelagiri seya, Menikdena, Panduwasnuwara, , Deliwala and Ridivihare.
d copied during 1976.
-FINE ARTS
back to the third century B. C. when Buddhism was terprises of that sub-continent's greatest emperor Asoka.
as dower of the new religion. When religious buildings atings formed more a part of the scheme of moral edificae themes of these paintings were selected from the 550 le life of the Bodhisathva and were the visual side to bring
gs towards perfection.
e known through notices in ancient books as well as from rtment. The earliest paintings of any note extent are, ntury A. D. They are known as the Sigiriya frescoes jan school and its counterpart in the south evolved their
anka's remnants of paintings are more numerous than in | as Sittara, is peculiar to Sri Lanka. This type of art imes, i.e. from the 16th to 18th centuries, this art received e first European (Portuguese) with vested interests in the nich became most noticeable in British times.
een handed down from the middle ages in the island's arts was the Kandyan period of Ceylon history, with ne economic self-sufficiency of the artisan. The stimulus Kottal Badde, the department of folk arts, one of the C services.
| are the masks of Sri Lanka, the artistic expression of the fine arts”, the art of the sophisticated. Sri Lanka d in the ritual dances in which the myths and legends of singing of the deeds of the supernatural and those used of the south. Actors don masks suited to the several

Page 285
CULTURAL ACTIT
Disguised by the masks, short episodes are enacted g the mask is a highly realistic art emphasising the idea Sri Lanka mask ranks among the highest expression of th
A folk art of mediaeval ages was the rukada, or the ai use of figures in the round gorgeously coloured and ma
Fine Arts The Arts Council of Ceylon constituted by an act of helps promote development of the arts in Sri Lanka, the the government.
Kandyan dancing—Arising out of the renaissance in t place of the Kandyan dance art in the life of the natio today in the Ves Natuma, the Naiyandi, the Udekki an are spectacular displays of artistic excellence and poss
Government College of Dancing and Ballet The Government College of Dancing and Ballet has aesthetic education. This institution now functions as University of Sri Lanka. There were 428 students on Ramanathan academy of fine arts which also func conducts a four year course in music.
V—CULTURAL AC
State participation in fostering, encouraging and assist of the people is primarily the responsibility of the M religious activities of adherents of principal religions i Ministry, which channels its activities through the Depa
Religious Activities A host of various activities in promoting religious affairs financial assistance to religious organizations to propag
Dhamma Examinations. At the final certificate e February, 1976 at 182 centres 3,476 candidates were examination was held on 27 and 28 November, 1976 appeared for this examination.
Dhamma Schools.—506 new Dhamma schools were modern education trends, a series of Dhamma school versed in Buddhist education. Sri Lanka Dhamma sch 1976 at the John De Silva memorial theatre, preside Successful students were the recepients of awards.
Bhikku Identity Cards.-684 Bhikku identity cards we 18,480 identity cards so far issued.
Divisional Sasanarakksaka Councils. —A set of Tripi council selected in each district. Allocations to gove incidental expenses of these councils.
Sasanaraksaka Societies. —Initial steps were introduc folk and temple authorities.

VITIES
265
civing free scope for the comic. The art of conveyed most effectively. The art of the ne art of simple folk.
rt of puppetry, dramatising stories with the -nually operated.
Parliament in a pivotal organisation which e arts Council receives an annual grant from
he art and culture is a consciousness of the on. Kandyan dance art finds its expression 1 the Pantheru dances. These dance forms sess great entertainment and educative value
been reconstituted to cover all aspects of, s the institute of aesthetic studies of the a roll at this institution as at end of 1976. etions under the University of Sri Lanka,
CTIVITIES
ting in the development of the cultural life Ministry of Cultural Affairs. Promotion of a Sri Lanka is also the responsibility of the artment of Cultural Affairs.
were fulfilled during the year, while granting cate Buddhism on foreign soil. xamination for Dhamma schools held in successful. The Bauddha Dhammachariya at 55 centres. A total of 3,021 candidates
registered during the year. In keeping with text books were compiled by a board webnools’ day celebrations were held in October ed over by the Minister of Cultural Affairs.
ere issued in 1976 giving an over-all total of
taka books was gifted to the best divisional rnment agencies were Rs. 21,677 to cover
ced to widen cultural relations between rural

Page 286
266
MUSEUMS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES, AR
Religious Grants (a) A sum of Rs. 148,000 was paid to 142 re Grants were also paid for such purposes as
(i) Vippassana Meditation centre Rs. (ii) The Dhamma publications section o (iii) Pirith-chanting at the Sri-Maha B
(iv) All island contest conducted by th
years of the Birth of Prince Siddhar
(6) Grants to other Religious Bodies :
(i) Hindu religious affairs Rs. 36,000 (ii) Islamic religious activities Rs. 25,20 (iii) Catholic and Christian organisation (iv) A grant of Rs. 800 was also made
Peradeniya campus.
(C) Financial Aid for food, clothes, medic Financial assistance for provision of food, been incurred in providing these facilitie Tissa Vihare, Kankesanturai and the Bodhi in United States, United Kingdom and Ma
Other Activities The newly elected Anunayake of Asgiriya the Act of Appointment at the Audience Ha on 16 July, 1976.
A State funeral was accorded at the crem wimala Mahanayaka Thero of Ramannaya
Fine Arts Kalayathanas, artists and amateur writers w Cultural relations with countries abroad we
Activities in this regard were :-
(a) A grant of Rs. 10,880 under the sche (6) Rs. 190,875 paid to Kalayathanas an
(©) 85 new cultural societies were register thanas is being devised.
(d) A festival of drama organised for the A series of publications, on cultural aspects

CHAEOLOGY, FINE ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
igious centres to effect improvements to Vihara buildings.
2,000 f the Sasana Sevaka Samitiya (Ltd). Rs. 2,500 adhiya Rs. 5,000
e Sri Lanka Bauddha Peramuna to commemorate 2,600 ha Rs. 1,440
s Rs. 21,600
to the Buddhist Society of University of Sri Lanka,
cine and lodging.
clothing, medicine and shelter. A sum of Rs. 840 has es to incumbents at the Swarnabimbaramaya, Mannar, raja Viharaya, Madu Road ; Buddhist Clergy and temples laysia were afforded assistance totalling Rs. 65,000.
= Chapter, Siyam Nikaya, was ceremonially presented all, Kandy, by the President of the Republic of Sri Lanka
ation of the late Deepegoda Chandrakeerthi Sri Chanda
Nikaya.
vere granted subsidies to promote fine arts in the island. ere strengthened.
me of subsidies to the needy. d Rs. 6,000 to Royal Art Society (Ceylon Branch) ed during the year. A system of registration of Kalaya
= Non-Aligned Summit Conference ;
of the country were released for purpose of sale.

Page 287
CULTURAL ACTIV
Cultural Shows Cultural shows were arranged with the participants of f
(i) Soviet ballet. (ii) Puppet show from German Democratic Republic (ii) Musical entertainment also from the German De
The state dance ensemble of the Republic of Sri L the German Democratic Republic staged performances
Literary Activities Much progress was achieved in the development of var and the reading public. These took form of purchase the Sahithya Day celebrations. Highlights of the literar (a) Purchase of books to the value of Rs. 13,110 u
writers ; subsidies of Rs. 5,500 to print books or (b) Literary awards to the value of Rs. 9,000 to auth
and Tamil. (C) An Island-wide series of literary competition for a (d) Annual Sahithya day celebration held on 27 and
teachers' training college, Veyangoda. A Speci
was released covering mainly articles on the literai (e) Translation of Tripitakaya and compilation of Sir
paedia.

ITIES
267
preign countries :
nocratic Republic.
anka which visited the Soviet Union and In the two countries.
ious literary activities to assist both writers of books, literary awards competitions and y activities during the year were :-
nder the scheme of assistance to amateur I research work.
ors of the best literary creatives in Sinhala
mateur writers and school going children. 28 November, 1976 at the Paththalagedera al issue of the “Sahithya Sangarawa ”
y revival since 1956. ahala dictionary and the Buddhist encyclo

Page 288
CH
PUE
The planning and financing of Public Hea the state. The national health services are a under the Ministry of Health. The amalg in 1966 saw a progressive step been taken in the Island. Budgetary allocation for po Rs. 409-2 million compared with Rs. 351:
There were 345 government hospitals w island. Doctors and assistant medical pra with an overall nursing staff in the region o
IIVIT
Records of vital occurences in the life of commonly referred to as vital statistics.
Population The estimated mid-year population of Sri ] 1:6 percent over the preceding year.
Births
The number of births registered during 19 crude birth rate for 1976 was 27:6 per 1,000
Deaths
Deaths registered for the year 1976 were 1 The crude death rate for 1976 was 8:0 per 1
The rate of natural increase of populatio
Infant Deaths
Deaths of Infants (under 1 year of age) regi increase in infant mortality rate from 46:3 i

[PTER XIX
LIC HEALTH
-GENERAL
th and Medical Services in Sri Lanka rest mainly with ministered by the Department of Health which functions mation of the department with the Ministry of Health towards a closer co-operation of health administration ovision of Sri Lanka's health services in 1976 totalled
million the preceding year.
th a total bed-strength of 39,568 scattered over the ctitioners in state medical institutions totalled 3,181
5,600.
TAL STATISTICS
the community as births, deaths, marriages, etc., are
Lanka for the year 1976 was 13,730,000 an increase of
76 was 378,833 compared with 374,889 in 1975. The population. This had decreased from 27:7 in 1975.
19,293 the corresponding figure for 1975 been 115,175. ,000 population as compared with 8:5 in 1975.
a which in 1975 was 19-2 increased to 19•6 in 1976.
stered during 1974 totalled 17,743with a corresponding a 1973 to 51:2 in 1974.

Page 289
VITAL STAT
CHART No. 22—EXPENDITURE ON
mise ea esa பத்திலட்சம் ரூபா
RUPIES MILLION | 450
400||
350 .
300
25o L
2o 0
50
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 197
STATISTICAL-DRAUGHTSMAA

ISTICS
269
PUBLIC HEALTH, 1966–1976
I 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
E.s.de Silva

Page 290
270
PUBI
Maternal Deaths. The number of materna 454 the preceding year. Maternal mortality T similar trend continuing up to the year 1973.
CHART No. 23—INFANTIL
28 J jo 40 a 2.9Spuysbör 1000 is PER THOUSAND LIVE - BIRTH
50
30
1966 1967 1968 1909 1970
|1•c de Silva.

LIC HEALTH
1 deaths recorded in 1973, was 453 as compared with ate was static during years 1970 and 1971 with 1.2, a This figure declined further to 10 during 1974.
LE MORTALITY RATE, 1966–1974
1971, 1972, 1978 I974, 1975, 1976
Sodra S-A N.A.
4’D'AMAY!

Page 291
HEALTH PLANNING AND PR
CHART No. 24—MATERNAL DE
es 100o a
2 Eli Spů48 bei 1000 is PER THOUSAND LIVE- BIRTHS.
12
1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
E. C-de-51 Lug:
III–HEALTH PLANNING AN The health planning and programming division as in (1) An annual health plan spelling out a general pro (2) An annual implementation programme setting out
and programmes of the department of health and 1 (3) A financial and work plan.
Progress was reviewed in terms of the financial and programme.
New proposals for the health sector capital investme Ministry of Planning for incorporation in the annual es
Statistics were compiled from institutions and cadre had been determined. Similar statistics in respect and special institutions were processed to determine
Apart from the normal activities in health planning been focussed during the year on –
(a) Financial analysis and institutional planning ; (6) Organise a regional work shop on health mar
and another on country health programming
W. H. O.

OGRAMMING
271
EATH RATE, 1966-1974
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
en) 3:
STz'D'AN.
ND PROGRAMMING the previous years continues to operate— gramme of action ; physical and financial targets for all projects the department of ayurveda ;
work plan and the annual implementation
ents were formulated and forwarded to the stimates.
requirements for institutions up to all levels
of the district, base, provincial hospitals cadre requirements for those Institutions.
and programming, necessary attention has
1-power planning at the beginning of 1976, during December, in collaboration with the

Page 292
272
PUBLIC
The Planning and programming activities i
(a) Rendering reports to brief Sri Lank (b) Rendering consolidated reports on fo
in the Island ; (C) Servicing the Ministry budget cell an
Medical Supplies State medical stores. The servicing of medi from Divisional Drugs Stores.
Value of Stocks At the end of annual verification in 1976, the International gifts and care milk programm
U. N. F. R. A. PI
Other miscellaneous items—WHO other ag Triposha milk to the value of Rs. 9,304,575 Local manufacture of drugs.--The Comm held 8 meetings during 1976 and approved fo
An important decision in this regard was t facturers should manufacture ‘trial batches' c and obtain the committee's approval for ma would become familiar with technicalities inv
Drug dealers: No. of dealers
Dealers licensed Licences to be renewed Closed cases
Total revenue collected by way of licensing
Equipment.—Equipment for the various het by the state medical stores.
IV-FAT
The family health programme has completed regard is evidenced from details below:
(a) The Government's co-operation with tt
by enhanced assistance from S. I. D. A
Bureau commenced and has progressed (6) Acceptance of family health by Sri Lan (C) Two hundred new M. C. H. clinics havi (d) All voluntary organizations, societies, an
ingly with the government's programm child health concept with family plann
metal health ; e The Family Health Bureau extends its
so arises.

HEALTH
pere directed towards :- a missions abroad on health activities in Sri Lanka ; od production in medical and public health institutions
a sectoral sub-committee on health and social services.
cal supplies to the periphery continues to be directed
value of stocks held at the stores was Rs. 55,709,005. e.—Value of gifts received during the year : oject 104 Rs. 4.477
105 Rs. 1,462,477 106 Rs. 296,115
encies Rs. 849,060. 5 was received. mittee for approval of drugs for local manufacture rmulae of 37 products for local manufacture.
hat, once the formulae have been approved all manuof the products, formulae of which have been approved nufactured products, to ensure that the manufacturer
olved to produce drugs satisfactorily on tender.
3,096 1,274
922
900
fees for the year was Rs. 50,900. alth institutions in the island continued to be supplied
MILY HEALTH
1 its eighth year of operation. Success gained in this
ne Royal Government of Sweden has been established 2. Work on construction of the new Family Health
quite satisfactorily. ka masses has now been established in principle. e been established in the estate sector ; ad social service groups have co-operated very encourage. Original programme which embraced mother and ing now involves immunization, nutrition and environ
assistance to specialized campaigns whenever a need

Page 293
FAMILY HEA
Administration There has been no appreciable change in the genera. All sub-programmes however, have been inter-related
Training-In-Service training programme of the lined below:
Category
No. inService
Medical Officers Nursing Personnel Other Health Personnel
1,66. 6,16
5,902
Ayurvedic physicians.—Divisional training conducte
Kurunegala Galle Kandy Colombo Anuradhapura Jaffna
Ratnapura Other activities of the bureau include training po workers, CNAPT volunteers and social service worker
Health Education Most of the anticipated activities were curtailed due tot The non--availability of financial resources and delaye main hazards in the curtailment of activities on famil
Family health bureau nevertheless carried out activ 1. Family health education, 2. Library services, 3. Intensive implementation of the district organiz Family health education activities.-Talks, discussions departments, corporations, and voluntary organizatic
Family planning instructions booklet. Reprinted
10,000 copies—Sinhale
5,000 copies–Tamil Posters reprinted :
(a) For a small family 4,000 Sinhala
—5,000 Tamil
—5,000 English (6) Preparation of Tamil versions
"On Spacing'
On Vasectomy? “On getting information on F. P.'
On economic benefits.' The routine distribution of printed material to al departmental staff were undertaken by the bureau.

TH
273
administration of the family health bureau. on a better footing.
amily health bureau during the year is out
Trainees
1974
104 1,322 957
1975
340 1,587 1,127
1976 216
925 960
1 during 1976:
Number Trained
N = N
rogrammes and seminars for family health rs.
che non-availability of essential basic resources. d assistance as regards personnel services were y health work.
rities as :
ation.
, and film shows were conducted in government ons for staff personnel.
I medical officers, ayurvedic practitioners and

Page 294
274
Library The library of the bureau continues to receiv
Intensive Implementation Districts The programme was initiated in 4 S. H.S. di Preliminary discussions have been held and i is being planned to implement the programm
Supplies and Services Supplies and services section of the bureau distribution of contraceptives to the 14 divis equipment, instruments and other items rec
programmes.
Equipment and other items received on t at a slower pace due to shortage of transpo
Steps were taken to introduce Depo Pro method of contraception while “follow-up' preparation and the intra-uterine contracep
Sterilization services. The programme thwarted towards second half of the year.
Estate Sector Training and orientation of estate para-medi of midwives for employment in the estate
midwives, 82 are in training.
Two hundred polyclinics in the estate sec has been made to upgrade these clinics wit UNICEF assistance. Apart from maternal has also been made to provide Thriposha ti been provided with the establishment of sal
School Health The service needs much more attention than and funds. Unrestricted extension of mo would help prevent health hazards in the ad
V-DEI
Dental care is an important aspect of health during the year. Provision of dental staff in
Déntal Surgeons School Dental N Dental Technicia Pupil Dental Nu
There were 108 hospital dental clinics clinics functioning as at end of 1976.

JBLIC HEALTH
e periodicals, journals and other publications.
visions-Colombo South, Kegalle, Jaffna and Batticaloa. nitial basic data collected for analysis. Further progress aes on a wider coverage.
has forged ahead its scheme of decentralization in the ional drug stores. The bureau continues to distribute eived from SIDA apart from requests for sterilization
UNFPA project SRL 0105 have been distributed though
rt facilities.
overa (Medoxy Projesterone, Acetate Suspension) as a vas carried out as trials on ‘norigest', another injectable otives device.
commenced at the beginning of 1976 was somewhat
cal staff in family health has continued. Basic training sector is in progress. Of a total commitment of 100
=tor continued to function during the year. Provision Eh basic clinic equipment and drugs, obtained through and child care services offered at these clinics, provision of vulnerable groups. Family planning services have
es points on estates.
= could be afforded with restricted personnel, equipment ther and child' health services to school health work -olescence.
NTAL SERVICES
work. Facilities afforded in this regard were expanded 1 1976 was :
255 310
Iurses ans
rses
12
50
inclusive of branch clinics and 159 school dental

Page 295
NUTRITION
Ll
The work done at these Institutions is shown below
Hospital Dental Clinics Fillings
97,493 Extractions
745,395 Sealings
37,142 School dental clinics (one each) have been established
Amparai Maha Vidyalayai Primary School, Morawaka Junior School, Ramboda galla
Gamini Maha Vidyalaya. Vavuniya Muslim Maha Vidyalaya, Trincomalee Christ Church Balika, Baddegama Sinhala Maha Vidyalaya, Punduluoya.
VILNUTRITI
With the increase in awareness towards food and nutri directed particularly at defining, preventing and alleviat and nutrition.
An explicit interest was evinced in nutritional prob national planning in the country. This was manifest a (1) successful completion of the first ever, nationwic
children, initiated by the Ministry of Health ; (2) serious attempts to set up a nutritional surveillan (3) attempts to evolve a national food and nutrition The department of nutrition of the Ministry was clos
Sri Lanka Nutritional Status Survey of pre-school chil A statistically acceptable sample of 13,000 pre-school were surveyed to assess prevalence of protein-energy anaemia. A total of 438 pre-school children from seve surveyed, primarily for purposes of comparison and a standards. This survey was conducted with assistance
Georgia, U. S. A.I.D. and CARE-Sri Lanka.
Diet and Nutrition Survey of the Lower Socio Econor
While the many diet and nutrition surveys carried out the 1975–76 Sri Lanka Nutrition Status Survey of pre-s tion regarding nutritional status of the rural populatio concerning the urban population. With a view to bridg pre-school children living in shanties and tenements w August 1976. The survey is being assisted by the Natio Public Health Department of the Colombo municipality
Routine Investigations Chemical analysis of biscuits (for supplementary feedin lations related to the Thriposha programme were conti
Biological evaluations of several formulations of su CARE-Sri Lanka were undertaken.

275
School Dental Clinics
145,673 tractions
96,203 alings
240,113
lings
in schools given below:
ON
tion work of the nutrition division has been ing problems which have an impact on food
lems of the population at highest levels of s evident from other activities as :- de survey of nutritional status of pre-school
ce system, with help of U. N. agencies ; policy. ely involved in each one of these fields.
ldren | children drawn from the 15 s. h. s. areas undernutrition, vitamin (A) deficiency and ral private schools in Colombo were similarly Iso as an effort in setting up local reference of the centre for disease control, Atlanta,
nic bracket in Colombo Municipality
by the health department in the past and chool children have provided some informan, no such reliable information is available sing this gap, a diet and nutrition survey of ithin Colombo Municipality was initiated in onal Science Council and the UNICEF. The
has extended its co-operation.
g programme in schools) and various formunued.
pplementary feeding mixtures received from

Page 296
276
Publicity Lectures on nutrition were given under spo
Post graduate Academy of Medicine (Ce Pupil nurses of the Nurses' Training Sch
Midwives--(in service training) at the Ni Other health personnel (in service trainin Papers presented at the annual sessions Nutritional Anaemia–A review of the cu Intervention Programmes
Research and Priorities Protein-Energy Malnutrition.—Some obs
children. The role of nutrition in national planning The nutrition division of the Health Minis committees and foreign consultant agencies
VILJ
Poliomyelitis Incidence of Poliomyelitis for the last five y
Year 1972 1973
1974
1975 1976
258 cases were reported in 1976. The n occuring during latter half of the year. Ir Colombo MC area. Poliomyelitis in Sri immunization coverage. Epidemics occur in
recorded during inter-epidemic spells.
Serological studies conducted in Colomb of children under two years of age after imr almost zero in Jaffna.
Typhoid The number of cases of typhoid treated in shown below:
Year 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
A rising trend commenced in 1974. Hos to notifications received, the rising trend and 1976, 3,595 cases were notified. Most of tl Colombo (562) and Badulla (468) health divi

UBLIC HEALTH
nsority of the division to :- Flon College of Obstetricians Gynaecologists) pol, Colombo
rses' Training School.
e).
f the nutrition society of Sri Lanka were :- rent situation in Sri Lanka.
ervations on the recent all-island survey of pre-school
and development continues to be felt over the years. cry has represented in various deliberations of national
as W.H.O., F.A.O. and the UNICEF.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Rate|100,000
2.3
ears is :- Vo. of Cases
297 362 603 190 258
2.7
4,5 1.4
1.9
normal seasonal pattern prevailed with most of cases ncidence was high in Colombo SHS area, Jaffna and the
Lanka continues to be a problem due to incomplete - six-year cycles, on the average about 250 cases being
-o and Jaffna have shown that the anti-bodyresponse munization has been quite satisfactory in Colombo and
government institutions during the five-year period is
Rate|100,000 35.1
No. of Cases 4,553 5,197 8,014 10,620
39.2
59.2 76.7
spital statistics for 1976 are not available. According I high incidence appear to be generally maintained. In ne notifications have been received from Kandy (733), isions.

Page 297
EPIDEMIO
El Tor Cholera The incidence of cholera in Sri Lanka from the tim
Year No. of cases Rate|1000
1973
1974 1975 1976
188 4,559 1,453
1.4 33.7 10.5 5.1
728
Morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate show
A total of 728 cases were reported, the lowest in of these cases occurred in Colombo M. C. area (308 (52). The incidence commenced a rise in March, September and declined to base level in November. west monsoon in 1976 showing that cholera in S Since commencement of the outbreak the age incid endemicity with most of the cases occuring in uppe for 1976 shows a definite endemic pattern.
Viral Hepatitis
The number of cases treated in Government hospita
Year
No. of
1972
1973 1974 1975 1976
14
The increased incidence which commenced in 1971
A total of 7,670 notifications were received in 18 these notifications were from the S.H.S. division Viral Hepatitis continues to present a health proble
Most of the cases diagnosed appear to be Hepati out by the epidemiological unit on 317 randomly Colombo municipality showed Hepatitis (B) carrie considerably be lower and such a possibility is t infection rate on the same sample was 4•10 per cent
Bacillary Dysentery This disease due to Shigella dysenterise I occurred in The first outbreak was reported from Jaffna in April till proved to be otherwise. Subsequently it spread epidemic proportions. The disease was made noti logical pattern of the disease could be studied. A by Medical Officers of Health show that in 1976, the

LOGY
277
the disease was detected in October 1973 is :
13
00 No. of deaths Case fatality rate
6.9 7.3 4,6 2.2
333
67
16
steady decline since 1974.
cidence on record for a year since 1973. Most D, S.H.S. divisions of Colombo (293) and Jaffna increasing steadily till it reached peak level in
This could well be due to failure of the southri Lanka is associated with spells of drought. ence in Colombo has not shown any evidence of r age groups. In Jaffna however age incidence
Els from 1972, is given below:-
Cases Rate|100,000
P,327 4,206
80 107
2,707
72
3,779
107
2 is generally being maintained.
976, an indicative of a high incidence. Most of a of Colombo (2,335) and Kurunegala (1,298).
m in Sri Lanka.
etis AMulti-purpose serological Survey carried
selected persons in Mahawatte ward of the er state to be 1-58 per cent. This figure could being presently investigated. The Hepatitis B)
a Sri Lanka for the first time in an epidemic form. and was a mistaken identity for amoebic dysentery
to all the other parts of the island in somewhat fiable in December, 1976, so that the Epidemion estimate based on reports of the epidemic sent re would have been at least 10,000 cases. Certain

Page 298
278
outbreaks recorded case fatality rate as hig blood and mucus accompanied by abdomir a problem and response to Furazelidone app
Arbovirus Infection A survey conducted during mid-year 1976, re community and that children under age of This could result in an epidemic of Dengue W haemorrhagic fever causing high mortality urban, risk exposure of the Colombo M. C. a
The virologist of the M. R. I. has studied th for intensified surveillance of Dengue haemor
Details of blood samples received at the me the year were:
No. Examined
Recent Infection 94342 (4-5 percent)
There has been a rise in infection rate since
Most of the blood specimens incidentally, v
Non-Communicable Diseases Cancer.—The epidemiological unit comme 1975. Cancer was given priority, a systemat a national cancer registry established. A r institute, Maharagama, in 1975 and continue with case records at the cancer Institute and d
There was a total of 3,049 new cases of ca 49:3 percent females. Highest incidence of ca pharynx and 87 percent of these malignancies C second highest (21 percent) majority of whic tissue cancer which formed 13 percent of all ca
Accidents The problem of accidents has been studied. A of the general hospital, Colombo, and reveal of all traumatic injuries. A detailed survey is officers.
Immunization Activities
Smallpox : Primary vaccination
Total
Secondary vaccination (a
ages)

JBLIC HEALTH
ch as 8 per cent. Main symptoms are diarrhoea with nal cramp and tenesnus. Dehydration is not much of
ears good.
evealed that there were signs of Dengue activity in the 10 years had no immunity against Dengue infection. hich would well be followed by an outbreak of Dengue among children. The problem, however, is mainly rea been at a higher level.
ne problem in its perspective and a special committee rhagic fever has been organised. dical research institute mainly from fever cases during
No. Positive for Dengue
Recent Past Infection
75 (8•0 percent)
Past Infection 251 (26•6 percent)
- June, 1976.
were received from Colombo.
nced surveillance of non-communicable diseases in ic cancer notification system has been developed, and 1otification system was implemented at the cancer s at present. All notifications received were checked lata analysed and studied. incer in 1975, 50:7 percent of these being males and incer (38•5) percent occurred in the buccal cavity and occurred among males. Genito-urinary cancer ranked h were cancer cases of the cervix uteri. Connective ancers were mainly due to breast cancer.
| mini survey was conducted at the accident service ed that "Home Accidents’ formed bulk (38•8) percent being conducted with assistance of the judicial medical
Years
0-1 1-2
2-5 5 plus
1975 65,671 67,412 93,517 85,855
1976 71,241 82,603 105,112 91,776
312,455
350,732
35,907
36,385

Page 299
EPIDEMIOLO
A total of 350,732 primary vaccinations have be 12:2 per cent over the figure for 1975. Total prima estimated infant population for the year (i.e., 382 42 been carried out in infancy, compared with 21-0 pero
1975
Anti Typhoid -
Ist dose
21393 Znd dose
12896 Booster
69,10
Total
411,99
347,545 doses have been administered, a drop 15•6
Immunization with D.P.T.
Ist dose 0-1 year
2nd dose 3rd dose
Total
Ist dose
1-4 years
2nd dose 3rd dose Booster
Total
1st dose 2nd dose
0-4 years
3rd dose Booster
Total
A total of 710,566 doses of D.P.T. have been ad highest on record since D.P.T. was introduced for n increase on the 1975 figure. The first, second and thir 43•2 per cent and 31:4 per cent of the estimated infai 32:3 per cent and 21:5 per cent repectively in 1973
Double Vaccine (D.T.)
1st dose 2nd dose Booster
Total
There has been a considerable increase in number 131.6 per cent over the preceding year and a 102•4 pe

GY
279
en carried out during the year an increase of y vaccinations represent 91:7 per cent of the
18-6 per cent of primary vaccinations have at the preceding year.
1976 177,450 111,034 59.061
347,545
per cent over 1975 figure.
1975
1976 165,642 211,423 120,730 165,542 80,562 120,084
366,934
497,049
89,149
57,905 50,814 1,859
80,164 67,411 62,718 3,224
199,727
213,517
254.191 291,587 178,635 232,953 131,376 182,802
1,859
3,224
566,661 710,566
ministered during the year. This figure is the mass immunization and shows a 25:3 per cent d doses have been administered to 55·2 per cent nt population as compared with 44:3 per cent,
1975
1976
12,343 6,183 1,393
24,110 17,464 4,566
19,919
46,140
of doses administered in 1976—an increase of - cent increase over the figure for 1974.

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280
PUB
Tetanus Toxoid :-Immunization of pregna
1st dose 2nd dos 3rd dose Booster
Total
Immunization of pregnant mothers is one o to availability of tetanus toxoid through the í 200 per cent increase over the figure for 1975. per cent and 24-6 per cent of the estimated pres
Other Immunizati
(Tetanus Toxoic
1st dose 2nd dose 3rd dose Booster
Total
Immunization with Oral
Vaccine Infants 0-1 year 1st dose
2nd, dose 3rd dose
Total
Ist dose 2nd dose
Pre-school 1-4 year 3rd d
Booster
Total
Grand T
The dossage administered with Polio Vaccin year.
Anti-Cholera Immunization.-There was ve 88,797 doses being administered during the ye
A sum of Rs. 150,000 U.S. dollors has been

LIC HEALTH
at mothers.
1975
1976
61,698 26,854 5,272
610
165,093 94,301 17,750 3,434
94,434
280,578
f the most popular programmes and is mainly due amily health programme. There has been an almost
Those receiving 1st and 2nd doses are about 43•1 Enant mothers.
on
1975
1976
111,878 143,981
23,797
30,053 6,133
10,267 1,024
8,711
142,832 193,012
Polio
1975
1976 162,551 181,375 116,956 143,855
78,454
97,989
357,961
423,219
119,033
125,765 103,415
97,908
Ose
81,305 13,988
83,015 5,973
312,234
318,168
otal
670,195 741,387
? shows an increase of 10.6 per cent over the preceding
cy little demand for cholera vaccine in 1976, only
ir.
provided by UNICEF for the years 1976 and 1977.

Page 301
SPECIALISED CA
Training Programmes The epidemiological unit of the Ministry of Health pa
(1) Training programmes for public health person (2) Training programme on family health (3) Training programme for ayurvedie practitione (4) W.H.O. sponsored national orientation course f (5) Workshop on school health education for 1
teachers.
VII—SPECIALISED
Malaria Incidence of malaria showed a considerable decreased A total of 1,408,644 blood films were examined and 3 positivity rate of 21-6 per cent. There were 18,206 P. P. falciparum and P. vivax, while 295,690 P. w Response of P. falciparum has been more dramatic. parum recorded during the year, as compared with 197 pooling in river beds as the Maha-Oya, Deduru-C localized epidemics which broke out in the months of
kade, Dankotuwa, Rambukkana, Mawanella, Kirind Warakapola. Focal spraying with malathion and brought under control. The onset of the north-east responsible for the increase in malaria in the dry zon The increase was confined mainly to those areas whic
Malathion spraying was limited to the Health Divs and health areas Bibile, Moneragala in the south
Atakalanpanna and Hambantota. In November, ma Maho, Galgamuwa, Naula and focal areas in Kilir Operational defects as breakdown of vehicles, lack of: the programme in the operational areas. Larval sur in areas where spraying was withdrawn.
The relative humidity values recorded from vario generally high. The daytime lowest relative humidit relative humidity during night ranged from 65-84 per
Incidence. —The annual parasite incidence for the v compared with 28•62 per 1,000 in 1975. The declin
(1) The effect of malathion spray which comm Moneragala and adjacent health areas, Puttalam healt
(2) Failure of the north-east monsoon rains in the large scale reduction of vector breeding places in the area.
Several outbreaks occurred in south-western foot-h Mawanella, Kochchikade, Chilaw, Dankotuwa, Ramb epidemics also occured in Gampola, Kandy areas alor intensified treatment and drug administration helt region, however, in the Polgolla basin malaria outt of Mahaweli Ganga carried out at weekly intervals d Development Board.

