கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Development of Art in Ceylon
A Lecture I
KALAI PULAvAR K
THE TAMIL CUII COLO
O Sunday, the
NT OF ART
st May, 1955.
IT OF ART
Text of lecture
Pulavar K. Navara College Hall, CC
auspices of the Tam
delivered by Kalai tnam at the Zahira lombo, under the hil Cultural Society.
I N T R O D
The development of Ar connected with the art movem continent. Religious traditions deal towards the development Ceylon also religion was the ma growth of Art.
The Art of Ceylon is ma starts with the advent of Bud history of Buddhist Art in Ind stupas by the Emperor Asok according to tradition 84,000 s to spread the Gospel of Lord earlier to the Asokan period o confined to wood and brick us that Pataliputra, the capita mainly built of wood.
The popular religion of Buddha consisted mainly of rit with sacrifices. They knew n say without much fear of contra tices among the higher strata include the worship of images in are no indications of such inst prior to Lord Buddha. But, two earliest organised religious s institutional worship in the form fore, for the appearance of s Buddhism, we shall have to loo society. Dr. Ananda Coomara the popular Dravidian elemen
ART IN CEYLON
UI C T Í O N
t in Ceylon was very closely ents in the neighbouring suband ideals contributed a great of Art in India. Likewise, in in source of inspiration for the
inly Buddhistic and its history dhism into the country. The ia begins with the building of a. He is said to have built stupas throughout the country Buddha. The artistic objects, f Indian history, were mainly structures. Megasthenes tells l of the Mauryan Empire, was
the Aryans before the time of cuals and ceremonies connected to temples or idols. One can adiction that the religious prac
of the Vedic Aryans did not the temples or houses. There itutions in the Vedic Literature Buddhism and Jainism are the sects in Aryan society which had of temples and images. Theretupas, images and temples in k for sources outside the Aryan swamy writes, “ In particular, t must have played the major
part in all that concerns the dev worship, that is, of puja as di books (of the Aryans) afford no of images of any kind.' ' Calcutta University writes, good reason that Puja is the p Dravidian, form of worship, v and throughout the entire ear rituals with flowers, etc., offere known.' '
Lord Buddha, true to C in his teachings, the way of life practice of ethics and spiritual enlightenment. He never enc or observance of ceremonies an to spiritual enlightenment. T wrong, when we state that the a symbol of adoration, and t worship, instituted after Budd from the non-Aryan religious
After the fall of the Maur the centre of political power shi in the centuries immediately pl after it. Different dynasties r of her history after Asoka, and towards the development of Ar ideals and principles of India have been the same, yet, there details, according to the areas lars have classified the Art of ) the regional variations. The Indian Art are : Mauryan, Anc Gupta and Dravidian. The D Pallava, Chola, Pandya and and Sethupathi styles of Sout of the Vijayanagara School. In
1. History of Indian and Indonesian A 2. Vedic Age, p. 160.
"elopment and office of imagestinct from Yajna. The early certain evidence for the making Dr. S. K. Chatterji of the It has been suggested with ce-Aryan, in all likelihood the hile the Homa is the Aryan ; ly Vedic Literature, the Puja d to an image or symbol is un
Upanishadic ideals, emphasized based on self-control, and the virtues, for the attainment of ouraged institutional worship d rituals as indispensable aids herefore, we will not be far construction of the stupas as he other forms of ceremonial ha, must have been borrowed culture of the country.
yan Empire founded by Asoka, fted from province to province receding the Christian era and uled India at various periods they all contributed their best t and Culture. Although, the an Art, throughout the ages, ! were variations in form and in which it flourished. Schondia taking into consideration
most important schools of hra, Gandhara and Mathura, avidian style is divided into :
Vijayanagara. The Nayaka h India are the continuation Central India and the adjoining
t, p. 8.
TILLT WILA BLIJ
[...!rriነሳሶ : Swr፫'ሶ'!ሃ— ('r'WüH |.
I)I) HA IMAGE
(Sሑ'ዞ |''ሃደሶ J(' |
areas we find the mixture of t India.
