கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Tamil Times 1981.12
WOL. 1 No. 3. DECEMBER 1981 25. Pence
The Sri Lanka Government today finds itself condemned and convicted by the International Corri mission of Jurists er erharges of a very Seriots artid grave kird. Gross violations of civil and political rights, breach of LLGLLLGGLrEE HGLL LL GGLCLGLGGLGGGGG LGLHHLHGGLL LLLLL LCLGL LLLLLS ECGLGGGCCCS GGLLL GGG LLLLGLLLLLLLESL GGLLLLGGGGLS LGGGLGG lLGGL LLL LGGLLLLLLLE LGLGGGGLLLLLLL LLLLLLLTGGLLLLS LLLLLLGLS LLLLLL LLLLLL GGGGL LLL LLLS GHGL LCCCLGG TCCGGGLL LL GLLLLLL Prioriy are sorre of any charges por which the LLLLGGLGLLGHLS LGGGHLGLGLG LLTL GLGGGLLLLLLL LLLLLE LLLLLGGGL LGL Freser7ť authoriries ir Sri Lanka guilty.
The United National Party was elected to power by the people of Sri Lanka in July 1977 on a platform of LLGGGLLGLS GEGL CGLGLGLGGGS LTL LGGLLEH GGLLLLLLL LL LSLLL firidiarrierral rights of the people by the previous LLKLSLLLLEGLLS GGLLGLLL S GGGkLLL LLLLGL COLL LL LLLLLLLEGLGLL LLL LLL LLLLLL notorious league of despised regimes of Chile, Argentina, E' Sa'ador ef all.
No longer can the President of Sri Lanka accuse
ryone of "talking through their hars', for that is what he did recently when a number of UK Members of LGLLLGGLLLLLLL LLLLCLL LLLLLGLLLLL GGLGL CLCCLCCLCLL TLLDmGLLL SLLL discriptination of the minoriries arid repression by the security forces of the state,
No longer car the goverrierr delude itself by slandering I ho se 14h () give publicity to the true situatior? ir Sri Lanka 1ς α ή μη ή αν για τον τενιές η αμιgίηg iη α η αίιαίαμς ανια fierciless maligning campaign against the notherland.
No longer car the Government afford to indulge in the usury of ostentatious indifference to the criticism levelled against its record or hurrar and derritocratic rights and the treatment of the country's national minority.
The International Corri mission of Jurists, a replied and espected body of international jurists and legal urinaries, has given its verdict. The government, which 15 caughs up in fhe maelsrrorri of ari economic crisis Tostly of its own creation, will dismiss or disregard his verdict at its own peril, for it is depending for its day to day survival or foreign aid.
SRI LANKAN GOVT.
CONDEMNED BY ICJ
Wiolation of Sri Lanka's obligations under the International Covenant on civil and political rights, arbitrary arrests and prolonged detentions incommunicado, violence and illegal assaults upon detainees, actions to undermine respect for the rule of law and the growing repression by police and army in areas where Tamils predominantly live are among some of the many matters in respect of which the Government of Sri Lanka stand condemned by the highest body of jurists in the world, the International Commission of Jurists based in Geпeva.
The International Commission of Jurists is believed to
have been deeply concerned about the disturbing develop
million, Professor Leary Would appear lo have carried out a thorough and comprehensive investigation, the
ments concerning human result of which is an 88 page rights in Sri Lanka for a long report issued by the Internatime, but the immediate tional Collinission of Jurists.
The ICJ Tepot equates the Sri Lanka Anti-Terroristin Act enacted by the present government with the South African Terrorism Act and finds that this piece of legislation violaLes Sri Lanka's obligations
reason for the CoII. Inission to initiate an investigation was the complaints received in regard to the detention incoInnunicado of several Tamil youths for prolonged periods and their illtreat Ticnt while in
Professor Wirginia Leary of New York State University was commissioned by the ICJ () carry out an investigation into the compalaints and the au5ę5 for the ctlnic: conflict ictween the two major coin munities in Sri Lanka, comprising 72 per cent Sinhala peaking and 21 per cent amil speaking people of a otal population of nearly 15
under the International Covenant on civil and political rights. The report says that this Act provides for un linnited periods of administrative detention, and such detention does in fact frequently occur in the course of which the detainees are subjected to violent and illegal assaults. The Act is neither justified nor effective to prevent the existing degree of violence.
(Contd. on page 16)
X'MAS & NEW YEAR MESSAGE
arm deeply grieved by the tragic events of recent Ionths which ave brought so much suffering and such irreparable losses as 1c destruction of the Jaffna (Sri Lanka) Library. At this Season hen we remember that God gave us the gift of His own Son to .ke our sin upon Himself and to reconcile us to Hill and to one lother, it is my carnest prayer that a new spirit of forgiveness ld understanding may prevail along all the people of Sri arika and that the year 1982 may go down in history as the lar when strife was replaced by Inutual respect and lidersta Ilding.
Bishop Leslie Newbiggin Corrrrrlissary of the Church of South India in Gr, Britain
2 TAMIL TIMES
Professor Wilson in his
article "Options for the TamilSpeaking People of Sri Lanka' (Tamil Times, November 1981) has achieved a rare distinction. He has deftly displayed the attributes of a Constitutional theorist inter-mixed with the characteristics of a politician - the latter being the capacity for tight-rope walking!
Hence throughout the whole article runs a thread of defence of the “status quo” for the Tamils in Sri Lanka pinning the hopes of a nation in travail on the success of the
District Development Coun
Recent history, however, should belie his hopes. It cannot be said that the Tamils did not strive, for their part, to maintain and continue the unity of the country as a single entity. When the Soulbury proposals were accepted by the then State Council all the Tamil members of that Council (except G.G. Ponnambalam who was away in the U.K. at that time) voted for them. Only three members voted against - the two Indian members and Mr. W. Dahanayake.
In the ensuing General Elections of 1947 all those Tamil members who voted for the acceptance of the Soulbury Constitution - except Mr. V. Nalliah - were defeated including Mr. J. G. Rajakulendran in far away Bandarawela. G.G. Ponnambalam's AllCeylon Tamil Congress swept the board in the Jaffna Peninsula and at Trincomalee. Yet, soon thereafter Ponnambalam offered "responsive cooperation' and joined D.S. Senanayake's Cabinet.
Although this "responsive co-operation' was indicative of the desire of the Tamils to sustain the unity of the country, such a desire was totally absent in the minds of the Sinhalese politicians. That
Principle Or P
BY A.R. ASI]
was why, in spite of Section 29 of the Soulbury Constitution, steps were taken legislatively and administratively to segregate the Tamils from the national political cake.
This resulted in the emergence of the Federal Party which held sway progressively in the Tamil speaking areas from 1956 onwards.
Even so, the Federal Party at various times offered cooperation to maximise the prospects of a rational solution with various governments - first to S. W.R.D. Bandaranaike through the B-C Pact in 1958; then to Srimavo Bandaranaike causing the second General Election in 1960 and finally to Dudley Senanayake in 1965 with Tiruchelvam in the Cabinet. On every such occasion the Tamils were outwitted and out manoeuvred.
A very pertinent constitutional question arises from the pattern of voting by the Tamils since 1947. They have consistently registered a protest against the manner in which they were being governed. How have the Sinhalese politicians responded to this democratic expression of view? By progressively escalating repression! In these circumstances does democracy mean anything for the Tamils?
So it was that the Tamils were driven (make no mistake about it, much against their natural inclination) to seek the only available course short of abject surrender - self-determination.
It was a logical decision; an inescapable decision in the circumstances and a democratic decision in favour of a democratic right. Implicit in that decision is also a question of a basic principle of human rights.
Self-determination, of course, is a dratic remedy and fraught with seemingly insuperable difficulties. Desperate situations call for desperate remedies and for this situation blame should be placed fairly and squarely at the feet of the short-sighted Sinhalese politicians. It is a tragedy that over the last four decades the Sinhalese people have not produced a single statesman with foresight and prespicacity and political courage. Hence the demand for self-determination was forced upon the Tamils.
Faced with the rising tide of the demand for separation coupled with the emergence of terrorism, which is a natural consequence, J. R. Jayewardene offers District Development Councils. (I am not an ardent advocate of terrorism but it would be irrational to condemn it for the sake of condemning it. Rather I would condemn the cause that gave rise to the emergence of terrorism.)