MPAIGNS
281
rticipated in such programmes as :
nel,
Por hospital administrators. ecturers of the training colleges for school
CAMPAIGNS
uring 1976 as compared with the previous year. 504,487 found positive for malaria with a slide - vivax falciparum and 586 mixed infections of ere recorded as against 336,918 in 1975. There has been a 70 per cent drop of P. falci5. Failure of the south-west monsoon in 1976, Dya and Attanagalu-Oya contributed towards
May|June, in health areas Mirigama, Kochchiiwela, Polgahawela, Kegalle, Galigamuwa and intensified treatment enabled epidemic to be
monsoon rains in October/November was also e during the months of November/December. h were not under malathion coverage.
ion-Anuradhapura, the health area Puttalam eastern-foot-hills with adjacent health areas alathion spraying was extended to health areas nochchi, Vavuniya, Gokarella and Dambulla. spares continued to impede smooth working of veys and intensified treatment were carried out
us parts of the country during the year were y ranged from 52-72 per cent whilst the lowest - cent.
vhole island was 21:75 per 1,000 population as Le was due to two main contributory factors :
enced in the highly malarious areas Bibile h area and S.H.S Division Anuradhapura.
latter part of 1975 and early 1976 resulted in a e North Central Province and in the northern
ills in health areas, as Kirindiwela, Mirigama, -ukkana, Kegalle and Galigamuwa. Localized ng the river banks. Focal malathion spraying,
bring epidemic under control. In Kandy break was controlled by intermittent flushings uring drought with assistance of the Mahaweli

Page 302
282
PUB
Species Prevalence.—Species distribution o 1976 showed :
No. Positive P.V. 304,487
285,696 P. vivax continues to be the predominent spe 15:1 percent to 6 percent.
Clinical Diagnosis.-Table 19.1 shows total gnosed, at medical institutions in 1976. There cases as compared with the preceding year. Ap had been diagnosed' as malaria.
Mortality.—4 deaths had been notified duri after investigation, yielding a mortality rate deaths had occurred due to P. falciparum infe
Residual Insecticide Spraying. The residual : mode of attack. Spraying activities had howev ment of resistance of the vector mosquito to units and 34 mobile units were engaged in spr:
malarious areas of the country while 213 w DDT spraying in 748,613 structures in the rem spraying was extended to a few more health ar of intensified treatment. Maho, Galgamuwa a areas Kilinochchi, Vavuniya, Gokarella and I The malathion programme was extended in 1 gether 83,598 new structures went under mala health areas Anuradhapura, Kekirawa, Kahat gala, Atakalanpanna, Balangoda and Hamban to be sprayed with the insecticide at 3-months
A Plan of Operation was prepared in Decemb in the malarious areas of the country under i
Case Detection.--Case detection was carrie officers during 1976. Total blood films collec TABLE 19·1—O.P.D. ATTENDANCE AND NUM
HEALTH D
Health Division
0. P. D. Attendanc
Colombo Puttalam Ratnapura Kegalle Kalutara Galle
Matara Matale Vavuniya Batticaloa Kandy Jaffna Anuradhapura Kurunegala Badulla
4,903,92 1,822,67 1,280,87 1,367,02 1,270,22
939,53 1,767,37 548,24 578,94 1,189,01 2,520,69 1,446,31
190,95 275,79
116,22 20,218,01

LIC HEALTH
the positive cases by blood film examination during
P.F.
P.M.
Mixed 18,205
586 cies_938 per cent. P. falciparum has decreased from
OPD attendence, fever cases and those clinically diawas a decrease of 32 per cent in the number of malaria proximately 40 per cent of the fever cases in the island
1g 1976 as malaria cases. Of these, 2 were confirmed of 0-14 per cent per million population. Both these ction. spraying of human dwellings continued to be the main rer to be withdrawn from certain areas due to developDDT. At the beginning of the year, 17 ° walking aying of malathion in 357,896 structures in the highly alking units’ and 38 mobile units were carrying out iaining areas of the Island. In November, malathion eas where incidence of malaria was increasing inspite nd Naula were taken up fully, whilst sections of health Dambulla were also taken up for malathion spraying. nealth areas Atakalanpanna and Hambantota. Altothion in November 1976. The 357,896 structures in agasdigiliya, Trincomalee, Puttalam, Bibile, Moneratota which were under malathion coverage continued s intervals. per 1976 and it is proposed to place 1 million structures
malathion coverage. ed out by all medical institutions and departmental
ted by all case detection agencies were 1,408,644. BER OF MALARIA CASES DIAGNOSED CLINICALLY BY EIVISIONS—1976
Fever
Clinical
Positive Cases
Malaria Microscopically
8,324 12,177 35,380 11,594
511
696,540 72,826 99,245 84,474 94,830 73,457 294,799 52,130 62,712 103,392 161,094 88,677 30,501 48,770
13,850 1,977,297
20,636 40,792 47,581 24,303 1,222
4,014 119,039 82,096 44,075 71,736 14,291 44,776 136,255 130,764
7,089 788,669
527 64,210 36,789 14,215 22,514
8,035 11,813 36,998 19,751 21,649 304,487

Page 303
SPECIALISED C.
A total of 1,408,644 blood smears were examined
Health Areas covered
Po
104
Passive Case Detection (PCD).-Out of 765 medici with Field Staff to carry out blood filming.
A total of 1,977,297 fever cases had sought medica only 1,220,861 (61.7 per cent were blood filmed).
Out of 304,487 positive cases detected, 276,348 ( agencies.
Active Case Detection (ACD).250 ACD agenci gemming centres and remote chenas where medica insecticide spraying has to be supplemented with pro
Treatment.—In malarious areas all fever cases ott institutions were given single dose treatment with Ai treatment with Chloroquine on a weekly basis was gi
malarious areas on a temporary basis, and also to thos as Irrigation and Agricultural activities and Youth had been given Prophylactic treatment in the year. Entomological Surveillance.-Entomological surveill Entomologist by five entomological teams based a Matara and a team operating from the Anti-Malaria
Entomological assessment included observations o Malathion and DDT, the vector's indoor and outdoc within houses during daytime, 24 hour mortality ra traps in sprayed houses and also activity and persist of treated premises.
Methodology in obtaining the necessary data for a: indoor and outdoor human bait collections, examin
bio-assay tests.
Vectorial Capacity Studies. Special studies on y gollewa, Tonigala, Thanamalwila and Mailagama dur
An extremely low vectorial capacity was obtained with values obtained for 1975 a significant increase while at Kahatagollewa there was no significant chi
Heavy rains during October/November in the T. number of rock pools contributing towards heavy bre vectorial capacity recorded from Thanamalwila and rates observed during study period.
Larval Surveys.—Larval surveys were intensified f Emphasis was placed on collections from paddy fields in relation to different field conditions. The sample small as most of the paddy fields were dry at the time o
A total of 7,237 Anopheline larvae were collected forming 7.7 per cent of the total sample.

MPAIGNS
283
and 304,487 cases found positive.
Total
Blood
Positive pulation
Smears
Cases Examined ,164,000 1,408,644
304,487
linstitutions in the country, 228 were activated
I attention at the medical institutions, of which
90.8 per cent) had been detected by the PCD
es functioned in specially selected areas, as in Il facilities are hard to obtain and also where
mpt treatment of fever cases. her than clinical or suspected cases in medical nodiaquine and Pyrimethamine. Prophylactic ven visitors entering malarious areas from none who are engaged in development programmes, Settlement Schemes. A total of 288,564 cases
ance was carried under the direction of the t Anuradhapura, Batticaloa, Kurunegala and Campaign Headquarters in Colombo.
of the susceptibility status of A. culicifacies to or biting rates, parous rates, its resting densities utes of vector mosquitoes from outlet window ence of malathion residues on various surfaces
ssessment included susceptibility tests, all-night zation of ovaries, space spray collections and
ectorial capacity were carried out at Kahataing November/December as in preceding years. at Thanamalwila and Mailagama. Compared in vectorial capacity was recorded at Tonigala ange in vectorial capacity.
onigala area led to the formation of a large eding and an increase in vector density. Low
Mailagama was attributed to very low parous
rom June, 1976 covering all malarious areas. to determine extent of A. culicifacies breeding
of Anopheline larvae collected was relatively of collection due to prolonged spells of drought.
of which 559 were identified as A. culicifacies

Page 304
284
PUBI
Anti-larval Operations. Prolonged spells Ganga at Polgolla contributing to an increase in malaria in several localities.
On the basis of results of two trials conducte weli Development Board it was found that a i intervals from the Polgolla dam significantly
Mahaweli Ganga up to a distance of about 9 t
Bio-assay Tests on Malathion Residues.--R health area during 1976 showed over 50 per ce while tests conducted in health area Puttalam
Based on these results action was taken to of malathion.
TABLE 19.2AGE AND SEX DIS
- BY HEALTE
Sex Health Division
Male
E
Jaffna Vavuniya Anuradhapura Puttalam Kurunegala
Matale Batticaloa Badulla Matara Galle Ratnapura Kegalle Kandy Colombo Kalutara
8,104 9,087 23,762
6,903 11,831 23,810 15,451 15,155 43,645
440 23,390
7,762 5,586 5,481
417
Total
200,824
Withdrawal of DDT Spraying DDT spraying was withdrawn after a period especially on P. falciparum transmission. A ba after a Conference of Health and other official an Intensive Malaria Programme. It is felt esse
with increased food production drive and va carried out in malarious areas of the island. days lost due to malaria must significantly imp
Filariasis Infection due to W. bancrofti is still a prob during the year were:
(e) Parasite investigation and control, (6) Vector investigation and control, (C) Health education, (d) Special activities.

LIC HEALTH
pf drought led to pool formation along Mahaweli a vector density followed by an increase in incidence of
d in co-ordination with the authorities of the Maharelease of 2,000 cusecs of water for 3 hours at weekly reduced Anopheline (and Culicine) breeding in the o 91 miles from Polgolla Dam. _outine bio-assay tests performed in the Hambantota ent kills of A. culicifacies up to 8 weeks after spraying showed significant kills even 12 weeks after spraying. intensify analysis of physical and chemical properties
TRIBUTION OF POSITIVE MALARIA CASES
DIVISIONS 1976
Age Group
Female Under lyr 1-5 yrs. 6-15 yrs Over 15 yrs
105
156 3,012
272
3,709 5,128 3,236 5,274 7.920 2,979 7,063 6,494 -0,565
136 196 157
220
1,007 1,541 6,391 1,409 2,246 3,921 2,140 2,369 6,264
10 3,586 801 527 681 18
2,413 3,454 8,761 3,575 5,550 9,095 6,880 4,384 14,936
| 64 8,130 2,556 1,516 1,734
64
8,288 9,064 18,834
6,921 11,819 23,577 13,337 14,676 41,386
453 23,090
8,176 5,967 5,820
427
1,624
87
1,990
3,832 2,449
574 61 25 89 02
2,843
94
3,663
6,629
32,911
173,112
191,835
pf about 30 years. The effect of malathion was noted an on use of Malathion and Fenitrothion was initiated Ls in 1976. All efforts are being geared to commence ential that malaria be brought under control especially arious irrigation and river diversion schemes being Though deaths may not be significant, man-productive pede development programmes of the government.
lem in Sri Lanka. Antifilaria activities carried out

Page 305
SPECIALISED CAM
Parasite Investigation and Control.—1,636,255. blood fit include 18,002 from Special Surveys ; 4,352 of these positive from special surveys.
The microfilaria rate for the year was 0-26 per cent suffer due to shortage of glass slides. In areas where carried out, high rates were recorded at Balapitiya ang work is carried out a high rate was recorded only a endemic belt has decreased from 0-4 per cent in 1975 t
Infection rates have been decreasing quite gradually cases being detected each year. Infected mosquitoes I out at the Entomology Laboratory. This reveals that and any reduction in the present control measures wou of deteriorating sanitary standards.
M/F. Positive Cases:-
1971-72
1973
1974 1975 1976
Complete treatment has been given to 4,572 cases. blood filmed after treatment and 134 were re-positive. to negativity rate was 97 per cent. Low conversion Madampe, Kataluwa, Katuwawala, Urugamuwa and U
8,522 visits had been made by patients with clinical centres in the endemic belt. A total of 2,093 new cli centres during the year. Vector Investigation and Control.—Routine entomologi different groups of stations, viz., (a) Areas where vecto1 out (b) where only parasite control work is being carrie
A total of 21,760 mosquitoes were collected and id constituting 85 per cent of the total catch. The other p obturbans and M(M) uniformis. A total of 12,276 of m 53 C.P. fatigans were infected with filarial larvae of c of C.P. fatigans was 0.5 per cent.
The infectivity rate was 0.2 per cent. Infection rate v to 1.0 per cent at Peliyagoda in Vector controlled areas per cent at Ja-ela in the uncontrolled (Vector) areas.
A total of 15,835 mosquito larvae from various bree Surveys were carried out in the following areas :-
Matara, Weherahena, Dondra, Panadura, Kehelwatte gama, Beruwala and Galle.
Special Studies—
(a) Examination of fungi in mosquito larvae. (6) Resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides.
Control.—The prevention of breeding and elimination e methods adopted. A total of 81,759 permanent breed of Fenthion using water ( oz. Fenthion in 23 gallons water seal type totalled 1,275. Elimination of perma

AIGNS
285
ns were examined for Microfilaria. These were positive for Microfilaria and 89 were
Blood filming activities have continued to both Vector and Parasite Control work are
Peliyagoda. Where only Parasite Control | Hikkaduwa. The Microfilaria rate for
0-26 per cent. but still there are a good number of positive ave also been detected in dissections carried transmission has still not been interrupted ld worsen the situation particularly because
10,952 7,629 6,825 6,747
4,352 A total of 4,431 treated cases have been 4,297 of these were negative and conversion to negativity rates were at Godigamuwa, nawatuna.
manifestations for treatment at 15 clinic nical cases had sought treatment at these
ical investigations were carried out in two - and parasite control work are being carried d out. entified of which 18,496 were C.P. fatigans redominant species were A(S) aegypti, A(A) osquitoes of which 10,869 were C.P. fatigans ifferent stages. The overall infection rate
uried from 0.7 per cent at Matara, Moratuwa, and from 0.8 per cent at Dickwella to 0.0
ding places were identified. Special Aedes
Bentota, Peliyagoda, Kolonnawa, Pamunu
breeding places of the Vector were chief ng places were treated weekly with mixture of water). Conversions of catch pits ' to ent places and collection and disposal of

Page 306
286
discarded recepticles in premises were carrie was undertaken at Dehiwela municipality too in these areas were fogged. Efficiency year.
The cost of insecticide had continued to adequate quantities of insecticides.
Health Education Intensive health education activities were c pupil Midwives were given pre-service train bitions—Richmond College Galle, All-Islan dana Campaigns at Gandara and Veyangol and implementing Project Programmes.
Special Activities
(1) Mass blood filming programme was c (2) Blood filming in hospitals in the Islan (3) Blood filming in special institutions w (4) All-Island Filariasis Survey—48 bloo
hospitals outside the endemic belt. UNDP Project SRL VBC 001–Vector
Project Activities
(i) WHO Epidemiologist/Parasitologist
Leader ; (ii) A six-month study on the distributi
relation to cases of Dengue-haemo
initiated ; (iii) The collection and analysis of basi
diseases ; (iv) Possibilities of initiating work on Vi
Project Achievements.--Studies on distri species—Vectors of Dengue-haemorrhagic
belt.
Microfilaria rates for the two-year period
Blood Films examine Found positive Percentage positive
Tuberculosis Chest clinics, chest hospitals and TB wai scattered throughout the island carried out
A total of 6,823 new tuberculosis patients 5,993 were cases of pulmonary tuberculosi 3,440 (57 per cent sufering from pulmonary
The mortality rate for tuberculosis as ava

JBLIC HEALTH
d out. Fogging of houses with folithion as adulticide und Matara in areas selected for the purpose. Hedges Fate of larval control work was over 95 per cent for the
rise ; consequently, it was not possible to purchase
arried out in 62 areas, and 301 volunteers trained. 90 ng. The health educator service participated in 2 exhid Development Exhibition Colombo, and in 2 ShramaBa. Schools were assisted by the Campaign in planning
onducted at Kataragama ; d continued ; as carried out : d films from indoor patients were examined at various There was a solitary case of positive Microfilaria. Control.
joined Project SRL VBC 001 in March, 1976, as Team
on and density of Aedes (Stegomyia) species adults in irrhagic fever and Pyrexia of unknown aetiology was
c information of epidemiology of Arthropod-borne
cology and Serology of Arbovirus diseases. ibution, biology and ecology of Aedes (Stegomyia) fever completed in 13 stations of the endemic filariasis
1976
ed
1975 and 1976 were :--
1975 1,599,821
1,636,255 6,747
4,352 0.42
0.26
ds in general hospitals and general health institutions tuberculosis control activities as in preceding years.
were detected and registered during the year. Of these, s while 830 were diagnosed as extra pulmonary. Only tuberculosis however, were bacteriologically confirmed. ilable for a recent year was 11.7 per 100,000 population

Page 307
SPECIALISED CAM
The 18 chest clinics and 20 branch chest clinics exar patients were detected.
General health institutions under the integrated TB matics for sputum examination detecting 934 sputum
A total of 151,217 persons were X’rayed during 19
Three chest hospitals and 17 TB wards with a total days care treating 11,460 patients. The BCG vaccin out in 156 hospitals vaccinating 161,166 new babies.
Vaccinations of infants and pre-school children programme covered 7,131 schools involving a total of
Vaccinations in the other groups were in the re 685,871 vaccinations carried out in 1976.
The TB health education programme was directe - participation in integrated TB control programme.
personnel inclusive of volunteers were trained under th
Cancer Cancer institute at Maharagama caters to the needs o are 15 wards at the institute and a bed-strength of 452
Admissions for the year 1976 Clinic attendance—1st visits
Subsequent Deaths
Laboratory examinations carried out by the depar
Histopathology Haematology Blood Bank Sorology Biochemistry General Pathology Specimens sent to M. R. I Specimens sent to A. V. D
Blood pints requested
Blood pints received The physiotherapy unit treated 3,457 patients dur.
Operations performed :
Major operations Minor operations
Quantities of radioisotopes imported during 1976 w
Iodine 131 Gold 198 Phosphorus 32 Technitium 99 (m) Indium 113 (m) Iodine 131-MAA
A total of 712 tyroid uptake tests were performed in

(PAIGNS
287
nined 124,308 persons and among them 5,363
control programme selected 31,693 sympto3ositive tuberculosis cases.
176, at these clinics and hospitals. bed strength of 2,074 provide 645,257 patientnation programme of new-borns was carried
at well-baby clinics totalled 153,931. The 320,497 school children. gion of 50,327 giving an overall total of
d towards promoting voluntary community A total of 1,062 medical and para-medical lis programme.
f cancer patients in the entire island. There
7,002 4,722 14,828
318
visits
Ftment of pathology during 1976 were :-
4,772 29.289 8,832 8,471 9,634
556 .C.
1,923
1,203 ing the year.
68
1,627
695
Total
2,322
ere :-
3,900 millicuries
200
15
100 10
a 1976.

Page 308
288
PI
Patients treated with radium in 1976 to of the same patient as in gynaecological ra requiring treatment with cobalt and deep }
Radiotherapy treatments New patients treated
Treatment Analysis
Cobalt 60 S. X. R. T.
X'ray Department.—The X'ray Departm
Patients taken up for Xr Examinations including S
Films used Leprosy There were 8,993 leprosy cases at the end increase of 3.5 per cent over total of the pre
TABLE 19.3—TOTAL LEPRO
Lepromatous Race
Total
Sinhalese Ceylon Tamil Ceylon Moors Malays Burghers Indian Tamils Indian Moors
Others
Total
2,191 317 224 10 24 144 18
02
2,930
TABLE 19.4_TOTAL LEPROSY CA
S. H. S. Area
Lepromatous
Total
68
Anuradhapura
111 Badulla
83 Batticaloa
223 Colombo (North)
371 Colombo Municipal Area 312 Galle
183 Kandy
94 Kegalle Kurunegala
135 Matale Matara
210 Puttalam Ratnapura
112 Vavuniya Colombo (South)
480 Total
2930
63
76

BLIC HEALTH
alled 433. Taking into consideration the second visit lium insertions the number treated was 663. All cases C’ray were taken up by he physics department.
Cobalt 60
S. X. R. T. 1843
133 Patients
Treatment
Daily
Average 1,843
53,023
202 133
1,980
07 ent is manned by one Radiographer. ay in 1976
4,857 pecial Examinations
6,242 8,165
of 1976, of whom 2,930 (32.5% are lepromatous, an =ceding year. BY CASES ALL-ISLAND (BY RACE)—1976
Tuberculoid Indeterminate
Grand Total Total
Total
208
4,601
637
7,000 975 584
12
348 07
17
55
29 184 06
335
24 03
01
5,813
250
8,993
SES—ALL-ISLAND (BY S. H. S. AREA)-1976
Tuberculoid Indeterminate
Grand Total Total
Total
212
15
01
26
145 277 689 875 290 138
83 148
338 229 512 1,086 1,234
478 239
05 07
155
90
17
696 92
201
08
286 156 923 169 321
80 1,641 8,993
41 1,087 5,813
02 74
250

Page 309
SPECIALISED CAMPAIG
The decrease in lepromatous rate to 32:5 per cent is cases most of which still remain undetected.
The overall prevalence for the island as a whole is O• of the preceding year.
A total of 819 new cases were detected during 1976. under 15 years. There were 54 deaths among registere TABLE 19.5-NEW LEPROSY CASES REGISTERED—A
Lepromatous Tuberculo Age Group
Total
Total
—
03
103
20
148
0— 4 5— 9 10—14 1524 25—39 4049 50—59 60—69
35
16
73
18
70
08
17
Total
118
639
Western Province shows the highest endemicity (1 (0-877/1,000), Southern Province (0-773/1,000) Northern vince (0-351), Sabaragamuwa (0-33), North-Western Prov (0.13) 11:4 per cent of total cases were children under 15 referrals (71 per cent) followed by school Surveys (10 pei
Case Finding.–In Colombo and suburbs 66,437 scho Leprosy Clinic Team resulting in 79 cases and an inciden school children were examined by the Anti-Leprosy C Health Personnel.
Treatment.--Domiciliary treatment is in force. Moi defaulted from treatment. It is apparent that there has be to bring defaulters to ‘book’.
Special Events.--86 patients were selected among aj outside for the award of a leprosy (disability) allowance services. The panel of selection was composed of 3 le
Health Education. —Health education activities were car in the course of leprosy control work. Ayurvedic pra of leprosy and referral treatment facilities made availa reported had already taken Ayurvedic treatment before Voluntary Agencies.--The anti-Leprosy campaign work association of Sri Lanka.
Venereal Diseases
Morbidity.—Attendance cases of early infectious syphilis year. There were 4,273 new cases of early infectious compared with 3,000 the preceding year, an increase of 11-A 31485

289
Le to increase detection of tuberculoid
10/1,000 which is an increase from 0-608
Among them are 236 cases of childres
cases. L-ISLAND (BY AGE GROUPS-)—1976 1 Indeterminate
Grand Total Total
02
05
95
2 8 3
130 177 182
03
01
67 48 25
62.
819
·27/1,000) followed by Eastern Province - Province (0:43/1,000), North-Central Proince (0.29), Uva (0.25) and Central Province
years. Majority of the new cases were - cent), field surveys)19 per cent). ol children were examined by the Central ce of 1.19/1,000. In the provinces 112,243 ampaign with assistance of Local Public
e than 50 per cent of the recorded cases en no follow-up action pursued at field-level
plicants from both leprosy hospitals and of Rs. 55 p.m. by the director of social orologists.
ied out by campaign personnel at all levels ctitioners were acquainted with symptoms le. More than 90 per cent by new cases eferral to a leprosy clinic. d in close collaboration with the leprosy
reached an unprecedented high during the philis registered at the full-time clinics as early 42:4 per cent.

Page 310
290
The rate per 100,000 population for ea 1975 incidentally the highest rate recorded
New cases of Gonorrhoea registered a ( a drop of 14 per cent. No specific reaso cases of Gonorrhoea. This phenomenon ha Colombo clinics unlike in the preceding ye Colombo clinics recorded a decline.
The rate per 100,000 population for Gon
Colombo clinics recorded 50 per cent me cases of Gonorrhoea in 1976.
Attendance of new cases of infectious Ve quarters of the year.
The 20-29 age group accounted for 60 per cent of cases of Gonorrhoea. This coi respectively as compared with 1975 figures.
Analysis of New Cases Registered in 19 outstations appear below:
Syphilis :
Sero-negative primary Sero-positive primary Secondary Latent—early
late Neuro-syphilis Cardiovascular Other late syphilis Congenitalearly (under 2 ye
late (over 2 years Gonorrhoea Presumptive gonorrhoea Ngu/cervicitis Chancroid Lymphogranuloma venereum
Granuloma inguinale Herpes progenitalis Trichomoniasis Other venereal Yaws—early
late Non-venereal

JBLIC HEALTH
-ly infectious syphilis was 30, as compared with 21:5 in For the island during the past 25 years.
ecline from 8,559 cases to 7,358 cases during the year, a could be adduced to the drop in attendance of new s been observed both in outstation clinics as well as in ar where outstation clinics registered an increase while
orrhoea was 52 as compared with 61-6 the preceding year.
re cases of early infectious Syphilis and 13 per cent less
nereal Diseases was more marked in second and third
per cent of all cases of early cases of Syphilis and 63•5 mpared favourably with 61:1 per cent and 65:5 per cent
76 at the full-time V. D. Clinics both in Colombo and
1975
1976
385 2,005
610 324 225 08 02
454 2,966
853 413 232 06 O1 06 19
03
irs)
06
35
38
8,559 1,283 1,006 1,674
02
7,358
997 1,013 1,140
778 1,044 1,599
677 1,649 1,453
33
5,798
14 4,494
Total
25,379
23,783

Page 311
ENVIRONMENTAL S
Mental Health Angoda, Mulleriyawa and Pelawatte Mental Hospita main in-patients services. The Peripheral psychiatri Ragama chest hospital was converted to a rehabilitati tuberculosis patients. Latest figures available on the n
were :
Mental Hospital, Angoda Mental Hospital „Mulleriyawa
Daily average of in-patients treated at mental hospi of 2,700 while at mental hospital, Mulleriyawa, it was
A total of 21 outstation clinics were conducted b Angoda. The psychiatrist attached to peripheral ps Hospitals, Jaffna, Point Pedro, Tellipallai, Kandy, M. Unawatuna. Daily attendance at these clinics was at
Though there was a death of psychiatrists, the n satisfactory service as regards both indoor and o hospital has been closed dowD.
Under the organizational set up the superintende of mental health services in the Island. Peripheral I Superintendent of Health Services of the respective di
Occupational therapy activities consisted of t masonry, mat-weaving. New Activities commenced d shell grit and preservation of coconut refuse.
Recreational facilities are available to both male a outdoor games, film shows were organised by several helped cater to religious needs of the patients.
IX-ENVIRONMENTAI
Environmental sanitation is an important routine act such measures as disposal of human waste, provision o food and food sanitation.
In view of the success of a pilot project for commu taken in each m. o. h's area under the direction co-operation of voluntary agencies has been solicited i
A sum of Rs. 2,000,000 was allocated to 16 S.H.SS. for latrine construction. A part of the subsidy is spe Environmental sanitation measures were executed thro with active co-operation of the local authorities and belt assistance was afforded for conversion of bucket continues to be an important aspect in the planned pr
Food and Drugs Control Sampling of various food items for which purity stan out and legal proceedings instituted against offenders

ANITATION
291
Is with a bed strength of 3,592, provide the
units provide 267 beds for inpatient care. on hospital providing 200 beds for psychiatric umber of patients treated at mental hospitals
Patients 11,218 3,593
14,811
ital, Angoda, during the year was in the region s about 577 patients.
py psychiatrists attached to mental hospital, ychiatric units conducted clinics at provincial atara, Galle, Anuradhapura, Kurunegala and bout 50 patients per clinic. nental health division continues to provide a outdoor treatment. The Pelawatte mental
nt, mental health service, is in overall charge psychiatric units are under the control of the
visions.
extile weaving, carpentry, rattan work, uring the year were the production of coconut
und female patients. Apart from indoor and voluntary organisations. These organisations
I SANITATION
ivity of public health personnel and includes f safe water supplies, refuse disposal, housing,
nity health, routine projects are being under
of Superintendent of health services. The in this regard.
on subsidies to poor and needy house-holds int on the construction of pre-school latrines. bugh field personnel of public health services
voluntary agencies. In the filaria endemic latrines to water-seal type, 1.Health education ogramme of environmental sanitation.
idards have been laid dowII has been carried of the law.

Page 312
292
Food Sanitation Public health personnel of the department h
Cattle :
Inspected
Passed for slaughter Goats :
Inspected
Passed for slaughter Milk Supply :
Samples analysed
Samples found adulterated Food Samples:
No. of samples No. of samples condemned (ui
The percentage adulteration as regard measures to thwart adulteration of food.
X-HEA
The year 1976 saw considerable progress health education bureau provides co-ordina Ministry, other ministries and institutions pa
UNFPA/WHO Projects (SRL 001 and HE Fellowships provided under UNFPA/WHO health educators received training in healti New Delhi.
Participation in intercountry workshops/semir participated in the W.H.O. intercountry work
material.
The hospital education programme function
(1) Colombo group
(a) Children's Hospital (6) General Hospital, Colombo (c) De Soyza Maternity Hospital
(d) Castle Street Hospital for women. (2) Provinces--
(a) Ratnapura (6) Kurunegala (C) Kandy (d) Anuradhapura (e) Panadura 6) Kalutara
Health education activities are being carr programmes have also been organised for ins

UBLIC HEALTH
Lave inspected and passed for slaughter.-
147,673 144,385
28,339 27,823
168 140
841
nfit for human consumption)
264
Is food items is comparatively high entailing strict
LTH EDUCATION
been achieved in the field of health education. The ation and assistance to other divisions of the Health articularly in the field of training.
D 002) O projects have been fully utilized. Three full-time a education at the central health education bureau,
Fears.--A medical officer and health education officer shop on pretesting and evaluation of health education
s in the following institutions :
ied out in the O.P.DD wards and clinics. Training
titutional staff.

Page 313
HEALTH EDI
Field Study and Demonstration Area.--The F.S.D. is being developed. Volunteers have been trained in conducted with the assistance of volunteers and midwi health education programme was conducted at Mah unit of the bureau.
Training Training programmes were organised and conducted health staff, health educators, RSS Sant medical Assistance was provided for training of rural public health and nursing personnel.
Community Health Education—The family healt 314 villages throughout the country is making steady
Prevention and control of venereal diseases was inclu and a detailed programme for V.D. control commence
School Health Education. The school health ed curriculum development centre of the Ministry of Ed education curriculum. A school health education local health staff and parents. A similar work sponsorship of the World Health Organization.
A workshop on health and physical education in teac with the Ministry of Education at Sri Lanka Founda
Research and Evaluation A research protocol on “A study to determine effec Family Health Education Programme” developed b purpose of funding.
Surveys carried out by school health education Unit (iHidogamå.—A baseline survey in Hidogama
tion seminar organised by the "Sepatha” Read (ii) Mirigama.--A Survey to determine behavio
children ; (iii) Alubomulla.--A health status survey to estat
tration activity.
Preventive Dental Health A school oral health preventive Programme was com
Maligawatte Maha Vidyalaya. A baseline survey o of these ‘testo schools and Vijayaba Vidyalaya has were treated at school clinics.
Mass Communication (a) Press Publication.--Press articles and features w general interest. Assistance was given "Tharunee' Material from W. H. O, and other agencies were p Sepatha’ Supplements.Supplements to the offic
No. 1 Communication. No. 2 School Health Education. No. 3 Guide to Health Education (in print).