Until the Gupta period, predominantly Buddhist. It that the foundation for moderr that the Art and Culture of Ind ture and content. Although, Gupta periods and the Hindu periods differed in their themes and employed the same technic these universal characteristics basis for Indian Art to be con geographical boundaries and )
In Ceylon also Art follo and employed the same technic its history. Buddhists and Hi Java, Burma, Sumatra, Bali, China from India carried with their respective faiths and impl their adoption. Because of the principles which underlie the have included them in treatises does not prevent any one from and aesthetic qualities which a Hindu Art of the above Color
Ceylon Art may be studie periods: the first is the Anuradh the reign of Devanampiya Tiss, tury A.D.; the second is th begins in the 11th century anc is the Kandyan period which and ends with the coming of Colombo period which begins w
During the Anuradhap Gupta and Pallava art form Polonnaruwa period Chola and the Kandyan period we find th Vijayanagara styles. In the Kandyan and modern Madura.
he styles of North and South
the Art of North India was was during the Gupta age Hinduism was laid and after ia, till today, is Hindu in structhe Buddhist Art of preArt of Gupta and post-Gupta. , yet, they had the same aim que to attain perfection. It is which provided the common sidered as one, irrespective of regional variations.
wed the same ideals and aim que throughout the course of indus who migrated to Ceylon,
Siam, Indo-China, Tibet and
them the artistic tradition of anted them in the countries of
Indian Origin and the common art of these countries, scholars: dealing with Indian Art. This recognising the peculiar artistic ure found in the Buddhist and
'd under four clear-cut historical lapura period which begins with a and ends with the 10th cenhe Polonnaruwa period which ends with the 13th; the third h begins in the 14th century the British; the fourth is the rith the British rule in Ceylon.
pura period Maurya, Andhra, is influenced Ceylon. In the Pandya influence is seen. In e influence of later Pandya and Colombo period we find the i styles are being followed.
Nowhere can we study dhist Art in good condition fo than in Ceylon. Ceylon conta Buddhist Art done to perfectio the Moonstones and the Budd in the Buddhist Art of other admiration of the art critics C place among the best art object Ceylonese artists by producing undoubtedly placed Ceylon in Ceylon not only contains some Art, but also contains some of the equals of which cannot be
MAURYAN AND ANDHRA STYI
Buddhism became the st reign of King Devanampiya Tis The first missionary to Ceylon peror Asoka. He was met by ' the capital with great vene branch of the sacred Bo-tree ghamitta, sister of Mahinda, an According to the tradition re sacred Bo-tree was landed at Jambukola. Referring to this following observation: “In an important harbőur, Jambul Anuradhapura by the trunk ro, gate of the capital, and its dis lated from the fact that a gre from the port was fourteen da the Capital (M. XIX). It was piya Tissa’s ambassadors star putra, and it was here they l
the unbroken record of Buda period of over 2,000 years ns some of the masterpieces of n. The Nagaraja Guardstones, la images have very few equals sountries. They have won the f the world and have found a is of all countries. The ancient such magnificent objects, have n the Art map of the world. of the finest pieces of Buddhist he masterpieces of Hindu Art,
found even in India.
ate religion of Ceylon during the sa (“the beloved of the Gods). was Mahinda, son of the EmTissa at Mihintale and taken to ration and respect. Later, a was brought to Ceylon by Sand was planted at Anuradhapura. corded in the Mahavansa, the a port in Nagadipa known as ; Dr. Paul E. Pieris makes the Nagadipa, moreover, there was Kola ; this communicated with ad which ran from the northern tance therefrom may be calcuat religious procession starting 7s on the road before it reached rom Jambukola that Devanamted for Asoka’s Court, Patalianded on their return (M. XI).
Its chief claim to be remembe the fact that it was here that S Bo-tree, disembarked (M. XIX important event one out of the the first fruit borne by the BoPattinama, and Tissa, not long Nagadipa the Jambukola Vil the Tissamaha Vihara and th
The earliest Buddhist gobas (stupas). They were con of Asoka who was a great buil first Dagoba, which was later kr according to tradition, contain The present Dagoba was subset structure was destroyed. Alth has changed, the spot is t Dagoba of Tissa stood. The Vessagiri Cave were also col Tradition attributes the cons Stupa also to Tissa.”
After Tissa, it was durin that Buddhism became a pow people. He may be considerec dhism. At Anuradhapura, he the Lohamahapeya, known as Ruwanwelisaya Dagoba or Mał piety was the construction of th pa was finished, he fell sick Saddha Tissa to complete the s was built on the model of Sanch in the stupas were brought fro) tha Gamani obtained some rel shrined with great pomp. The occasion was attended by Ma monks from Pallavaboga which
1. Nagadipa and Buddhist Remains i
1917, p. 11.