How genuine is this offer of District Development Councils? Political memories are notoriously short. It was Jayewardene who first introduced the 'Sinhala Only' resolution in the State Council in 1943; it was he who engineered the abandonment of the B-C Pact which provided for District Councils. The District Development Councils are a mild variation of the original District Councils proposed under the B-C Pace and now offered by the very man who then scuttled it.
Prof. Wilson rightly cites Montesquieu that it is not the letter of the law but the spirit of the law that matters. He could have usefully cited Alexander Pope as well, “For forms of government let fools contend; what is administered best is best'.
Employing these two criteria,
what is the degree of credibility that could be attached to the District Development Councils? If Prof. Wilson's article is carefully read and if one could acquire a basic knowledge of the provisions of the District Development Councils Law it is not difficult to find the germ of self-destruction embedded if not enshrined in the statute itself.
Says Dr. Wilson, "The District Minister is the counter. part of the President; the Chairman of the D.D.C. is the equivalent of the Prime Minister.....' What he has not told us is about the virtual power of total veto that resides on the District Minister and the wide area over which this power overhangs. By implication Dr. Wilson would appear to concede the inherent danger when he says, “DDCs can establish economic relationships with foreign countries with the permission of the central government,' Will the central government or the District Minister approve of, say, the development of the Kankesanthurai harbour with aid from Soviet Union or China?
In stressing the possible flexibility and manoeuverability Prof. Wilson is naively exhorting the Tamils to generate a degree of confidence in the exercise. The Tamils displayed such confidence on more than four occasions since 1947 and what did their confidence lead the Tamils to?
Though self-determination is a logical sequence to the events of the last thrity five years, Dr Wilson is perhaps right to consider the practicalities of it. Pragmatically speaking, I do concede that self-determination poses greater problems to the Tamils themselves than it would pose to the Sinhalese. Complexities are massive; possible loss of life, property and wealth are enormous. Shirk to face these problems head-on, the result would be slavery. It is this factor which makes a section of the Tamils to oppose self-determination.
(Contd. on last page)
USHA PRASHAR, Director of the Runnymede Trust, says certain conclusions in the Scarman Report are "grossly misleading' and must be corrected before they become 'Official wisdom.'
Lord Scarman's report of an inquiry into "The Brixton Disorders' was eagerly awaited. It was anticipated that it would be a powerful document which would create an impact comparable to that of the disturbances. It was hoped that his analysis and recommendations both on policing and on "the underlying causes' would provide some penetrating insight, a basis for a new beginning and hope.
The report, written with judicial restraint, falls short in a number of respects both on the issues of policing and social policy. I shall, however, confine myself to the part of the report which deals with soical policy and social conditions.
Understandably, Lord Scarman treads carefully and is very prudent in the way he deals with the issues involved. Given the time he had and the complexity of the task before him, it would have been unrealistic to expect profound analysis of the social and economic context within which the disturbances took place.
Rightly, on the basis of the evidence before him, he firmly concludes that racial disadvantage is a fact of current British life and urgent action is needed. But his conclusions that "It would be unfair to criticise Governments for lack of effort' and that "institutional racism does not exist in Britain are grossly misleading. They need to be refuted emphatically before they become part of official wisdom.
On the question of Government effort, he states that funding has been made available on a substantial scale and cites the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Commission for Racial Equality as clear evidence of the will and the commitment of Parliament and Government to the cause of racial equality. The truth of the matter is that the Government efforts have been lamentable. At worst, effort has been lacking; at best, it has been feeble. The resources which have been
directed to alleviate have been pitiful.
The reluctance of ment to reform Sec Government Act Government's input partnership schem and conviction. Gov its own responsibili
k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k
In June this year, crime, an intensive the police in Brixton in the course of wh indiscriminatelysto riots by youths in battles between th distinguished Law I causes of the riots a 水水冲米水来来水水水冰冰米米冲冲水冲 and as a contractol recognise the serious of the Tavistock repc policy in the Civil given the Commi Equality full backing even opposed the cq gation into the in
On institutional raci conclusion is wo emphatically dismiss that "institutional r argues that "if an i society means that it knowingly, as a discriminates against reject the allegation.'
His argument fails tc the fact that Britian d matter of policy, d black people in imr recent Nationality le expression to racism.
Racial disadvantage point the system of ir The immigration law problem, a problem contained by controll official view of the bl
DISCRIMINATION AND RACSMARE STILL REALITIES
the present Governtion 11 of the Local 966 is inexcusable. as a major partner in es has lacked focus ernment has ignored ties as an employer
negative one, then it is fallacious to conclude that institutionalised racism does not exist and is not a major contributory factor to racial disadvantage.
Even on policing Lord Scarman dismisses the allegation of racism and says that "criticism lies elsewhere - in errors of judgment, in a lack of imagination and flexibility, not in deliberate bias or prejudice.' It may well be so.
But the organisations (police and others) where such decisions and judgments are made are predominantly white. Black people are absent from key decision making processes. Prejudices and attitudes of those in power, therefore,
under the pretext of taking measures to prevent increasing and aggressive campaign called Swamp '81 was mounted by (where a substantial section of black population of UK live), ich thousands of black people, particularlay the youth, were pped, searched, guestioned and arrested. This led to widespred Brixton, and later in other cities, resulting in pitched street e police and the youth. Lord Scarman, a respected and ord was appointed by the Home Secretary to inquire into the
und make appropriate recommendations. +水冰水冲冲冲冲冲冲水水水水本水冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲***水冰水冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲本本冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲冲
. It has failed to ness of the findings ort on race relations Service. It has not ssion for Racial
- the Home Office »mmission's investilmigration service.
sm Lord Scarman’s trying. He quite es the allegation, acism' exists. He nstitutionally racist
is a society which matter of policy, black people, then I
) take cognisance of oes knowingly, as a iscriminate against nigration and that islation gives legal
has as its starting nmigration control. define blacks as a
which should be ng numbers. If the ack community is a
become an integral part of the problem. Whether this happens deliberately or otherwise, the effect is the same. It is this context which determines the position of black communities in society. This fundamental point is missed in the report.
Despite any reservations about Lord Scarman's conclusions on Government effort and institutionalised racism, his forceful comment that the attack on racial disadvantage must be more direct and that a policy of positive discrimination may be inevitable, if this is to happen, is an important one.
I believe the term "positive discrimination' is unfortunate and misleading. It is a pity that in his final analysis Lord Scarman uses the term in this way. Elsewhere in the report he is quite clear what he means and uses the term "positive action.'
He says: "Given the special problems of the ethnic minorities, exposed in evidence, justice requires that special programmes should be adopted in areas of acute deprivation. Certainly special programmes for ethnic minority groups
(Contd. on page 13)
4 TAMIL TIMES
FOREIGN DOCTORS IN
While hundreds of well qualified Sri Lankan doctors are leaving the country because of inadequate remuneration for their services, foreign doctors, mainly from Philippines. Burma and India have been admitted into the country at very high salaries, almost five to six times the salary paid to indigenous doctors, to serve in the country's hospitals.
Approximately 300 foreign doctors are presently serving in the country under the UN Volunteer Scheme now in operation. In terms of the contract with the Burmese government, no Burmese doctor could be on contract with Sri Lanka for more than two years. New batches of Burmese doctors have to be brought in to fill vacancies arising from the expiration of previous contracts.
The peripheral units throughout the country are served mostly by these foreign doctors. It is understood that their total lack of facility in either Sinhala or Tamil language has caused a problem of communication between the doctors on the one hand and the patients.
APPOINTMENT LETTERS NSINHALA ONLY
The Government of Sri Lanka claims that the Tamil Language enjoys the position of a national language under the Constitution and as a language of administration in the predominantly Tamil speaking areas of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The fraudulent nature of this claim in actual practice is demonstrated by the fact that six Tamils who were appointed as Co-operative Inspectors in the Jaffna District have received their appointment letters in Sinhala language only.
LOANS AND FURTHER LOANS FROM OPEC
The OPEC Fund has agreed to give a loan of 11 million US dollars for the Mahaveli Power Transmission Project in Sri Lanka. The loan is expected to be interest free except for a 0.75 per cent service charge payable over 20 years.