ATION
293
. at Alubomulla, in Panadura M.O.H. area ealth work. A basic survey of the area was es at the Panadura m..h. office. A Dental pellana Junior School by the dental health
F the training unit of the bureau for medical ractitioners, students and school teachers. cachers, community development officers,
education action programme initiated in progress. Led as a priority within Family Health Services d in Ratnapura s.h.s. division. cation unit continues to co-ordinate with ucation in reviewing and revising school health
workshop was held at Horana for teachers, ihop was organised at Hikkaduwa under
hers’ training colleges was held in collaboration tion Institute.
tiveness of health education by volunteers in -y the Unit was accepted by the W.H.O. for
during the year were :- village to support family health communicalers’ Club, Hidogama. aral patterns on dental health among rural
lish a baseline for field study and demons
nenced at Maligawatte Balika Vidyalaya and
oral health status of 11-12 year old children een completed. Children with dental defects
re released regularly on topics of current and
to bring out a supplement on immunisation. ovided to the press and radio. al journal Sepatha’ have been released.

Page 314
294
Special Projects A ‘Sepatha' Readers' club was inaugurated
A baseline survey of the Hidogama villa for members of the club were carried out.
was published.
(a) Radio and Films.The health services services in collaboration with personnel from ments, university campuses and voluntary ag
Two commercial programmes “Pahan Silu were completed in association with the UN
Film shows on various health topics were
Material Production The material production unit has been reorgai participation. Film slides were prepared or for exhibitions.
XI-VETER
A Veterinary public health unit has been set safeguard human health from zoonotic disea
Zoonosis Control Rabies being the main zoonotic problem in Si and eradication of Rabies has been approved total of 150,000 doses of Flury Strain Chick commence a programme of control work.
The Mass immunization programme agains vince. The entire Galle district was covered a end of the year. Dogs immunized in Galle dis 23,331 and 17,772.
A part of M. O. H. area Kamburupitiya an Hambantota have yet to be completed. A f M. O. H. areas Pitakotte, Dehiwela and Kelar
Immunization figures of these three areas y were immunized during the year 1976, compai activities to counter rabies infection is in off positive cases of animal rabies diagnosed at the
- In addition, there is an appreciably marked administered in different hospitals in the Island for the year 1976.
Most of the requests for elimination of stray hospitals, state corporations, local bodies and percentage of these requests has been attended much progress in the campaign. W. H. O. ass

BLIC HEALTH
i Hidogama in the S. H. S. division of Anuradhapura.
ge and a seminar on family health communication First issue of “NIROGI”, the journal of the club
radio programmes continue broadcasts in the three the department of health, other government departncies.
wa” and “ Kankanda Deivam" in Sinhala and Tamil ICEF.
conducted by Health Educators in the periphery.
nised, photographic coverage was provided for official a health topics and photographic material provided
INARY SERVICES
up in the Ministry of Health at national level to ses and food-borne infection.
ri Lanka, a Project Plan of operation for the contro by the Sri Lanka Government and the W. H. O. A. Embrayo vaccine was imported during the year to
rabies in dogs was conducted in the Southern Proid S. H. S. area Matara was almost completed by the trict and the S. H. S. area, Matara, were respectively
IM. O. H. area Hakmana, Walasmulla, Tangalle and
w Crash Programmes were carried out in the three iya, where high incidence of rabies was reported.
ere in the region of 19,300. A total of 60,451 dogs ed with 42,252 in 1975. Extension of immunization ng. There was also a drop in the total number of
Medical Research Institute from 454 to 387.
reduction in the total number of doses of A. R. V. from the figure of 48,320 for the year 1975 to 20,173
dogs received during the year were from government
some private sector institutions. Only a small to. Non-availability of dog-seizing vehicles retards stance has been sought.

Page 315
QUARANTINE
XI–QUARANTIT Immunization and quarantine work including gr food cargo is carried out by the chief port health o
A total of 1,909 ships and 627 sailing craft w granted Radio Pratique during 1976.
No quarantinable diseases were detected during from India are kept under strict surveillance.
Immunizations carried out during the year were :
Small Pox Anti Cholera T. A. B. Yellow Fever
The fumigation of rice and other fumigable o preceding years. Cargo from Bangkok too was fui
Quantity of Rice fumigated
Lighters fumigated All vessels bringing food cargo are beiug inspecte and Port Health personnel. Sampling is undertaker
Rodent control work has been intensified during 1
Aedes investigation is being done by entomologic total of 6,129 breeding ‘spots were examined. Pos
AEDES Aegypti
450
There were 3,699 aircraft arrivals with 142,486 pratique and health checks were carried out satis premises (Katunayake) were carried out. Necessary quarantine facilities were made to civil aviation a out by the assistant port health officer (immigrati
Number of air passengers Number of boat passengers Number of defaulters
Defaulting dues collected were Rs. 945.50 Immunization
Immunization charges against Small Pox Smallpox immunization done free of charge (o Immunization charges against Cholera
Cholera immunization done free of charge (off Immunization charges against Typhoid Immunization fees collected–RS. 158,980

CTIVITIES
295
E ACTIVITIES
nting of pratique to ships and fumigation of icer.
e granted pratique ; 6 other vessels were also
:he year. All crew members of sailing vessels
1,727 4,284
15 749
argo from Burma and China continues as in nigated.
3,078,556 (bags)
41 (number) d by Quality Control Officers from the C. W. E. 1 when necessary.
the year.
cal staff attached to the port health office. A itive cases recorded were :-
AEDES Albopictus
92
passengers aboard during 1976. Granting of Factorily. Regular inspections of the Airport
observations and recommendations as regards uthorities for suitable action. Work carried on) during the year is given below:-
6,772
... 4,435
405
ficial)
21,689 (persons)
788 do. 9,894
do. 274
- do. 182 do.
ial)

Page 316
296
PUBLI
XII-FO
Financial aid received from non-national health agencies and expenditure incurred up to end of
Total Aid
Sour Rs.
7,934,690.. Colombo Plan Financial Ai
Clinics) 2,040,000 .. Colombo Plan Financial Ai
tute of Hygiene) 1,349,021 .. Colombo Plan Financial A
chase of Anti-T. B. Drug 711,499 .. Colombo Plan Financial A
(Dental Nurses Training S 422,868.. U.S.A. Cash Grant (constri
Workshop at General Hos 64,201...
W.H.O. Cash Grant (Natioi 164,160 ... UNICEF Aid (Orientation
Health Personnel) 967,594 .. Amenities to patients at An
CARE Programme 564,340 ..
UNFPA Cash Grant (Healt *3,849,938
UNFPA Cash Grant (Fami 585,728
UNFPA Cash Grant (Nurs: 7,240
UNICEF Aid (Teacher Traii
Paediatricians, Surgeons ar 3,355 ..
W.H.O. Aid (Nursing Advis 65,700 ..
UNICEF Aid (National Pre 1,996 .. W.H.O. Aid (National Cours
18,732,330
* A sum of Rs. 206,366 spent during the year Account.
XIVMEDICAL CONFE
Sri Lanka representation at the conferences ar International agencies during the year is outlined (a) Regional seminar on the development
organised by W.H.O. was held in New De Participants at this Seminar assessed incic sectors and evaluated facilities available
patients in district and provincial hospitals (6) The W.H.O. organised a Regional Seminar
21st February, 1976. This Seminar provis countries of this region to exchange info1 on the subject of training and utility of
peripheral areas. (e) Inter-country seminar on application of
achieve increased coverage by health cai held in New Delhi from 3rd to 9th Febr

C HEALTH
REIGN AID
services, as foreign governments and international December 1976, appear below: -ce
Expenditure Incurred
Rs. Government of Australia (Chest
7,801,940
d–Government of Australia (Insti
1,801,536
id-Government of Australia (pur
1,348,789
699,543
372,433.
id–Government of New Zealand chool and Hostel, Maharagama) action of a Prosthetic and Orthetic pital, Kandy) nal Health Man Power Survey)
Training Programme of Public
39,353 34,284
goda and Mulleriyawa Hospitals—
564,340 3,849.938*
537,621
-
a Education on Family Health) ly Health) ing and Midwifery)
ning Workshop for Obstetricians and ad Aneastheticians) sory Services) -Profile on Pre-School children) se in Public Health Microlology)
17,049,777
e from the Consolidated Fund is chargeable to Aid.
-RENCES AND SEMINARS
ad seminars organised by the W.H.O. and other
below:-- of cardiac resuscitation and rehabilitation services elhi from 29th December, 1975 to 3rd January, 1976. dence of cardio-vascular diseases in urban and rural for management of ‘ emergency' care of cardiac
on “Medical Assistants” in New Delhi from 16th to ded an opportunity for top level health personnel of mation and experience and consolidate their views. Medical Assistants in extending health services to
ways and approaches' resulting earlier studies to ce delivery Programme sponsored by W.H.O. was. nuary, 1976.

Page 317
MEDICAL CONFEREN
(d) Consultative meeting on malaria control
21st to 23rd April, 1976. (e) Consultative meeting on prevention of b
Delhi from 24th to 26th March, 1976. TE
of future programmes for the prevention of (C) Meeting on “ Measuring effects of Family
by the Organization for Economic Co-op
30th January, 1976. (8) An Inter-country course in the prevention
was held in Indonesia from 17th February this course, that the entire community shon
the context that ‘ prevention is better than (H) A workshop on infant meaning food produc
sity from 2nd to 4th June, 1976. (i) Symposium on field operational research in
services was held in Indonesia from 14th to concerned with research programmes to al
practical issues of implementation. i) The Australian and New Zealand Society
Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine in Congress included symposium on many
reference to those topics related to nuclear (k) 29th Session of the W.H.O. Regional Comn
to 20th September, 1976. (1) The Government of Japan organised a Sen
Planning in Japan from 26th August to 2
knowledge and techniques of medical and b (m) Seminar on Epidemiological Methodology
long-term effects was organised by the W.H (n) Inter-regional training course on biologica
22nd September to 6th October, 1976.
preparation of primary tissue culture and e (0) A working group in the form of a workshoj
tality statistics under sponsorship of the W.) November, 1976. This helped prepare, based on complaints, to be used by lay r
health centres. (p) Training in management programme for
Manila from 13th September to 7th Oct. (9) The W.H.O. held a Regional Seminar on He
Thailand from 7th to 16th December, 1976. ]
further health planning and management p (r) A workshop to develop and pre-test a m;
strategies in support of family health educ
October, 1976. (6) Consultation Meeting on the integration of
held in New Delhi from 5th to 9th Octol levels—obstacles for such integration-adv
module for such an integrated approach we (t) Seminar on Management of Evaluation of
held by the World Health Organization in N objective of the Seminar was to review the possibilities of expanding the programme in

CES AND SEMINARS
297
vas organised by the W.H.O. in New Delhi from
indness organised by W.H.O. was held in New is meeting was a focal point in the development blindness in countries of the Region. Planning Programmes on Fertility” was arranged eration and Development in Paris from 28th to
of disability and rehabilitation of the disabled - to 8th March, 1976. Emphasis was stressed at ald become aware of the concept of patient care in cure’ and the necessity for a positive approach. t development was held at Colorado State Univer
maternal and child health and family planning 18th June, 1976. The Symposium was primarily Senate approaches in delivery of these services and
of Nuclear Medicine arranged the First Asia and Sydney from 6th to 10th September, 1976. The aspects of current knowledge with particular medicine practice in Asia and Oceania regions. aittee for South East Asia held in India from 14th
ninar on Medical and Biological aspects in Family 22nd September, 1976 to acquaint participants on Biological coverage in the field of Family Planning. in the study of Pesticide Poisoning and potential E.O. in Geneva from 4th to 8th October, 1976. el standardization was held in Yugoslavia from
This course covered techniques employed in establishment of a ‘cell’ bank. p study on lay reporting of morbidity and morH.O. was held in New Delhi from 22nd to 27th a method of reporting mortality and morbidity eporters from most peripheral areas and primary
W.H.O. and national health staff was held in pber, 1976. ealth Planning and Health System Management in The purpose of this seminar was mainly to stimulate
rocedure and teaching in countries of the Region. anual for audio visual and mass communication cation was held in New Delhi from 25th to 29th
ENutrition and Family Planning Programme was ber, 1976. Methods of integration at different antages both functionally and operationally and a re among themes discussed at the meeting. the Expanded Programme of Immunization was Few Delhi from 17th to 20th November, 1976. The e present situation in immunization and explore countries of this region.

Page 318
298
PUBL
XV–
Promotion and development of Ayurveda are The Department of Ayurveda, through its healt caters to the needs of indoor and out-door pat
Bandaranaike Memorial Ayurveda Research Inst Skin diseases, leukederma, arthritis, asthma continue to be treated at the institute. Satisf: test response of drug “ KAROL ARISI" for ointment “ KITI BHARI” which have proved
Ayurveda Medical College A total of 150 students were enrolled for o the year were 100 students for Ayurveda, 25 for Examination, 71 students were successful of w 6 from Siddha and 3 from Unani sections.
Ayurvedic General Hospital, Colombo There were 4,935 patients who received in-door
were 237,924. Paying wards at the hospital cc charged for at the rate of Rs. 30 per day, while
day. There are 8 beds in first class wards and payments, patients are charged for special drugs
Ayurvedic Hospital, Anuradhapura Out-door patients treated at this hospital totalled
Ayurvedic Hospital, Ratnapura A total of 92,282 out-door patients and 1,261 in
Ayurvedic Hospital, Kurunegala There were 79,777 out-door patients and 1,521 Action has been initiated to open more new ward
Ayurvedic Hospital, Beliatta The hospital at Beliatta provides facilities for o treated during the year. Action has been initia and also providing necessary water supplies to tl
Ayurvedic Hospital, Jaffna A total of 23,737 out-door patients were treatec and a college of ayurveda. Construction of bi
with 150 beds is nearing completion.
Ayurvedic Hospital, Diyatalawa Facilities for out-door treatment exists at the during the year.
A two-storeyed structure to provide additiona could be provided for 144 patients in the future.
Ayurvedic Hospital, Lunawa The Lunawa ayurvedic hospital was declared of were treated as out-door cases.

IC HEALTH
-AYURVEDA
important aspects of the national health services.
h institutions scattered in various parts of Sri Lanka. Eents seeking this form of treatment.
itute, Nawinna and high blood pressure and diabetic ailments actory progress was made on research conducted to
treatment of “ white leprosy” and efficacy of the quite satisfactory.
ne year course commencing 1976. Enrolments for - Siddha and 25 for Unani courses. At the D.A.M. hom, 62 students were from the Ayurveda section,
treatment. Out-door cases treated during the year ontinue to be popular. First class paying wards are charges for second class paying wards are Rs. 15 per - 24 beds in second class wards. Apart from these
supplied, laboratory and clinical tests.
196,112 while there were 2,304 in-door cases.
-door patients were treated at this hospital.
in-door patients treated at the Kurunegala hospital. is at this hospital.
ut-door treatment. A total of 64,922 patients were ted to open 2 new wards with a bed strength of 60 bis institution.
1 during 1976. The hospital has a maternity ward aildings to provide additional wards at the hospital
hospital. A total of 53,845 patients were treated
1 wards is under construction. In-door treatment
pen in February 1976. A total of 64,336 patients

Page 319
AYURVEDA
Proposed Ayurvedic Hospital, Kandy Buildings at the site of state plantation, Pallekele, h proposed ayurvedic hospital.
Free Ayurvedic Dispensaries maintained by Local Author There were 242 free ayurvedic dispensaries maintained patients were treated at these dispensaries. State as institutions was in the region of Rs. 4-2 million.
Private Ayurvedic centra too have been granted Rs.
Ayurvedic Medical Council The ayurvedic medical council held six meetings durin ayurvedic practitioners, 17 inquiry committees were these 83 have been qualified for purpose of registration. general practitioners and 21 as ‘specialist practitionen
Ayurveda Formulary and Yoga Sangraha Ayurveda Drug Part I of the report of the ayurveda formulary board h Part III is under preparation. Four drug-manufactu during the year. Preliminary discussions were held as control in respect of ayurvedic drugs manufactured in s
State Pharmaceuticals Corporation of Sri Lanka The State Pharmaceuticals Corporation of Sri Lanka and Scientific Affairs in pursuance of the order publish of 22nd September, 1971.
The corporation continues to import total requiremer sector and almost the entire requirements of the state s raw material to be processed locally utilizing excess industry. Import programme handled by the corpora
Imports for private sector
Raw Materials Imports for State Sector Institutions
The corporations’ bulk turnover including value of amounted to Rs. 88 million, while turnover at Osu Sala
Preliminary steps were initiated to open a second help reduce pressure on existing retail shop and offer a
There was a net profit of Rs. 1.4 million during the Consolidated Fund.

299
ave been vested in the government for the
ities
by local authorities. A total of 2,399,516 sistance afforded for maintenance of these
69,985 during the year.
g the year. For purpose of registration of
held and 252 applicants interviewed. Of . A total of 172 registrations were made as
S’.
; Committees
as been printed. Part II is in print, while iring (ayurvedic) institutions were approved
regards determining standards and quality Sri Lanka.
was instituted by the Minister of Industries ed in the Government Gazette (No. 14,976/8)
ats of finished pharmaceuticals for the private sector. Imports also include pharmaceutical capacities available with the pharmaceutical tion during the year is outlined below:
Rs. 30-6 million Rs. 6:3 million Rs. 31:2 million
indenting services to State Medical Stores
was Rs. 4•4 million. retail outlet at Bambalapitiya. This would
better service to the customer. year, after taxation and contribution to the

Page 320
CH SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAI MOVEMENT, TOWN
AND NAT
-SOC
The Department of Social Services was est social services commission was thus imp for the co-ordination and development of so
In this country, the family provides the The family unit is recognised as a well-knit e and welfare are to a large extent dependen In a period of rapid social changes and urb various ways, services have to be provided t functions in a changing society.
At the inception, the new department to Allowance, Workmen's Compensation and th etc., as its primary functions. These progra then. The department handles at present at as set out below :- I SOCIAL ASSISTANCE SERVICES
(1) Public assistance monthly allowance (2) Rehabilitation of public assistance rex (3) Financial assistance to T. B. patients (4) Financial assistance to leprosy patien (5) Casual relief ; (6) Relief of widespread distress due to flo (7) Care and welfare of the aged and infi (8) Services for the physically and menta (9) Rehabilitation of socially handicappe (10) Assistance to voluntary agencies enge
II. PROTECTION OF WORKERS AGAINST INJU
Workmen's Compensation.
III. SOCIAL WORK TRAINING
School of social work. Details of these services are outlined in th
Social Assistance Services Public Assistance Monthly Allowance.--The the three major municipalities of Colombo, K their own standards of determining relief wi
In areas outside these municipalities, payı be the responsibility of the central govern against hazards of old age, sickness and di

APTER XX
DEVELOPMENT, CO-OPERATIVE AND COUNTRY PLANNING IONAL HOUSING IAL SERVICES
Iblished in 1948. One of the recommendations of the mented when a separate department was established al insurance schemes which the commission outlined. basic unit of protection and security to its members.. ntity in the social structure and the individual's security E on the cohension and living standards of the family. anisation movements which have affected the family in o help sustain the family and its members to fulfil their
ok over the payment of Public Assistance Monthly Le organisation of relief of distress due to floods, drought immes of assistance have progressively expanded since major portion of the country's social assistance schemes
cipients ; and their dependants ; ts and their dependants ;
pods, drought, epidemics or other exceptional causes :
rm ; Aly handicapped ;
d persons ; eged in social welfare work.
RY AND INVALIDITY
e sections that follow.
oor law ordinance of 1939, is operative only within andy and Galle. These municipalities have established thin the general pattern set by the ordinance. ment of monthly allowances to the needy continues to ent. It serves as the major governmental protection ability. Assistance is also given destitute widows and

Page 321
SOCIAL SERVI
women deprived of their husband's help owing to im dards determining relief are set out in the Manual of Pi Department of Social Services. Maximum amounts f to an individual without dependants and Rs. 24 per m view to helping large families, steps have been taken t child in excess of 4 children under the age of 16 yeai recipients, subject to a maximum of Rs. 60 per family was granted recipients with effect from 1st October, cost of living.
Persons receiving monthly allowances and total sur given below:---
Number of Year
Persons
1969–70 1970-71 1971-72 1973 1974 1975 1976
163,575 161,457 160,251 158,793 154,099 152,459 149,466
* For a 15-month period. † January-October 1976.
The responsibility for the administration and exp central government through the government agencies
Rehabilitation of Public Assistance Recipients.--The o relieving destitution and indefinite continuation of m with no incentive afforded recipient to rid himself of with the implementation of a pilot project, to initiate tance recipients with some form of enthusiasm.
A lump sum advance on public assistance is given purposes as opening up sundry shops, purchase of ser seed and manure, agricultural implements, livestocl or any other small projects which would afford an avei Public Assistance monthly allowance ceases three mo
Families in receipt of public assistance are carefi time by the departmental personnel for purpose of assistance in suitable instalments at the appropriate s
All cases successfully rehabilitated had their avera of the monthly allowance received earlier. There wei 250 per month, have been recorded.
The scheme of public assistance has been accordin to a positive and constructive programme geared to tivity through self-help and self-reliance thus contril

301
CES
prisonment or physical disability. The starublic Assistance Orders and Procedure of the aid under the scheme are Rs. 12 per mensum ensum to a person with dependants. With a o increase the monthly allowance by Rs. 5 per s living and dependant on public assistance . A 10 per cent increase in rate of payment 1973 and 1st April, 1974, to meet increased
ms expended on such cases since 1969-70 are
Total sum expended
Rs. 15,260,140 17,276,903 22,902,083* 18,207,072 22,096,633 23,235,860 19,930 5681
enditure of public assistance is borne by the
of the various districts.
leparture from the original objective of merely Lonthly allowance on the basis of a means-test his state of dependance became reality in 1970, rehabilitation of selected cases of public assis
accordingly to recipients of such assistance for ving machines, trade implements raw material , establishing workshops, cottage industries nue of employment and also a source of income nths after payment of such lump sum advance
illy selected and counselled over a period of
rehabilitation. These families are given cash itage.
ige earnings exceeded or doubled the amount re a few instances where earnings as high as Rs.
igly transformed from an age-old “dole' system ) current national efforts to increasing producbuting to social and economic development.

Page 322
302
SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELO
TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANI
Progress of the scheme since 1971-72 is shown
Numt Year
(rehabil
fami
From
1971-72 1973 1974 1975 1976
Financial Assistance to T.B. Patients and their d financial assistance to indigent tuberculosis patien maintain themselves and their dependants. The prescribed course of treatment in order to be eligit
This scheme of assistance provided payment of : T.B. patient, maximum of Rs. 60 to dependant maximum of Rs. 80 to out-door patients with medical officer of a chest clinic or a hospital as SI all cases by the field staff of the department to asc
The scheme was inaugurated in 1953 and con expenditure incurred since 1968/69 are given belo
Year
1968/69 1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1973 1974 1975 1976
* 15-month period.
Incidence of T.B. which had a marked decline when the numbers receiving assistance increased fr There were 4,350, cases in 1976.
Financial Assistance to leprosy patients and th provides payment of monthly allowances to lepro: effective and recommended by the Superintendent is a maximum of Rs. 50 subject to a means-tes
During the year 1976, a total of 800 patients wer
Medical surveys have revealed that leprosy is number of leprosy patients are at large without among school children has also been arrested in
Casual Relief —Assistance is given to relieve emergencies afecting individuals or small grou [oss of earnings or food supply by fire or accident

OPMENT, CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, QING AND NATIONAL HOUSING
below :- per of Flies itated)
Expenditure
84
33
Rs. 492,000 712,610 317,410 137,255 242.930
-16 F11
ependants.—The scheme was introduced to provide ts, who due to lost of earning capacity are unable to e recipient is expected to follow medical advice and ble for assistance.
a monthly allowance at the rate of Rs. 40 to a single S of a patient receiving in-door treatment and a dependants. These cases should be certified by a uffering from T.B. A means-test is being done in certain the rate of assistance payable. atinues unchanged. Family units assisted and the
EN:
sumber Assisted
Expenditure
Rs.
8,929 8,631 6,847 3,416 3,794
3,886,754 3,669,842 3,139,404 3,142,357* 2,660,063 2,891,896 2,972,770 3,138,070
3,825 3,955
- 4,350
; up to 1972 showed an upward trend from 1973, om 3,416 in 1972 to 3,794 in 1973 and 3,955 in 1975.
eir dependants.-This scheme of financial assistance sy patients discharged from hospital, declared nonof Leprosy Hospital. Monthly allowance payable t carried out by the field staff of the department. e granted assistance involving payment Rs. 205,639.
spreading in the community and a considerable taking any form of treatment. Spread of leprosy the light of recent surveys.
distress, resulting from sudden calamities or other ps. Casual relief covers distress resulting from t and includes assistance to repair or reconstruct

Page 323
SOCIAL SERVIC
houses, purchase clothing, implements of trade or tool: storm or similar causes. The maximum grant payable i on casual relief in 1976 was Rs. 131,655.
Relief of Widespread Distress.—This scheme of assista rendered destitute as a result of flood, cyclone, drought, (a) FLOODS AND EARTHSLIPS-A Sum of Rs. 1339,74
immediate relief as food, clothing, temporary shelte Rs. 500 per family for the repair or reconstruction
(6) RELIEF TO FISHERMEN EN DISTRESS—A sum of
individual cash grants to 53 fishermen for repair or by storm, fire, etc.
(C) DROUGHT RELIEF-Relief of distress among those
bility of the department since inception in 1948. number from each family depending on family s village on public utility items as restoration of villa to roads, etc. They were paid daily wages in cash
market rates. A sum of Rs. 4,516,566 was spent (d) DRINKING WATER SUPPLY.–Drinking water had to
in the dry zone areas where severe shortage of dr drought. A sum of Rs. 151,364 has been spent for
(e) RELIEF FOR CROPS DAMAGED BY WILD ANIMALS.--A:
the Government Agents to assist cultivators whos
Care and Welfare of the Aged and Infirm—
(a) State Homes for Elders. —There are three Kaithady and Mirigama with accommodation for a the Department of Social Services with a resident si and other staff. Admission to these homes Services on reports of an applicants circumstance districts concerned and reports obtained throught
In each state home facilities are afforded for resi and religious activities. Advisory Committees and
each Home to assist the administration. A sum of Rs. 552,626 was spent during the financial
(b) Cottage Homes for the Elders.--Cottage homes
a need for them and where no state homes or y cottage homes have in each accommodation for a cottage homes in Kandy district, two in Kegalle d in Galle, Matara, Hambantota and Matale district
There were 325 inmates in residence in cottage
expenditure of Rs. 180,823, (C) Voluntary Homes for the Elders.--Under the sch
running expenses of voluntary homes for the elder engaged in institutional care of the aged were a purchase of equipment and for extension and repi was paid to these voluntary organisations as ac grants during 1976.

303
, or cooking utensils lost through fire, rain, any one case is Rs. 300. Amount spent
nce provides relief to persons and families parthships and other similar casuses.
has been spent during 1976 for providing E, etc., and cash grants up to a miximum of of damaged houses. 5. 12,095 has been spent during 1976 for replacement of fishing gear lost or damaged
affected by drought has been the responsiWorkers selected from families in distress, ze were provided with work in their own ge tanks, clearing of channels, improvments which were generally less than the prevailing luring the year under drought relief.
be distributed in some districts particularly nking water occurred due to long spells of e Supply of drinking water during 1976.
sum of Rs. 2,500 was spent on 75 cases by e crops were damaged by wild animals.
state homes for elders at Anuradhapura, _bout 240 inmates in each, administered by Liperintendent, assistant medical practitioner is determined by the Director of Social es furnished by Government Agents of the
the deparmental officers. dential medical care, recreation, gardening - unofficial visitors have been appointed to
year 1976 on running these State Homes.
have been set up in areas where there is oluntary homes exist. Majority of these
maximum of 25 persons. There are seven istrict, one in Kurunegala district, one each
homes during the year involving a total
eme of assistance for the construction and S, 52 homes run by voluntary organisations ssisted by way of grants for maintenance, zirs to building etc. A sum of Rs. 927,305 --hoc grant and per capita maintenance

Page 324
304
SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL
TOWN AND COUNTR
World Food Programme Aid Families in districts involved were :-
Anuradhapura Vavuniya Mannar Puttalam Kurunegala
Matale Kandy Trincomalee Nuwara Eliya Jaffna Polonnaruwa Badulla
Moneragala World Food Programme Aid to drough below:
(1) Project No. 1054.—10,800 metric to
for the period 15 February to 31 ]
(2) Project No. 21,956.—Relief work w
15 October, 1976. Relief workers w lieu of cash payment.
Wheat Flour Milk Powder Canned Fish Pulses Dried Fish
(3) Project No. 1069.—Emergency assis
tons wheat flour to 229,377 families December 1976. Estimated cost of
Timely assistance from the World Foo under-nutrition has prevented diversion o ment programme.
Physically and Mentally Handicapped Services provided for the welfare of the i with other government departments, vol could be grouped under
(a) MEDICAL REHABILITATION.–Where i
tion before education, training, et personnel, provides them with necess of Health.
(6) EDUCATION AND CUSTODIAL CARE.--
ment. It is through Voluntary Ag been able to provide these services fc the existing scheme 33 such institi of Rs. 927,000 was paid to these in grants and ad-hoc grants.

DEVELOPMENT, CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT,
PLANNING AND NATIONAL HOUSING
victims in these districts was given under projects as given
ns wheat flour issued to 143,098 drought affected families
March, 1976. is provided to drought victims during the period 1 June to ere issued food stuffs under the World Food Programme in
28,197 metric tons 4,524 metric tons 586 metric tons 450 metric tons 667 metric tons
stance to drought victims in the form of 10,368 metric in affected areas donated during the period November and
these food items is Rs. 93,079,081.
d Programme besides helping overcome malnutrition and f financial resources of the government from its develop
physically handicapped by the department in conjunction untary agencies and private industrial establishments,
t is found that, a disabled person needs medical rehabilitaC., the department vhrough its network of agencies and -ary medical attention in co-operation with the Department
No direct services in this field are rendered by the departcencies, assisted by grants-in-aid, that the department has or the education and custodial care of the disabled. Under utions were assisted during the year 1976. A sum of stitutions by way of per capita maintenance grants, block

Page 325
SOCIAL S
(c) VOCATIONAL TRAINING, PLACEMENT AND R
persons earn their living and thus become with assistance of government department The department trains these persons for a allowance of Rs. 3.50 per day, during the p
Vocational training given exclusively to training centres at Soedawa and Watteggiame scheme and sheltered employment Train work, needle work, testile weaving, etc.
The training centre for the disabled (oth a non-residential centre provides training ft
welding, tinkering, spray painting, electric (d) GENERAL WELFARE–Under this category, t
disabled persons. The crippled and the 1
Those whose eyesight and hearing are defe Rehabilitation of Socially Handicapped Persons one House of Detention at Gangodawila under the Legislative Enactments of Ceylon), for the re handicapped persons. As accomodation at Gan was established at Ridiyagama in February, 1975 Institution at Ridiyagama from Gangodawila an
Correction and rehabilitation programme adop disciplined life promoting a wide range of skills
making, paper-match work, cooking, rattan wo so that inmates may gain greater confidence in the expiry of a reasonable period of time, the ini released to responsible relatives.
No. of Persons Admitted
No. of Persons at 1 January, 1976 From 1 January 1976 to 31 December, 1976 Established in Employment Released to Relatives Released by Courts Given in Marriage Released to Institutions Escaped from Institutions Escaped from Hospital Died No. of persons as at 31 December, 1976
Assistance to other Voluntary Agencies engaged
The quantum of assistance to other outdoor soc diture incurred by these institutions on welfare s is subject to a maximum of 50 per cent of the actu tions engaged in outdoor relief work during 1976
A sum of Rs. 28,883 was paid to these instituti

-ERVICES
305
E-SETTLEMENT.--With a view to making disabled
useful citizens, training is given in various trades s as well as establishments in the private sector. e maximum period of 14 years by payment of an
eriod of training.
adult deaf, dumb and blind persons at the two - provide for self employment under home workers ing is given at these centres in carpentry, rattan
er than the blind) at Ampitiya in Kandy district, acilities in the following trades : motor mechanism al work, sheet metal work, carpentry, tailoring, etc.
here is a scheme to provide aids and appliances to came are provided with tricycles and wheel-chairs. ctive are provided with spectacles and hearing-aids.
--In the past the department administered only the House of Detention Ordinance (Chapter 33 of
habilitation of beggars, vagrants and other socially godawila was limited, a second House of Detention F. All males were transferred to the Social Welfare ad Gangodawila reserved for females. sted at these institutions consists of an ordered and and occupations as weaving, sewing, knitting, lacerk, agriculture, furniture polishing, coir work, etc. their own capacities for self-maintenance. With mates are assisted to obtain suitable employment or
Adult Females
Adult Males
Children
Total
364
258 484
584
622 1,206
30 117
30
54
63
43
811111
38
ce a
108
45 215
92
92
72 492
239 332
01 97
313 921
in Social Welfare Work:
sial services organisations is based on actual expenservices during the preceding year. Such assistance zal expenditure. There were 25 Voluntary Organisa
ons during the year.