2. Short History of Ceylon, p. 14.
ared by Buddhists arises from anghamitta, accompanying the ). In commemoration of this eight shoots which sprang from tree was planted at Jambukola. g before his death, erected in hara at this landing place, e Pacinaramä (M. XX).ʼ"
buildings in Ceylon were Dastructed following the example der of stupas. Tissa built the own as the Thuparama which, ed the collar bone of Buddha. quently built after the original ough the form of the structure he same where the original
Isurumuniya Cave and the nstructed during this period. truction of the Mahiyangana
ng the reign of Duttha Gamani erful factor in the life of the l as the Asoka of Ceylon Bud
built the Mirisavati Dagoba,
the Brazen Palace and the nathupa. His greatest work of e Mahathupa. Before the Thuand died, leaving his brother tructure. The Ruwanwelisaya. ni Stupas. The relics enshrined m the Andhra country. “Doutics from Andhra which he en2 assembly that he held on that ahadeva and by thousands of may be identified with Palnad
In Jaffna. Journal of the C.B.R.A.S No. 70
in Andhra. With the relics m Art of Andhra, as the ancient the Andhra style.' '
Among the architectur mani the Lohamahapeya is wo) edifice had nine storeys crow with bronze plates. The who 10,000 rooms stood on about 1 of 250 feet square. Percy Br vation about it: “As to Lohaprasada, it may be asses tainty that it followed the pi building, which was evolved Ceylon, during the early pe. This pattern may be studied, monuments in the Dharma) (Seven Pagodas) near Madras. is several centuries later thar a tradition, of which the Anu example.' The Lohamahape reign of Saddha Tissa and h (M. ch. XXXII). Later, the by name Khallata Naga, wł thirty-two exceedingly beautil dimensions) to make the Loh
Many Dagobas were c Vattagamani Abhaya (B.C. 43 Lankarama and the Dakkina builders of Dagobas and pa Sena (362-89). | Jetavanaram the island and ithe Buddh Sena.
The Stupas built dur tructed on the models found and Andhra, unlike the Ind magnificent in appearance, a ments, all their own, peculia
1. Buddhist Remains in Andhra, p. 1.
ust have travelled to Ceylon the ; Dagobas of the Island were in
al achievements of Duttha Garthy of mention. This wonderful ned by a domical roof covered le structure made of wood with ,600 monoliths covering an area own makes the following obserthe elevational aspect of the ised with a fair amount of ceratterns of a type of monastery
in Southern India, including riod of Buddhist monasticism. translated into monolithic stone rajah raths at Mamalapuram
Although this rock-cut model n the Lohaprasada, it preserves radhapura building is an early ya was destroyed by fire in the he rebuilt it seven storeys high younger brother of Lanjakatissa no reigned for six years, built ful prasadas (dwellings of smaller hamahapeya yet more splendid.
onstructed during the reign of -17). He built the Abhayagiri,
Thupa. The last of the great trons of Buddhism was Maha a Dagoba, the largest stupa in ist world, was built by Maha
ing this period, although consin India especially in Magadha ian ones, were large in size and ind had architectural embellishr to Ceylon. Whatever sculp
See 'g' f.
tural ornamentations found on been added during the succee
The earliest sculptures
in Ceylon belong to the later extant belong to the style of Al and are carved on limestOne no two pieces available-The Gr Maya Devi's Dream-are now f At the Jetavanarama Dagoba a Raja-seven-hooded cobra and preaching. They were carved in style of the period. The thr around the Ruwanwelisaya Da the later Andhra style. Two of and the third, traditionally id more likely a Bodhisatva. Th of Amaravati figures. In their in the treatment of the drapery images exhibit a close relation Amaravati. In dating them
writes, “They may not be earli tury A.D. and can hardly be lai
After the Andhras, the dominated the political and cult Age is said to be the Golden Ag safely said that this period almost all branches of literatu astronomy and mathematics.
The Gupta Age made : domain of art. Some of the sc paintings of Ajanta executed di as masterpieces of Indian art artistic productions of this p ages to follow and develop.