Since 1977, the OPEC Fund for International Development has granted to Sri Lanka 3.5 million US dollars for the Bowatenne Power Project, 6 million US dollars for a Rural Electrification Project, 5 million US dollars for the
IntegratedTea Deve 9 milion US dol payments support
23.15 million dollars
The First Internati Hinduism to be he Lanka is scheduled f It will be a five da will be inaugurated President, Mr. J.R.
The Action Comr organising the Conf Mr. Lakshmana Iye of Education attach Minister of Educatic
A group of youths
Lanka to take Singapore were fou possession of passp currency endorseme they had been issue but they were in foreign currency
questioning of the the CID led to the a arranged for the grc
HUNDREDS FOR POSSE FALSE PA
Over a hundred cas the Sri Lanka Police weeks against perso to have been in passports. Investigat against another 300 These investigations undertaken by the C officials.
It is reported that
the persons holding not been charged anc investigations had r pecting villagers an seeking jobs in the fallen victims to to premises of the Dep tion in Colombo and a price.
Although the po factory' involved in
lopment Project and ars as balance of making a total of
onal Conference on ld in Colombo, Sri or January 22, 1982. y Conference which by the Sri Lanka Jayawardene.
nittee in charge of erence is headed by r, a former Director ed to the Sri Lanka
who were leaving Sri up employment in nd to be allegedly in orts containing false nts to the effect that d with 1000 dollars, fact not taking any with them. The youths concerned by rrest of the man who up's travel.
CHARGED ESSION OF ASSPORTS
es have been filed by during the past few ns who were alleged possession of false ions are continuing suspected persons. are being jointly ID and immigration
in several instances, false passports had were freed because evealed that unsusd innocent women Middle East had uts who haunt the artment of Emigraoffer "passports' at
lice discovered a the production of
false passports in Colombo recently, it is said that false passports are still available at a price estimated to, be several thousands of rupees.
For Fourth Month
The state of emergency declared in Sri Lanka on August 17 following the widespread violence directed against the Tamil minority was extended for the fourth successive month by the Sri Lanka Parliament on November 17, 1981.
While the United National Party (UNP) MPs voted for the resolution extending the emergency, 5 MPs belonging to the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) and the sole Communist Party MP voted against it. The Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) MPs abstained.
The Leader of the Opposition, Mr. A Amirthalingam, MP said that the TULF found itself in a dilemma on the question of the extension of the emergency. The TULF appreciated the concern of the government to maintan law and order for it was its primary responsibility to protect the lives and property of the people from lawless elements from whichever side they might come. But a government armed with emergency powers was dangerous and doubly so for opposition political parties whose freedoms were curbed under conditions of emergency. Moreover an extended emergency was dangerous for minorities such as the Tamils because the security services tended to abuse the additional powers and commit excesses.
NCREASE IN MINOR
According to the Agricultural Development and Research Ministry. of Sri Lanka, the export of minor agricultural crops increased by 76.9 per cent in the first 6 months of this year compared with the corresponding period for 1980.
During the first six months of 1980, the export of minor agricultural produce accounted for Rs. 342.3 million, but during the first six months of this year, the country's export income amounted to Rs. 605 million. Substantial rise in the export of gingelly, ground nuts, pepper and black gram played a major part in the increase of the total exports.
Godfrey Gunatilleke, Director of Sri Lanka's Institute for Development Studies and one of tl World's most respected academics, reviews his nati achievements, present policies and future prosp
abolishing absolute poverty.
Meeting basic needs - currently the most fashionable of slogans - has been the cornerstone of government policy in Sri Lanka for more than three decades. Initiated under colonial rule and intensified since Independence, the policies of free health, free education and subsidised food were designed not only to satisfy immediate human needs, but also to create the future "human capital' - a hiterate, healthy, well-fed population - which would fuel economic growth and eventually lift the nation out of poverty.
By any historical standards, the increases in human well-being brought about by these policies are remarkable. Public health services have brought the infant mortality rate down from 141 in 1946 to 37 today. Free education has seen the proportion of children starting school rise from under half to almost all, resulting in an adult literacy rate which is one of the highest in Asia. Meanwhile, subsidised food has, for most of that 30 year period, kept the price of basics - like rice, dhal, dried fish and tinned milik - relatively stable and within reach of most of the people.
Underlying these measurable changes was a growing acceptance of a benevolent and paternal role for the State. In contrast to the experience of many Third World Nations, the old and the new seemed to be compatible in Sri Lanka, with the concept of the modern welfare state blending smoothly into a Buddhist culture which emphasised dhana' (giving and sharing) and "metta' (compassion). Together, these two undercurrents seemed to have produced a political elite responsive to the need for some degree of equality.
But social change at this scale and speed was, perhaps, bound to encounter turbulence. And by the early 60s it was already clear that something was going wrong. Economic productivity was failing to match social progress and the resulting tensions between expectations aroused and opportunities available eventually exploded in the insurrection of
Free education, the rapid growth of
povernment activity and a burgeoning
bureaucracy had crea young people with firmly on the rewards government job. But government nor a could absorb a rising attitudes, skills and ex of step with real Unemployment rock and to even higher lev, 24 year olds.
There was also anoth Lanka fell victim to ments. The death ra dramatic fall in subsequent fall in the get under way until th the time-lag between rapid population inc range of welfare ser that increases in quan for improvements in ment expenditure pe services, for example, in the 50s but remaine the 60s.
At the same time, th confronted by a stub poverty-related proble to bow under the wei, spending. The infan which has been dra from over 150 to 52 by to go below 45 even by year old group also remained high and remained low. Six per pre-school children we acutely malnourished almost one third children were in som from an inadequate di
When such problems direct interventions l campaigns and Sch government, it seemec getting results But w depended upon action less accessible level powerlessness, the pr
communities could pe more headway again
"hard-core' problems, development from the
Marga e Third bn's past ects for
ed a generation of their sights fixed and securities of a neither a growing flagging economy
generation whose pectations were out job opportunities. sted to over 20070 els among the 15 to
er way in which Sri its own achievete had begun its 1946 whilst the birth rate did not e early 60s. And in these two trends, rease strained the vices and ensured tity left little room quality. Governr head on social more than doubled d virtually static in
e country has been born hard-core of ms which refused ght of government t mortality rate, matically lowered 1961, had refused 1975. In the 1 to 4 , the death rate nutritional levels ent of Sri Lanka's re estimated to be in 1976 - and f all pre-school e degree suffering et.
were susceptible to ke immunization pol meals, the , was capable of here the solution at the deeper and of poverty and oblems remained.
by people and
rhaps have made st the remaining
but the delivery of op down had also
tended to create a dependence among its recipients and reduce the capacity of the poor to participate in the process of improving their own circumstances.
Sustained economic growth leading to more jobs and higher incomes might also have maintained the momentum of social progress. But the economy refused to co-operate in this plan. The terms of trade began to drift steadily against Sri Lanka and export earnings could not meet import demands. Unemployment continued to increase.
The tensions arising from all these forces were suppressed but not resolved after the insurrection of 1971. And as the 70s wore on economic problems intensified with the tripling of oil and food prices in the international marketplace on which Sri Lanka had become increasingly dependent To make matters worse, a serious drought began to strangle domestic food production and between 1973 and 1975 the infant mortality rate actually began to creep up again as the crisis touched the most vulnerable group of all.
This combination of pressures was enough to force out of office the broad coalition of the left, headed by Mrs Sirima Bandaranaike, and in 1977 the present UNP government of J.R. Jayawardene came to power with a mandate to open up the economy, liberate market forces and substitute incentive for dependency.
Without further ado, the government effectively devalued the rupee by 50%, relaxed exchange controls to open the gates to more imports and abolished many of the subsidies which had been protecting the consumer from the full force of international price changes. The target was an increase in economic growth to 5.7/o and a reduction in unemployment from 2470 (the 1973 figure) to 7.2% by 1985. Meanwhile only those households with a monthly income below 300 Rupees would be entitled to food subsidies (see box).
Internationally these measures were widely regarded as a swing away from "the welfare state which Sri Lanka can no longer afford'. But, in fact, the main pillars of the welfare system - free health and education see copy remained unshaken. Indeed, free education was made more of a reality by the government's decision to
(Contd. on page 6)
6 TAMIL TIMES
WEALTH AND WELFA
(Contd. from page 5)
provide text books free. Other welfare programmes - for example, the free supply of nutritional supplements to pregnant and lactating women and to malnourished children - were stepped up to a point where there are now 500,000 beneficiaries.