Page 326
306 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
PLANNING AND
Grants paid to voluntary organisations which and children during the financial year 1976 was
Distribution of CARE Flour.—As in preceding tion and some other organisations were distributi of Social Services and the Department of Probat Thriposha flour received from the Sri Lanka C services institutions during 1976.
Distribution of Dried Milk powder received fra milk powder were distributed among 321 social: New Zealand Government.
The department of social services spent a sum of Thriposha flour and dried milk powder.
Concession of import permits and tax payments for issue of import licenses and waivers of custon essential for furtherance of social welfare activiti
Protection of Workers Againts Injury and Invalidi Workmen’s Compensations.--The Workmen's ( under provide for payment of compensation to arising of and in the course of employment. “ accident” to include occupational diseases like ble in non-fatal cases is determined on the basis of of his disablement.
Insurance is not compulsory under the Ordinai Corporation of Sri Lanka in order safeguard him
Amount paid to employees involved in accide by the department is --
Year
1972
1973 1974 1975
Compensation is paid in a large number of ca themselves.
Social Work Training School of Social Work.--The Sri Lanka school o has as its objective, improving the quality and st of social work training made available to social v The programme of social work education at the sional practice in social work.
The school has introduced several programme ferent feids of social work.
The school at 32, fifth lane, Colombo 3, fune Services.

-O-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY
NATIONAL HOUSING
provided institutional care for unmarried mothers Rs. 110,310.
rears, relief in kind received from the care organisad among institutions recognised by the Department on and Child Care Services. A total of 271,150 lb. ure Organisation were distributed among 277 social
-- New Zealand. —Consignments of 324,500 lb. dried services institutions from a stock received from the
of Rs. 75,000 as transport expenses for distribution
--Applications from social welfare organisations as duty were granted in respect of gifts from abroad es of recipient charitable institutions.
Compensation Ordinance and Amendments there
workmen who suffer personal injury by accidents
The ordinance expressly extends the definition anthrax, lead poisoning, etc. Compensation payaEwages earned by a worker and the nature or extent
nce but an employer may insure with the Insurance self against these risks.
·nts since 1972, according to registers maintained
lains
Amount
Rs. 2,789
341,554 1,575
330,071 2,177
271,294 972
153,786 ses direct to workmen involved by the employers
f social work which was inaugurated in 1964, andard of social services through the programme
orkers both in government and voluntary sectors. school is designed to prepare students for profes
; for in-service training and extension courses in
tions under the aegis of the Ministry of Social

Page 327
YOUTH REHABIL
II–RURAL DEVE Economic, moral and cultural advancement of responsibility of the Rural Development Department.
Rural Development Societies and Kantha Samithi A model constitution for rural development societies w. completed. This has enabled registration of those soo By the end of the year the number of registered soci 4,354. Each of these Societies drew up and impleme
Community Development.—199 training classes in o were held by the department through its 10 divisional at these classes totalled, 3362 males and 1,696 femal training and research institute, Borella.
Shramadana Work–The Shramadana Movement o Food Programme repaired 834 tanks and 219 irrigat in this regard from the World Food Programme wa
Shramadana work as follows:
Wheat flour Sugar Dhal Dry Fish
Needlework and Home Science.—A total of 7 dress n maintained during the year for the welfare of rural centres.
Intensive Development. The procedure followed hit under this scheme was revised. Under the revised sche registered rural development society was treated as year's duration was drawn up in each of these villages
Special Development Schemes.—5 villages were devel villages so far developed number 44. Under this dev have been granted a total of Rs. 32,980 as aid. These Wood carving, soap and Wetekeiya industries.
Foreign Aid.-The institute of international relation West Germany, contributed Rs. 341,352 in cash ar community development work undertaken by the depa
II—YOUTH REHAE
Youth rehabilitation in Sri Lanka, was initiated wit! Rehabilitation in October 1971, for purpose of rehab for their involvement in the April insurrection. T fraught with many problems, as apart from a co-ordir recruited to forge ahead a task of such magnitude.
A training scheme for a number of vocations was cor get themselves self-employed in a vocation they were for such vocations as agriculture, poultry-farming,

TATION
307
LOPMENT
the peasantry in Sri Lanka, is the main
es revised and re-organisation of these societies ieties which had hitherto, not been registered. eties including kantha samithies increased to nted a development programme of its own.
ommunity development and allied matters training centres during the year. Attendance ces. In addition 16 classes were held at the
of the department with the aid of the World ion channels during the year. Aid received as distributed among those participating in
4,946,292 1b.
144,755 15. 312,388 16. 188,122 lb.
making centres and 140 Kantha centres were women. There were 6,150 trainees at these
therto in selection of villages for development me the entire area coming within purview of a a single village and a programme of an
oped under this scheme during 1976. The elopment scheme 6 industries in 5 districts | industries include dress-making, brick work,
ship of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, id materials worth Rs. 217,464 as aid for .rtment.
BILITATION
1 the establishment of the Department of ilitating some 18,000 youths under custody ne rehabilitation programme initially was ated planning, suitable personnel had to be
omenced with a view to enabling detainees to trained on release. Youths were selected carpentry, masonry, cane work, tailoring,

Page 328
308 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
PLANNING A
motor repairs and tractor driving. All availal onions, chillies, green gram, vegetables and p were afforded the youths to pursue their spiritual, social and cultural needs of the deta
A loan scheme to assist youths on release w given as loans, the maximum amount payable purposes as development of agriculture, sund purposes.
IV–CO-OPER
The Co-operative Movement of Sri Lanka, w as 1911 expanded rapidly during period of the societies by the end of 1945. The movemen other activities.
There were 7,898 co-operative societies of 31 December, 1976. divisional structure of
Division
Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Kandy Matale Nuwara Eliya Galle Matara Hambantota Jaffna Paranthan
Mannar Vavuniya Batticaloa Ampara Kalmunai Trincomalee Kurunegala Kuliyapitiya Chilaw Anuradhapur Polonnaruwa Badulla
Moneragala Ratnapura Kegalle

CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY ID NATIONAL HOUSING
ble land within camps was cultivated. Food crops as addy were cultivated with much success. Facilities
educational career. Emphasis was also stressed on inees. Recreational facilities were provided.
as commenced. A sum of Rs. 125,000 has so far been e being Rs. 500. The loan could be utilized for such y shops, shoe making, radio repair and several other
LATIVE MOVEMENT
hich had its origin to a function of credit as far back = second world war giving rise to thousands of stores. t gradually extended itself to cover a host of several
various types formed for multi-farious purposes by the co-operative movement is out lined below :-
No. of Societies
543 604 530 555 162 263 522 367 169 610
45 113 176 145
64
158 154 493 355 196 302 162 323
91
317 479
otal
7,898

Page 329
CO-OPERATIVI
The network of these co-operatives comprise M. P. C. SS. 2,448 credit societies of unlimited li 254 thrift and welfare societies, 101 stores societies societies, 52 fisheries societies, 30 textile societies ar and 56 secondary and all-sland unions.
Multi-purpose Co-operatives The multi-purpose co-operatives came to existe in 1971 with a view to eliminating any shortcomings Under this “ co-operative no-organization " thousa amalgamated to form about 365 large primaries.
Activities of the movement were oriented toward in 1976, with targets as set out below :-
(1) Maximum consumer satisfaction ;
(2) Co-operative employees satisfaction ;
(3) Making of all co-operative cocieties viable u
(4) Scheme co-operative district wholesale depot
(5) Assigning co-operative leadership to M. P.
Co-operative District Authorities As a step towards achieving these targets 22 co-ope guidance of the government agencies. These a administration and consumer activities particularl uneconomic units. The A. CC. C. D. of the respe authorities while three co-operators or government as members.
The main responsibility of these authorities was optimum service to consumers by eliminating n authorities were vested with such powers, where nec societies and removal of inefficient Boards of Dir
Consequent to this re-organisation scheme the 1975 was reduced to 276 as at the end of 1976.
Modernisation of Branch Societies Steps were taken to eliminate shortcomings in bra centres of distribution rendering a courteous serv sation of 4,553 of the 7,809 branches of M. P. ( scheme of modernisation however, suffered certai space and lack of funds.

MOVEMENT
309
275 M. P. C. SS (large primaries) 35. other bility, 376 credit societies of limited liability,
754 agricultural societies, 69 animal husbandry lunions, 700 industrial societies, 2,748 primaries
ice in 1957. A re-organization was launched is apparent at the end of fourteen years existence. nds of M. P. C. SS throughout the island were
new trends and a scheme was put into operation
nits ;
5;
. SS.
erative district authorities were set up under the uthorities were vested with special powers on
at the M. P.C. S. Level and amalgamation of ctive divisions functioned as secretaries of these officials in the particular district were appointed
to improve efficiency of societies and provide an mismanagement, corruption and fraud. These essary, as to vary areas of operations, amalgamate ectors and appoint new boards instead.
number of M. P. C. SS which stood at 348 in
ach societies and transform these into attractive ce to consumers. Under this scheme, moderni1. SS was completed by September, 1976. The a set backs as shortage of buildings inadequate

Page 330
310 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
PLANNING AN
Incentive Payment
With a view to preventing unrest and frustr sales per ration book, a scheme was introduced an incentive payment on the ratio of profits ma have made incentive payments amounting to ]
Membership Drive Action was initiated to popularise the moven and extend services afforded by these Societie! ship in M. P. C. SS was 1,800,073 as at end of
With a view to increasing women participati evince popularity among women. The numbe region of 12:26 million. Greater attention societies.
District Wholesale Depots In view of practical difficulties experienced b a scheme was implemented to achieve maxim preventing non-purchase of items due to lack
The scheme of district wholesale depots was with the C. W. E. for purpose of reducing tra scheme saw its extension to other districts— Galle, Amparai Badulla, Kurunegala and Bat
District Authorities Special Fund
With the setting up of district authorities, mon funds required for promotion of co-operative granted Rs. 5,300,000 as low interest loans ar
All Island Co-operative Competition An all island Co-operative competition was
M. P. C. SS, focus attention of the public on a of the co-operative service. The competition three best Societies and a similar number of be
At the all-island competition, the first prize of (Ltd), in Badulla district, the second, Rs. 25,000 the third Rs. 15,000 to Homagama M. P. C. S selected were Badulla, Kurunegala and Ratna
Rural Banks Rural banks attached to M. P. C. SS have beco a comprehensive credit coverage.

CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY
NATIONAL HOUSING
tion among co-operative employees, and increasing to pay employees, in addition to their normal salaries, le by sale of off-ration items. Already 99 M. P. C. SS Es. 876,273.
ent with the increase in membership of M. P. C. SS . As against 1,263,976 at the end of 1975, member1976, an increase of 536,097 over the preceding year. on in consumer activities, suitable steps were taken e of ration books attached to co-operatives is in the Es paid to payment of rebate to members of these
y the Societies in the availability of consumer items um services with limited transport facilities available, of funds.
first initiated in Trincomalee district in collaboration insport costs to societies. Resultant benefits of this
Moneragala, Matara, Polonnaruwa, Anuradhapura, iticaloa during the course of the year.
etary provision was made in Rs. 15 million to obtain
activities in districts. Weak’ societies have been id Rs. 651,388 as aid from the fund.
held in 1976, to evince much interest among the ctivities of Societies and ensure an overall efficiency was organized at district and all-island levels. The st districts were selected.
Rs. 50,000 was awarded to Uva Paranagama M.P.C.S. to Kundasale M.P. C. S. (Ltd.), in Kandy district and (Ltd.), in Colombo district. The three best districts
ura.
le quite popular, particularly with the introduction of

Page 331
CO-OPERATIVE MC
There were 485 rural banks (exclusive of special bra: granted upto 30 September, 1976, amounted to I Rs. 100,948,692. Rural banking activities during the shown in the table below :-
TABLE 20•1—ACTIVITIES OF RURAL BANS BY Acc
A. C. C. D. Division
No of Rural Banks
Saminas Dறள்
Ficed Deposits
Rs.
O 6 E A S M
Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Chilaw Kurunegala Kuliyapitiya Kegalle Kandy Nuwaraeliya Matale Badulla
Monaragala Ratnapura Amparai Kalmunai Galle
Matara Hambantota Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Trincomalee Batticaloa Vavuniya Mannar Jaffna Paranthan
23 09
259,07 240,43 37,02 30,61 37,78
7,42 103,62 83,14 19,96
1,08 59,04 11,20 175,35 20,82
1,00 131,55 56,39
Rs. 9,843,306 13,521,148 5,202,202 4,353,765 5,672,731 5,066,254 4,327,047 6,797,875 1,731,607 1,826,748 5,466,334
783,953 8,222,704 1,363,964
245,656 6,507,398 3,242,127 2,138,727 2,565,783 7,196,898 379,245 279,726 502,210
121,630 3,065,440
524,214
25 08
41
22 14
71,48
49:
34,93
11
20,001
06 06 27 06
373,17 127,47
485
100,948,692
1,903,12
(*) Overall figure. (+) Profit (-) Loss
Paddy Purchases Paddy purchased from farmers on behalf of the P.M.B. totalled 12,508,417 bushels.

VEMENT
311
aches) as at end of 1976. Cultivation loans Es. 50,758,000 while saving deposits were year covering up to 30 September, 1976, are
D. DIVISIONS AS AT END OF SEPTEMBER, 1976
Short
Term Deposits
Mortgages
Financial Operation
Rs.
R.
Rs.
2
O O
5,837.109 4,979,510 9 6,010,445 10,911,807
2,834,472
2,330,772 11,462,553 1,774,965
1,764,967
1,369,328 2,835,063
831,550 2,469,371
1,880,671 4 3,613,671 3,261,644
749,326
822,555 884,275
650,734 8 3,187,566
1,602,397 543,494
289,361 2,413,394
1,721,434 52,290 980,103 28,861
1,601,845 2,883,143
2,968,665 1,607,343
2,648,428 808,098
848,271 825,156
1,570,876 1,131,809
1,306,787 17,925
914,040 59,845
999,054 5,000
927,133
500,205 769,623 11,587,310
911,940
147,230 - 100,860 - 53,1201 11,875+ 47,253+ 66,078-+ 106,667 + 62,673+ 21,237+
6,510+ 15,116+ 11,636+ 24,756+
8,214 - 34,676+ 29,478+ 74,008
1,173 - 81,527 - 206,603+
1,006 - 2,839 - 4,194 - 1,308 - 72,457+ 8,266+
ON
2
o o
NT
42,794,799
60,191,385
1,000,238*
during Maha 1975-76 and Yala 1976 seasons

Page 332
312 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMEN
PLANNING
Cultivation Loans Cultivation loans were issued to farmers for cane and cotton. Loans issued for padd September 1976, amounted to Rs. 50,7 Rs. 9,098,000.
Turnover A considerable progress was achieved in ti months of 1976 was Rs. 1,866.729,190 and 1975. Profit earned during the correspondi
Finance analysis of the co-operative strane
Overdraft facilities utilised Loans obtained from all sectors Bank deposits Loans due to Societies
* from 1st January to 30th September, 19 Textile Societies The administrative structure of these socie co-operatives to 30 as at end of 1976.
Further, salary scales were drawn up for societies were determined.
Yarn and other weaving accessories were Weaving Supplies Corporation.
The Sri Lanka marketing services export i Agricultural Co-operatives By the end of September 1976, there wer Gammanas, 103 co-operative Janawasas, 56 farmers societies, 72 DDCC agricultural so co-operatives and 247 other types.
Apart from providing employment oppor have extended their scope of activities to acl Land Reform Activities Administration of lands under the land refor. in the first instance and subsequently
“Janawasama", "Usawasama” plantations
Some of these lands continue to be admi Schools Societies There were 785 registered schools co-operati Fisheries Societies 52 fisheries co-operatives were functioning located south of Colombo including South Development Bank. A special programme

I, CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY AND NATIONAL HOUSING
cultivation of crops other than paddy particularly sugar
cultivation for maha and yala seasons as at end of 18,000 and subsidiary food crops for maha season
e activities of the M. P. C. SS. Turnover for the first 9 ompares favourably with Rs. 2,571,246,805 for the year I period was Rs. 33,838,773.
e during 1975 and 1976 appears below:
1975
Rs. 65,628404 303,720,229 101,856,120 385,361,957
1976*
Rs. 82,753,435 647,353,027
97,143,064 378,406,698
16
ties was re-organised reducing the number of textile
the employees of these Societies while the cadre of the
e distributed to these societies and unions through the
the locally produced textiles of exquisite designs.
e 754 agricultural societies comprising 64 co-operative - electorate level land reform co-operatives, 65 young cieties, 17 other DDCC societies, 130 electoral level
tunities to young men and women these co-operatives nieve optimum production levels.
m law was for the greater part vested in the M. P. C. SS transferred to co-operative-based institutions as the corporation and land reform co-operative society. nistered by the co-operative sector.
ves at the end of the year.
throughout the island. Ten fisheries co-operatives mern Province were given loan facilities by the Asian
of development is in operation.

Page 333
CO-OPERATIVE MO
School of Co-operation The school of co-operation at Polgolla continues to tr and the 1st and 2nd examinations were held. The schi discussions and seminars.
Co-operative Management Services Centre Elimination and reduction of ques, introduction of branches, incentive payments, scheme of district w initiated by the centre. The project was set up with ( the executing UN Agency. A management consult division deal with all aspects of its activities.
National Co-operative Council of Sri Lanka The co-operative council is an apex level organisati
M. P.C. SS in the island constitute its membership. 4 council. Activities of this organisation are primarily diri is now opportune to focus its attention on other types of tions, conferences and seminars, training of co-operativ council.
Apex Level Societies Sri Lanka Co-operative Marketing Federation, Sri Lan coconut producers co-operative society, Sri Lan considerable service to member institutions as well as
Co-operative Commission The Commission continues to determine the service cu advisory capacity as regards employee relations.
The Co-operative Wholesale Establishment The Co-operative Wholesale Establishment became a s act (no. 47) of 1949.
The objects of the C.W.E. in terms of the act as amende
(i) Procure and supply the requirements of co-oper: (ii) Carry on business as exporters and importers of
of every description ; (iii) Transact any such trade or business including a
business of banking, shipping or insurance as m of its objectives ;
(iv) Invest or acquire or hold shares or stock in any p
about to carry on or engaged in any business be substantially similar to objectives of the company, acquisition, or holding shall be made or entered in
a controlling interest in the company ; (v) Conduct such other trade or business as may 1
concurrence of the Minister of Finance in pursua of 1969.

VEMENT
313
main co-operative personnel at various levels pol is also the venue of special conferences,
the new system of billing, modernisation of holesale depots are some of the schemes Government and SIDA funds, the ILO being cancy division and a management training
ion of the co-operative movement. All A total of 405 societies were members of the ected towards M. P.C. SS during 1976. Time e co-operatives as well. All island competiFe employees are some of the activities of the
ka co-operative industries union, Sri Lanka ka co-operative fisheries union render a the Co-operative Movement itself.
ɔnditions of employees, and function in an
ate sponsored corporation by the C.W.E.
:d from time to time, are :- itives ; and as wholesale and retail dealers in goods
iy agricultural or industrial undertaking or iy be incidental or conducive to attainment
ublic company carrying on or engaged in or ng a company having objectives similar or provided, however, that no such investment, o unless the Establishment acquires thereby
e approved by the Minister of Trade with ice of the C.W.E. Amendment Act (No. 12)

Page 334
314 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING A
With a view to achieving these objectives, 1 that the C.W.E. should set up nineteen regio required by the co-operatives.
Nine regional warehouses were set up Polonnaruwa, Anuradhapura, Kurunegala warehouses being selected at the instance of are 90 retail shops set up by the C.W.E. in
Dried Fish.--Two delegations visited India trade relations with suppliers of dried fish of imports in 1976 amounted to Rs. 42:47 mill Rs. 9-11 million. Supplies of this item are o regularly maintained.
Cummin Seed.-The full exchange allocat supply being Pakistan and Lebanon.
Garlic.The allocation utilized was Rs. 1: of prohibitive prices.
Coriander.—Rs. 26:65 million in foreign failure in major producing countries as R escalation, the normal ration of this item w
Matheseed.--The only other pulse or spi
Groceries. —Particulars of imported groce
Commodity
Dried yeast Dates Ayurvedic raisins Infant's and invalid fi
Liquor
Radio, Electrical and Scientific Items The CWE is the sole importer of these items Rs. 0-32 million for other items.
Isuzu Lorry Chassis and Spares The CWE handles the agency for Isuzu Lo! import of Isuzu chasis and Rs. 3·23 million foreign exchange purchased from State Trad
Rs. O•47 million were also imported.

, CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY ID NATIONAL HOUSING
he co-operative management services centre proposed nal warehouses which would supply "all commodities”
n 1976 at Trincomalee, Moneragala, Matara, Galle, | Badulla and Ampara–Moneragala and Amparai Parliamentary representatives of those regions. There Tolombo and the outstations.
, Pakistan and Aden with a view to promoting better which Pakistan continues to be the main source. Total ion of foreign exchange. Imports of Maldive fish cost windling and the ration of i oz. per book could not be
ion of Rs. 12:65 million was utilized, chief sources of
9 million. Smoked garlic was not imported in view
exchange was utilized for these Imports Despite crop oumania, Morocco and China and consequent prices mas maintained.
ce imported was matheseed (costing Rs. 1·12 million).
ery items were:
Expended Foreign
Exchange
Rs. million
4:39 7:95 0-19 9:43 0-05
pods
—total value being Rs. 2:34 million for radio spares and
rries. The exchange allocation of Rs. 8:64 million for for motor spares was fully utilized. Chassis with CRA ing (Consolidated Exports) Corporation amounting to

Page 335
CO-OPERATIVE
Local purchases.--These included some items that groceries (Rs. 3-2 million), sports goods (Rs. O-65 n motor spares (Rs. O‘55 million). Other local purcha
Dried chillies Pepper Coffee seeds Turmeric Cowpea Oorid Green noong Rice Other purchases
To
Groceries Household goods Textiles Stationery Tyres and tubes Hardware
Tote
Rubber.--The C. W. E. continues to function as a missioner of Commodity Purchase and purchased in a
Long term Investments of the C. W. E. are :-
(a) Shares in Asian Hotels Corporatio (6) Loan to Asian Hotels Corporation (C) Capital contribution to State Tra
(consolidated exports) Corporat Finance.--Total turnover of the C. W. E. in 197 Rs. 2,430,903 was paid as business turnover tax. Gr net profit after payment of interest Expenses (Rs. 1•6 tax (Rs. 4•16 million) was Rs. 3,225,189.
Salu Sala.--The Salu Sala, Sri Lanka state trading corporation under the Sri Lanka state trading corpo 1971, to take over the duties and functions of Lank business from 1st January, 1972, having taken over the
The textile factories of the national textile corpora Pugoda and power loom workshops of the small factured textiles to the Salu Sala.
Primarily, a servicing institution, Salu Sala embarke during 1975. This would help improve both quan industry. Construction of buildings for the second p of 41•7 million yards of locally printed chints were

OVEMENT
315
vere imported as well, e.g., dried fish (765 cwts.) Fllion), electrical goods (Rs. 1:75 million) and es were :-
Rs. million
5-66 197 1-04 0-68 0-59 0-26 0-26 0-20
0:57
tal
11:23
Rs. million
3•20 11:42 34:17
7:29 24:01
1:40
81•49
“ rubber shipper” registered with the Com11 Rs. 0-4 million worth rubber sheet.
Rs. million
14:75 10-0
dingon
1:54
, amounted to Rs. 330,179,982 on which Ss profit amounted to Rs. 47,959,381. The nillion), bonus (Rs. 3•1 million) and income
textiles) corporation was set up as a separate ition Act, No. 33 of 1970, as from 8th April,
Salu Sala Ltd. The Salu Sala commenced assets and liabilities of Lanka Salu Sala Ltd, ion located at Thulhiriya, Veyangoda and ndustries department supply locally manu
lon a programme of textile printing (chints) ty and quality of the local textile printing oject was commenced during 1976. A total stributed among consumers during the year.

Page 336
316 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING A
The total turnover for the year 1976, decrea total of 26:6 million yards of printed cotto were made available during the year. In synthetic’ textiles, 2:7 million yards of cotto Gross profits of the Salu Sala were Rs. 12 Rs. 8•0 million.
V–TOWN AN
Administration of the Town and Country and Country Planning Department. Apa development of urban and rural sectors, the d nistration of "Sacred Areas’. Several loc: Councils made requests to the department fo for their areas. The department however, technical personnel.
Planning The department continued to work in prepa
(1) Jaffna M.C. (2) Galle M.C. (3) Panadura U.C.
Town Planning Schemes Town planning schemes for Kekirawa, Kill schemes were completed for Sigiriya whil have been prepared.
Civic Buildings Detailed plans and estimates were prepared libraries, community centres and stadiums.
Housing During the year the department assisted : and construction of slum clearance and mid
Kataragama Planning Scheme In the Sacred Area, work continued on dr
More pilgrims’ shelters were constructe
Mahiyangana Planning Scheme Construction of roads in the new town were constructed. Work continued on the the Sacred Area.
Kelaniya Planning Scheme
Work on the construction of roads were undertaken.

CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY D NATIONAL HOUSING
d by Rs. 0-4 million as compared with that of 1975. A chints using raw materials supplied by the Salu Sala addition 4:9 million yards of locally manufactured cloth were issued to manufactures of wearing apparel | million. Contribution to the consolidated fund was
COUNTRY PLANNING
lanning Ordinance is the responsibility of the Town
from technical assistance and advice for planned epartment is also responsible for demarcation and admi1 authorities including town councils and village ' preparation of planning schemes and zoning schemes could not fulfil all those requests due to shortage of
ration of zoning schemes for local authorities :--
inochchi, Ukuwela were undertaken. Draft planning Le draft planning schemes for Dambulla sacred area
for new improvement schemes to markets, rest houses,
5 local authorities in the preparation of layout plans dle class housing schemes.
ainage and water supply scheme. 1 and work on processional route completed.
f the Sacred Area Scheme was completed. Floor walls electricity scheme for provision of electricity supply to
ontinued and work on the surface drainage schemes

Page 337
NATIONAL HC
Master Plan Project The Project team commenced work on the preparatio for the Colombo metropolitan region with a view
metropolis after consideration of possible developme development options was considered by the steering
(1) Sprawl—to allow the present planned ribo (ii) Concentration.—to accommodate the entire il (iii) Growth Centresto accommodate the entire
outer metropolitan area. The steering committee agreed to adoption of a cor ibasis for the work on the regional structure plan.
The project town has already commenced work on
VI-NATIONAL
The Department of National Housing was establish of 1954, as amended by Act (No. 42) of 1958, and carried out by the department as outlined in the Act, (1) Grant of financial assistance for housing cor
residential purposes ; *(2) Acquisition of land for housing objects ;
(3) Construction of houses and flats for residential (4) Implementation of the protection of Tenants
Act (No. 7) of 1972 and the Ceiling on Housing Details of housing loans offerd by the department
(a) on personal surety-construction, completion, exter
On mortgage of property and contract basis
(b) For purchase of residential houses
For purchase of lands The rates of interest on loans offered by the De preceding year :-
Up to Rs. 10,000 From Rs. 10,001 up to Rs. 1 From Rs. 15,001 up to Rs. 4
Acquisition of lands The Department of Housing obtains land required eit Crown land in the department. Acquisition of lands members of housing societies and groups of prospectiv

DUSING
317
n of a report on physical development options to preparing a draft structure plan for the ent options. A report detailing three possible E committee in August 1976, viz.:--- non development to continue. ncrease within inner metropolitan area. growth in planned development centres within
mbination of options (ii) and (iii) as a working
the draft regional structure plan.
HOUSING
med under the National Housing Act (No. 37)
Act (No. 36) of 1966. The main activities are :- astruction, purchase of houses and lands for
purposes ; Special Provisions) Act (No. 28) of 1970, Rent Property Law (No. 1) of 1973. during 1976 were :-
Loans
Amount offered
involved
Rs. asion and repairs to houses 2,577 10,687,700
1,097 14,807,800
3,674 25,495,500
79 1,419,700
140 828,200 partment were basically the same as in the
6 per cent 5,000 ... 7 per cent -0,000 ... 9 per cent
her by acquisition of private land or by vesting is undertaken by the department on behalf of e house builders.

Page 338
318 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
PLANNING AN
Action was taken during the year to acquir housing objects at an approximate value of R
Construction of houses and flats.
Another important task of the department renting out to lower and middle income brac Apart from availability of land, supply of b department also successfully initiates house a of Aided Self-Help houses commenced duri 415 flats were also completed and allocated du
Protection of Tenants Act The Department of National Housing impler Act (No. 28) of 1970. The Act was introd threat violence and harrasament and discontinu to use and occupation of premises and resorti
A total of 10,113 complaints were received completed on about 4,350 complaints.
Implementation of the Rent Act (No. 7) of 197 This Act was designed to safeguard rights o rent boards and authorised officers. There these 15 boards whose term of office had lapsed
within purview of the Rent Act and these we them with those rent boards in proximity.
Ceiling on Housing Property Law (No. 1) of 19 The Ceiling on Housing Property Law is an government. The object of this legislation wa who are hitherto in occupation of rented hous
Under the Ceiling on Housing Property I tenants up to the end of 1976 for purchase of houses (under section 9) and 27,000 were nonis being taken to allocate these houses to tena
VII–BUILDING MA
The Building Materials Corporation was inst Trading Corporation Act No. 32 (Section 2 Rs. 13-0 million.
The main objective of the corporation is to local building materials. Among statutory fi (a aforing entrepreneur necessary advice in sales of the items produced, (©encouraging processes so as to ensure that sufficient supplie and (d) estimating import requirements of distribution of building materials is also the re

CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY ID NATIONAL HOUSING
e land in extent of 56 Acres 03 Roods to carry out s. 1,528,000.
E is construction of houses and flats for purpose of kets on a monthly rental basis and on rent purchase. uilding materials and necessary technical advice, the onstruction on the basis of Self-Help. Of the 838 units
ng the year, 226 units were completed. A total of ering 1976.
ments the Protection of Tenants (Special Provisions) uced to prevent landlords from ejecting tenants by ning or witholding amenities, thus causing obstruction ng to various other means.
under this Act during 1976 of which inquiries were
f both tenants and landlords and is implemented by
were 87 rent boards functioning during 1976 and of I were reconstituted. A total of 376 areas were declared re afforded services of rent boards by amalgamating
integral part of housing legislation enacted by the as to grant ownership to certain categories of tenants es.
law (No. 1), 43,366 applications were received from 'houses. Of these 16,366 were in respect of surplus surplus houses (under section 13) of the Law. Action
nts.
TERIALS CORPORATION
ituted on 17th June, 1971, under the Sri Lanka State ) of 1970. Initial capital of the corporation was
ɔ assist the building industry and the production of inctions of the corporation, the most important are, the production of building materials, (6) promoting | local raw material consumption in the production s are available to substitute items now being imported the building industry. The import and systematic sponsibility of the corporation.