In the field of religion shnavaism took the new form
them today appear to have ding periods.
of the Andhra period found Andhra style. The examples maravati and Nagarjunikonda ot found in Ceylon. The only eat Miracle of Sravasti, and Ound in the Colombo Museum. re found two sculptures—Naga Bodhisatva in the attitude of n Ceylon, following the Andhra 2e standing images excavated agoba betray the influence of these images represent Buddha antified as Duttha Gamani, is nese are Ceylonese adaptations general style and particularly with its schematic folds, these nship to the Buddha type of Dr. Ananda Coomaraswamy er than the first or second center than the third Or fourth.
Guptas came to power and Iural life of India. The Gupta 2 of Indian culture. It may be produced the best authors in re including even sciences like
admirable contributions in the ulptures of this period and the luring this time are considered throughout the world. The eriod set the model for later
Buddhism, Saivaism and Vaiin which they developed later.
Vedic Gods receded into the rigid morality of early Budd concrete objects of worship.
popular faith of the people an Vedic Samhitas and Brahmana lost its hold upon the people ar the Mahayana which captures by the scope it afforded for wor removed Hinayana Out of the all-India movement, rather a
The Buddha image of terised by its refinement, by a of features, by the softness C its appearance. This classica both in India and outside it.
The influence of the period on Ceylon was very made great advance during th of the influence of Mahayanis and satisfied the needs of the increase in the number of sh an aid to worship became period that many Bodhisatva Spread of Mahayanism also g Sanskrit in Ceylon.
The building of Dagob: Viharas with images for worsh Festivals and rituals formed people. Some of the best scu to this period of her history influence of the Gupta style. at Isurumuniya Vihara, the see and the Moonstone in front Anuradhapura, betray the cle: Writing about the Toluvila states, “ In few other represel trance do we get such a sense
1. Early History of Ceylon, p. 57.
background. The austere and hism gave way to devotion to
Puranic Hinduism became the d the Puranas took the place of s. The older form of Buddhism ld gave way to a new movement, d the imagination of the people ship and devotion. This change
scene and made Mahayana an h all-Asian movement.
the Gupta period was characclear delineation and definition f its limbs and the serenity of l type inspired all later images
Buddhist culture of the Gupta remarkable. Buddhism, too, is period. Probably as a result m it took a more popular turn, laity better. There was a great rines, and the use of images as popular. It was during this images were used in Ceylon. ave an impetus to the study of
as gave place to construction of hip during this period in Ceylon. a part of the daily life of the ulptures found in Ceylon belong . In them we clearly see the The bas-relief of “The Couple ited Dhyana Buddha of Toluvila,
of the Queen's Palace, all at ar influence of Gupta technique. Image, Mr. Benjamin Rowland ntations of the Buddha in Yoga of the complete self-absorption
and serenity of the Enlightened perfect embodiment of the idea the very simplicity of the co equilibrium of the figure connc Sakyamuni through the massi base formed by the locked legs,
nar body which supports the
face.” . In the Toluvila Image of the limbs show how the per of his own personality. Not O bliss, the whole body is saturat are in the Colombo Museum tw Bodhisatva and Maitreya wihi Gupta style, discovered at A painting also, we find the influe
It was the Pallavas who after the Guptas. During the Buddhism gradually declined a Renaissance in India. Saivais the important religious sects ( inherited the Sanskrit cultur Pallavas had a distinct leaning latter part of the Pallava rule,' deal of attention. The Deval Hymns were produced during inspired the development of realisation.
The Pallavas were the temples in South India. Th India were all in bricks. Al and Mandapams are spoken ( Pallava period, nothing has co perishable material out of w The beautiful Gopuraas and V dern representatives of an ancie in the early centuries of the C
1. Art and Architecture of India, p. 2
l One. This impression of the of Samadhi is conveyed through nception; the perfect material tes the perfect mental state of ve stability of the triangular surmounted by the erect columperfectly impassive mask-like , the inner look and calm poise son has retiited into the depth nly is the person immersed in ed with this inner bliss. There O heads identified as those of ch belong to the 4th century nuradhapura. In the field of nce of Gupta style on Sigiriya.