Since 1977 the economy has shown some signs of improvement. Economic growth ran at a healthy 6.8% a year in the 1978-80 period - raising per capita incomes by 1570 over the three years, even when inflation is taken into aCCOunt.
But inflation, now running at over 2070, does not often treat rich and poor alike. Usually it means that the former have to cut back on luxuries whilst the latter cut back on necessities.
To some extent this may have happened. But the remittances of thousands of Sri Lankans working in the Middle East, the jobs being created by the massive Mahaweli Project and the rising incomes in agriculture, fisheries and the small industries of the informal sector have all helped to deaden the impact of inflation on large numbers of the poor.
At the same time, the wages of 500,000 government workers - mostly the middle and lower middle classes - have been virtually frozen. From the beginnings of 1977 to the end of 1980, private sector wages have risen by over 5000so whilst public sector pay has fallen by 2% in real terS.
Reversing a trend, wage rises in white
collar jobs generally have risen more slowly than for skilled and unskilled manual work. The effect on the attitudes and aspirations of Sri Lanka's young school leavers remains to be seen. In 1980, youth unemployment was still running at around 1470.
Overall, real incomes seem to be rising, even for the poorest half of the population. It would therefore appear that, despite recent changes in economic policy, threats to the welfare state and an overall increase in inequalities, there has been no real decline in people's ability to meet their basic needs.
Social indicators tend to confirm this conclusion. Crude death rates have dropped below 7 for the first time (to 6.4 in 1980) and infant mortality has taken another sharp fall from 42 in 1977
to 37 in 1980 - thougl due to the start bein the tea estate workers national welfare ser
Lees optimistically, statements are incr further and deeper spending. If those facts, then the poor back before they ha increase their own e lift themselves out c paternalism and negl for self-reliant impro
Looking to the f achievements and suggest that the natio rate of economic gro more - and rea approximately 150 bi year 2000, almost t figure. Although d international variabl trade and the levels o the wisdom of natio such a target is by n(
If, over the same assume that the birt decline by an annual 1000 over the next that the crude deatl around 6 - then the Sri Lanka by the end fall just short of 20 n time the annual at births would be in c pressure on schools
not send present and
current dev immediately
Please let us k.
I would like
(Please type or not enough sp:
LL SSLLSS SSSL SSLSL S SS SS SS SSLLL SLSLS S0L SL0 SS S SSL SSL SS0 S LLS
this may in part be made on bringing within the scope of ices.
recent government ;asingly hinting at
cuts in welfare hints become hard *st groups will Slip fe had a chance to urning capacity and f poverty. Between ect, the opportunity vement may be lost.
uture, Sri Lanka’s
present progress n can sustain a high with - 5070 a year or ch a GDP of llion Rupees by the rebling the present ependent on such es as the terms of f aid, as well as on nal decision-taking, ) means impossible.
period of time, we h rate continues to
average of 0.5 per two decades - and in rate stabilises at total population of of the century will hillion. And by that }solute number of ecline - easing the
and other services
HOUGHTFUL AND USEFUL
CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEAR PRESENT
got friends and relatio. in distant places? Then why them a thoughtful Christmas and New Year i keep them informed of news and views about elopments? Take out a subscription on their behalf
nited Kingdom: £5.00 Overseas: £7.50
and allowing any increases in resources to be used for improving the quality of education and for attacking any remaining specific problems, such as pre-school nutrition or non-enrolment and high school drop-out rates among the poorest groupS.
These two projections, for the growth of the economy and of the population, suggest an annual per capita income of 7750 Rupees (in 1979 prices) by the end of the century. The fate of the poorest quarter of Sri Lanka's population, however, also depends on what happens to equity and income distribution over that same period. If income distribution patterns become any worse than today, then it could take until the year 2000 itself before the poorest groups rise above the poverty line and are able to
meet their basic needs.
All of these projections are tentative
and exploratory. But it is evident that if economic growth rates drop below 57o a year, then the hard core of poverty in Sri Lanka will persist to the year 2000 and beyond. If, on the other hand, economic growth is sustained and if the incomes of the poorest quarter are made to rise more rapidly than for the richest three-quarters, then absolute poverty could be a thing of the past by the end of the 1980s. In the meantime, effective welfare policies will be needed to sustain the poorest groups.
A sensible development strategy should be able to sustain this balance of objectives. And the next 10 years could and should see a further substantial drop in infant nuortality to about 25 per 1000, the elimination of malnutrition, and at least a full 4 years of primary school education for all Sri Lanka's children.
now if you would like an acknowledgement yourself.
TAMIL TIMES 82 Chandos Crescent, Edgware, Middlesex. UK. to order... Gift subscriptions and enclose my remittance for f...
use block letters. If you don't want to cut your copy, or there is ace, addresses may be written on a separate sheet of paper).
Gift Subscriptions to be addressed to:
DECEMBER 1981 ܖ LSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSLSL
JAFENA PUBLIC LIBRARY
Front elevation of the Jaffna Public Library before it was burnt.
The wanton destruction of the Jaffna public Library - a magnificent building that contained a collection of 97,000 books and rare manuscripts is perhaps the most shamefully tragic event in the island's history. It is all the more tragic in that it was deliberately done by the custodians of law and order who plunged the city in arson and assault during the first week of Лите.
Jaffna, it is well known enjoys the reputation of being the
intellectual and spiritual centre for the Tamils of Ceylon, thanks to an illustrious line of savants, statesmen and godmen. The names of Srila Sri Arumuga Navalar, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Fr. Gnanapragasar, Sir Ponnambalam Brothers, Leaders of Tamil Nationalism, G. G. Ponnambalam and Thanthai S.J. V. Chelvanayakan, and last but not least Ven 'ble Siva Yoga Swamigal Stand out among a huge host of immortals.
The Jaffna Pblic Library on its 50 years of existence attained a stature worthy of this tradition. It is with reverence and gratitude that people remember stalwarts like K.N. Chellappa who mooted the idea effectively, the first Mayor of Jaffna, Sam A. Sabapathy who ventured on the building project with the Council's approval. Fr. T. M. F. Long who sailed the high seas to collect funds, and institutions like the Asia Foundation and the Indian High Commission which contributed substantially to fulfil the project.
While we deplore with the civilised world this barbarous act of
cultural assassination, we feel we should not lose time in restoring this symbol of our peerless heritage. We are therefore launching an appeal for funds from friends and well-wishers,
The Library with 95,000 Books reduced to ashes
TAMIL TIMES 7
and we are confident you are in sympathy with our efforts.
Adversity sees miracles' in the words of Shakespeare, and we are emboldened to reconstruct a modern library, with better amenities and more spacious accommodation while conforming to the original plan in its essentials.
We expect that you will want to contribute the maximum you could spare for a worthy cause like this that is estinated to cost approximately Fifteen Million rupees.
The Jaffna Publič Library Trust Fund Account No. 2893 has
been opened in Bank of Ceylon, Jaffna, and we shall be grateful
if you can send your contribution direct to the Bank, with advise fo uS.
RIT A has returned from abroad to be at the helm of her new travel agency.
Your travel arrangements during the festive and holiday season will be handled with her well known courteous and efficient service.
Telephone | Rita sandrasagra 346-5044 5, Cavendish Avenue London N.3. 3OP.
8 TAMIL TIMES
The historical geography of the Tamil country, with its wide coastline in the east and in the west, its numerous havens and sheltered inlets, its natural and manufactured products vendible in world markets and its strategic location on the highway of east-west commerce resulted in the development from very early times of a maritime and commercial tradition as an intrinsic part of Tamil society. In the very earliest evidence reflecting the society and civilization of the Tamils - the literature of the Sangam period - the role of trade and of traders loomed large in many of the regions of the Tamil country. There is indication of a flourishing seaborne trade from a number of ports of the Coromandel (a western corruption of Cholamandalam) coast and the Malayalam coast, and of communities engaged in seafaring and
The evidence of trade with west Asia and the Mediterranean world is clear and unmistakeable from the first century B.C. Though not equally positive, evidence of trade eastwards, to the Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Burma and even to China begins to appear from about the first Century A.D. Subsequently this evidence strengthens and by the end of the Sangam period and the period of the twin epics it is clear that Tamil seafarers had opened up a regular commerce with the countries of Southeast Asia.