Page 339
BUILDING MATERIA
Prior to the establishment of the building materia building materials to the country involving a large by co-ordinating import activities through a sche foreign exchange costs considerably.
Four sales outlets of the corporation function in C are located at :-
Badilika Kandy Jana
Mamara Kalutara Batticaloa
Two more regional depots were opened at Ratna of retail outlets ensures equitable distribution of buil
Review of construction activity, sales potential of regional depots at Galle and Nuwara Eliya. Sale would help service of rural house builders more e
Finance and Profitability Import allocations have been on a six-monthly ba substantial stock of imported items which leads to Imports on behalf of private industrialists are under dwindling import business so that the wharf and com
maximum capacity levels.
There has been an upward trend in profits earned commercial activities.
Net Profit (before taxation)
Rs. million
1972 Rs. 3:2 1973 Rs. 8-8 1974 Rs. 11.9 1975 Rs. 15.4
Tournover of Rs. 117.4 million was achieved duri
Promotion of Rural Sector Production of Building Ma A major break-through has been achieved in the pro proving marketing facilities for the rural sector produ to make available adequate supply of building materia to seasonal fluctuations. Feasibility studies have been i more units with the participation of other institutions Rural sector products have generally been of varying s facilities, it has been observed that products manufac divergent standards. Hence, it is proposed to give ade acceptable quality, thus ensuring that the house-builde

LS CORPORATION
319
Is corporation, over 400 private dealers imported amount of foreing exchange. The corporation me of world-wide tender had helped reduce
Colombo. Regional depots opened in outstations
pura and Anuradhapura in 1976. The network ding materials in the island.
and distribution problems would entail opening es points in chosen multi-purpose co-operatives fficiently.
-sis. The corporation is compelled to carry a
additional problems in financing, storing, etc. taken by the corporation in order to bolster up imercial units of the corporation could maintain
by the corporation due to an expansion in its
ng 1975 exceeding the budgeted figure.
terials imotion of rural sector products. Apart from cers, the corporation opened production units s at reasonable prices, particularly those subject Indertaken to locate suitable sites for developing ngaged in the production of building materials. tandards. In the course of providing marketing tured by various rural sector producers are of quate incentives for the production of goods of rs will be benefited in the long run.

Page 340
320 SOCIAL SERVICES, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, C
PLANNING AND IN
VII—DEPARTMENT OF KANDY The Department of Kandyan Peasantry Rehabili litating the peasantry of the Central and Uva P. economically, educationally and socially due t take a positive approach towards betterment of districts are involved in the rehabilitation progr
Moneragala.
A sum of Rs. 7,587,464 was thus allocated for tems of expenditure appears below.
Public roads School buildings Village committee roads Rural water supply schemes
Libraries, shop premises, etc. Health centres Industrial workshops * Agricultural development
* Construction Activities.

-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT, TOWN AND COUNTRY ATIONAL HOUSING
IN PEASANTRY REHABILITATION
ition was established for the sole purpose of rehabiovinces, who were for centuries gravely oppressed
foreign domination. The department continues living conditions of the Kandyan Peasantry. Five mme–Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya, Badulla and
he year 1976. Break-down of this figure on various
Rs.
3,918,852 1,158,633
464,438 293,261
42,775 1,618,908
75,351 15,246
Total
7,587,464

Page 341
CHAPTER
POLICE, PRISONS, PROBATION A
-POLICE SYSTEM AND The Police Service in Sri Lanka was established and i amended by subsequent ordinances from time to time. as far back as early 19th century. Village headmen perform Police duties in some parts of the island whicl particularly in rural areas, the Grama Sevakas play a vit
There were 286 Police stations in the island at the end in the department's cadre. Financial considerations
plans for taking over unpoliced areas.
Crime Statistics Grave crime include offences of abduction, arson, bu grievous hurt, attempted homicide, hurt by knife, theft over Rs. 20, theft of bicycles and retention of sto
TABLE 21:1-CRIME STATS
Year
Total Crime True
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
38,541 37,876 42,936 52,609 63,719 61,084 64,269
19,55 20,57 22,23 25,88 35,04 40,23 48,03
Vehicular Traffic A total of 66,609 detections of traffic offences were n warning tickets were issued to offenders for instructi more on correction than punishment.
There were 14,344 accidents in 1976 with 8,057 per tables shows accident figures over the last decade.
TABLE 21:2-ROAD ACCIE
Year
Total No. of 7
Accidents
1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
13,303 14,591 14,221 15,804 13,844 15,140 15,267 14,070 13,023 14,344
2-A 31485

XXI
D CHILD CARE SERVICES
RIME STATISTICS
governed by Ordinance No. 16 of 1865, as
There was however, a Police Force dating now known as Grama Senatas continue to | are still not policed. In politiced areas too, Il role in detection and investigation of Crime of 1976 with a total of 16.556 Police officers have virtually hampared the department's
rglary, cattle thefts, exposure of children.
rape, unnatural offences, riot, robbery, en property. ITICS 1970-1976
Convictions Percentage Pending
O 00 00 o N en 20
3,642 3,291 4,805 7,377 7,822 8,314 9,193
18:63 16:00 21-60 17:31 12:27 20-67 19:17
20,511 21,448 21,127 27,038 31,083 27,179 28,924
made by the Police in 1976. In 3,421 cases, ons in lieu of prosecution, emphasis being
sons injured and 675 killed. The following
ENTS 1967-1976
Co. of Persons Number Killed - Injured
571 533 590
651
6,158 8,060 8,072 8,894 7,711 9,384 9.177 8,749 7,923 8,057
587 657 721 705 690 675

Page 342
322
POLICE, PRISONS, PROB.
II
The Department of Prisons functions under t tional institutions for criminal offenders ove (four of which are exclusively remand priso: work release centres, four community servic youthful offenders. Average daily populatie approximately 9,726 of whom 4,022 were accommodation for reman dprisoners. A to during the year.
The four largest prisons are at Welikade The other prisons are located at Anuradha Negombo, Kandy and Colombo (Colombo prisons). The three open prison camps are the two training schools for youthful offend camps are at Pallansena, Homagama, Kogga at Negombo and four community service Balapitiya.
Industrial and Agricultural Training Prisoners capable of being trained in Industria
Welikada, Mahara and Bogambara Prisons training in carpentry, tailoring, laundry, sho weaving, mat making and printing.
In work camps prisoners are trained Inmates of the open prison camps too are en animal husbandry.
The object of the industry scheme is to pro trade training. The original scheme was initia
In accordnace with government's food drii raise its own food supplies for feeding prisone
Prison industries have over years establis turned out and work done have been mainl Industrial and Agricultural output during last
Year
1970-71 1971-72 1973 1974 1975
Moral and Spiritual Welfare Prisoners of all religious denominations are rites in keeping with their faiths. Prisons in where inmates are allowed access.
Besides vocational training every effort is m In prisons at Welikada, Galle, Negombo an training school for youthful offenders Watbuj of Adult Education.

ATION AND CHILD CARE SERVICES
-PRISONS
he Ministry of Justice and has under its charge correcr 16 years of age. Sri Lanka has 15 closed prisons, ns), three open prison camps, four work camps, four e centres and two open training schools (Borstals) for on in all these institutions during the year 1975 was remand prisoners. The 32 prison lock-ups provide tal of 145,037 prisoners passed through these lock-ups
Colombo), Mahara, Bogambara (Kandy) and Jaffna. -pura, Galle, Batticaloa, Badulla, Matara, Tangalle,
remand prison), magazine prison and Hulftsdorp located at Pallekelle, Kopay and Anuradhapura and lers at Wathupitiwela and Taldena. The four work Ta and Wirawila. A work release centre functions centres are at Wellampitiya, Negombo, Matara and
al work are given a training in 23 selected trades. At there are large-scale industrial workshops providing e making blacksmithy and tin-smithy, rattan work,
in horticulture, animal husbandry and agriculture. gaged in agricultural and industrial activities and also
vide individual prisoner with a rehabilitative form of ated in 1931. re every effort is being made by the department to rs.
hed a tradition for skilled workmanship. Articles y for government departments. The total value of five years is as shown below:
Value
Rs. 2,630,715 3,465,392 3,884,703 6,131,351 7,308,669
provided with facilities for performance of religious the island have places of workship within premises
ade to give prisoners some form of basic education. d Bogambara, open prison camp Kundasale and pitiwela, educational classes are held on a scheme

Page 343
PRISONS
Provision has been made for moral and spiritual Abhidamma classes are held at Welikade, Galle, Jaffr classes are conducted at Welikade, Matara, Jaffna, K
Welfare officers attached to prisons are primarily prisoners, whose problems are numerous and varied.
Welfare officers are also called on to visit homes of work regarding financial relief, placement of citidir of discharged, prisoners, etc.
Recreation At all institutions, inmates are formed facilities f Prison all wards and call hilocks are served with a i religious, educational and popular radio programmes.
Several humane practices in treatment of offende criminals in Sri Lanka. One of these, is the releas whereby long-term prisonners are released, having certain conditions and supervision of welfare officers.
A Home Leave' scheme provides selected long of one week with no supervision. Under work relea are allowed to work during the day and return to p
After-Care The after-care of discharged prisoners is the association, a voluntary organisation receiving grant headquarters also supervises after-care of discharge club, the rotary movement have been encouraged to ment' in after-care has been the formation of a d discharged prisoners have been employed on building department.
TABLE 21:3—PRISON STATISTICS-NUMB
31: 54.
1970–7.
Total admission on conviction
10,643 Males
10,331 Females From Supreme Court, Magistrate and
District Court and High Court For murder and culpable homicide not
40 amounting to murder Sentenced to death
Number executed Sentences commuted to terms of imprison
ment Reconvicted prisoners Non-payment of Fines
4,62 Statutory Offences
2,71 Daily Average Population convicted and un
convicted Total
Males Females
Un co
3,92
8,5s
O U

323
guidance for prisoners of all denominations a, Kundasale and Bogambara and meditation undasale and Bogambara. responsible for attending to social needs of Apart from the normal work within prisons, meets prisoners and undertake individual case
in approved homes, legal aid, rehabilitation
ir indoor and outdoor games. At Welikade network of amplifiers for prisoners to listen to
Is are also available for the rehabilitation of e on licence scheme (quite similar to Parole) served a portion of their sentence subject to
-term prisoners to be sent out for a period se scheme long-term prisoners on discharge rison or work release centre at night.
| responsibility of the prisoner's welfare from the state. The welfare branch of prison a offenders. Organisations as Jaycees, Lions
assist after-care activities. A unique o experiischarged prisoners’ building society, where g and maintenance programmes of the prisons
ER OF ADMISSION ON CONVICTIONS
I 1971–72
1973
1974
1975
18,138 17,684
454 670
22,370 21,546
824
12,067 11,767
300 693
15,015 14,606
409 623
804
417
493
557
358
85
107
68
47 06
06
24
04 33
51
38
26
7,910 9,276 4,286 7,716
10,537 11,415 5,501 9,837
4,408 5,210 3,491
5,161 5,610 4,316 9,726
9,979
7,409 307
9,255 532
9,629
350
9,326
400

Page 344
324
POLICE, PRISONS, PROB
II–PROBATION AT The major functions of the Department of Pro (1) Study, diagnosis, treatment and rehabili
(a) offenders placed on probation b (b) children in need of care and pro
(C) children needing institutional co. (2) Care and protection of orphaned, deser (3) Registration, supervision and financial
Work. Ancillary services which help perform th
(a) The probation services (6) Juvenile institutional correctior (C) State receiving homes (d) Registration and inspection of (e) psychiatric service.
The Probation Service The probation service is the field service of th tive service for the rehabilitation of selected environment subject to certain conditions gove and not more than three years as prescribed ir
Prior to making a probation order, a Court! antecedents, environment and mental and phy the judical division in which the offence was co
These social reports and also social repoi protection are furnished by Probation Officers.
During period of supervision that ensue si required to see that conditions in the Order ar problem or problems faced by him by initia community.
There were 125 probation officers deployed Probation Officers’ functions are : (1) Inquires into applications for adoption (2) Investigation of children in need of care (3) After-care of children in certified and a (4) Inquires and supervision in terms of the (5) Investigations and assistance to the pris (6) Investigations regarding suitability for a (7) Matrimonial conciliation ; (8) General social welfare work connected w
Activities of the Department of Probation an
Invistigations-10,220 cases
Supervision—4,598 cases

TION AND CHILD CARE SERVICES
D CHILD CARE SERVICES
pation and Child Care Services comprise the following:
ation of - Courts ; section by Courts ; rrectional services, ted, stranded and destitute children. assistance to voluntary agencies engaged in child care
ese functions are:
al services
orphanages, approved homes and creches
e department. It has received recognition as an effec1 offenders who are allowed to remain in their home erning their conduct for a period not less than one year
each Court order.
has to call for such information relating to character, sical state of the offender from a Probation Officer of
mmited.
rts to Court in respect of children in need of care and
nce making supervision order, the Probation Officer is e complied with and also to help the client to solve the ting his own efforts and mobilising resources in the
in the 38 Judicial Divisions in the island.
of children ;
and protection and their placement ; pproved schools ; payment of fines ordinance ; oners’ welfare association ; dmission to training school for youthful offenders ;
ith social service agencies and youth welfare services.
Child Care Services :---

Page 345
PROBATION AND CHILI
Child Adoption Many a childless couple and others desirous of doing able extent. Most of the Courts to which these app officers for investigation of suitability of the proposed individuals. The probation officers so appointed adoption and submit reports indicating whether the child. There were 901 adoption inquiries carried o
Institutional Correctional Services The institutional correctional service is a major aspect ment runs 4 state remand homes and 7 certified sche provisions of the children and young persons ordi enactments of Sri Lanka. One certified school and ar for girls. An approved school is a juvenile correction school but maintained by a voluntary agency. Then which caters to children and young persons of the Ro
Certified and Approved Schools Certified schools and approved schools provide juvenil need of care and protection, suitable rehabilitative treat are given normal education as well as training in a va The institution is intended to be a home where prof an atmosphere of mutual understanding, to enable t life on release.
During the period of residential training probatior contact with homes of the inmates and the institution. down in their communities and look after them until
The 6 certified schools for boys are situated at Mako pola and Senapura. The school for girls is at Ranmu
The state gives a monthly per capita grant of Rs. 4. school. There were in all 929 inmates in certified so
The department also assists ten after-care centres de inmates for on-going training outside institutions or training or engagement in an occupation for a period
Remand Homes The state remand homes for boys are situated at remand home for girls is at Dehiwela. These Institut and young persons pending production in Court or A total of 2,798 (males and females) received detenti
Several voluntary remand homes have also been "parts of the island for reception of juvenile remandees available. These institutions are financially assisted care of ‘remandees”.
State Receiving Homes These homes have been established for reception of ct rarily or permanently of a normal home life. Such homes until long-term or permanent placement could specific needs of each child. Apart from providing in

CARE SERVICES
325
0, resort to adoption of children to a considercations are made prefer to employ probation adoption rather than appointing untrained E guardians-item assess the motives for Diposed adoption is in the best interest of each E during 1976.
of the department's activities. The departols which have been established under the Lance-Chapter 23 of the revised legislative
mand home have been established exclusively al institution similar in functions to a certified e is only one approved school, at Maggona, nan Catholic faith.
e offenders or children and young persons in nent under residential conditions. The inmates cation suitable to the aptitude of each inmate. per guidance is given youthful adolescents in
hem to lead a socially acceptable and useful
1 officers as after-care agents maintain close
They also help discharged inmates to settle E they could maintain themselves.
pla, Hikkaduwa, Koggala, Atchuvely, Keppetiathugala near Kadawata.
5 for maintenance of inmates in the approved chools and the approved school.
esigned to provide opportunities to discharge provide residential facilities to enable further of one year.
Kottawa, Koggala and Atchuvely and the cions provide detention facilities for children
pending trial and on other orders of Court. Lon care at these Remand Homes.
established by voluntary agencies in certain - in areas where state remand homes are not
by the state for maintenance and custodial
ildren who have been deprived either tempochildren are provided short-term care in these
be arranged for them in accordance with the nmediate needs and necessary care for children

Page 346
326
POLICE, PRISONS, PROI
admitted to these homes, they also pro conduct of investigations as regards, their help formulate a treatment plan designed to There were 5 state receiving homes located with a resident population of 221 children.
The Registration and Supervision of Voluntar There were 134 voluntary children's home the department in terms of the orphanag and maintenance of orphans, deserted and service rendered by voluntary agencies, the infants below 2 years, Rs. 38.50 to is bet and Rs. 12 to boys between 16-18 years. 1 for purchase of clothing, fomitee and other
was a total of 4,0265 cEldren in the children's 1976. A sum of Rs 1593,341 was paid th ad-hoc grants.
The department of probation and child ca maintained by voluntary agencies. These 5 years of working mothers during day tii The per capita grant of Rs. 11 per month is ! children for each day-care centre. A total o involving a sum of Rs. 503,476 as maintena
There were 5 vocational training centres a ment to give a job-oriented vocational trainin tary children's homes. A total of 214 child
Maintenance grants for children admitted been paid to voluntary children's homes to y
Psychiatric Service The psychiatric service is administered by a referred him by the Courts and department cases which warrant such treatment.

ATION AND CHILD CARE SERVICES
vide necessary facilities for close observation and social history and family background. These would ensure the welfare and best interests of the children. in Jaffna, Panadura, Bandarawela, Galle and Kandy
- Children's Homes and Day-Care Centres s administered by voluntary agencies registered with Es ordinance. These homes provide long-term care destitute children. In recognition of this invaluable state pays a monthly per-capita grant of Rs. 44 to mween 2-18 years, Rs. 38.50 to boys between 2-16 years The state also provide an ad-hoc grant in suitable cases -quipment, repair and maintenance of buildings. There homes who were paid maintenance grant as at end of ese homes as maintenance grants and Rs. 157,581 as
re services supervises and assists the day-care centres entres take care of children between 3 months and ne. There were 158 such day-care centres in 1976, =aid on the basis of an approved maximum number of f 4,225 children have been cared for in these centres ence grants and Rs. 1,600 as ad-hoc grants.
ttached to children's homes registered in the departg for children between 14–16 years selected from volunren were trained at these institutions during the year. to these training centres and also ad-hoc grants have vhich these centres are attached.
qualified psychiatrist, who assesses and reports on cases al officers. On-going treatment is provided for these

Page 347
CHAPTER
TRANSPORT AND COI
RAILW2
The Railway system of the island has been designed pi parcels and the convergence of mal, covering a total railway excepting the Kelami ailey line from Color Double tracks are provided from Colombo to Polga to Panadura on the coas ime. At Ragama between line stretches along the cost morthwards to Putta Puttalam to the limestone gumy with a branch at II factory. At Polgehawelia ome line runs up to Badu Peradeniya en route Kandy, the Hill Capital. The branches at Maho and Medawachchi. The branch forks out to Trincomalee and Batticaloa on the easte proceeds to Talkimannar Pier from where a ferry se Railway in India. The coast line hugs the south short lines branch off at Urugodawatta on the main Colombo harbour. On the Puttalam line at Seed International Air Port, Katunayake.
Colour light signalling has been installed on sub-urt coast line, Colombo to Polgahawela, on the mair international air port on the Puttalam line.
Organisation The railway in Sri Lanka, is state-owned, managem Railway Department. The organisation consists o manager as head of the railway department. The mechanical engineering, motive power, transportati costing, the last named being of recent origin. Ai the general manager has also been recently set up. and on trains, now operate as a separate unit under t} Stock position of locomotives as at end of 19
Steam Locomotives Diesel Hydraulic Locomotives Diesel Electric Locomotives Diesel Hydraulic Power Coach Diesel Hydraulic Shunting LoC Diesel Electric Shunting Locor K. V. Diesel Mechanical Loco Diesel Electric Rail Cars Diesel Hydro-mechanical Rail K. V. Diesel Hydraulic Locom Air Conditioned Sets
Other Locomotives(high pov Rolling Stock position during the year is shown be!
Broad Gauge Carriages Broad Gauge Wagons
Narrow Gauge Carriages Narrow Gauge Wagons

XXII
IMUNICATIONS
YS
marily for the transport of passengers, goods, Irack of 908 miles. All sections of Sn Lanka, ibo Fort to Padukkaare of broad gauge. awela on the main line and from Colombo Colombo Fort and Polgahawela, the branch am. The Aruakalu extension takes of at uvankulam to the clay fields of the cement la and Matale the deviating point being at other line goes up to Kankesanthurai with line at Maho proceeds to Gal Oya where it rn Coast. At Medawachchi the branch line rvice provides a connection to the Southerni ern coast from Colombo to Matara. Two
line to the Kolonnawa oil installations and uwa, another deviation branches off to the
van routes from Colombo to Panadura on the | line and Ragama to Katunayake and the
aent being vested in the Ceylon Government f eight sub-departments under the general
eight sub-departments are civil engineering, Dn, commercial, accounts, stores and traffic railway planning unit directly responsible to
The catering service provided at stations ne commercial sub-department. 76 was:
ug sa
PS omotives motives motives
3393 8
Cars
ptives
ered coaches)
ow:
1,084 3,788
99
199

Page 348
328
TRANSPORT
Co-ordinated Services Rail-road co-ordinated services for passeng of the general public particularly on long-dis (a) Collection and Delivery Services. The
motor vehicles deal with wagon-load t and from government departments,
services also extend to other patrons (6) Carrier Services.—Regular road moto
operate between Matara Tissamahan Haputale/Moneragala ; Badulla Bibile
afford links betwce rail-heads and out (C) Rail-Road Passenger Transport. Co-or
railway stations on the coast, up-count areas to patronise popular, long-dist:
Retiring Rooms Retiring rooms fully furnished and equipped borne passengers are available at Anuradhapu
Restaurant services are available at import
Diesel-De-Luxe A self-propelled saloon car with de-luxe acco who wish exclusive travel.
Observation Saloons Observation saloons equipped and fitted for These saloons are available for public use. saloon should hold in addition to a first c Costs Rs, 7.50.
Air-Conditioned Saloon A first-class air-conditioned saloon with acco and Kankesanturai on the fast express train ticket is payable for such travel.
Second and Third Class Sleeprettes Second and third class sleeperettes are in se or third class travel tickets could avail of sl sleeperette ticket or Rs. 5.00 for a third class
Special Services Apart from the two luxury coaches catering special services are also provided during 'pilg * Specials' run during the year extending trans
Sri Pada
Wesak Poson
Maha Nuwara Kataragama
Madhu Srhine Talawila, St.

AND COMMUNICATIONS
ser and freight traffic are operated for convenience stant routes : e services performed in Colombo, with departmental -raffic, as tea, paddy, paper and small consignments to
state corporations and private-sector firms. These by prior arrangement. or carrier services for transport of goods and parcels sama : Nanu Oya Ragala ; Nanu/Oya Welimada : e and Kandy/Mahiyangana. These freight services
fying environs. dinated rail-bus connections are provided at important Cry and northern lines enabling residents of remote ant express trains.
with modern amenities for use of rail and non-rail ra, Kandy, Jaffna, Galle, Trincomalee and Polgahawela. ant railway centres and on long-distant express trains.
ommodation for 30 passengers is available for parties
first class travel help view the landscape on the run.
A passenger (adult or child) in the observation lass travel ticket, an observation saloon ticket, which
mmodation for 32 passengers runs between Colombo ns. First class fare plus Rs. 15 for air-conditioned
rvice on long-distant trains. Passengers with second peperettes on payment of Rs. 7.50 for a second class
sleeperette ticket.
E to the needs of foreign tourists visiting Sri Lanka, cim influxo to important religious centres in the island, sport facilities to pilgrims were :-
34
121
50
- Esala Perahera 92
22
52
Annes

Page 349
ROADS AND ROA
Railway Traffic Volume of railway traffic during the year 1976 appe
TARLE 221-VOLUME OF R
Year
Passengers Season Ticket
coegenal
holders (thonuunadir) (thousands)
29.658
750
1976
Development Activities Two ticket agencies were opened during 1976.
Anuradhapura mewtown —between Srawasthi P
Waikkal
—between Kochchikad Construction work including extension and repair and Maho, Gammatilta and Pothuhera on the nort the coast line.
Bridge repair and maintenance work continue, 1 line.
Improvements to rest rooms and platform ‘ shelt Badulla.
A housing unit was constructed at Ratmalana. E minor grades at Mirigama, Kuronegala and Alutgar
ROADS AND RO Highways Important among activities of the Department of H
Road Extensions
Skinner's road (south) Narahenpita-Nawala-Nugegoda Nugegoda-lower Church street Yatiyantota diversions Colombo-Puttalam road-Three-way diversion Galle Face (centre) road Church Street-Nugegoda Ambepussa-Kurunegala-Trincomalee road (370
Bridges
Theberton-Polpitiya–bridge over Maskeli Oya Kalawellawa bridge Matara-Hakmana road-bridge No. 4/2 Colombo-Kandy road-bridge No. 20/1 Negombo-Giriulla road-bridge No. 18/3 Thiruwanketiya-Agalawatta road-bridge No. Gurugala-Amithirigala road-bridge over Kela Allai-Kantale road-bridge over Mahaveli Gar "Trincomalee-Pulmoddai road-bridge over Tal
Malwana-Dompe road-bridge No. 2/3 (recon: Ayagama-Kitulegama—bridge No. 1/1 Yalebedda-Egoda Kolonnawa—bridge over He

O TRANSPORT
329
ars in table 22.1
AILWAY TRAFFIC-1976
Goods conveyed Income
Expenditure
(thousands tons)
1,488
(Rs. Million) 1980
2560
ura and Anuradhapura (124 miles 75 chains) e and Bolawatta (28 miles 31 chains)
was carried out at Galgamuwa, Thambuttegama hern line, Paiyagala (South) and Palapitiya on
particularly on the Batticaloa and Trincomalee
ers’ were provided at Ragama, Veyangoda and
[ousing facilities were also afforded departmental
na.
DAD TRANSPORT
ighways during the year 1976 were :-
from Katunayake
to 41st mile posts)-widening and repair
35/3
ni Ganga
aga pe Aru struction)
-en Ela (new construction)

Page 350
330
TRANSPORT AN
Motor Traffic The Department of Motor Traffic is responsil and regulations made thereunder. Its functions registration of transfer of motor vehicles, issue for buses used on tours and excursions, fitness ce on vehicles involved in accidents. The impler of certain motor cars and finance Law (no. 47) cars registered under the Sri series also fall with
Registration of Motor Vehicles The largest number of motor vehicles ever regis 15,551 vehicles were registered. Of these, 808 lorries. A virtual ban nas imposed in 1961 on exchange. This objective, has apparently been
Imports of Motor Vehicles showed a compa due to the operation of open general licences sch (operating) as available in the registers and new
Year
Motor Vehi (Number
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
1973 1974 1975 1976
136,976 142,970 145,216 146,323 147,589 148,760 151,417 156,754 161,154 169,353 176,792 180,252 184,094 187,671 191,962 194,972 199,660
With the introduction of the ban on impo1 more frequently than in the past. A sum of R motor vehicles during 1976.
Licensing of Motor Vehicles The Commissioner of Motor Traffic who is als Authority for collection of licence duty on n vehicles in Colombo district is collected by the motor vehicles in other districts through Gov

D COMMUNICATIONS
ble for the administration of the motor traffic Act are the registration and licensing of motor vehicles, of drivers and conductors licences, issue of permits rtificates for commercial vehicles, examine and report nentation of the finance Act (no. II) of 1963 on sale of 1973 on the recovery of a levy on private motor in the scope of its functions.
tered during a year in Sri Lanka was in 1960 when D were private cars, 663 were hiring cars and 2,758 importation of motor vehicles to conserve foreign achieved, as evident from data appearing below.
rative increase in years, 1967, 1969, 1970 and 1976 eme during these years. Statistics of Motor Vehicles
Vehicles registered from 1960 to 1976 were :--
cles New Registrations
(Number)
15,521
7,858 3,924 2,456 2,404 2,453 3,687 6,073 4,978 9,241 8,834 4,547 4,543 4,274 4,986 3,985 5,362
rt of cars, ownership of registered vehicles change S. 2,948,261 was collected as revenue on transfers of
p the registrar of motor vehicles is the accounting notor vehicles. Licence duty in respect of motor e Commissioner of Motor Traffic and in respect of ernment Agencies of the district administration.

Page 351
ROADS AND ROAD
Statistics of revenue collected by the deparime since financial year 1964–1965 are :
Financial Year
1965 1965-66 1966-67 1957-58 1968-9 1969-70 1970-71 (a) 1971-72 *1973 1974 1975 1976
R. 6,278,20 5,906,5 10,046,0
8,424,81 8,856,79 9,163,6: 10,892,17 16,606,96 19,890,90 20,432,3 23,149,7 18,353,84
(@) 15 month period.
* Revised figures.
Driving Licences A driving licence is issued only after a test of an api must satisfy the examiner in both tests to qualify for i by a decision of an examiner is given the right of aj mental official nominated by the commissioner of m vehicles are issued in Colombo after a test conducted are issued after a test by an examiner attached to the by the Government Agent. The number of drivin vehicles issued during 1976, was 14,803.
Conductors Licences
Applicants for conductors licences should have at number of persons already holding licences exceed are issued only to those applicants sponsored by the
who could adduce satisfactory proof as regards gui omnibus owners. A total of 121 conductors’ licei
Road Safety
Motor traffic (highway code) regulation 1951, publ at a nominal price of 10 cents. Copies of the brocl The highway code embodies rules required for the

TRANSPORT
331
t of motor traffic and government agencies
Enne Collected
Government Bles
Agencies
Rs.
U ON TO N NO
5,972,553 5,167,813 6,111,509 6,219,736 6,011,276 6,935,845
8,600,322 (a) 15,286,828
*9,387,679
6,929,240 10,750,168 14,820,715
plicant in driving and road rules. The applicant a driving licence. An applicant who is aggrieved ppeal. In such cases he is re-tested by a departotor transport. Licences to drive commercial by two examiners. In outstations these licences district administration and an official nominated g licences to drive private cars and commercial
least the VIII standard qualification. As the s the number of buses operating, new licences
Ceylon transport board and private applicants erantee of employment as conductors by private nces were issued during 1976.
ished in the form of a brochure is being sold nure are available in Sinhala, Tamil and English.
guidance of persons using the roads.

Page 352
332
TRANSPORT
Examination of Motor Vehicles In Colombo district commercial vehicles reqi examined at the testing station of the depart examiners of motor vehicles attached to varia
International Convention Relating to Motor Ti Sri Lanka is a signatory to the 1949, interr national driving permits are issued by the di Association of Ceylon. Domestic driving licet are recognized and temporary recognition p Country.
Tax on the sale of Motor Cars Under the finance act, (no. II) of 1963, tax is cars :
(a) registered for the first time in Sri Lank:
26 January 1961 was 4 Sri 4064 and
(6) imported free of custom duty or on
privileged persons.
A sum of Rs. 2,447,844 was collected during tax is applicable to such motor cars for a pe motor car in Sri Lanka. The purpose of the obtained the privilege and concession of imp unconscionable profits by selling cars at fabul is particularly so when the vast majority of ow under existing import control regulations.
Tax on private cars registered under Sri Series With the introduction of Finance Law (No. were registered owners of private cars which ha and every person registered as first owner of to pay a levy. The total amount collected as 1976 was Rs. 13.8 million.
Ceylon Transport Board The Ceylon Transport Board, was established
With the nationalisation of the bus services, the companies.
The board has during the past 18 years expa employees and 6733 buses. It operates a fleet
Bus services covering the entire island of 25, total operated mileage of 247,551,341. It pro linking principal towns, places of religouis and
historic fame.
The Ceylon Transport Board was the first ouncils, selected by secret ballot. There are workshops, offices and other work places of the

ND COMMUNICATIONS
ired by law to obtain annual certificate of fitness are ment. In the outstations this work is being done by as government agencies,
affe ational convention relating to motor traffic. Interpartment of motor traffic through the automobile ces issued by countries subscribing to the convention urmits are issued to tourists and others visiting the
payable on the sale after 1 August, 1963, of motor
- on or after 26 January 1961 (registration number on
special concessions given to diplomatic and other
the period from 1 January to 31 December 1976. The riod of 7 years from date of first registration of the tax is to prevent owners of motor vehicles who have orting motor cars into the country from making ous prices in a booming second-hand market. This ners and users of motor cars cannot import new cars
47) of 1973 persons who on 10 November 1972 id been assigned distinctive numbers of the Sri Series a motor car registered since that date become liable levy on these vehicles upto the end of December
as the first nationalised venture on 1 January, 1958.
· board took over the services operated by 76 private
inded into a vast complex of 76 depots with 49,200
of buses perhaps one of the largest in the world.
132 square miles are operated by the board giving a vides both city services and long distant services tourist interest, holiday resorts and ancient cities of
If the nationalised ventures to establish employees i total of 76 councils established at various depots,
Board.

Page 353
ROADS AND ROAD
The expansion progress of the Ceylon transport b fleet and staff since the year of nationalisation.
Fleet Sਨਾਮ
Year
3400
1958 1976
Statistics below indicate the growth and developme years :
TABLE DO MES OPERATED AND P
Tamr
Mileage (
1958 1959
1960 1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
102,61 108,82 115,00 120,63 122,52 119,42 138,40 159,54 184,37 208,57 212,59 221,28 237,03 241,14 270,88 250,89 234,76 246,38 247,55
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975* 1976
* Figures subject to revision.
The results of financial operations of the boa (estimated) million in contrast to a profit of Rs. 21.3
An initial phase in the planned programme of ć Colombo and western areas, which deploy 50 per cen other areas are in offing.