D had connections with Ceylon 2 period of the later Guptas, nd there was a complete Hindu m and Vaishnavaism became of the country. The Pallavas e of the Guptas. The early g towards Sanskrit, but in the Tamil literature received a good rams and Nalayira Prabandha the Pallava period and they Bhakti as an aid to religious
originators of structural stone e earlier buildings in South though Gopurams, Vimanams of in Tamil literature of the me down to us, because of the hich they were constructed. imanams of today are the mont tradition that was prevalent hristian era.
Pallava Art and Cultur the reign of Narasimhavarman son of Kasyappa II (641-6 Dathopa Tissa II (650-658) fl Narasimhavarman I. He foug As a reward for his service N regain his throne. Manavarm But, Narasimhavarman helped army bigger than before, he as far as the harbour (Mahabal Manavarman succeeded and the influence of the Pallavas.
Because of the close co Court of the Pallava King, cul between both the countries in Pallava art forms also spreadi at Nalanda is entirely of stO) temple might have been built were stationed at this pla carvings of elephants on either front of the tank at Isurumu rock carvings found at Mah: man and the head of the hors the rock slopes bordering a tan there are found carvings, in amongst lotus and fish. Thes Pallava style. Writing abol Mr. Benjamin Rowland obser ties of the figure of the holy m at Mamallapuram, but the su from the matrix of the rock i have analysed in the account naissance. Presulmably these immediately before the final ri eighth century.’” Laurence . Kapila' (holy man) in C impossible to forget when once influence in Ceylon, Mr. Percy Pallavas, as already indicated
1. Early History of Ceylon, p. 64. 2. Art and Architecture of India, p.
e crossed over to Ceylon during I. Manavarman (Manavamma) 50) who was overthrown by ed to India and served under ht for him against Pulakesin II. arasimhavarman helped him to han failed in his first attempt. him a second time by giving an himself accompanying the army ipuram). In the second attempt Ceylon, by this act, came under
ontact of Manavarman with the tural and social communications ncreased and as a result of this in Ceylon. The Gedige (Temple) he in the Pallava style. “This for the use of Hindu troops who ce,’ writes Dr. Mendis. The side of the cleft in the rock in niya Vihara, reminds one of the abalipuram. The figure of the 2 are of Pallava technique. On k near the Tissawewa lake bund, low relief, groups of elephants se also show the influence of the ut the Isurumuniya sculptures ves, “Not only are the properan remarkably close to the work ggestion of the form's emergence s in the same technique that we of the styles of the Hindu Reworks date from the period etreat from Anuradhapura in the Binyon writes, “The rock-carved ylon is a tremendous work, seen. Commenting on Pallava r Brown writes, “ The art of the , may have affected the style of
ST THIRU GWAINA
Set. Peg: . )
the Singhalese" monastery bui erected at Anuradhapura. T penetrations brought about by people for a constructional p building projects.'
With the fall of the Gu cultural influence of North In After the Pallavas, Ceylon c political influence of South
The architecture of Ceyl have been wooden. This was Except the Dagobas, stone f stOne built tanks, we have noth today which is worthy of mei There are some graceful pil monasteries, which must ha structures with Ornate work
The sculptural remains Buddha images, Guardstone must be made of the sculp adorn the flights of steps of trades on both sides of the ste figures of Makara, a mythical
The Cholas came to p decline of the Pallavas. Th Pallava period, reached its pea Chola period may be conside Literature and Saiva Religio) tional literature was arrangec nical books during this per
1. Art and Architecture in India, p. 21.
ldings when these began to be hese, however, were peaceful the demand on the part of the rocedure to aid them in their
pta Dynasty, the religious and dia on Ceylop came to an end. ame very frequently under the India. -
On in the very early period must s followed by brick structures. oundations of monasteries and ning remaining in Anuradhapura ntion as an architectural edifice. lars found near Dagobas and ve carried on them beautiful manship.
of Anuradhapura are the few es and Moonstones. Mention tures of human forms which ancient buildings. The balusps are carved with Ornamented animal, found in Indian Art.