UNITY UNDER PALLAVS
The sailings to Southeast Asia appear to have mainly departed from the ports of the Coromandel coast. With the unification of the Tamil country under the Pallavas, this eastern coast developed rapidly into major nuclear centres of agricultural and handicraft production. The produce of these areas and the spices of the Malayalam coast seem to have been shipped by these Tamil traders. In return they brought back other aromatic spices to be found in those regions, various goods originating from China and, most importantly, gold and precious stones. The ports of departure extended northwards into the Telugu country, where under the Satavahanas a number of important ports of foreign trade developed.
These ships would generally set sail after October to take advantage of the
Dr. S. ARASA. Ceylon and reg in the Universi
Part II of this
notheast monSOOn Nicobar Islands fro for the relatively p Sumatra. There see number of places of the Malay penin Thailand where thes were major places times and also ser across the peninsul the Gulf of Sial Kambuja, Champ: popular area of call the Kedah region landfall using the K out at Sea as a lan further north to Isthmus of Kra whe Pa has revealed settlement. Traders Coast must also ha’ Straits of Malacca t Javanese ports. To every evidence tha Telugu and Tam: different parts of th the early years of th
The trade seems t the period of the then carried on an under the Chola Vijayanagar Empir the trade to Southea of the economic gr productivity and from the creation o in the Tamil count trade, this expans growth of large merchants operating zations centred in la South India. These begin to feature in S from the 9th centu surprising that the among them havi evidence in Malaya, Java of their pres settlements. The ci thus definitely know Southeast Asia are desi, Viravalanjiyar Ainnurru var.
S IN SOUTH EAST
RATNAM, a former Senior Lecturer at the University of arded as eminent historian, is now Professor of History ty of New England, Australia.
article will appear in our January 1982 issue. *水冲冲冲冲率本冲冲*冰***************水来来来米米米水水水冲米米**水冰水冲率本炸水冲冲本**
in the direction of the
m where they headed rotected seas east of med to have been a the western coast of sula and southern e ships landed. These of trade at various ved as transit points a and the isthmus to m and onward to a and beyond. A for long periods was where sailors made edah Peak visible far dmark. Others sailed wards the narrow -re the port of Takua evidence of Indian from the Coromandel ve sailed through the o east Sumatran and the north there seems it traders from the Il coasts sailed to e Burmese coast from e Christian era.
o have picked up in Pallava Empire and ever-increasing scale, S and later the . This expansion of st Asia was an aspect owth and increasing prosperity resulting large political units y. In the sphere of on is seen in the combinations of in corporate organirge market towns of trading corporations outheast Asian trade y onwards. It is not larger organizations left inscriptional Burma, Sumatra and ince there in trade rporations that are to have traded with Manikraman, Nanaand Thisaiyayirattu
The seasonal nature of the sailing movements and the expanding character of the operations led to the creation of what started off as merchant settlements in these various Southeast Asian centres of trade. Archaelogical evidence has unmistakeably identified these settlements where Indian traders would have lived, awaiting the change of monsoon, or as agents left behind by the large and powerful corporations to conduct business in the area. We have some idea of the nature of such a settlement in the southern Thai port of Takua Pa from excavated remains and a Tamil inscription of the middle of the 9th century. Here was a settlement of Tamil merchants in the reign of the Pallava king Nandivarman the Third (c.A.D. 844-866). It would appear that the Manikramam had established this settlement, which possessed its own regiment, with its own temple and tank and lived as a self-contained colony. It can be assumed that this would have been the
pattern of many Indian trade settlements in Southeast Asia.
With the ascendency of the Cholas in south India, Tamil maritime trade and interest in Southeast Asia picked up considerably. Sailings were now more frequent and regular, and a wider area appears to have been covered. For the first time maritime trade became an instrument of royal policy and Chola navies began to make their power felt in the waters across the Bay of Bengal. During this period, a maritime power with control over trade and trade routes had risen in the Malay/Indonesian archipelago, the Sri Vijayan Empire. There was much contact and intercourse between Tamils and the areas controlled by this empire. These relations soon extended to the political and cultural sphere. Just as Tamil traders from the Coromandel Coast traded in Sri Vijayan ports, Indonesian traders from Sumatra and Java frequented Chola ports, particularly the port of Nagapatnam.
ASIA AND FAR
Settlements and facilities similar to those
held by Indians in Southeast Asia were provided for these Indonesians along the Coromandel Coast.
Southeast Asian trade and the trade through the Straits of Malacca eastwards to China had become so much a part of Chola interest that soon thę Cholas began to deploy their navy in these waters. The Cholas desired to keep the trade to Southeast Asia and China free and open for their subjects. The expansion of the Sri Vijayan maritime empire across the Malacca Straits into the major trading ports of the Malay peninsula gave this empire a commanding position over the trade routes of the region. It seems that the empire used this position to its advantage which would have had adverse effects on the traders of the Chola empire who traded in these parts. This seems to have led to a situation of conflict which resulted in a major invasion of the Sri Vijayan empire by the Chola emperor Rajendra I in 1025 A.D. This expedition, which was very successful, is recorded in a contemporary inscription of the reign of Rajendra Chola. The inscription records that the Chola navy attacked a number of Sri Vijayan ports, including the capital city of Sri Vijaya (Palembang) and captured the king Sangrama-Vijayottungavarman. The places mentioned are situated on the Sumatra coast, the Malay coast and in south Thailand. Much booty was taken from these places by the victorious navy. This expedition would have resulted in a temporary subjection of the Sri Vijayan ruler to the Cholas, for how long we are not certain. It would certainly have resulted in opening the Malacca straits to Chola traders who were then expanding their trade eastwards to the Indo-Chinese peninsula and even to the Chinese empire.
Chola relations with the Sri Vijayan kingdom and interest in these ports continued in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1068 there was another expedition by the Chola emperor, Virarajendra, this time to Kedah which he claimed to have conquered on behalf of a king who had sought his protection. It seems that the Cholas were taking an active interest in the politics of the region. There is a contemporary Tamil inscription of a
Tamil mercantile c showing that col political relations
hand during this pe not a one-way con At this time Indi frequenting the Cl mandel. The Ch grants to a Bu Nagapatnam estab Indonesian traders.
Though Chinese known and were av from very early tim reached China, it direct trade between and China began. S the basis of referent that this trade was century A.D. Tamil were known to Chin and the increase o Asia seems to have contact. There is ev trade from the Sun From this period, well-known to Ch provide descriptions
· people, its trade, po
The port of Nagapa been the port of dep trade as well as the p traders arrived. The Chinese settlement il of the 10th century Sung dynasty in Chi country was uni: coincided with the Chola empire in Sout above, the extension Southeast Asia. The the existing trade rei up diplomatic conti persuaded the Chola (referred to in the Ch Locha-Locha) to ser Sung Emperor in 10 Samudra arrived in th 1015 A.D. with p received by the Empe the Sung Dynasty re voyage of this envc Samudra died on his 1 sequently trade dele were sent in 1033 A.D another in 1077 A between India and C later Chinese account Calicut, which in th risen to a major por
TAMIL TIMES 9
rporation in Sumatra, lmercial activity and were going hand-iniod. The contact was; act but was bilateral. nesian traders were ola ports of Coro
bla monarchs made ildhist temple near ished to serve these
products have been ailable in south India es and Indian exports is not known when ports of Tamil Nadu ome would assert, on ces in Chinese annals, as early as the first centres of Buddhism ese Buddhist scholars f trade to Southeast led to greater direct fidence of this direct g dynasty onwards. south India becomes inese annalists vho of the country, its rts and trade routes. tİmam Seems to have arture for this China ort to which Chinese re are traces of a that port. The end saw the rise of the na under which the ied. The period expansion of the h India and, as seen of its interests into desire to cultivate ations and to build ict seems to have Emperor Rajanaja I nese annals as King d an envoy to the 2 A.D. The envoy e Chinese capital in resents and was or. The History of cords in detail the y 'Soli Samudra”, eturn journey. Subgations or envoys by Rajendra I and .D. Direct trade nina increased and talk of the port of 13th century had of overseas trade.
In the wake of trade there developed cultural contact and a process of clitural transmission of elements of Indian culture in many regions of Southeast Asia. This process of cultural transmission originated from a number of regions of India: Tamil Nadu, Bengal, Kalinga and Orissa. It is therefore difficult to separate the contribution of the Tamils to this process. Almost all our authorities on the study of Indian culture in Southeast Asia are agreed, however, that the Tamil country played a major role in the transmission of this culture - whether it be through Sanskrit learning, Buddhist missionary teaching, Hindu architecture and iconography, spread of the written word or other aspects of Indian culture.