TRANSPORT
333
ard could best be gauged by the increase in
Employees (umber)
Mileage Operated
15,000 49,200
102,616,664 247,551,341
nt of the Board's activities during the past 18
ASSENGERS CARRIED 1958–1976
'perated Passengers carried
6,664 4,831
6,429
456,401,935 513,532,364 555,363,140 617,456,145 665,940,386
6,509 9,145
6,355
666,199,639
6,268
1,047 8,662 6,429 1,436 5,392 1,717 8,795 2,614 9,496 5,144 7,000 1,341
792,863,080 929,455,291 1,052,444,895 1,171,027467 1,271,102,316 1,328,412,218 1,374,414,164 1,335,846,790 1,390,351,993 1,405,164,385 1,248,690,917 1,336,411,000 1,436,275,003
rd during 1976 showed a loss of Rs. 46.5 illion the preceding year.
evelopment of bus services covered Greater t of total fleet strength. Improvements in the

Page 354
334
TRANSPORT
I
The Department of merchant shipping was a in January 1973, with the establishment of n
Central Freight Bureau The Central Freight Bureau of Sri Lanka, freight booking office for allocation of freig to any destination. Other factions of th rationalising frequency of call and availabi It negotiates and enters isto agreements with rates, surcharges and Sciency of shippings favourable Freight rates.
The bureau continued its efforts towards hi costs. Several promotional freight rates were with conferences/rate agreements and lines statistical data maintained by the research di
A brochure was published by the bureai countries attending the Non-Aligned summi Philippines studied operations of the bureau - The bureau purchased 40 per cent of sh Co. Ltd., at a par value. Commodities aff freight increase and special freight rates wer rates were also established. A vigilant monit surcharges were collected by lines has ensur collected.
Bureau officials conduct regular discussic agents and Port (cargo) Corporation officials these organizations.
Collection of Revenue In compliance with provisions of the fees R of 1971 and licensing of Shipping Agents Ao of the Ministry of Shipping has collected as amount has been credited to the consolida preceding year's revenue by Rs. 44,737. A exchange.
(1) Shipping and Attendance (2) Registration of vessels an (3) FEECs (4) Issue of Seamen's Record
Discharge (5) Licensing of Shipping Ag (6) Fees for issue of certificat (7) Fines
Under the Scheme of Licensing 37 Shippin

AND COMMUNICATIONS
-SHIPPING
nalgamated with the Ministry of Shipping and Tourism erchant shipping divsion within the Ministry.
established on first September 1973, provides a central at space on vessels for goods shipped from Sri Lanka - bureau include ensuring economic loads to vessels, ty of vessels for shipment of goods from Sri Lanka. ship-owners and shipping lines on matters as freight vices, to reduce costs incurred by Shippers and obtain
Iping shippers and shipowners to cut down operational established and validity period extended. Negotiations
with a view to containing freight rates backed by Fision, were pursued with utmost vigour.
i on scope of its activities and circulated among all i conference. A three member delegation from the
in December 1976.
are-holdings of the Trincomalee Tea Administration ected by the economic recession were exempted from
e fixed on others. Several more promotional freight toring of vessels’ movements to areas where congestion ed that only legitimate dues to the lines have been
ons with port tally, Ceylon association of steamer to review matters arising out of routine functions of
gulations under the merchant shipping act no. 52 I No. 10 of 1972, the merchant shipping division um of Rs. 246,804 during the year as revenue. This ed fund. Collections during 1976, have exceeded sum of Rs. 90,026 has been in the form of foreign
Fees
survey fees
Rs. 103,757
9,395 63,143
Books and Certificate of
ats
10,560 28,500 30,915
534
246,804
Agents obtained licences during the year.

Page 355
SHIPPI
Seamen's Training For the fifth batch of seamen trainees, 52 were Trincomalee.
Shipping officers' registry –
(1) Sipas Masties tiennent to (2) Cimmer mit Musiems (3) Seamem sigret (9 Samen simeti oli (5) Nurminer of Sir Lanike seam (4 Deaths of eamen reported
Registration of vessels M. V. Samudra Manu belionging to the fisheries de Ceylon petroleum corporation were registered re November 1976.
Surveys Survey of vessels carried out during the year were :
Passenger Launches Passenger and Cargo Launches Tugs Self propelled barges
Fishing trawlers/Fishing boats
Merchant Shipping Regulations Regulations relating to Mates 1976, examination we Extra-ordinary No. 218/3.
Ceylon Shipping Corporation The Ceylon Shipping Corporation was established to mail by sea and to transact business as ship-owners, In terms of the Ceylon Shipping Corporation Act (No as a commercial entity with effect. from 6th June, 1
To achieve the main objective of the corporation, inaugurated with a westbound sailing in December 1 Sri Lanka to U.K., the Continent, People's Repub Gulf/Red-Sea ports were subsequently consolidated
Fleet strength of the corporation’s vessels gives i
Vessel
Lanka Rani Lanka Sagarika Lanka Devi Lanka Kalyani Lanka Kanthi Lanka Shanthi Tammanna Lanka Keerthi Lanka Ratna

NG
335
cruited to the naval and maritime institute,
724
43 5,126 3,211 2,364
an engaged
02
partment and M. T. Mahaweli belonging to spectively as Sri Lanka ships in March and
Colombo
Outports
62
na | | |
06 02
25
332
ere gazetted on 21st June, 1976, in Gazette
operate services for the transport of goods and charterers, ship brokers and shipping agents. . 11) of 1971, the corporation began functioning 971.
the Ceylon–UK/Continent Liner Service was 971, by M. V. Lanka Rani. Liner Services from ic of China, Japan, the Far East and Persian - and established on a regular basis. i total dock weight tonnage of 116,244
Dock weight
tons 15,228
2,521 14,100 6,275 6,790 14,350 30,278 11,877 14,825 116,244

Page 356
336
TRANSPORT
Twenty seven round voyages have been co so completed are:--
Ceylon/U.K./Continent Ceylon–Far East Others
M. V. LANKA SAGARIKA
Provisional results of financial operations sh and financing charges as against Rs. 55-6 milli
The net profit for the year after charging Rs. 46•0 million for the year 1975.
TABLE 22:3—CEYLON SHIPPING CORPOR
Government Authorised Capital Government Contributed Capital Loan Redemption Reserve Loan Capital Provision for Depreciation Gross Earnings (Liner Service and Agency) Tonnage lifted by CSC vessels (Freight Tons)--
Exports Imports Number of Round Voyages performed
* Voyages performed by 8 vessels.
Port Tally and Protective Services Corporation The Port Tally and Protective Services Corj Protective Services Corporation Act, No. 10 of
The corporation continues to provide effici interests of ship owners, agents and masters of

ND COMMUNICATIONS
npleted as at 31st December, 1976. Details of voyages
1976
Ist 2nd 3rd 4th Total (12 Qtr.
Qfr.
Qtr.
Qtr.
months)
2
)
" | N | O |
A | |
* n | N | O |
| N | 9 | 0
ow a profit of Rs. 56•5 million before charging interest on for the preceding year.
Interest, works out to Rs. 46•5 million as against
ATION—PROGRESS AND COMMERCIAL VIABILITY
100
15:4
1972
1973
1974
1975 Rs. Million Rs. Million Rs. Million Rs. Million
100
100
100
26:3
41:8
41-8 –
14:7
36:0
70-5 42:2
60:7
49.9
55-4 2-4
5.0
6-0
10-9 57•6
76:8
155-7
188•6
87,720 86.153
105,928 123,223 16
99,758 205,428
23
130,362 188,018
14
24*
oration was established under the Port Tally and 1967.
nt and regular tally and protective services in the ships in the ports of Colombo and Trincomalee.

Page 357
SHIPPI
The corporation enjoys a statutory monopoly o Sri Lanka. Operational activities of the corporat Trincomalee. Long-term development plans coule corporation renders to its customers-ship owner
Finances of the corporation during the year mere
Income
FEE Toral
peminatname
Taation Contribution to Consolidated Total payments to Governm
Tonnage talled and protective personnel engaged
Tommage tallied (General Cargo Discfar Tonnage tallied (Bagged Cargo Discharge Tonnage tallied (Cargo loaded) Protective Personnel engaged
Port (Cargo) Corporation The Port (Cargo) Corporation was established in Ai Act, No. 13 of 1958, as amended by Amendment A
Main functions of the Corporation as stipulated in (1) to provide in the Port of Colombo and in any ott
Shipping and Tourism by “Order” published services for stevedoring, landing and warehous
bunkering of coal and any other services in (2) to conduct the business of the corporation in
the provisions of the Act, such charges for sers that the revenue of the corporation is not les proper to be made to the revenue of the Corp adequate general reserve.
Cargo Handling operations The cargo handled in all three ports of the corpora
Cargo
Callers Food Ott
1,715
90
Colombo Galle Trincomalee
17
72
Total
1,804
103
1,01
13-A 31485

NG
337
ver tally and protective services in the ports of fon are confined to the ports of Colombo and d only be organised by improving services, the s and their gents.
Rr. Million
8,226
4,316 12,542 10,448 2,094 1,256
Fund ent
1,256
in the two ports during 1976 were :-
Colombo
Trincomalee ged)
379,306
50 860,267
52,500 1,013,823
72,650 29,814
3,016
ed)
agust 1958, under the Port (Cargo) Corporation act (No. 67) of 1961 and (No. 41) of 1964. e the Act under section 4 (1) are: ner port that may be determined by the Minister of in the Government Gazette, efficient and regular ing cargo, wharfage, the supply of water and the cidental thereto ; and
such manner and to make in accordance with Pices rendered by the corporation, as will secure BS sufficient for meeting the charges which are oration and for establishing and maintaining an
tion during the year were :
Vessels
sers Total Imports Exports Total
1,024
17
1,244,773 999,993. 2,244,766
44,320
8,684 53,004 65,802
61.226 127,028
12
1,354,895 1,069,903 2,424,798

Page 358
338
TRANSPORT
Container, ‘LASH’ and Palletized Cargo Han Containerized cargo and ‘LASH' barge han the year. Of a total volume of 2,244,766 tons containerized (imports and exports) in 24 sa preceding year. As regards ‘LASH' Barge og discharged in 19 sailings. Construction of the sion has reached half way mark. It is expecte in the near future. Transhipment The volume of transhipment cargo handled i 1975, an increase of over 250 per cent. Supply of Water The volume of fresh water supplied to ships
Port Colombo Trincoma. Galle
Modern trends in Cargo Handling Although the port of Colombo is still handic render efficient service to all container carrie frequently during the year. The number of against 207 in the preceding year. "Rollon”/ Despatch and Demurrage Based on information available, demurrage fertilizer cargo during the year was Rs. 1•53 1 Amount earned as despatch money was Rs. 1•6
Financial Performance The corporation recorded an overall profit of million in 1975. The cumulative loss was red
Revenue Less-Operating Cost
Operating Profit/Loss Less/ Add-Administrative Expenses
Nett Profit/Loss
Cumulative Loss (carried over) Cumulative Loss
* indicate loss.

D COMMUNICATIONS
ing ing and palletization has recorded an increase during f dry cargo handled, approximately 39,753 tons were
ngs, and recorded an increase of 2 per cent over the erations a total tonnage of 23,642 tons were loaded and D0 foot container quay by the Colombo Port Commisthat 500 feet of the quay would be ready for operations
a 1976 was 11,485 tons as against 3,265 tons during
Volume
tons 347,798 17,357
365,155
apped without facility of a container berth, it could rs and to ‘LASH”ships that called at Colombo port 'LASH’ barges handled during the year was 253 as “Rolloff” vessels were also handled during the year,
incurred on chartered vessels, mainly on food and nillion whilst in 1975 it amounted to Rs. 4•7 mllion. million as against Rs. 4-9 million in the preceding year.
Rs. 11.1 million as compared with a profit of Rs. 1•6 uced to Rs. 27•4 million thus
1976
1975 Colombo
Galle Trincomalee Total
Total (Rs.
(Rs.
(Rs. nillion)
million)
million) million)
million) 150-1
1:8
4•6
156°5
1363 104:3
3•6
11:5
119•4
113•7
(Rs.
(Rs.
1•8*
6•9*
37•1
45•8 19•7
1:3
22•6 21:0
5-0
260
26•1
3•1*
11:9*
11:1
16
38•5 27•4

Page 359
SHIPPING
Employees Benefits The annual bonus for the year 1916 SS computed on The total paid amounted to Rs. 539 million. Of this as of Rs. 90 paid to certain employee categories had be decision.
Gazette Extraordinary No. 24 of 27th April, 1976
Metrication.—Main purpose of the amendment was to e in schedules of charges to metric equivalents and reinte cargo charges for stenreinering as from April 1976.
Gazette Extraordinary No. 3437 of 16th December, 1 recover FEECs on stenediorning charges paid through lo
Accident Compensation A sum of Rs. 79,123 was paid as workmen's compens ports. Accidents inspired and payments made were :-
No Fatal N
P॥
Colombo Galle Trincomalee
Total
Bonding Packages bonded during the year were 17,221. A total o the bonded warehouse. Cargo bonded has increased by 5 of cargo lying in the bonded warehouse is in the regione the corporation from consignees as bonding services was
Enıployee Strength Employee Strength of the corporation as at end of 31st sing executive, technical, clerical and labour grades.
Port
Executive
Grade
Other 1 Labour (
2,91
Colombo Galle Trincomalee
126 02
06
Total
134
3,28
There was a decrease of 577 employees in the labour gi

339
the same basis as that for the year 1975. um of Rs. 0•99 million based on allowance in treated as an advance pending a final
fect conversion of all weights and measures pretation of measurement and deadweight
976 (FEECs), enabled the corporation to cal accounts.
ation on account of accidents in the three
. of Accidents on-Fatal Total
Payments
made
187
01 09
189
01 09
76,620
331 2,172
197
199
79,123
of 13,040 packages have been delivered from 5,701 packages over the year 1975. Value of Rs. 2,300,000 and amount recovered by approximately Rs. 136,332.
I December, 1976, stood at 14,274 compri
Total
VonGrades
Labuor Grades
9,235
428 1,193
12,262
503 1,509
10,856
14,274
cades as compared with the preceding year,.

Page 360
340
TRANSP
Colombo Port Commission Major schemes completed by the departm (1) Extension of Queen Elizabeth Jetty.
South West breakwater dam is com
the dredger “ Diyakawa ". (2) Tanker Berth Project.--The revised to
was resumed. Construction of dolp (3) Trincomalee Development Project.-
directive ; (4) Galle Harbour Development Project -
carried out. - (5) Coastal Constructions.Maintenance
Galie and Trincomalee harbours ha coastal protection has also been carrie
Transportation Research The Sri Lanka Centre for Transportation R of professional, managerial and academic pe and the university authorities who had in portation in the country. Its primary obje ordinated, multi-disciplinary basis. Cabine in 1976 and functioned initially under the funds continue to be provided for an extend
One of the goals in the formation of th provide a consulting agency in the transp government on matters of general transport
There is an absence of a comprehensive integrated planning in this sector. Infra-st operations and those agencies utilising sort could be avoided to a very great extent dards at initial stages.
Inadequate and ineffective performance in no small measure to an increase in cost handling, of imports at destinations, deterio dities and generated commuter dis-satisfacti over-flowing ware houses and congestion i their inefficient operations and lack of cosimilar situation where water transport is co
Goods transport is still a major concern of transport, as converted buses, vans and tax also a means in haulage of commodities froi
Energy consumption looms large in the 1 fossil fuels in the transport industries. TI
with an expansionary impact of operational context alternative uses and other sources of
Institutional and policy matters would e courage conditions to make best use of resc on the one hand and inland transport--railwa

DRT AND COMMUNICATIONS
ent during the year 1976, are outlined below: --The estimated total cost increased up to Rs. 25 million. blete. An extent of 44 acres has been filled by utilising
tal cost of estimate is Rs. 28 million. Suspended work hin is being carried out using the dredger “ Diyakawa ". -This scheme has been suspended on a government
Construction work of the fisheries harbour is being
of roads, floating craft, and plants in Colombo, ve been attended to. Work on buildings, roads and
d out.
esearch initiated in early 1975, as a result of endeavours ersonnel in various Ministries, departments, corporations some measure a concern for the development of trans
ctive is to conduct research in transportation on a coet approval for setting up of the organisation was granted Tinistry of Irrigation, Power and Highways. Adequate ed programme.
de Sri Lanka centre for transportation research is to ortation field and afford necessary assistance to the
policy and planning.
policy on transport and consequently a serious lack of cructure development has been divorced from planning various transportation services. A situation of this - if developments are planned and executed to set stan
of available transport has in recent years contributed
of living due to slowing down of factory output, poor ration of the distribution of essential household commo-on. Long queues of ships loading and unloading goods, partly attributable to inadequate supply of lorries and -ordination at the supply and receiving ends portray a oncerned. e the private sector. In rural areas intermediate forms of is not only serve as a mode of passenger transport but
m farm gate to market. transport sector. Sri Lanka uses a large proportion of nis situation is likely to continue for many more years
costs on industrial activities and cost of living. In this f energy and options available are of vital significance.
xert a wide impact on growth of the economy and enDurces in international transport-shipping and aviation ays, public road transport, highway operations and inland

Page 361
CIVIL AVIA
water transport on the other. Close co-ordination of ment, of highways in both urban and rural areas, put goods with possible coastal sea transport could posit on the transport sector.
Among suggestions made for the development of S (1) A Transport Authority. A transport autorit
Planning to formulate and outline policy to dete Transport defined to incluir dine transport of p rail, air, water and muss mansit and operating planning, programming design, construction,
transport infra-sutturam (2) To formulate a transport policy which would
efficient movement in terms of passengers and go
and environmental factors (3) Continuing tata surveys and comprehensive int (4) Assess relative roles of the different modes of tra (5) Due consideration for the use of fossil fuels ar
transport. (6) Define the role of the private sector in the develo (7) Provide multi-modal transportation funding ins
procedures.
IVCIVIL AVI.
International Airport (Katunayake)
With the development of air transportation Sri Lanka 1 of rapid changes in providing high speed, increased o international airport (Katunayake) designed to serve premier Airport for Sri Lanka and the gateway for all 1
Air Ceylon (international) British air ways, Quantas airlines, Indian airlines, Garuda Indonesian airlines, Singapore airlines and the Sri Lanka Air Force operate national airport during 1976.
Regular and seasonal charters were operated by Ba Gulfstream, Martinair, Luxair, Lloyd International, K.) and Scanair airlines.
A considerable number of technical landings by fo were staged through the International Airport during t
Aerodromes The other Customs Air ports available for use by Inter,
(1) Colombo Airport, Ratmalana.—This airport is sit (2) Jaffna Airport (Kankesanturai).-Situated on the
- is approximately twelve miles north of Jaffna. Aerodromes at Amparai and Batticaloa are maint Air Ceylon Ltd. The aerodromes at Puttalam and K emergency landing grounds.
14-A 31485

IN
341
d and rail services, planning and the develop: transportation operations of passengers and ely bring in optimum results in investments
Lama's transportation services are :- should be set up under the Ministry of minime priorities. Functions of the Ministry of Sengers and goods by all modes-highway, na functional basis for the administration, peration and maintenance of transport and
dentify problems and provide for safe and ods, giving due emphasis to economic, social
r-disciplinary studies. nsport. id tapping alternative sources of energy for
pment of goods transport. tead of present modally segregated funding
ATION
ike many other countries has felt the impact apacity passenger and cargo aircraft. The international standards functions as the ourists visiting the country. zirways, Swiss air, Aeroflot, U.T.A. French Pakistan international airlines corporation, scheduled flights to and through the Inter
air, Sterling, Condor, Caledonian, Cargolus, .M. Transmeridian, Donaldson International
reign airlines and foreign military aircraft e year.
ational services are :- ated eight miles south of Colombo city. northern coast strip of the Island, the airport
ned for domestic Air services operated by ggala are maintained by the government as

Page 362
342
TRANSPORT
Puttalam and Koggala continue to fun Aerodrome at Wirawila has been completec
Air Ceylon Services
East Bound
AE-332 Sunday Monday Pari Zurich Shariah
Colombo West Bound
AE-331 Saturdays Colombo Sharjah Zurich
Paris East Bound
AE322
Wednesdays Sharjah Bombay
Colombo AIR CEYLON—AE 323/324
Colombo/Madras/Colombo--Sundays, 1 FLIGHT AE-327
Colombo/Kuala Lumpur/Singapore Su FLIGHT AE-328
Singapore/Kuala Lumpur/Singapore—M Colombo/Tiruchirappallai–Mondays, W Jaffna/Tiruchirappallai–Mondays, Wedi Thiruchirappallai/Jaffna-Mondays, We Thiruchirappallai to Colombo-Monday Colombo/Male/Colombo--Mondays, Tu Ratmalana/Trincomalee–Mondays, Fric Ratmalana/Jaffna/Ratmalana—Daily Trincomalee/Jaffna/Trincomalee–Monda
Commercial Operations 1976
International and regional routes (a) International operated by DC8-53 air
via Paris and Karachi (6) Regional
(i) Operated with Hawker Siddeley Tri
Colombo/Bombay/Colombo Colombo/Kuala Lumpur/Singapore Colombo/Bangkok/Colombo Colombo/Madras/Colombo
Information on Air Ceylon Services is subje

AND COMMUNICATIONS
cion as regular Beacon stations. Work on the new,
AE-322 Tuesday/Wednesday
Dharan Sharjah Bombay Colombo
AE—321 Tuesdays Colombo Bombay Sharjah Dharan
West Bound
AB-331 Tuesdays Colombo Bombay Sharjah
Mondays and Fridays
ndays and Fridays
ondays and Saturdays 'ednesdays and Saturdays nesdays and Fridays Inesdays, and Fridays Saturdays and Sundays }, Wednesdays and Saturdays esdays, Wednesdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays ays, Sundays
ys, Fridays, and Sundays
craft on the following routes.--London to Colombo
lent aircraft on the following route network
Kuala Lumpur/Colombo.
it to revision.

Page 363
CIVIL AVIATIO
(ii) Operated with Avro aircraft
Colombo/Tiruchirappalai Colombo Jaffna/Tiruchirapalm Dafina
Colombo/Male Colombo (c) Domestic
Operated with Avro (HS73) aircraft Colombo Trincomalee Jafna 'Colombo
1
N
Engineering
(a) Aircraft Fleet:
DC8 Trident Αντoss СопуBoeing 70
*Using med Aircraft (b) Aircraft Utatim Einars:
DC8
2362 (hours) Trident
2305 Avro 748
3013 Convair Boeing 707
20
A B R A
Statistics available for the year 1976, appear below: Scheduled Services
(1) Aircraft Departures
3,958 (2) Aircraft hours
7,797 (3) Aircraft kilometeres (000)
4,363 (4) Passengers carried
International
101,170 Domestic
26,529 (5) Passenger kilometres (000)
International
295,816 Domestic
8,795 (6) Available seat kilometres (000)
International
469,873 Domestic
12,397 (7) Passenger Load Factor (per cent)
International
62.9 Domestic
70:9 (8) Tonne kilometres available (000)
International
52,805 Domestic
1,206 (9) Tonne kilometres performed (000)
International
29,278 Domestic
710 (10) Weight Load Factor (per cent)
International
55.4 Domestic
58-9

343

Page 364
344
TRANSPORT
V—POSTAL AND TEL The Sri Lanka Postal Service was inaugurate
Main functions of the postal administratio (1) To make arrangements, through the
as many areas of the Island as possibl (2) To provide postal facilities to areas (3) Extension of the eing services
machines : (4) To expedite mail transport by exten (5) To reorganise Sri Lanka's foreign pos (6) Extension of money order and postal (7) To help the national savings bank, th
to inculcate a saving habit among the (8) Services rendered for other departme
(a) Teacher's salaries ; (6) Pensions : (c) Widow's pensions ;
(d) T. B. Allowances and allowanc (9) Issue of radio licences on behalf of t (10) Issue of identity cards, which facilita
identity by candidates appearing for
Mail Transport Facilities Mail transport facilities have been improved services and contractor services by providing
Foreign Postal Service Apart from air parcel services and ‘express’ de direct air mail services to the following count
Belgrade Budapest Lagos Prague Oslo Vienna
Madrid Bucharest Perth Buenos Aires
New Delhi Dubai
Post Offices and Sub Post Offices Based on available statistics, the number of pe excludes sub offices void of telegraph facilitie

AND COMMUNICATIONS
-ECOMMUNICATION SERVICES
ed in 1815.
n are :-
inland postal service, for nextday delivery of letters to le ; that do not enjoy such facilities at present ;
providing letter boxes, tappal bags and franking
sions to the mail transport section ; stal service ;
order facilities ; rough all post offices and sub-post offices in its efforts
public ; ats : Payment of
ces under the scheme of public assistance.
he Sri Lanka broadcasting Corporation ; te transactions at post offices and establish proof of e examinations.
and made safer with the replacement of several runner
motor mail transport.
=livery services between Sri Lanka and foreign countries, ries now exist :-
(Yugoslavia) (Hungary) (Nigeria) (Czechoslovakia) (Norway) (Austria) (Spain) (Rumania) (Australia) (Argentina) (India) (United Arab Emirates)
ost and telegraph offices stands at 1,597. This figure s and receiving offices.

Page 365
POSTAL AND TELECOMMUT
Postal and Money Orders Particulars relating to postal and money order trans Postal Orders1Number of pasvalil omdiems issued
(2) Value (3) Commissionem eamed (9 Nurminer of pastail orders paid du
O Vaite of postal orders paid
Money Orders
Inland Foreign
No. Issued
Amount M
Rs.
Inlanda Indian Foreign
2,263,134
7,423 190
444,842,893.40
765,903.40 = 45,648.17
* Figures cover only the period 1 January to 31 Ai
Posts and Telecommunications Training Centre, Horet A total of 463 trainees including departmental perso of Katubedda campus (university of Sri Lanka) folloy
Course of training
Telephone maintenance Switch board maintenance Relays and switch adjustments Non-Director exchanges Rural automatic exchange Principles of crossbar switching (cb 1) D.C. telecommunication power system Creed teleprinters (English) RFT teleprinters (English) Sinhala teleprinters Basic electronics Transister techniques Radio engineering Open-wire carrier system Transmission and microwave engineering Overhead lines and fitters course Underground cables
Theory classes on the following subjects for a 3 mon of the telegraph inspectorate:
Telephony Telegraphy Line Plant Practice Radio Line Transmission

NICATION SERVICES
345
cactions during 1976, appear below:
during the year
707,800 Rs. 4,129,049 Rs.
86,739-80 ring the year
685,378 Rs. 4,347,166:50
Ioney Orders Amount Commission
Paid
Rs.
Earned
Rs. 2,207,642
445,069,652.88 3,765,923.60
396.79 1,236
232,607.42
Ligust, 1976.
cuduwa, Moratuwa
nnel, undergraduates and diploma students ved training courses outlined below:
th period were also given a batch of 17 officers

Page 366
346
TRANSPORT AT
Training Abroad Senior telecommunication engineers attended t sub regions (3,5 and 6 in Dacca and also a from this a telecommunication engineer follow engineering in Japan held from May to Augus
Cable Section Underground Cable. —Augmentation of subscr out at such places as:
Hotel Tilly Galle Face Hotel National Paper Corporation E.B. Creasy Hotel Ranmuthu
Mt. Lavinia Hotel Council Avenue Mt. Lavinia Church Road, Nugegoda Kirillapone Avenue, Nugegoda Padukka Kilinochchi Petroleum Corporation, Colombo Bloemendhal Ceylon Trading Corporation, Grandpass Power Station, Kelanitissa International Air Port, (Katunayake)
Negombo Tourist Hotel Brighton Hotel Ceramic Corporation, Colombo B.M.I.C.H Sravasthi Duro Hotel, Colombo 3 O.T.S., Central Exchange Harrison and Crossfield, Darly Road Keppitipola Housing Scheme Press Centre, Colombo S.L.A.F. S.L.B.C. and O.T.S. Closed Circuit TV
Aerial Cable Subscriber aerial cable installations were carrie
Wimalawatta, Nugegoda Veliveriya
Kirindiwela Junction Cables Additional junction circuits were provided by
Hikkaduwa Beruwala Payagala
Hanwella Pugoda Kosgama Akuressa

D COMMUNICATIONS
he third meeting of the national coordinators for t the international switching symposium. Apart red a group training course in carrier telephony | 1976.
be cable network (underground) has been carried
d out at :
Arawing junction cables to the following exchanges :

Page 367
POSTAL AND TELECOMMUT
Augmentation of subscriber cable net work (aerial) Trincomalee Talawakele Maharagama Polonnaruwa Hingurakkoda Anuradhapura Chilaw Puttalam Weligama Kegalle Jaffna
Trunk and Jancsomas Circuits Additional junctions were provided between stations li
Havelock Town and Central Exchange Havelock Town and Maradona Exchange Kilinochchi and Punakeni Eachange Colombo and Kegalle
Maradana Boragas Vavuniya Kuruwita-Ratnapura Ratnapura-Bandarawela Eheliyagoda-Ávissawella Teldeniya Vavuniya-Jaffna Bandarawela-Badulla Nuwara Eliya-Bandarawela Colombo-Mannar Mannar-Colombo Mannar-Vavuniya Mannar-Jaffna Hambantota-Kataragama Kilinochchi-Colombo Nuwara Eliya-Badulla Dambulla-Colombo Anuradhapura-Kekirawa Anuradhapura-Habarana Anuradhapura-Ippolagama Anuradhapura-Maha Illupallama Kegalle-Colombo Jaffna Panadura Kalutara Colombo-Polonnaruwa Anuradhapura

ICATION SERVICES
347
has been carried out at :
sted below:

Page 368
348
TRANSPORT
Telegraph Circuits
New telegraph circuits were:
Kilinochchi
C.T.O. Pesalai
Jafna Trincomalee
Colombo Kalutara
Kemale
Exchange Equipment Two public automatic telephone exchanges during the year. Exchanges were also instal
(1) Vavuniya (2) Weeraketiya (3) Kegalle (400 line RND) (4) Trincomalee (500 line RND) (5) Ingiriya (RAX) (6) Moneragala (100 line RAX) (7) Havelock Town (600 line addl. line uni (8) Mannar (150 line RAX) (9) Boralesgamuwa (Addl. 50 line unit) (10) Talawakele (200 line RAX)
Telephone exchanges overhauled during 19 Kayts, Gokarella, Dankotuwa, Madulke!
Kadawatha, Mirigama, Malwana, Veya Private Manual Branch Exchanges were ins
Hotel Duro, Kollupitiya Hotel Tilly Hotel Brighton Hotel Janaka Hotel Omega Inn
Mt. Lavinia Hotel Press Centre Colombo Ranmuthu Hotel Bentota Beach Hotel Serendib Hotel Lihiniya Surf Hotel B. M. I. C. H. (central operating room) B. M. I. C. H. (protocal division) Sravasti Temple Trees Police communication centre Auckland house Rosemead place Confifi hotel Hotel Rajini Lanka Hotel Neptune
Power and Air Conditioning Items of works completed during the year wei
@) Colombo district switching centre (coi (6) Havelock Town exchangea new 1,500 (C) Electrical wiring completed at 14 station (d) Electric fittings installed at 12 centres it

AND COMMUNICATIONS
at Akuressa and Kataragama were commissioned ed at:
76 were :- Le, General Hospital, Colombo, SLBC., Kelaniya, ngoda, Pasyala, Kalmunai, Warakapola.
talled at :-
re en mmissioned a—360 KV standby engine);
AH battery installed ; as ; ocluding auto exchange.