ower in South India after the e Saiva revival started in the k in the age of the Cholas. The red as the golden age of Tamil n in South India. Saiva devoand classified in eleven canoiod. Sekilar's Peria Puranam
which forms the 12th book of during this period. The popu hymns created a wave of Saiv resulted in the building of ma tion of beautiful images bol architecture reached its perfe jeswaram at Tanjur, built at Gangaikonda Cholapuram The Chola bronze images att gures of Natarajah and the S the Saiva saints, “Bhakti is gi be withheld from the cult-ima the readiness of the devotee fo hearing which is not a listen ceiving of vibrations which to the figure, now tremulous, nov it hears. Bhakti is expressed the devotee. W
Mr. O. C. Gangoly, wri observes :-
“In the absorbing rhythmic sways and th ses, above all in the of an original yet artist school translate the abs philosophy, into which led their own meditati hopes of their lives. T them is to receive an plastic dreams not reve of GreekرOr Renaissan
Rajaraja the first conqui and established his capital at of the Cholas, Saivaism and T country. The Cholas were gre Literature, Art and Religion. to build a Sivalayam at Polon Siva Devalayam No. 2.
i. southern Indian Bronzes, p. 28.
the Saiva canon was composed larisation of the Saiva religious devotion in the country which gnificent temples and the creah in stone and metal. Chola ption in the temple of Rajaraby Rajaraja, and the temple
built by Rajendran, his son. ined their excellence in the filaiva saints. In the images of ven an expression which had to ges of divinities. They showed or his divinity, as an act of inner ing to the within. It is a reuch upon, or have entered into v already within the orb of what
in plastic terms in the figure of
ting about the Chola Bronzes,
serenity of expression, in the 2 dynamic symmetry of the pomoving and generalised forms sic anatomy, the bronzes of this truse conceptions of Brahminic the artists have skilfully mingons, their prayers, and all the O know them and to appreciate nitiation into a new world of aled in any of the masterpieces że bronzes.”
ered the Northern part of Ceylon Polonnaruwa. With the advent amil Culture also re-centered the at Saivaites and promoted Saiva
The first act of Rajaraja was naruwa which is now known as
Though the Cholas were that they persecuted the non-S: have been a tolerant monarch a ronized not only Saivaism but interests of Vaishnavaism, Buc
Mr. Nilakanta Sastri wr
“ Himself an ardent like all the great statesme of religion, and all creed hands. The decorative Tanjur temple, the cons ples by him in Mysore temples recorded in his liberal religious policy. records how he encourag mani Vihara in Negapat Sri Mara Vijayottunga V and Kataha across the built in the twenty-first after the father of its fou with whose permission th dedicated to Lord Buddl village of Anaimangalan firmed the grant after it to be engraved on co
It is also appropriate to writes on this point:
* Though the Chol Shrines in times of war, Governors deviated frol
Kings and persecuted Cholas did not differ m
Vijayabahu I, freed Cey Cholas and paved the way for Buddhist Culture. He did not
1. The Cholas, Vol. 1, p. 224. 2. Early History of Ceylon, p. 68.
Saivaites, it cannot be said aivaites. Rajaraja is said to ind it is recorded that he patalso helped and promoted the dhism and Jainism.
follower of Siva, Rajaraja was, in of India, tolerant in matters s received equal favour at his sculptures on the walls of the truction of some Vishnu temand his gifts to other Vishnu
inscriptions are proof of his The celebrated Leyden Grant ged the erection of the Cudaanam by the Sailendra King, arman, the lord of Sri Vijaya sea. This Vihara, which was
year of Rajaraja, was named under, and the Chola monarch, e construction was undertaken, na dwelling in this Vihara, the n, and his son Rajendra conhis father's death and caused opper plates.” "
quote what Dr. G. C. Mendis
a soldiers attacked Buddhist it is not likely that the Chola m the usual custom of Chola Buddhism . . . In culture the Luch from the Sinhalese.”*
lon from the domination of the the revival of Buddhism and achieve much as his reign was
interrupted by local rebellior tolerant spirit towards Hindu who were children of princes Kalinga not only observed H temples.” During this peri maintained as before, and the continued to be given, write
After Vijayabahu, Sin established in Ceylon and it w who completely recovered the made his influence felt even Siam. Parakrama Bahu, dur tified Polonnaruwa and adorne ings both religious and secu palace for himself and the Watadage, Lankatilaka, Tiva Gal Vihara, the Mahathupa o Vihara, and Giri Vihara (Dag the Pavilion.