One of the major areas of contribution was through the introduction of writing. The script of a number of Southeast Asian languages is based on original south Indian scripts which were first transmitted in these parts. Some of the first inscriptions in the Malay peninsula - such as for example the Buddhist prayer inscribed by a traveller in Bukit Meriam in Kedah - was in a Pallava Grantha script, as were others in Thailand and the Indo-Chinese peninsula.
Similarly, evidence from the plastic arts shows a good deal of the influence emanating from Dravidian India. The earliest temple structures excavated in the Kedah region of the Malay peninsula show distinct Pallava influences. Some of these structures and those of Kambuja and Champa have clear affinity to the monolithic temples of Mamallapuram. Some of the sculpture is also seen to be of a clearly Pallava style and these have been found in many sites in the region. This evidence shows the Pallavas as one of the major influences in the transmission of Indian culture in Southeast Asia. The great flowering of culture under the Pallavas in south India appears to have left its mark in Southeast Asia through the merchants and colonists who migrated to various parts of Southeast Asia. The origin myth of one of the earliest Indianized kingdoms of the region, the kingdom of Funan, is very similar to the myth relating to the founding of the Pallava kingdom. South
(Contd. on page 13)
10 TAMIL TIMES,
We thank you sincerely for the first issue of your Tamil Times sent to us. It has come to us at a time when we most need it. Your publication has given us a full and factual insight into what is happening to Tamils in Sri Lanka. May your publication grow from strength to strength with every issue.
N. Ariaratnam Lusaka.
WHAT ABOUT NON-TAMILS INTERESTED IN TAMIL AFFAIRS2
Many thanks for sending us the Tamil Times and congratulations on the first issue. It is hard hitting on the most urgent issue facing the Tamils at present, an issue which was doubtless not much covered by the press in UK, and barely at all here in Malaysia, where the press is very wary of reporting racial conflict anywhere.
Although it is fair enough that the first issue should deal with the situation in Sri Lanka, I wonder if this is the sole raison d’etre for publishing the Tamil Times. The editorial seems to suggest it is, with references to "our country. Is it printed solely by and for Sri Lankan Tamils? The editors do indeed say that they hope to publish news of interest to other Sri Lankans. But what about other Tamils, or non-Tamils interested in Tamil affairs? If it is primarily for Sri Lankans, perhaps that should be indicated in the paper's title. Personally I would hope that a paper with the title Tamil Times
would deal with m to Tamils the wo course, and as the not tied to any cultural and literar the discrimination Tamil Nadu for ol violence almost at Tamils, and at the too. Book review writers, the theor the history of Ta on; there is plenty get the writers.
Although it is no crisis in Sri Lanka the situation settles a paper solely re will, fall off. I thil I hope a market, English devoted to Tamil life and cult be of interest to r who are interested have recorded my want to pass th reaction to the firs success and encl
much needed ne living all over th could co-ordinat various Tamil ol in most western Tamil Times the c all Tamils living to have achieved
LONDON TAMIL SCH
Classes are held on Saturdays 10.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at Plashet Girls School, Plashet Grove, London E.6. Particulars from:
S. Devadas (01-552.8124) 91 Wakefield St., London E.6.
WEST LONDON TAMIL SCHOOL
Classes are held on Saturdays 10.a.m. to 12 noon at Stanhope School, Mansell Road, Greenford, Middlesex. Instruc
tions in Tamil Music, Bharata ) provided. Particu S. Ganes 59 Summi
Classes are held at the Wimbled St. George’s Roa in Tamil langu Bharata Natyam provided. Partic from:
S. Thiruche 69 Toynbee R«
LLLLLSLLGLLLGLLGLGLGqLLSLSLLLSLLLLLLLL LLL LL
ny subjects of interest ld over; political, of editorial wisely states, arty; but also social, subjects. How about
against Harijans in e? They have suffered great as Sri Lankan hands of other Tamils s, articles on Tamil I of Bharathanatyam, mil emigration and so of interest if you can
t easy to see how the can be resolved, once
down the demand for
porting that situation k there is a need, and for a serious paper in the broad spectrum of ure. It would certainly on-Tamils like myself in Tamil affairs. I thoughts in case you
em as one readeros t number. I wish you pse my subscription. John Palim
ASCENTRAL NEWS (EDIA
for venturing into a ws medium for Tamils le World! If only you e the efforts of the ganisations functioning countries and make the
Ensure a systematic way of dealing with all your subscribers by sending the paper regularly, informing in advance when the subscriptions are due and acknowledging all correspondence. This, I am compelled to mention, as one of the earlier
magazines which originated in the UK appeared and disappeared and we were all very disappointed.
In my own way I am already giving much publicity to others about your paper and you may expect many subscribers very soon. You may also expect news, views and articles from this end.
R. Ganesharatnam, M.I. Struct. E.,
A TIMELY ARRIVAL
I was delighted to see the publication of the Tamil Times for several reasons; its format, its quality, the purpose and the need it is fulfilling. At a recent all-day Tamil symposium conducted in New York focusing on Tamil problems as one of the prime and urgent necessities, we were discussing the need for a high quality international magazine for Tamils. In fact, a few of us decided to undertake the responsibility to start publishing one. The timely arrival of Tamil Times has not only made such an effort unnecessary but also fulfils the existing need. I have already distributed the magazine to several people and have made several phone calls urging people to subscribe. S.E. Moorth.y., M.D.
entral news medium for California abroad you could claim U.S.A. a lot.
OOLS SRI LANKAN LAWYER
Language, Carnatic HONOURED
Natyam and Veena are lars f
arS ÎľOI Dr. C.F. Amerasinghe, M.A., n (01-845 7900)
LL.B. Ph.D., LL.D. (Cantab), LL.M.
Road, Northolt, iddlesex.
on Saturdays, 2-6 p.m. in Community Centre, i, S.W.19. Instructions age, Carnatic Music, and Mirudangam are lars may be obtained
vam (01-542 5140) ad, London S.W.20.
(Harvard), Ph.D. (Ceylon) has been conferred an exceptional honour by being elected to the Institute of International Law, the most respected and select body of international lawyers.
He is the first Sri Lankan to be SO selected and was elected on the first occasion on which his name was proposed. The election represents a mark of recognition of his outstanding contribution to international law.
TAMIL ISSUE BEFORE Al
Australian Senator Kilgariff recently presented a petition to the country's Senate urging the Federal Government of Australia to raise the problem of human rights of the Tamils of Sri Lanka.
The following is the full text of the petition:-
The Clerk - A petition has been lodged for presentation as follows:
HUMAN RIGHTS IN SRI LANKA
To the Honourable the President and Members of the Senate in Parliament assembled. The petition of the undersigned respectfully showeth:
When Imperial Britain left the shores of Ceylon, she introduced the Soulbury Constitution in 1948 which handed over parliamentary power almost exclusively to the majority Sinhalese community. The Sinhalese leadership interpreted and implemented its political power by such 3CťS aS
1. Disenfranchising nearly one million Tamils in 1948.
2. Declaring Sinhalese as the ONLY official language of the country in 1956, Thus disadvantaging the Tamil speaking population in employment, education and administrative matters.
3. Demanding Tamil children be educated in Sinhalese for employment in government sector.
4. Government sponsored colonisation of traditional Tamil districts, with the eventual objective of depriving Tamil representation of those areas in the legislative assembly. This has happened in areas where colonisation has taken place in the Eastern Province.
5. Discrimination against the development of Tamil areas by channelling the foreign assistance schemes almost entirely to develop Sinhalese districts. A study of the developmental projects utilising Australian aid would be revealing.
6. A more important aspect of such discriminatory policies was the well planned and government encouraged attempts at the physical elimination of the Tamil people by acts of terrorism, plunder, rape and murder at regular intervals. Communal riots occurred in 1956; 1958; 1961; 1966; 1972; 1977; 1981.
During May a government secur violence in the Ta killing innocent pe homes and public Tamil documents newspaper offices mably in an atter identity and cultur
Your petitioners in the Scenate, in P should:
Dr. A.M. Jalal National Party ( Parliament for Pot facing several allega corruption before a ssion. The inquiry i commenced recently ssion comprising th Judges.