Page 369
POSTAL AND TELECOMI
Electric water pumps were installed at three public-sector institutions.
Air Conditioners were placed at 12 exchanges a: at the following excitans were attended to :-
Negombo Avissa meilia Kalutara
HambamontE Colombo man nam Central ang Marada Havelock Town enchange
Telephone facilities in subi post offices
Sub Post Offices novadied with telegraph facilities
Wengimulan Bomiya BujomRNAR Bokodama Araththamme Ambalalamine Pilana Telagasyaya Nawinna Dehiwela-Mt. Lama, M.C Diganathemma Bermata i Galauda Chandyanthalawa Saalawa Dangahawila Pavakulam
Gorakana Ramanathapuram Vaddakachchi (converted to auto working) Kurumanveli Vantharamoolai Matarambe Maspanne Mahawalatenne Dunukadeniya Kadawathagama Uduwara Suduhurunpola Gadamuna Pillayaradi Kannankuda
Manchanthoduwai Kabagama
Meevanapalana Meethanwela
Parape 15—A 31485

"NICATION SERVICES
349
post offices, two exchanges and at two
lat 7 state institutions, while air conditioners
during 1976, were :-

Page 370
350
TRANSPORT
Radio Links Radio links provided were as follows: Colombo : Ship to shore
– A H
- ser Mutur post office
Radi
aw
bet Bandarawela post office
Aeria B. M. I. C. H.
– Mod
S
Jaffna
Nainativu Analaiti.u
New Delft Colombo
Kandy Batticaloa
V.F. Negombo Anuradhapura
Radio Colombo-Rameshawaram -- 6 chi
4
exis
cira — 12 ad
Colombo-Negombo
45
Colombo-Valaichenai
Colombo-Mannar
Single
met
Co One i
cha
car 12 ad
Colombo-Nuwara Eliya Colombo-Kalutara
7 ad
23
Puttalam
Chilaw Anuradhapura
Aeri
Colombo Fault repair Service--- Telephones The position of ‘faults' recorded and cleared
Total No. of faults reported—-60,956
No. cleared : on day reported–51,596 within 2 days of reporting 7,440 within one week of reporting 1,200 after one week of reporting 720
Research and Development The research and development section was
Speech and Duplex (S+DX) Voice frequency transmission (V. F. T.) Channel panel Frequency generating equipment Very High frequency (V. H. F.) trans-re Antenna and diplexer

D COMMUNICATIONS
h Frequency Radio Transmission (H.F.R.T.) ce was provided link to Trincomalee has been installed and ts commissioning. W/T Service provided
een Colombo/Mutur erected and trans-receiver installed Cations carned out to existing announcement
m
equipment installed and commissioned
C. circuits commissioned
link provided to Megodawewa S. P.O. .nnel V.F.T. installed ; in addition to the oice cast circuits and 1 V. F. T. circuit that ted between Sri Lanka and India, 4 additional cuits were provided
ditional circuits were provided from a total of wired between V. D.F.F. : channel V. H. F. link via the repeater at Kiritiyakanda installed for the National Paper rporation
n-coming and one out-going circuit on MultiEnnel Radio link in place of circuits onopen wire
rier ditional circuits were provided ditional circuits were provided from a total of
wired between V. D. F.F.
al replaced
during the year shown below :-
ngaged in the design of equipment listed below :-
eiver

Page 371
POSTAL AND TELECOMMUT
The manufacture of the 26 volt float charger has i manufactured and are being tested.
Overseas Telecommunication Service The Overseas Telecommunication Service, aisiom of provides, maintains and operates imitimatiomnaill mellom Sri Lanka and other countries. Pinacotina-Tarhitegrants provided to overseas cousamis dienomiminme om tihe ima and recorded television programmas un tie snelme eart satellites is also avainikanimit. Timams facilities are provid countries. Sri Lanka isa signatory to the Commonwe of 1973 and is also a meminer of the international telec
Until December, 1975, the telecommunication servi means of high frequency (short wave) radio circuits. 1 was operated on a schedule basis. Wide band teleco the commissioning of the satellite earth station at Padul were provided for expeditious handling of internationa ments for the Non-Aligned summit conference in Colon station at Pastka was specially equipped for transm grammes of proceedings at the conference. The num! doubled and semi-automatic telephone service pro Rome.
International Telephone Service A high quality 24 hours telephone service is now ava Countries, South American, Africa, the Middle East, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Hongkong and m telephone service is available to 174 countries. Intern centre with an initial capacity of 36 trunks was commi
Telex Service Fully automatic telex services were introduced to Japan and two new direct telex circuits were established to K is operated to 170 destinations and a complete autor Trunk capacity of the international telex exchange w service between subscribers in Colombo was introduce service in outward direction was also introduced in Aug
Telegraph Service International telegraph circuits are operated direct fr Bombay, Rangoon, Singapore, Osaka and Peking. Tel to almost all parts of the world.

CATION SERVICES
351
so been undertaken. Six units have been
The post and telecommunication department, min, aleginame and telex Services between
Nice and leased telegraph circuits are also od for these facilities. Transmission of live
station, Padukka via Indian Ocean region ed to the Commonwealth and other foreign alth telecommunication financial agreement ommunication satellite organisation.
Fes to overseas countries were provided by "he telephone service to different countries mmunication facilities became available with ska in December, 1975. Additional circuits 1 traffic to meet telecommunication requireabo during August, 1976. The earth satellite ission of live and recorded television proper of international telephone circuits was cided to most countries via London and
ilable to Great Britain and most European
U. S. A., Australia, Canada, India, China, 1ost countries in Far East. The International ational semi-automatic telephone switching ssioned in November, 1976.
Singapore, Hongkong, Sydney and London iala Lumpur and Rome. The Telex Service natic service is available to 87 destinations. Ls increased from 26 to 96. Local Telex | early part of the year. A Printergram ust, 1976.
m Colombo to London, Aden, Karachi, graph service via these countries is available

Page 372
СНА
ELECTRICITY, WATER SI
FEL
The generation, transmission and supply of elec The Central Authority for the execution of a local authorities, State Sponsored Institutions : facilities.
The generating capacity of the Ceylon Elect the hydro power plant contributing 331 mega thermal sets. Two (2 x 20 MW.) hydro gen Station (1 x 20 MW.), in July 1976 and the o
The total energy generated during the year generated sources were 1,109 million kilowat year was 240-5 megawatts compared with 218-9
Transmission The transmission of electricity in Sri Lanka is t
Main transmission lines are energised at 132 KI or 11 kV. A major part of the work in connect at Trincomalee was carried out during 1976. TI carried out by constructing two 132 kV. bay t
Distribution Distribution of electricity is carried out direct! rural electrification schemes were completed d
Commercial Of 1,133 million units generated, 10 million u balance of 1,123 million units which were rel units. The number of consumers increased end of the year. There were 86,867 domestic
II-WATER RESOURCE
Water is the most important among resources lopment and use. A central authority for the reality with the passage of the Water Resour
Water Resources Board The Water Resources Board was set up in 191 matters relating to water resources of the isli section 12 of the act.

PTER XXIII
PPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS
ICTRICITY
ricity in Sri Lanka is primarily a function of the state. se functions is the Ceylon Electricity Board. A few nd Industrial Undertakings however, have generation
icity Board, as at end of 1976, was 381 megawatts--- vatts and balance 50 megawatts being obtained from erating sets were commissioned at Ukuwela Power ther (1 x 20 MW.) in September 1976.
was 1,133 million kilowatt hours of which hydro t hours. Highest grid system demand during the ' megawatts in 1975.
ne sole monopoly of the Ceylon Electricity Board. I. or 66 KV. and sub transmission operates at 33 kV. ion with 1x 10 MVA., 132 kV./33kV. grid sub station ne extension to the Anuradhapura switching station was o accommodate Trincomalee and Rajangane feeders.
ly by the board and local authority licencees. 179 uring the year compared with 126 schemes in 1975.
nits were used for power station auxiliaries, giving a eased. Total sales during the year were 997 million by 8,830 during 1976, giving a total of 115,182 as at consumers.
ES, SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE
of a country requiring an integrated plan for its devee development of Sri Lanka's water resources became ces Board Act (No. 29) of 1964.
66. Its main function is to advise the Minister on all und and utilisation of such resources in pursuance of

Page 373
WATER RESOURCES, SUPPLY
Among the subjects on which reports and advice were (a) Desirability of having a separate source of water
as continuous drawing of three to five million ga further aggravate water problem of Chandrikawev
(6) A scheme to convey the flow in rivers of the w
paddy cultivation in the North-Western Province ;
Recommendations were made for establishment ration for the soile fum of exploring and dev
would receive amendum in so deserves. (c) Desirability of considering opening up for paddy c
and Menik Gamga md is below the hundred-foot ( extent and aboumaties whanks and other ancient i state of decademyK TOmn as the ancient Ruhur flow through the inaundi convey million tons of water purposes.
Practically itiline amittime area is now a wild life reserv contourismo suited for wild life habitat.
Importance of preservation of valuable trees as the Ki and berries are edinile ami meguitarly consumed by the vill should be done by those who appreciate forestry as a s
Recommendations were made stressing importance of Many countries have taken positive steps to set up near their environment by controlling water and air pollution cides, insecticides aną toxic substances. Although probl countries are not being encountered, nevertheless timely ac
Water Supply and Drainage The National Water Supply and Drainage Board establish sible for the following:
(1) Investigation and feasibility studies of water supply, s (2) Designing and construction work ; (3) Operation and maintenance of water supply scheme (4) Advisory and consultancy services to other boards
on water supply and sewerage projects.
For purpose of the board's activities Sri Lanka is divide which includes the Western, Southern and Sabaragamuw the Central, Uva and Eastern Regions while the norther Northern Regions.
Water supply schemes completed during the year were : Andigama, Kegalle, Rambukkana, Galle, Kirindiwela, A
Kuruwita, Madurankuli, Karaitivu, Morawaka, ( Kandaketiya, Galenbindunuwewa, Sampur and ha

IND DRAINAGE
353
endered to the Minister during 1976, were:- supply to the Paper Mills at Embilipitiya, ons of water from Chandrikawewa would i farmers ;
E zone, as the Kelani Ganga, to irrigate
f a separate department, board or corpoloping ‘ground watero so that this matter
altivation land which lie between Potuvila ontour. The area is over 200,000 acres in Frigation works, which are at present in a u granary of the country, the rivers that to sea without being used for agricultural
2. A large area above the hundred-foot
ara tree was recommended. Kara leaves agers. Large scale clearing if undertaken, -ource of national wealth.
setting up a department of environment. Issary machinery to protect and improve and also regulate use of pesticides, fungiems which beset the highly industrialised tion in this regard is of prime importance.
:d under Law (No. 2) of 1974, is respon
irface drainage and sewerage schemes ;
nd corporations and the private sector
into 3 ranges as south-western range Regions, central range consisting of range consists of North-Central and
aivilandampathu, Uduwela, Pinnawela, mpola, Galewela, Hasalaka, Hali-Ela, our villages.

Page 374
354
ELECTRICITY, WATE
Construction work was commenced or is Uprating towns south of Colombo wate Ratnapura, Ruwanwella, Yatiyantota, E Hambantota, Ambalastota, Baddega Mariawatta, Bandarawela, Welimada, Horowpatana, Kekirana, Kilinochch Araly (South) and Karzipagar (north).
Surface Drainage amun Sewerage Scheme Lavinia and Morat. Ta surface daimages
Maintenance SciemsThe board ope Towns south of Colombo, Negombo,
Vadakandiya, Weeraketiya, Riđiyagan gannawa, Galagedera, Udunuwara-Y Diyatalawa, Nuwara Eliya, Mahiya Maradankadawala, Kebetigollewa, Va mannar, Enkklampoddy, Tiruketheesw Group, Kathankudy and Polonnaruwa
South-West Coastal Project.--With the a to undertake the following water supply s were undertaken and completed during the (a) Towns north of Colombo (serving
Hendala and part of Mahara); (6) Integration of Colombo and towns s (C) Kalutara (serving Wadduwa, Kalutar
and coastal works of v. c. area betwe (d) Ambalangoda (serving Ambalangod
the region of Rs. 350 million.
Colombo Water Supply
Water Supply within the city of Colombo at Labugama and Kalatuwawa, at distan
Statistics of water supply in the city of
Water Su Kalatuwawa reservoir
Labugama reservoir Colombo South water suppl Mulleriyawa purifying plant Water supplied to areas ou
pality Water Supplied to vessels Water supplied for distrib including water supplied

SUPPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS
1 progress on Schemes as :-
supply schemes, Veyangoda, Peliyagoda, Giriulla, langoda, Pelmadulla, Kahawatta, Kalawana, Weligama, na, Akuressa, Kamburupitiya, Matale, Mawanella, Buttala, Passara, Demodara, Komarikagoda, Kantalai,
Nedunkeney, Vaddukodai, Velanai, Pungudutivu,
–Work is in progress on Peliyagoda, Dehiwela-Mt.
mes and Kataragama sewerage disposal scheme.
ied and maintained the following schemes— ampana, Mara, Tangaile, Hambantota, Kataragama, a, fisheries harbour, university of Sri Lanka, KaduItinuwara, Polgola, Uyanwatta, Gandahaya, Badulla, 1gana, Anuradhapura, Medawachchiya, Galgamuwa, vuniya, Karaveddy, Kays, Nainativu, Mannar, Talaiiram, Vankalai, Vidaththaltivu, Batticaloa, Ampara
railability of a loan from the World Bank, it is proposed chemes, for which final designs and feasibility studies year :
; Peliyagoda, Wattala-Mabole, Dalugama, Kelaniya
outh of Colombo with additions and improvements ;
a, Beruwela, Aluthgama, Dharga Town, part of Bentota en Wadduwa and Bentota) ; a and Balapitiya). Estimated cost of the project is in
and Colombo area is obtained from the two reservoirs ces of 28 and 31 miles respectively from the city limits.
Colombo and Colombo area appear below :-
Pply
Gallons
4,868,720,000 3,113,280,000
- scheme
504,170,000
3,141,150,000
and Ambatale side Colombo Munici
284,410,000
221,950,000
tion within city limits to vessels
10,556,520,000

Page 375
DEPARTMENT OF BI
Kandy Water Supply The major water supply scheme for the city of Kaumuachty
All domestic consumers are given a railwane for any excess quantity of Tener armer dhe fine
The quantity of water allianwali respect of each go annual value of preses
munandi Vale of Premises
Noteceding Rs 1,000 Rs. 100 and mot exceeding Rs. 3,000 R. BUNU and not exceeding Rs. 6,000 RE. E00 and over
Water supplied to ade, commercial purposes, indus supplies for communion purposes are charged at the ra free allowance iter supply is metered for private ci water are availazimile along roads for public use.
Important features relating to the water supply schem
Main supply Stand-by supply No. of service connections Public Stand Posts Length of distribution mains Average daily supply Total Rain Fall Length of new pipelines laid during 1976
Chemicals used :
Alum
194,010 Lime
140,924 Chlorine
7,022 (M. G. D.=million gallo.
III—DEPARTMENT OF
The functions of the Department of Buildings are the buildings for government departments and corporations, improvements to state Institutions. Provision of anci. sewerage disposal, electricity supply, approach roads and of the department.
Major works carried out during the year were aide including quarters for medical staff, Police stations and
Expenditure incurred during the year in respect of co against provision of Rs. 104-93 million under votes of the of 79 per cent.
Expenditure incurred on other departmental votes w Rs. 44-38 million with a performance of 70 per cent. million as against a target of Rs. 17.05 million and a per

JDINGS
355
as completed in 1966.
amdi are charged at Re. 1 per 1,000 gallons,
ailioanee.
erter of the assessment year is based on
Quantity allowed
per quarter 3,000 gallons 9,000 gallons 13,500 gallons 18,000 gallons
try and manufacturing premises as well as te of Rs. 5 per 1,000 gallons. There is no onsumption and stand-posts supplying free
e are:
5:0 M. G. D. (Maximum)
3:0 M. G. D. (Maximum) 5,482 753
78 miles 3·88 M. G. D. 53•42 inches (Kandy city) 8,664 feet
(lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) i density)
BUILDINGS
lesigning, estimating and construction of
maintenance and effecting additions and lary services as water supply, drainage, surface drainage is also the responsibility
1 self-help housing schemes, hospitals other buildings including l.c. Barracks.
struction works was Rs. 83•69 million as epartment giving a financial performance
s Rs. 31:49 million, against a target of Decentralised Budget incurred Rs. 15•12 ormance of 88 per cent.

Page 376
356
ELECTRICITY, WA
Items of work completed during the ye (a) 11 housing schemes consisting 344
and low cost housing schemes cost (6) 52 buildings for Police Department
rooms, etc., costing Rs. 38-54 millio (C) 141 hospital buildings including 9
rooms, dental climatics, mortuaries,
million. (d) 3 sewerage schemes, water supply
costing Rs. 591000 (e) 8 school buildings consisting dass (F) Rs 3-28 million for Social Services (g) 30 buildings for the Department o
staf stores and depots costing Rs. (A) 54 buildings for several other dep
Rs. 20-62 million. Action was initiated for the timely com Rs. 35,000,000 in collaboration with the for the Non-Aligned Summit Conference
Airport, Katunayake, costing Rs. 18•72 1 Housing Schemes completed during 19
1. Dunwatte 2. Hikkaduwa 3. Talpe 4. Elpitiya 5. Ambalangoda 6. Dodanduwa 7. Pannala 8. Digana, Kundasale 9. Ketawalamulla 10. Bolamesawatta
11. Sooriyamalpura, Stag Housing Schemes under construction :
1. Sanchiarachchigewatte Low Co 2. Sanchiarachchigewatte Low Co 3. Weluwanarama Low Cost Hou 4. Weluwanarama Low Cost Hot 5. Stace Road Low Cost Housing 6. Sooriyamalpura Low Cost Hoi 7. Woodlands Kalubowila Aided 8. Madiwela, Stage III Aided Seli 9. Walapane Aided Self-Help Ho 10. Kegalle Aided Self-Help Housi 11. Emergency Housing Scheme, I 12. Four-Storeyed Flats, Angulane 13. Ratmalana Flats, Stage IV anc 14. Elvitigalamawatha Housing Sc 15. Galkissa Housing Scheme, Sta

ER SUPPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS
I were :-
living units, including aided self-help housing schemes ing Rs. 21-23 million. including 4 Police stations, 18 barracks, 30 production
n. uarters for medical staff, administration blocks, X'Ray maternal and child health clinics costing Rs. 29-48
chemes and several conversions to waterseal type toilets
rooms costing Rs. 241 million.
Department buildings. f Buildings including quarters for engineering and other
•59 million. artments including extensions and special repair costing
pletion of Keppetipola Mawatha Housing Scheme costing State Engineering Corporation to accommodate personnel | The V. I. P. Lounge and extensions to the International
nillion was also completed on schedule. 76, were :-
Aided Self-Help Housing Scheme
do. do. do. do. do. do.
do. Low Cost Housing Scheme
do.
eI
do. as at end of the year were :- st Housing Scheme, Stage II (State Engineering Corporation) ost Housing Scheme, Stage III
sing Scheme, Stage I using Scheme, Stage II - Scheme asing Scheme, Stage II Self-Help Housing Scheme --Help Housing Scheme
using Scheme ng Scheme Maligawatte
V
heme
ge IV (Railway Land).

Page 377
STATE ENGINEERING CORPORATI
Major works in progress during 1976 were :- (a) School building for Education Department at St. A
Maligawatta, Kelani Vidyalaya, Thondar Vidyalaya laya, Al Hidhyar Vidyalaya Visika Winci yalitarnym
Vidyalaya. (6) University buildings at Columinibus , Paradi
(C) Postal buildings at GummersAmeliaMonerangal
Kekirawa, Panamala, Gomawilie Burelia, Nugegoda,
at Hasalaka, Badiumilis. Wanilincirinchiemai, Nallawellie, Batt (d) Wards for hospitals am Randawana, Panadura, 1
Galapihilla, MadiuugisDambulla, Kekirawa ; M Ginigathhemen. Diyarmailama, Batticaloa, Hanguranke ren's ward Manam - Hakuruwela, Kalawana, Indulg
(e) Major senere schemes for hospitals at Karawane
Trincomaleen afna, Stage I and Stage II.
F) Police Stations at Hataraliyadda, Avissawella, 1
Kolluptiya
(g) Quarters for Government Employees attached t
buildings, Department of Public Administration ar
(h) Buildings for other government departments as Nat
IV-STATE ENGINEERING CORPORA
The State Engineering Corporation was established on 1st J Corporation Act (No. 49) of 1957.
The Corporation achieved a total turnover of Rs. 124:5 divisions listed below :-
(1) Construction Group ; (2) Building Components Group ; (3) Consultancy Group ; (4) Computer Group ; (5) Mechanical and Electrical Group ; (6) Building Research and Wirecon Project.
Construction and Building Components Group The construction group handles 46 projects and the buildi on 12 housing projects, in addition to production work a building components Group also commenced during latte projects associated with Maligawatte Development Schem

OF SRI LANKA
357
mocy Balika Vidyalaya, Balika Vidyalaya
Mary's Vidyalaya, St. Sebastian Vidyaeige I St. Clares Garis M. V., Jayanthi
and Vidyalankara Campuses.
Thanamalwila, Chullipuram, Vavuniya, Balangoda, Batticaloa ; Auto Exchanges -aloa, Anuradhapura and Mount Lavinia.
ampaha, Eramuduliyadde, Aluthgama, le and Female wards Kandy O. P. D., -a, Uragasmanhandiya, Ratgama, Childodakanda.
la, Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Chilaw,
Batticaloa, Jaffna, Head Quarters and
O Health Department, Department of ad Social Services Department.
ional Archives, Forest Department, etc.
TION OF SRI LANKA
nuary, 1962, under the State Industrial
nillion on activities carried out by the six
; components group is being engaged Ekala, Narahenpita and Mahara. The part of the year work on three service

Page 378
358
ELECTRICITY, WATI
Among the projects completed by the co
(1) Trade School, Maradana, (2) Leyland Factory, Godagama, (3) People's Bank, Head Office, (4) Mahaweli Development, Polgolla (5) National Textile Corporation Pro (6) I. D. B., Atchuvely, (7) Paranthan Chemicals Corporatio (8) Agrarian Research and Trainnig (9) S. L. B. C., Mandathievu, (10) Paddy Silos at Polonnaruwa, Gal (11) Kandy Secretariat, (12) Maha Vidyalaya, Slave Island, (13) S. L. B. C., Ampara, (14) Katunayake Airport Project, (15) Police Communication Building, (16) Keppitipola Housing Scheme.
Several housing projects were almost con tenants of old dwellings which are to be d
Consultancy Group The consultancy group has carried out prej sewerage, and electrical drawings and billso of works on projects undertaken during th of bills on 30 other projects which were u out by consultancy group.
Computer Group The computer group continues handle in records and stock records of the corporatio for the C. W.E. Other items of work har survey for agrarian research and training i for corporation and the department of I on the research front envisaging a change lopment research handled at present incl systematic programming and introduction
Mechanical and Electrical Group
The group continues to provide necessary group of the corporation.
Among items of work handled by the gr
(1) Installation of air conditioners for (2) Sprinkler system for fire protection (3) Paddy Processing Complex, Galga (4) Sewerage equipment for Health ar (5) Kalawewa Gateway Mahaweli De (6) Gateway for Dambulu Oya Irrigat

R SUPPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS
rporation during 1976, were :-
ject, Pugoda,
Institute,
gamawa, Inginiyagala and Hasalaka,
aplete and one of them handed over to clients for housing emolished to give way for new flats.
paration of detailed architectural, structural, water supply of quantities of 16 new projects in addition to completion ce preceding year. Periodic supervision and certification nder construction during the year has also being carried
ternal work as the preparation of pay abstracts, leave n. The computer group finalised a stock control system adled during the year were the Processing of a statistical nstitute, standard scientific programming assignments national housing. Several activities were commenced
of programming technology within the division. DeveLudes modular programming, structural programming,
of ALGOL 60 programming language.
services to the construction and building components
oup are : - the Gem Corporation, 1, National Textile Corporation,
muwa, ad Buildings Department,
velopment Board, tion Scheme,

Page 379
STATE DEVELOPMENT AND CONST
Building Research and Wirecon Project
Wirecon Project.--The corporation's boatyard at P
(1) Construction of 25-ton Wirecon Concorde (2) 6 Ton and 3-Ton Catamarans (3) 22 Ton Wirecon barge (4) Canal Bank protection (5) Wirecon Louvre Construction for C. W. E. bu
The Building Research Institute undertakes sever: testing normally carried out as a feeder-service to the cc organisations.
Some of the research projects so far undertaken are
(1) Development of bamboo as a building materia (2) Techniques to stabilize local lateritic soils for i (3) Preservation of building materials of herbivor (4) Use of fibre and clay in building construction (5) Studies on economic use of cement, lime, sand (6) Use of rubber latex as a Sealant in water proo
V-STATE DEVELOPMENT AND CON
The State Development and Construction Corporation state Industrial Corporation Act, (No. 47) of 1957. 74 projects during 1975, at an estimated cost of approxi done during the year was approximately Rs. 33 million. construction work on 27 projects were completed.
Among the major projects on which construction w
The Bowatenne Diversion Dam Improvements to the Ambatale Water Suj Bridge 15/4 Colombo-Puttalam road Construction of approach roads to the I
Micro-wave Link station sites Bridge 7/1 Colombo-Puttalam road
Bandarawela Water Supply Scheme Construction of Air Strip at Wirawila Bridge across Salapi Aru on the Trinco-P Galle Water Supply Scheme Bridges across Sudu Ganga (one way)-br
Bridges Construction of the Rutile/Zircon Godor Bowatenne Power Project

LUCTION CORPORATION
359
yagoda undertakes:- arge (first prototype)
ling
1 research projects in addition to routine rporation's construction divisions and other
use in building coas bus origin
and bricks. fing.
ISTRUCTION CORPORATION
was established under the provisions of the The corporation handled construction of mately Rs. 101,400,000. The value of work
While 23 new projects were taken up for
ork was carried out were
Rs.
oply Scheme
24,499,095 9,456,547 4,194,629
ndo-Sri Lanka
2,865,604 3,000,000 (approx.) 2,100,000 3,020,867 3,059,864 8,454,727
ulmoddai road
dge and 9 Foot
in at Pulmoddai
913,590 1,583,960 3,507,475

Page 380
360
ELECTRICITY, WATE
Distribution of work undertaken on the b.
Department of highways
National Water Supply and D Mahaweli Development Board Territorial civil engineering or
Other organisations
Apart from construction activities, the cor yard, Ratmalana, precast prestressed concre pipes and vibro-concrete pipes, reinforced mission poles and various other concrete pr
These manufactures of the corporation ser as the Territorial Civil Engineering Organiz
The value of Concrete manufactures is in
TABLE 23•1-STATE DEVELOP
State Institution
Department of Highways
National Water Supply and Drainage Boarc Mahaweli Development Board
Territorial Civil Engineering Organization
Other Institutions
Total
(Figures relate to the year 1975). * on Bills tendered.
VI-DEPARTMENT OF
The Department of Machinery and Equi utilisation of engineering skill by servicing m Civil Engineering Organisation, Irrigation I Irrigation, Power and Highways. It is rest

SUPPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS
sis of state departments and statutory boards was—
35 projects
ainage Board
6 Do.
13 Do.
anisation
11 Do.
9 Do.
poration manufactured at its central concrete casting te units like prestressed concrete bridge beams, spun concrete, piles, handrails, handrail uprights, transoducts.
ve as requirements of various departments and boards ation and the Mahaweli Development Board.
the region of Rs. 4:5 million,
MENT AND CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION
Projects
No. of New Projects Projects handled Commenced
Estimated Value of Cost of work
Completed Projects
done *
Rs.
Rs.
S 35
13
40,707,262 17,659,305
6
a - a
S
20,612,744 3,583,570 26,833,784 8,282,387
13
11
10
4,281,347 1,339,907
8,956,066 2,241,964
23
101,391,203 33,107,133
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
pment was established with a view to affording better achinery and equipment requirements of the Territorial Department and other institutions under the Ministry of monsible for the purchase, custody, maintenance, repair

Page 381
DEPARTMENT OF MACHI
and overhaul of machinery and vehicles. Besides
ments of the Territorial Gil Engineering Organisi undertake jungle clearing and earthwork on a cont
m Complete Overhauls
Crawler Tractors-Cli
Crawler Tractors-Cl
Motor Graders and wi
Excavators
Other Heavy Equipmei
Water Pumps
Compressors
Construction Equipmei
a) Veiticle Repair Inclusive of
Cars, Jeeps and Light Lories, Trucks and Ti Repairs to Component
O Jobs Completedt om Basis o
Advance Account Jobs
Cost Transferable Jobs
Cost Recoverable Jobs
* Items completed.
Various state institutions and departments have ha and Equipment in training personnel on repair ar
A production shop is in the process of being set u exchange. At present spares are being turned out
Advisory services have been afforded other der on various engineering skills.
Assignments undertaken and value of such assignn work done during the year was in the region of Rs.

HERY AND EQUIPMENT
361
ervicing the machinery and equipment requiretion and other institutions the department also ract basis.
Number
SS I
18
ss II
02
veel Tractors
8 3 3 2 3
Running Repair
Vehicles
137
ppers
84
865
Departmental Accounts
928
251.
12
Total 1,191*
Ithe assistance of the Department of Machiner d general mechanical engineering.
1. This would help conserve valuable foreign vhenever possible on a job demand basis.
artments, corporations and statutory bodies
ents appear in table 23-2. The total value of 4-6 million.

Page 382
TABLE 23.2DEPARTMENT OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT—ASSIGNMENTS UNDERTAKEN AND VALUE
362
Agency
Jungle Clearing
Earthwork
Rock Blasting
Sand Blanket
Silt Clearing E Stripping Top and Core Trench
Decomposed
Soil
Cutting Rock Blasting
Acres Value Cubes Value Cubes Value Cubes Value Cubes Value Cubes Value Cubes Value
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
R.
Rs.
Rs. Rs.
Rs.
4,140 227,700
900 10,800
Irrigation Department T. C. E. O.
Mahaweli Develop
ment Board
350 280,000 61,140 1,528,500
32,360 809,000 3,550 674,500
1,250 27,500 528 47,250
ELECTRICITY, WATER
1,275 1,020,000
L
Total 1625 1 300 000 93.500 2.337.500
3.550 674,500
4,140 227,700
900 10.800
1.250 27.500
525 47 250

Total value of work done : Rs. 4,625,250
UPPLIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

Page 383
NATIONAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH
VI-NATIONAL ENGINEERING RE
CENTRE OF S The National Engineering Research and Develop 14 August, 1974, under the State Industrial Corpora tions include technological research and developme type machinery and prilikom piantpromotion of res sectors, Stutử xứ 4 mmisures relating to trai services.
Research and Develing met In addition to cmilitailburmation with industries in the pu
with various important industrial and engineering enabled accumulations of knowledge and data perta technological dieseliorament. Such data are also esse plans and policy opiecialy as regards developing en
The centre comminued to further strengthen its lin support for amImmase in the number of research pi research project in this purpose is its relevance to
Programme af marit undertaken by the centre duri equipment, rutiner im Austry, telecommunication an
Development projects undertaken during the year
(1) Windmill Pumps (2) Petrol. Kerosene Engine (3) Telecommunication Equipment (4) Solar Devices (5) Electric Steriliser (6) Electric Cardiograph (7) Dental Chair (8) Agricultural Equipment-Test rig for agric (9) Equipment for Rubber Industry (10) Extrusion Punches in the manufacture of d (11) Spares and accessories for Textile Industry (12) Manufacture of Service ‘cut-outs’—15 Amp (13) Design of Constant Discharge outlet for us (14) Investigation into traditional drying tech
Industries
Substantial progress was achieved in the developm equipment.
A successful proto-type windmill water pump was of the University of Sri Lanka and the N. E. R. D. Ce is primarily for non-paddy cultivation with an outpu approximately 30' operating at wind speeds of 6–8 m
(a) a high capacity low head pump with suitable w
tions. It is designed for an output of approxim (6) windmill and pump to be used for paddy cul
gallons per hour against 30–40’ head.