THE THU PARAMA
Some of the important ruwa are found in the Quadra of the Quadrangle is a vault as the Thuparama. This is Vihara of the Polonnaruwa per Garbagraha-is very Small wl whole building and the corri proportionately narrow. The that of a Saiva shrine with the dapa. There is even a Gomu Garbagraha, simpr to the ty water to flow out
The exterior of the wall with miniature shrines in stuc stone base consists of tiers wit ture of the base has a close rese The general appearance of th
1. Early History of Ceylon, p. 85.
ls. Vijayabahu also showed a lism and the “kings after him
and princesses of Pandya and indu rites, but also built Hindu bd “ the Hindu Devalas were
2 accustomed offerings to them es Mr. Blaze.
halese rule was gradually re"as Parakrama Bahu the Great country from the Cholas and in South India, Cambodia and ing his reign of 33 years, for2d it with many beautiful buildlar. He built a very beautiful religious edifices known as the nka Temple, Uttara Rama or r the Damila Mahasaya, Potgal oba) and the Audience Hall or
religious buildings of Polonnangle. At the south-west corner ed brick structure now known the best preserved Buddhist iod in Ceylon. The inner-cell– hen compared to the size of the dor which leads to the cell is plan of the Vihara resembles Garbagraha and the Arthamanki on the northern side of the pe found in Hindu temples, for
s of Thuparama are ornamented co separated by pilasters. The h friezes of animals. The strucmblance to that of the Pavilion. e temple, with its vaulted roof,
resembles that of a South India Mr. Benjamin Rowland obser
“The exterior decor lonnaruwa shows a simila used here to decorate a
Commenting on the T
“One aspect of this temple at Polonnaruwa by the greatest of all th Bahu, and to whom mu the capital was due. I vidian extraction inspire Siva temples of the Ch differs from its archetype particular, it is not built mason’s favourite materia the changes brought ab nique, the Thuparama conception, an attempt building without the fini necessary for such an ef certain dignity and a se posing tower-like structu the surface treatment is convincing. The Thu it marks a stage in the Ceylon, not exactly a t architectural intrusion ze affected to a degree the art
Dr. Ananda Coomarasw
“The Thuparama i Dravidian style.”
1. Indian Architecture, Vol. 1, p. 205.
an Temple of the Chola period. VeS :
ation of the Thuparama at Po
ar importation of Chola motifs,
Buddhist shrine. '
huparama, Mr. Percy Brown
may be seen in the Thuparama of the twelfth century, built e kings of this line, Parakrama ch of the architectural glory of In the main obviously of Drad no doubt by the style of those olas which preceded it, yet it in one important constructional of stone, but of the Sinhalese al, brick. Apart, however, from out by this difference of techis obviously a provincialised to reproduce a classical type of shed knowledge and experience fort . . . In its mass there is a nse of proportion, with an imre surmounting the whole, but inclined to be crude and unparama is significant because course of the building art of ransition but the finale of an hich both directly and indirectly s of the island generally.'
amy writes :-
S a rectangular brick temple in
LAN KATILAKA VIHARA
The Lankatilaka Vihar vanarama, is the largest shrine bricks and measures 170 feet in The height of the walls which : the shrine room there is a stand broken. Adjoining the Lank known as Kiri Vihara. Thoug when compared to those in Al served ancient Dagoba in Ce
The ornamentations fou tilaka resemble those found il like miniature South Indian cribing the Thuparama and t ᏚᎾᎠ*ᏙᎾᏚ : --
“In their present temples are still impos traces of profuse decor: Dravidian architecture
TIVANKA IMAGE TEMPLE
Another brick-built shr and the Lankatilaka is the image of this temple is in the The image is headless and is v the walls contains the same ty like those at Thuparama and
Commenting on the styl Image Temple, Mr. Benjamin
“The exterior of this was originally complete a series of niches housing by attenuated pilaster Chola architecture. Tł tive of the exterior O ments as the Rajarajes
1. The Buddhist Art in India, Ceylon a 2. Art and Architecture of India, pps. 2
a, popularly known as Jetain Polonnaruwa. It is built of n length and 66 feet in breadth. are now standing is 55 feet. In ing Buddha image with the head atilaka Vihara, is the Dagoba h this Dagoba is smaller in size nuradhapura, it is the best preylon today.
und On the walls of the Lankan the Thuparama. They look shrines with vimanams. Deshe Lankatilaka, Dr. Vogel ob
ruinous condition both these
ing piles of brickwork bearing
ation in which the influence of
ine of the type of Thuparama Tivanka Image Temple. The
Tribhanga pose (Three bends). 7ery tall. The outer surface of pe of ornamentations in stucco Lankatilaka.
e of architecture of the Tivanka
Rowland writes :-
s large rectangular brick edifice ly ornamented in stucco, with statues of deities and separated s reminiscent of the style of he decor is strikingly suggesrnamentation of such monuvara Temple at Tanjur.”*
ld Java, p. 87. 20, 221 and 223.