Witnesses including of Dr. Jalaedeen gav Commission in r instances of bribery financial misdemea the MP. The broth told the Commission built house was des as 'Bribery Mansi matters, witnesses before the Commis following:
** Out of the don from Saudi Arabia the Addalaichenai requested and was worth refrigerator v procession with participating, to th
* * The MP did nic before his election have a house to liv election in 1977. becoming MP, he Rs.. 42,000, demolis! it and built a new worth Rs. 300,000.
* The invitation f party of the MP's
d June 1981 the y forces unleashed hil district of Jaffna, ple, set ablaze shops, library with historic
Tamil bookshops, and printery, presupt to destroy Tamil
ost humbly pray that arliament assembled,
Urge the Federal Government of
Australia to raise the problem of human rights of the Tamils of Sri Lanka as a atter for consideration at the forthcoming conference of the Commonwealth Heads of Government.
And your petitioners in duty bound will every pray.
by Senator Kilgariff.
MP AND H S
deen, the United JNP) Member of tuvil, Sri Lanka is tions of bribery and Presidential Commiinto these allegations o before a Commiree Supreme Court
very close relations e evidence before the espect of several and acts of serious hour on the part of r-in-law of the MP that the MP's newly ribed by the people in’. Among other who gave evidence on testified to the
tion of Rs. 700,000. r the restoration of Mosque, the MP given a Rs. 10,000 ich was taken in a pout 100 people
MP's new house.
have much income MP. He did not in at the time of ut in 1979 after ught a land worth il the old house on one approximately
the housewarming ew house was all
arranged and spent for by 'supporters'. "Presents' like refrigerators, clocks, furniture sets, musical equipment and other household items worth over Rs. 100,000 were given to the MP by the people. Subsequently people started to call the MP's new house as "Bribery Mansion'.
* * The MP did not have any income other than his parliamentary salary. But he bought a car for Rs. 65,000 in 1979. The MP bought a tractor for his father-in-law for Rs. 125,000; a lorry for his brother-in-law for Rs. 165,000; he bought four plots of land worth Rs. 100,000; he did renovations to his house in Colombo for Rs. 50,000 and invested a further sum of Rs. 50,000 in a business.
* * The MP solicited a sum of Rs. 10,000 from his own younger brother to help in obtaining a promotion in his job at the Sri Lanka Tobacco Industries Corporation.
* The MP's wife distributed Job Bank' forms at a price of Rs. 300 to Rs. 1000 per form.
" " The MP was given Rs. 30,000 for obtaining 30 allotments of land for sugar plantations, but the person who gave the money failed to get those allotments.
* * The MP abused his power to victimise those who petitioned against him by getting them arrested on false charges or dismissed from their employ1ent.
The inquiry is proceeding.
NEXT WORLD SANSKRT CONFERENCE IN U.S.
The sixth World Sanskrit Conference will be held in Philadelphia, USA in October 1982. This was announced by the newly elected President of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies, Professor R.N. Dandekar.
Professor Dandekar told newsmen that the Fifth World Sanskrit Conference held in October this year at Varanasi, India had created an awareness among the Indian and foreign delegates that Sanskrit language was a living force for communication and exchange of ideas in various parts of the world community. He said that there were lively deliberations on various subjects in sessional meetings where about 500 papers were read on literature, rhetoric, religion and technical sciences.
Prof. Jean Fillozat (France), Prof. Jan Gonda (Netherlands) and Prof. Paul Thieme (GDR) were among the eight eminent scholars who were awarded the degree of Doctor of Letters (Honoris Causa) at a special convocation of the Banaras Hindu University.
Nehru Award For Husband And Wife
- New Delhi, Nov. 13. The 1981 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for international Understanding has been given jointly to the Swedish Nobel laureate, Prof. Gunnar Myrdal, spegialising in third world economic problems, and his well-known sociologist and writer wife Alva Myrdal.
Announcing the award here today, the Vice-President, Mr. M. Hidayatullah, chairman of the seven-member jury, said it was unanimously decided to give the award to the couple jointly because it would have been difficult to choose between the two.
He said Prof. Myrdal, author of the famous book “The Asian Drama', and Mrs Alva Myrdal, a former Ambassador to India, formed a team "quite apart from being husband and wife and their work supplements that of each other'.
The award carries a cash prize Rs. 1 lakh and a citation and is usually presented at a special ceremony in New Delhi on November 14, Nehru's birthday.
The Vice-President said the award
would be conferred on them some time
next year, at a date consultation with Pro wife.
Soon after Nehru's ( Union Government in gious award to be g outstanding contributi tion of internation goodwill and friend people of the world.
The award is admini Council for Cultural
TAML, NAD N FREE Ll
Mr. P. H. Pandyan, the Tamil Nadu ASSel conference of Asi Wednesday that t Government was lead rendering free legal
The conference is be of Kochi on the S Shikoku on the them of justice and human
It is being attended Asian countries inclui
In addition to Mr represented by twc
Mr. Pandyan prese free legal aid to the p on the opening day.
Several Indian cor set up joint ventul manufacturing pape aluminium items an
The Daily Econom India quoting N Chairman of the Centre, who had Colombo after at seminar on “Inves" Sri Lanka” reporte Government WaS e. Indian investment setting up sugar
to be decided in f. Myrdal and his
leath in 1964, the stituted this prestiiven annually for on to the promoal understanding, lship among the
stered by the India Relations.
U LEADING EGAL AID
From K.V. Narain Tokyo, Nov 12.
Deputy Speaker of mbly, told the first an Lawyers on he Tamil Nadu ing in the matter of aid to the public.
ing held in the city outhern island of e of administration
by lawyers from 13 iing India.
Pandyan, India is other delegates.
inted his paper on ublic in Tamil Nadu
ESTMENT IN ANKA
panies are likely to es in Sri Lanka for r, sugar, rubber and
c Times published in r. Harban Singh, Indian investment just returned from ending a week-long ment Promotion for that the Sri Lankan pecially keen to have and expertise for lants and tanneries.
蓝 LANKAS BOMBAY
A group of men protesting against the ill-treatment of Tamils of Indian origin in Sri Lanka attacked the Sri Lanka Trade Commissioner's Office in Bombay on November 13. The group claiming to be members of an organisation called “Azad Hind Sena” meaning “Army of Free India' is reported to have burst into the office and smashed a window before staff and police intervened to prevent further damage.
Attempts by the group to disconnect the telephone lines of the office and set fire to the building and the official car would appear to have been thwarted by the timely intervention of the police.
The Sri Lankan government is reported to have expressed serious concern over the incident to the Indian High Commissioner in Sri Lanka.
It is understood that the “Azad Hind Sena' mounted this attack as a protest against the violence unleashed in August this year against the Tamils of Indian origin living in Sri Lanka.
WOMAN MURDERED IN UK
Twenty-nine year old Mrs. Mallika Dheerasekera from Matugama, Sri Lanka was found dead with head injuries recently at the City of Leeds High School where she worked. The body was found in a small basement store room in the school by the police who commenced searching when Mrs. Dheerasekera was reported missing.
A 17 year old English youth had been produced and charged before the Leeds Magistrates Court with the murder of Mrs. Dheerasekera. Police reports indicate that the motive for murder was sexual.
Mr. D. Dheerasekera, the deceased's husband, an economist working in the Central Bank of Sri Lanka came to Britain with his wife some 12 months ago to do a master's Degree in Transport Economics at the University of Leeds. At the time of the tragedy, Mrs. Dheerasekera was doing a part-time job at the
school where her battered body was found. , :ðLi ; i :ðAEi
NOBODY CAN REMOVE ME Sa
"My civic rights have been stripped in order to remove me from politics. I will retire from politics after the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) regains power. Till then nobody can remove me from politics.” declared Mrs. Srima Bandaranaike, the former Prime Minister of Sri
Lanka and the leader of the SLFP (Srima
Mrs. Bandaranaike described the differences between herself and Mr. Anura Bandaranaike (her son) as a "family affair' and not a political matter.