AND DEVELOPMENT OF SRI LANKA
363
ESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SRI LANKA
ment Centre of Sri Lanka was established on tions Act, No. 49 of 1957. Its primary funcnt, design manufacture and testing of protosearch and development in public and private asfer of technology and provision of consultancy
blic sector the centre was able to establish links establishments in the private sector. This has cining to various fields of the industry needing ential from the point of view of formulation of ngineering potential of the nation.
nks with the University of Sri Lanka with its rojects. The principal criterion for selecting a
immediate needs of the country.
ng 1976, covers among other fields, agricultural d medical equipment.
were—
ultural sprayers
ry cell batteries
Is and above e in irrigation channels
niques used in Coconut/Copra and Timber
ent of windmill pumps and telecommunication
| developed jointly by the Katubedda Campus ntre. Windmill and water pump development t of about 100 gallons per hour and total head iles an hour.
rindmill for use in salterns and similar applicaately 20,000 gallons per hour against a 3' head. tivation with an output of about 900-1,000

Page 384
364
ELECTRICITY, WATER SUPPLI
The first phase of the telecommunication equip charger. A project team consisting of personnel fr
well as N. E. R. D. Centre, working at Katubedde local manufacture.
Based on this design, orders were placed for 31 i Department of Telecommunications. The estimated and the overall saving in cost as compared with an for research and development costs.
Research Grants Research grants were approved for these projects :
(1) Reduction of Waste Ferit Orsitie into useful (2) Development of a fluidized bed to be used (3) Research into improvements to Grey Irom Ca (4) Design, Fabrication/manufacture, assembly (5) Design, fabrication and manufacture of media (6) Development of V. H. F. equipment (7) Development of an automatic water level trat (8) Development of a vertical axis wind-turbine (9) Development of a turbine pump.
Consultancy Assignments The centre continues to provide consultancy serv preference to development activity rather than rou undertaken included advice on setting up heat treatr provision of consultancy services to Tea Research assistance in the manufacture of bicycle component assignments also include a full-scale study of variou industrial group, replacement of an expansion of n Arising from findings of a metal forming survey of Industries and Scientific Affairs appointed a co steel for the industry.
Training Programme A programme of training was drawn up by the knowledge required in the various fields of activity as well as short term industrial training programme

ES AND PUBLIC WORKS
ment project was the development of a float Fom the Department of Telecommunications as e Campus laboratories developed a design for
regulated float chargers to be delivered to the
saving in foreign exchange per unit is Rs. 3,000 - imported unit is Rs. 2,000 leaving allowance
imam. Posmde
dtithe manufacture of Iron Oxide Stains
SIS
of electric eilectical measuring instruments cal instruments
rices for various sectors of the industry with tine engineering. Consultancy assignments so ment plant at the Industrial Development Board, Institute for its Instant Tea Factory at Ekala, Es and in metal forming techniques. Consultancy s production facilities in a major private sector machinery and equipment, import of spares, etc. carried out by N. E. R. D. Centre the Ministry ommittee to determine requirements of ‘special
Centre to equip its personnel with specialized? y undertaken. Post-graduate academic training Es are to be provided.

Page 385
CHAPTER II
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, INFO
AND TOURIS
—PRESS Newspapers and Periodicals Three of the four maitim impene groups were functioning the Associated Newspapers of Colion Ltd., the Times of
Newspapers of CalicomLadil. The Associated Newspape and ten weekly papers and other periodicals. The Time and two weekly pages amadi anner periodicals. The Expres published two dailies and two weekly papers.
On a language basis there were 3 daily and 8 weekly papers in Tamil - 3 diarily and 3 weekly papers in Ei Sunday edition has a wide circulation, mainly in the Jaffna
The oldest of the SS Lanka newspapers is the Ceyl continuous publicaniomImformation as regards princip in Sri Lanka during the year appears in table 24:1. Ltd. did not function during 1976 in accordance wit as exercised by the Commipement Authority.
TABLE 241—PRINCIPAL NATIONAL News
Name of Publication
Year Language of Established Publications Ci
1. Newspapers :
(i) Morning daily
Dinamina
1909
Sinhala
| 11
1947
Lankadipa Virakesari
Sinhala Tamil
1930
Thinakaran
ran
1932
Tamil
Ceylon Daily News 1918
English
Daily Mirror
1961
English
(ii) Evening Daily--
Janatha
1953
Sinhala
Mithran
1966
Tamil
Ceylon Observer
1834
English

DRMATION, PUBLICITY
in Sri Lanka during the year 1976, namely, Ceylon Ltd. and the Virakesari (Express rs of Ceylon Ltd. published five daily es of Ceylon Ltd., published two daily os Newspapers (Ceylon) Ltd., (Virakesari)
papers in Sinhala ; 3 daily and 3 weekly nglish. Elanadu, a Tamil daily with a a peninsula. on Observer, counting over a century of al newspapers and periodicals published The Independent Newspapers of Ceylon Eh the Emergency (Defence) Regulations
SPAPERS AND PERIODICALS
Average irculation
Publishers
4,829 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 4,000
The Times of Ceylon Ltd. 5,118
The Express Newspapers
(Ceylon) Ltd. 2,196 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 19,325
The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 8,500 The Times of Ceylon Ltd.
5,609
The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 20,463 The Express Newspapers
(Ceylon) Ltd. 4,674 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd.

Page 386
366
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING,
TABLE 24:1-PRINCIPAL NATIOT
Name of Publication
Year Lang. Established Pub
(iii) Sunday Papers
Silumina
1930
Sinh
Sri Lankadipa Virakesari
1951 San 1931 T
1948 Tar
Illustrated
Thinakaran
Vara Manjari Observer Sunday
Edition Sunday Times
Eng
1923 Eng
(iv) Weekly
Sarasaviya
1963
Sinh
Mihira
1964 Budusarana
1965 Tharunee
1969 Subasetha
1969 Mithran Varamalar 1969
Sinh Sinh Sinh Sinh
Tam
Sathuta
1972
Sinh
World Today
1976
Engl
2. Periodicals :
(1) Fortnightly
Nava Yugaya
1966 Sinh
Honey
1976 Engl
Priyavi
1976
Sinh
Sri Lanka Press Council The Sri Lanka Press Council was instituted (No. 5) of 1973. Membership of the council i tion serves the council as member (ex officio
Inquiries into complaints against local nev industry are main functions of the council.
Mass media publications on journalism we Indian High Commission in Sri Lanka. Se institutions as the Ceder Institute and the Inte
A total of 150 newspapers were registered o

INFORMATION, PUBLICITY AND TOURISM
FAL NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS(contd.)
Fage of Ecation
Average Circulation
Publishers
ala
ala
253.914 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 55,000 The Times of Ceylon Ltd. 2594 The Express Newspapers
(Ceylon) Ltd. 19.272 The Associated Newspaper of
Ceylon Ltd.
ish
75,083 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 18,500 The Times of Ceylon Ltd.
ish
ala
do.
ala ala
ala
ala
70,418 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 78,363 11,001
do. 114,511
do. 22,771
do. 12,438 The Express Newspapers
(Ceylon) Ltd. 129,773 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. 8,826
do.
ala
ish
ala
49,303 The Associated Newspapers of
Ceylon Ltd. M. D. Gunasena (Printers) and
Company, Colombo.
ish
ala
do.
in accordance with the Sri Lanka Press Council Act ncluding Chairman, is seven. The Director of Informa
Ispapers and research on journalism and the newspaper
ere received during the year with the assistance of the everal publications were also obtained through such rnational Press Institute. luring the year.

Page 387
BROADCASTIN
II–BROADCAS The island's broadcasting Services are provided by th pivotal mass media organisation of the state. Radio C earlier, was constituted a corporation under the Cey of 1966.
Administration The Administration and management of the corpora broadcasting, while responsibilities of the main language under the control of Directors.
Identification of programme services under different Channel II of the broadcasting services.
Sinhala Service Themes of programmes beamed on this service had par Conference. The significance of Non-Alignment, p portrayed in a series of programmes with the first telecas
Obsequies of the late Mahanayake, Asgiri Chapter Appointment to the Preliane's successor and the national service. Three commercial recordings, "SALALIHINI were released during the year. The recording “MA composer the late Maitagamasekera.
Among other important programmes beamed on this s an all night Pirith chanting relayed from "KIRIVEHER sary of the national radio.
Tamil Service Channel One.-Channel one of the Tamil Service mbi January to April 1976, extended its service to 591 hours evening transmission from 10.30-11.00 p.m. since May this service consist of light and classical music and sp women, children and youth. These broadcasts were be Among special programmes beamed on channel I durin
Spoken Word Programmes.—A new series of research Sri Arumuga Navalar were broadcast from April. Forti and its policy were also commenced during April 1976.
A series on Experimental Drama were commenced fr presentation. The adaptations from world classics in tl
A new discussion programme by a panel of Experts r adoloscents ana handicapped children and marriage cou
The main topical event covered during the year was the during August 1976.
Special broadcasts covered the Republic Day, May anniversary, the late Chu-En-Lai and Mao Tse Tung and
Classical music concerts both vocal and orchestral ar featured regularly during the year.

367
TING
- Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation, the eylon, a government department as known lon Broadcasting Corporation Act, No. 17
tion is vested in the Director-General of services, viz., Sinhala, Tamil and English are
language media is known as Channel I and
ticular reference to the Non-Aligned summit Power-blocs and national leadership were st of music pageant for overseas countries.
Ramanna Sect, presentation of the Act of tree planting campaign were covered on this 70” “DASCON” and MADUWANTHI DUWANTHI” commemorates writer and
ervice was the commemorative broadcast of À, Kataragama to mark the 51st Anniver
et had broadcast 56 hours a week from sa week from May with the extension of the - 1976. Regular programmes featuring in
oken word programmes for rural listeners, oth of entertainment and educational value.
g the year were :-
a talks of 30 minutes duration in memory of nightly talks on the Non-Aligned movement
pm January 1976 using new techniques in the
ne drama were broadcast during the year.
replied questions relating to problems of the inselling.
Non-Aligned Conference held in Sri Lanka
Day, Bandaranaike Day, 51st Broadcasting - the Tree planting campaign.
ad light song programmes by local artistes

Page 388
368
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING,
Special music programmes broadcast on
Thi apoosam Maha Sivaratri Rama Navami
Nallur Temple Festival Navarathri Deepavali and Kanthasashti.
A Tamil Lyrics competition was held in entries. The first Tamil L.P. record titled
Channel II Programmes Channel II of the Tamil service broadcasts 70 35 hours a week. Programme-content proy to profitably participate in sustainer prograr
Birthday greetings figure prominently in of Rs. 72,959 at the end of the year.
Nine new and extended series of sponsor Tamil (AST) which had evinced much popul
English Service The English service (both channels I and II) tion, each headed by a Controller.
Channel I is devoted to cultural, religious 44 hours a week to listeners in Sri Lanka on
Channel 1
337 M (890 F
49 M (6005 337 M (890 K 61 M (4968
Channel II consists primarily of commer which feature significantly in commercial 1 Sri Lanka 83 Hours a week on the following fi
Channel II
326 M (920 K
326 M (920 K 49 M (6130

INFORMATION, PUBLICITY AND TOURISM
his service were :-
August 1976. A total of 575 lyric composers sent in their
"Gangaiyale" was released for sale in October 1976.
hours a week apart from Asia service which broadcasts des entertainment and affords opportunities to listeners
ames.
this service accruing the corporation revenue receipts
ed programmes were commenced on the Asia service
arity.
comprise three units spoken word, music and presenta
and development-oriented programmes and broadcasts the following frequencies :
Chz)
1000-1300 Hours Khz)
Saturday, Sunday and Public Holidays Chz)
1900–2300 Hours
Monday to Friday 1800—2300 Hours Saturday, Sunday and Public Holidays.
Khz)
cial spot advertisements and sponsored programmes, broadcasting. This service broadcasts to listeners in
equencies:—
Ihz)
0600 -0830 Hours 1700-2300 Hours
Monday to Friday 0600–0830 Hours 1600-2300 Hours Saturday, Sunday and Public
Holidays hz)
0830-0900 Hours 1300-1500 Hours
Monday to Friday 0830–1000 Hours 1300–1600 Hours Saturday, Sunday and Public
Holidays
(hz)

Page 389
BROADCAST
Programmes in English, both commercially spon: and beamed on the all Asia, south east Asia and Eu following frequencies :-
All Asia Service
19 M (15425 Khz) 31 M (9720 Khz) 49 M (6005 Khz)
19 M (15425 Khz) 31 M (9720 Khz) 41 M (7190 Khz)
South East Asia
Service
16 M (17850 Khz) 19 M (15120 Khz) 25 M (11835 Khz)
European Service– 25 M (11955 Khz)
31 M (9720 Khz) 41 M (7190 Khz)
News Division Apart from the four main news bulletins and world he news in brief in Sinhala, Tamil and English continu
As regards foreign news, developments in the po coverage with a follow-up of topics of international im
In “behind the news" (Sinhala, Tamil and English greater depth with participation of eminent person visiting Sri Lanka.
The quantum of foreign news culled from variou Tass, APN, AFP, DPA and Tanjug service provide th on a daily routine.
Summary of broadcasts of the news division under
Sinhala Service.—Four main news bulletins, daily bulletins of 'news in brief”, behind the news, "Mawl (once a week) and a review of foreign affairs (also once
Tamil Service.--Four main news bulletins, Jathil listeners in Asia, hourly bulletins of "news in brief?” news, review of foreign affairs and a news reel (once a
English Service.—Four main news bulletins, two wo to listeners in Asia, a bulletin to listeners in South I (except on Wednesday) hourly bulletins of the ‘news in (once a week) comprising editorial comment culled fr tions and a 'review of foreign affairs' (once a week).
Hindi Service.—10-minute bulletins are beamed dai broadcast twice a week.

CING
369
sored and non-commercial are also broadcast opean services for 77 hours a week on the
0600–1000 Hours daily
1800–2300 Hours daily
1600-1700 Hours daily
0015-0115 Hours daily
bulletins on the respective language services, me to be broadcast on a daily routine.
-litical and socio-economic sectors receive due
portance.
O topics of national importance are treated in calities as scientists, politicians and economist,
Is news services is on the increase. Reuter, me SLBC with a two way newscast transmission
different language media is outlined below: “Jathika Satana”, world news bulletin, hourly bimin Asiri' (twice weekly,) "printed word” e a week) and a newsreel”.
za Satana' world news bulletin, bulletin to - "printed word" (once a week), behind the
week).
rld news bulletins daily, three news bulletins East Asia, a bulletin on the European service
brief', 'behind the news’ ‘The printed word om local and foreign newspapers and publica
ly in addition to a 5-minute bulletin in Nepali

Page 390
370
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, IN
Engineering Division Activities in the engineering division of the S. (1) 10 voice cast studios were constructe
conference. (2) A closed circuit television system was ins
and the Press Centre located at the Sil
(3) A colour television channel was prod
munication service for transmissioni di
with Yugoslav assistance and equipment (4) A 10 channel programme micro Tave 1
at Torrington Square and short-wave :
installed many years ago. (5) Construction and installation of the stat
Manbar were completed.
III—INFORMATI
Department of Information The Department of Information functions un and is the principal agency for publicising the both locally and abroad. Two main division government publications bureau.
Apart from issuing news bulletins in the fori and supply of photographic and publicity m activities, the department arranges press confer
The department’s Press Officers are attached publicity coverage.
The Director of Information functioned as c foreign publicity work at the Non-Aligned sum
The research unit compiled a “Status Repon an important document, to disseminate informa conference.
The family planning communication strateg UNIPA/UNESCO completed some of its prog Publications released by the Project during 19
(1) Statistical Summary (2) Village in transition (3) Communication Strategy at village levy (4) Communication and Development (5) Madama village (6) Some aspects of urbanisation in Sri La (7) ‘Flip’ charts in human reproduction a (8) Glossary of Population and Family PI (9) Directory of Family Planning populat (10) Manual of basic communication skills (11) Uhana Colony Village (12) A News Letter for Rural Developmen

FORMATION, PUBLICITY AND TOURISM
L. B. C. during the year were :-
and operated during the Non-Aligned nations
alindi wanita Yugoslav assistance at the B. M. I. C. H. amika foundation institute. et e tihe BM LC. H. and the overseas telecom
ogrammes overseas. This work was undertaken
mit was installed and commissioned at the studios ation at Elitatem replace the under-ground cable
Fons at JaffaAmparani and the repeater station at
ON AND PUBLICITY
nder the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting e government's policies, programmes and activities, s of the department are the films division and the
n of press communiques of government departments aterial including back-ground information of state ences for various Ministries. to some of the important Ministries to ensure wider
hairmpn of the mass media committee for local and
mit conference. t on Mass Communication Media in Sri Lanka”, tion on mass media, a prelude to the Non-Aligned
gy project formed under the sponsorship of the rammes during the year. 176 were :-
el
inka id contraception anning, Communication terms ion Agencies in Sri Lanka
for Development Workers
: Departmental Staff.

Page 391
INFORMATION AN
Film Unit The films division generalie produces documentaries Sri Lanka, emphasising the country's social and econ arts and sciences, cultural development, educati irrigation, etc. The film is serves as a medium
News-reels in Shania Tamil and English help me of latest information om government activities and
Productions are presented to the people thro island and a feet of mobile cinema vans. The vans development and community centres, public rallies a sion are supplied to Si Lanka Missions abroad in 1 have been showmi warios international film festiv
The division has produced 25 documentary film Captioned among them were :
1. Apelamiranja Sintha (Sinhala) 2. Martin Wickremasinghe (Sinhala) 3. World Health Organisation (English) 4. Summit 76 (Sinhala and English) 5. An awakened Nation (English) 6. Cultural, Political and Social aspects of Sri 1 7. Science Education (English) 8. Tewatta Basilica (English) 9. Gamana—Journey (Sinhala, Tamil and Engl 10. Rural Bank 11. Family Planning Filmlet (Nos. 2 and 3) 12. Pre-vocational education 13. Tourist and Information Documentaries.
Publication Bureau The Government Publications Bureau is the govern Galle Face Secretariat. There is also a sales centre :
A large number of regulations and legislative enac Tamil during the year. Copies of these translations w of the bureau. The booklet “Dawn of the Mahar scheme. The sale of government gazette, hansards
The bureau earned an income of Rs. 591,352 tl 1976.
State Printing Activites Department of Government Printing.–Publications, 1 with Mahaweli diversion to Rajarata were printed ai
Among major items of work undertaken by the publications brochures required for the Non-Aligi campaign and the 29th series rice ration books for

D PUBLICITY
371
- and news reels particularly for the people in omic development, industries, natural resources, on, health, improved methods of agriculture
of information and education. intain contact with the people in the availability
current local topics. ugh commercial cinema circuits all over the conduct film shows in schools, colleges, rural nd parks. Documentaries produced by the diviboth 35 mm. and 16 mm. Many of these films als and have won prizes or awards of merit. es and presented for public shows during 1976.
Lanka
ish)
ment's bookshop and has its main office at the at the kachcheri, Kurunegala.
ctments have been translated into Sinhala and were made available to the public at the counters veli” deals with the inauguration of Mahaveli
and desk calendars continues.
arough sale of government publications during
posters and other material required in connection ad supplied by the department. e department were a large number of booklets, med summit conference, national tree planting the Food Commissioner.

Page 392
3
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, INFO
State Printing Corporation The main objective of the State Printing Corpora
ment of educational publications. Printing wo1 also undertaken by the corporation.
A total of 53 titles involving 2,330,000 copies “job" items.
Income earned from various printing assignme corporation made a profit of Rs. 3,042,857.
IV–TO
Sri Lanka—the Resplendent Isle, Taprobane to the Portuguese, Dutch and the British, is famed the
The island, apart from its natural endowments warm northern waters of the Indian Ocean, a pleas scenic splendour of a landascape, warm seas with su gical treasures, and species of exotic wild life. ( mingle with a warm and friendly disposition of he:
Based on recent estimates the growth rate of 9•1] with traditional tourist destinations in the region a Thailand 6:7 percent, India 1:8 per cent and Hong )
Sri Lanka 's tourism plan initiated in 1967, spelt of the industry—facilities development and public community relations, manpower and investment o
The plan identified 5 regions for the developmen and ancillary tourist facilities.
Sunny beaches, water sports and wild life
Archaeology and culture Tea lands, scenic splendour, golf and trout
fishing
Emphasis has been stressed on the establishmer facilities—hotels, cottages, shopping and recreatic
Basic framework of development spelt out in the reviews in terms of performance and the trends in t growth in visitor-flow since 1967. Tourist arrival o increase from 23,666 to 118,971 in 1976, with corres
million to Rs. 237-8 million.
The tourist industry provides direct employme employment opportunities to well over 16,000. Oft Non-Aligned Summit Conference and the Tenth ) Travel Agents' association. The latter incidentally in Sri Lanka.

MATION, PUBLICITY AND TRINITARIAN
tion is the printing of school texts for the depart
for other corporations and statutory board is
were printed during the yerar apart from other
nts during the year realised Rs. 15,420,646. The
URISM
the Greeks, Serendib to the Arabs, Ceylon to e world over for its developing tourist potential.
for a viable tourist industry, being situated in the sant tropical climate with cool montane variations, anny beaches also possesses a wealth of archaeoloColourful folklore and rituals of age-old pageants r people.
percent in tourist traffic compares quite favourably as Singapore 10•4 percent, Pakistan 8•8 percent, Kong 0-3 percent.
out a series of programmes on the various sectors } works, architectural requirements, marketing, utlay.
t of holiday resort complexes, provision of hotels
Colombo resort region, South coast resort region,
East coast resort region Ancient cities resort region
lill country resort region
it of self-contained resorts with a wide range of pnal centres, picnic areas and transportation.
Plan continues serve as a guideline to periodical he tourist industry. There has been an impressive during this ten-year span has recorded a massive sponding increase in tourist receipts from Rs. 5·9
ent to about 12,000 while indirectly affording najor significance during the year were the Fifth Norld Congress of the Universal Federation of I was the first fully-fledged travel congress held

Page 393
TO
Growth of Hotel Plant The hotel room capacity increased by 975 new 1976. Distribution of hotel plant at present is:-
Colombo City Beacines Greater Colombo
South Coast
East Coas Asamostom Citas HII Country Northern Region
Internal Transportation Coaches, road buses and tourist trains serve as Air transpormation on schedule and charter flig!
The fleet-strength for tourist transportation sto 60 station wagons.
Travel dipartim 81 travel agents have been regis operative in 1975. Shops and Restaurants There are 70 approved restaurants, specialising in and cocktail.
Approved shops dealing in gems and jewellery, National Holiday Resort A concept in Sri Lanka tourism plan is the de sponsorship of the Tourist Board to cater the Tourist Boagd undertakes planning, land purch corporation and the private sector hold responsi and affording other recreational facilities.
Holiday resorts and other tourist centres so est South Coast.BENTOTA RESORT- 4 hotels with Ancient Cities.-(a) POLONNARUWA RESORT
cottage unit with 18 rooms. (6) GIRITALE RESORT–2 hotels with 88 rooms,
camping sites. (C) SIGIRIYA RESORT—one hotel with 32 roon East Coast.—(a) KALKUDAH/PASSEKUDAH RE
50 rooms and cottage units of 40 rooms ar (6) TRINCOMALEE RESORT-project report is 1 Other Developments : BANDARAWELA--(a) 3
have been completed. (6) NUWARA ELIYA—3 holiday cottages are in (C) KATARAGAMA—a 45 roomed Resthouse plu (d) VIEWING PLATFORMS—A platform cum pic
Marketing Programme The marketing programme for 1976, was basica larger outlays were provided for certain promotie

JRISM
373
rooms giving a total of 4,581 rooms as at end of
Units
15
15
21
Room
1,310
914 1,007 271 827 195 57
Total
85
4,581
chief means of tourist transport within the island. its affords additional facility. od at 242 cars, 40 large and 46 small coaches and
tered under the travel agents code which became
western and eastern cuisine including local dishes
handicrafts, batiks and other tourist wares total 139.
evelopment of national holiday resorts under the
tourist trade, both foreign and local needs. The nase, infra-structure provision, whilst the hotels ble for construction and operation of hotels, shops
ablished were :-
321 rooms. 2 hotels with 70 rooms and a ‘dormitory' cum
a camping centre of 10 under ‘canvas’ and 6 trailer
Is and camping centre. FORT-one hotel with 66 rooms. A hotel with e under construction. peing evaluated. cottages, a holiday hostel unit and a club house
operation. s Pilgrim Halls operate.
nic facility at Dunhinda is being constructed.
ly the same as in preceding years, except that n activities.

Page 394
374
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, IN
The programme consisted of sales seminars consumer advertising and promotion, educatie wide range of tourist literature in English an
A programme of educational visits to St La and media representatives has contributed subs destination at consumer, trade and media levels
A news bureau has been established for regula consumer and trade media demand
Domestic Tourism Two holiday resorts at Numa Eliya midi Band Other units already estalinismert me cmimg amat Sigiriya ; a 45 roomed Reschouse and Philigrimi =
Vocational Training A new programme towards specialisation in da taurant and bar, reception and house-keeping wi was introduced in mid 1976. The period of practical demonstration in hotels.
Cultural Tourism and Community Relations The conservation of the age-old building which through the Netherlands Alumni association o eventually be converted into a museum.
A publication in Sinhala—Lassana Sri Lanka produced to cater to the student needs of the is and Social Satire of Sri Lanka" has also been p
A total of 33 exhibitions were held at the Sa handicrafts of Sri Lanka's young artists and craf
Regulatory Codes The minimal requirements and the criteria for c been gazetted.
Further Developments A tourism plan for further development coverir after an implementation review of the tourist ti
The plan projects 153,000 arrivals in 1977, re
Tourist receipts estimated on the basis of arriv an escalation up to Rs. 606 million in 1981.
Accommodation requirements are estimated emphasises consolidation and raising standards east coast.
International Representation The Chairman, Tourist Board, continues as a and a Member of the Pacific Area Travel Assoc
The Tourist Board was represented at a numb being the Pacific Area Travel Association Annu Society of Travel Agents’ World Congress in N Association General Assembly in Monaco and in Bangladesh.

DRMATION, PUBLICITY AND TOURISM
and calls, travel trade advertising, trade publicity, nal tours, public relations and dissemination of a
other language media. ka by leading travel wholesalers and agents, airline antially in portraying Sri Lanka image as a tourist
- releases to overseas outlets with a view to meeting
marweila operate to cater principally to local traffic. mhraiticiary imanseil centrs at Polonnaruwa, Giritale and Eilis ar Karagame and a picnic area at Bentota.
Ferent spects of the tourist industry-kitchen, restha greater allotment of time on in-service training training ranges from 4 to 10 months followed by
once occupied Pettah post office premises financed f Sri Lanka is in progress. The building would
- depicting tourist attractions of the island, has been sland. Another publication titled “ Rural Theatre roduced. amudra Gallery with a display of paintings and 'tsmen.
assification of hotels under the hotels code have
g a span from 1977 to 1981 has been formulated ade performance over the last decade. iching a figure of 253,000 in 1981. als are in the region of Rs. 299 million in 1977 with
at a total of 6,677 rooms by 1981. The plan of existing facilities with major expansion on the
ice President of the World Tourism Organisation ation Board of Directorate. r of international conferences notable among them 1 Conference and Workshop in Hawaii, American v Orleans, International Congress and Convention Touth Asia Regional Travel Commission Meeting

Page 395
TOURI
Ceylon Hotels Corporation The Ceylon Hotels Corporation was incorporated by share capital of Rs. 7,252,750. Business activities 5 resthouses made considerable progress over the ye
The corporation now operates 13 resthouses and of Sri Lanka providing direct employment to 1,088
Main objective of the corporation is to improve The corporation operates 4 divisions to achieve this
Hotels and restha Transport and to Airways division, Tourist shops divi
The 13 resthouses and 7 hotels amidst picturesque and foreign needs. Total double-room strength of t
Resthouses
Ambepussa
Ella Kantale Belihuloya Polonnaruwa
Tissamaharama Habarana Pussellawa Dambulla
Tissamaharama the largest resthouse run by the C
Hotels
Lihiniya Surf Hotel, Bentota Hotel Seruwa, Polonnaruwa Hotel Dehigama, Kandy Hotel Suisse, Kandy Queens Hotel, Kandy Farr Inn Hotel, Horton Plains Harbour Inn, Galle.
The luxury air-conditioned 66 roomed Lihiniya S Hotel Seruwa at the Polonnaruwa National Touris provide swimming pool facilities.
Management of the 3 premier hotels in Kandy, viz Vidiya, Hotel Suisse consisting of 67 rooms with si Hotel Dehigama consisting of 20 rooms at Raja V
The corporation has invested a sum of Rs. Inter-Continental, a 5-Star fully air conditioned lu Rs. 250,000 in Pegasus Reef Hotel, Hendala.
The transport service of the corporation operati air conditioned luxury transport, and 3 vans.
A travel Bureau is operated by the corporation al counters at International Airport (Katunayake) and of foreign tourists undertaking reservation of y organising conducted tours.

375
an act of Parliament No. 14, of 1966 and has a of the corporation commenced in 1967, with irs.
7 hotels located in important tourist centres mployees. nd develop the tourist industry in Sri Lanka. pobjective, viz.-- ses division, rs division, ind sion.
surroundings in Sri Lanka cater to both local iese institutions is 343 and are located at—
Hanwella Medawachchiya Sigiriya Kitulgala
Corporation has 38 rooms.
furf Hotel at the the Bentota tourist resort and t Resort with 40 air-conditioned luxury rooms
--Queens Hotel consisting of 97rooms at Dalada vimming pool facilities at Ampitiya Road, and diya, has been vested in the corporation. 2,500,000 in share capital of Hotel Ceylon xury hotel comprising 252 rooms and also
es a fleet of 10 coaches, 65 cars including
the Hotel Ceylon Inter-Continental with travel at Pegasus Reef Hotel, Hendala, for convenience ehicles, food and lodging facilities and also

Page 396
376
THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, I
The corporation also function as general s airlines operating in the world. This has helpe
A tourist Shop at Chatham Street Colomb corps and visiting VIPs. Banned imported iter ators, floor polishers, liquor, food, cigarettes : currency.
The corporation earned a net profit of Rs. 1,
Asian Hotels Corporation The Asian Hotels Corporation Ltd., was incorpo a “Five Star” Luxury Hotel to cater the incre
was initiated in 1972. The Hotel commenced about 580 persons. Work on an extension te 1975 and completed in July 1976. The extension
Hotel Oberoi incidentally, is by far the larg stressed the during construction stage of the Ho and expertise. The Extension was entirely unde
VSTATE FILI
Cinema-going in Sri Lanka is perhaps the most E evident from the fact that there are nearly 400 This figure compares quite favourably with Pak highest in South Asia.
The State Film Corporation established in te of 1971 is the central authority for motion pict distribution, production and exhibition of films f:
The corporations' endeavours in achieving som
(a) Rectification of the massive imbalance
this situation has now been reversed securi
Attempts are also being made to improve til (b) Rectification of the import imbalance ha
industry. Films released have increased fron
Feature films under production are in the re
in the films produced has been the Corpo (c) Distribution.—One of the most beneficial s
tion of film distribution. The corporation nated wasteful competition among priva has ensured optimum exploitation of the n bution by the corporation. It was found an increase in overall collections varying fro with preceding years. The nationally prod 50 per cent of the films exhibited in 1976, r
Incidentally 2 of them grossed over 24 mill (d) A modern film laboratory and sound recor
processing facilities as well as two fully-eqi
Rs. 5 million. The corporation's profits increased from Rs. 5:

DRMATION, PUBLICITY AND TOURISM
es agents for British Airways one of the largest eam considerable foreign exchange.
cates to the needs of foreign tourists diplomatic
25 martins, casetes, wristwatches, cameras, refrigerd perfumes are available in exchenge of foreign
9,123 as annud of 1976.
Etiert milit_with the primary objective to construct se im Numi unific. Work on this 265-room Hotel operations im September 1975, initially employing pour D mume mooms commenced in February emissumed generalitat ing more employment opportunities. se Fwa Star im Sri Lanka. Emphasis was ced, om die amaieraility of local raw material, labour
the supervision of im Lanika personnel.
M CORPORATION
opular amdi least expensive form of entertainment as cinemas scattered in various parts of the country. istan giving a rate per 1000 of the population as the
erms of the State Film Corporation Act No. 47, ure industry in Sri Lanka. All aspects of import, all within the perview of the corporation.
e of its prime objectives are :
between nationally produced and imported films : ng the rightful place for nationally-produced films. le position of the nationally-produced Tamil Films. ; ensured a tremendous boost in film production
an average of about 10 in the past to 29 during 1976. tion of 100. Achieving a qualititative improvement ation’s main concentration. eps taken during the year has been the nationalisasince taking over distribution processes has elimie distributors. Uniformity in film distribution tional product with the taking over of film distrihat 79 percent of the cinemas in 1976, registered La low 20 percent to over 200 percent as compared ced film competed quite satisfactorily with nearly cording a gross income of over a million rupees. in rupees. ng studio is being set up incorporating colour film pped sound recording theatres at a cost of about
nillion in 1975 to Rs. 8•3 million during the year.

Page 397
KEY ECONOMIC INDIC
KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS
1. Area (sq. km.)
2. Population
('000 Census Year 191 ('000 Mid-Year estima
3. National Income
Gross mational prodos Gross mational prodiuse Income per capita (Rs
4. Public Finance
Revenue (Rs. Million Expenditure (Rs. Mill External assets (Rs. M
5. Foreign Trade
(Value—Rs. Million) : Total exports (f.o.b.) Total imports (c.i.f.) Balance of trade (Rs. Million)
6. Consumer Price Indices (Annual average all ite
7. Employm