“Anura is my son, and I am his mother. The mother and son matter is a family problem. I do not want to make it a political question and drag it into the poliitical scene” said Mrs. Bandaranaike. She said that Mr. Maitripala Senanayake, MP (former Deputy Leader of the SLFP
and presently lead faction) would neve the party and that he be an ordinary mer
“Maitripala Senana rid of me and Anura puppet. I do not knc
not realise this'',
Mrs. Bandaranaike present President, M. when he came to pc offered her and Mr. yake two cabinet m flatly refused because betray the SLFP. If accept the Ministry would not have been she did not accept remained a force in government had v. removing her civic rig
(Contd. from page 9) Indian influences have also been noted in the cultures of Javanese kingdoms, in respect of the script, the architecture, sculpture and the visual arts. In Sumatra there is in addition the adaptation of Tamil terminology such as Chola, Pallava, Pandya and Malayalam.
Evidence of the introduction of specifically Tamil ritual and the use of Tamil literature comes from Thailand where traces of this remain to the present day. Tamil brahmans who became royal priests (Rajaguru) to Thai kings appear to have introduced the use of Thevaram and Thiruvacakam in religious ritual.
These Tamil hymns v to writing in the continued to be use centuries. They are e. consecration ceremor Tamil religious text festivals were the Th Saivites and Thirupp vites. Scholars who h tive studies of the current in India an Southeast Asia are ( the Tamil version, K was known in Tha Java. Its version of t in this epic have bee the local language cultures.
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ys Mrs. B.
ng a breakaway
be re-admitted to was not fit even to iber of the party.
'ake is trying to get by making Anura a w why Anura does amented Mrs. B.
claimed that the ". J. R. Jayawardene, wer in July 1977, Maitripala Senanainistries, but she she did not want to she had agreed to her civic rights removed. Because the Ministry and che opposition, the ictimised her by hts.
vere then committed Thai language and d in that form for specially used at the ly of a ruler. Other s used in popular iruvempavai of the avai of the Vaishnalave made comparaRamayana stories d various parts of of the opinion that ampa Ramayanam, iland, Malaya and he various incidents n incorporated into accounts in these
es for one year
e o e e O P O e
DISCRIMINATION AND RACISM......
(Contd. from page 3)
should only be instituted where the need for them is clearly made out. But need must be the criteria, and no other . The principle has already been recognised by Parliament (Sections 35, 37, 88 of the 1976 Race Relations Act) and must be made effective.'
Essentially, what Lord Scarman is talking about is achieving equality of opportunity through a combination of non-discrimination and active intervention based on need, as permitted by the legislation already on the statute books.
Active intervention within the framework of the 1976 legislation means diagnosis of need and allocation of appropriate resources. Such action is permitted only under precise circumstances. For example, when racial groups are under-represented in an occupation or skill-level, specified employment bodies can actively encourage members of that racial group to apply for the jobs in question or to undertake appropriate training.
Under similar conditions, specified employment bodies can provide special training for members of under-represented racial groups. The point of such training is to raise the trainees te a point where they can compete more effectively in the open market.
So Lord Scarman is not saying that blacks should be given privileges which the other members of society do not enjoy. He is saying that the present imbalance must be redressed through positive action. Effective initiatives to deal with the problems of deprivation and disadvantage must of necessity attend both to the scale of resources required and to the equitable allocation of the
resources. The Government must, therefore, as a matter of urgency think of mechanisms for correcting the maldistribution of resources and, where necessary, 1nject more resources.
Positive action is about justice and not privileges. Unless we grasp this, we shall continue to muddle through as we have done in the past.
(Courtesy of the Observer)
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INDIA AND NEIGHBOURS
G.K. Reddy (The Hindu, International Edition, 1981 Nov 28) states that strains in Indo-Pakistan relations are spurring India to make a renewed effort to establish better understanding with the other countries of the subcontinent. The focal point of this effort is going to be Bangladesh. At the same time relations with Nepal and Bhutan are also to be strengthened. It is noted that King Birendra and Prime Minister Mr S.B. Thappa of Nepal advocate closer relations with India without prejudice to links with China. Bhutan is about to have talks with China on border demarcation and Indian Government is expected to be conscious of Bhutan's sensitivities in this
TIES WITH G.K. Reddy contin follow-up of this po standing with the su India also proposes to diversify and deel Sri Lanka to provide base for this bilate Indian government a proper distinction to the problems o origin in the isla fundamental desire cial relations with S. political and econ postponed visit of 1 Mr Sanjiva Reddy probably take place manifestation of Ind
CONDEMNED BY ICJ
(Contd. from page 1)
The report further refers to the growing repression by the police and army personnel in areas predominantly inhabited by the Island's Tamil speaking minority community and conments that the measures taken by the government violate international norms. The report, in this context, refers to the senseless violence unleashed and wanton destruction caused by the security forces against the Tamils in the Northern part of the country in June this year in the course of which the Jaffna Public Library with 95,000 books was burned down, and also to the generalised violence against all the Tamils living throughout the country in August this year.
The report further points out that certain actions taken by the government has had the effect of undermining respect for the rule of law in Sri Lanka. Acts of violence by the security forces, the stripping of Mrs. S. Bandaranaike, the former Prime Minister, of her civic and political rights, the extra-ordinary vote in parliament of no-confidence in the Tamil Opposition Leader and the various arbitrary arrests and detentions Terrorism Act are cited as instances of governmental
actions which have helped to undermine the respect for the
rule of law.
The report suggests that the
prime concern of the government should be the physical security of the Tamils and points out that clear directives should be issued to police and army officers that assaults and torture of detainees and others are unacceptable and that those responsible for such practices should be prosecuted and punished.
Refering to the natural and long-held apprehension of the Tamil speaking people that planned State aided colonisation by Sinhalese of traditional Tamil areas is designed to render them into a minority in their own areas, the ICJ report recommends that the government should give urgent attention to Tamil concern Over State-Sponsored colonisation by Sinhalese in Tamil areas. Welcoming the recent introduction of the District Development Council system of decentralisation, the ICJ report recommends an increase in the powers of such Councils.
The ICJ report finally warns that the Sinhala - Tamil tension in Sri Lanka threatens to escalate into major violence and negate all development efforts.
PUBLISHED BY TAMIL TIMES LTD. AND
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RI LANKA es that as a logical icy of better under|-continental States, ) take suitable steps en its relations with a politico-economic al cooperation. The ontinues to keep up between its approach Settlers of Indian nd and its more or mutually benefii Lanka in both the omic spheres. The he Indian President to Sri Lanka will early next year as a ia's goodwill.
An earth observation satellite named Bhaskara II was launched by an Intercosmos rocket from the Soviet cosmodrome in Volgograd on 20th November 1981. This is the third Indian space satellite to be launched from a Soviet cosmodrome; satellite Aryabhata was launched in April 1975 and satellite Bhaskara I was launched in 1979.
Bhaskara II is an improved version and will provide data on forestry, hydrology and land bodies. The satellite also carries experimental packages of indigenously developed solar cells and thermal paints. According to Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Bhaskara II will mark the end of the experimental era and herald the transition to operational remote sensing satellites.
The editors and the publishers of the Tamil
Times wish their readers and well wishers a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
PRINCIPLE AND PRAGMATISM
(Contd. from page 5); This oppostion is predictably along class lines. Politics in the non-socialist world is the repository of class conflict.
Those who oppose the de
mand for a separate state are the English educated middle class "elite'. But this middle class (of which perhaps I am myself a part) is not and should not fancy themselves as representing or representative of the Tamil speaking nation as a whole. They are only a part but a numerically insignificant though economically stronger part. The bulk of the Tamil nation which is predominantly peasant class is still in the Tamil speaking areas - unlike the few expatriates - and it is their voice that should count. The doubts about the economic viability of a separate state though important should not frighten us over-much. If Israel could be Israel out of desert sands, Eelam could be Eelam and still be a small granary of the East. Further more there are several sovereign states which are smaller
in area, population and natural resources and they
There is another important
factor whici Dr. Wilson has completely ignored. What of . the next generation - the fate of our children and our children’s children? Their fu- , ture will have to be secured by us. By seeking "a breather and time for reflection' we are merely seeking to pass on the problem to our future generations. If we cannot fight today our children will have less chance to fight tomorrow. Are the Tamils prepared to sacrifice the future generations at the altar of transient prosperity of today - and only of today?
''When we build let it be such as our descendants will thank us for.
When we place stone on stone, let us remember that a time will come when our children will say, 'See, this our forefathers did for us.'
There is a lot of visionary realism in the above words of Madame Chiang Kai Shek.
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