The circular shrine knc in the Temple Quadrangle is the whọle of Polonnaruwa.
In the centre Of the Shl four corners of the stupa facing four images of the Buddha in : of the base of the second terra dwarfs separated by short pila rise the railings divided into par ornamented circular railings a capitals which must have carrie of the temple.
The flight of steps at the ned by figures of dwarfs. The with stone makara, balustrade guardstones. In front of the st moonstones. The Nagaraja are of exquisite workmanship. face, the graceful bent of the bo ornaments, the rhythmic balanc kumbha with flowers, all make of Sinhalese stone sculpture.
Mr. Percy Brown, comr Watadage, writes:-
“Such an excuisite evidently intended to co sacred emblem, and it is been the edifice known by Parakrama Bahu, the tal tooth, relic. This reli within the building, and shape of this dagoba treatment of the structu Watadage an architectu graceful kind, well execu wall surfaces were deco the most attractive mor
wn as the Watadage, found most beautiful structure in the
ine there is a stupa. At the the four entrances, there are a sitting posture. The facade *e contains friezes of lions and sters. Above this basement, hels of floral designs. On these re found pillars with carved d the wooden domical vimana
four cardinal points are adorsteps are flanked on both sides es which end with Nagaraja eps of each entrance are found guardstones of the Watadage
The joyful expression in the dy, the delicate carvings of the e of the figures with the poorna these guardstones masterpieces
menting on the beauty of the
2xample of the building art was ontain some very precious and accordingly presumed to have as the Dalada Maligawa built : Great, to enshrine the immorc reposed in the votive stupa it may have been the rounded which suggested the circular re as a whole. Not only is the ural conception of a notably ited while originally the interior rated with paintings. One of numents throughout the entire
range of Sinhalese builc size, it was not only the was evidently carried O detail by the leading ma
This shrine is referred t rama. It is a rock-hewn shri images, one in the recumbent p 44 feet in length, and the othe The image inside the cell is p with carvings below a circulan hind the image remind one of found in the guardstones of quality of the image is better i the right of the cell.
The image on the right | rock with a makara torana b makara torana behind the im with very small images. They structures (Karnakudus) foun Devalaya No. 2, built by Raj
Near the head of the standing figure carved on the pressed against the chest, with nance. Tradition identifies over the passing away of the and Dr. Paranavitane consider
The recumbent Buddhi excellent pieces if sculpture i period at its best. Mr. Benja figure of Ananda as follows :-
“More unusual an standing figure of Anan
which is carved from t. Nirvana Buddha. The
1. Indian Architecture, Vol. 1, p. 206.
ding art, although of no great. 2 conception of a genius, but it ut in its mass as well as in its aster-craftsmen of the time.
O in the Mahavansa as Uttarane with three beautiful Buddha osture (Parinirvana) measuring r two are in the sitting posture. laced on a platform decorated canopy. The fan-bearers be
the poses of Nagaraja figures Polonnaruwa. The aesthetic than the sitting image found to
of the cell is carved on the open Iehind it. On both sides of the age are found miniature shrines are exactly similar to the corner d on the vimana of the Siva araja.
recumbent Buddha, there is a ock with two hands crossed and a sad expression on its countechis figure as Ananda, sorrowing master. But Dr. J. Ph. Vogel this figure as that of the Buddha.
a and the figure of Ananda are llustrative of the Polonnaruwa min Rowland comments on the
d of great impressiveness is the da, nearly twenty-five feet high, he rock next to the head of the
figure has very much the same
|-HTeduwe: Sartry Ceylerri.}
EL I. 甲
(5eʼr Pʻrige! 3:I. I
feeling of grandeur thr lization of the form t] statues of the earlier pe disciple, his arms folded knee, has an extraord strength, qualities which always notably presen realisation of the peac
To the north of the Pe sculpture which tradition ident Bahu the Great. The figure ject in the two hands and lool differed as to the actual persona “ The figure with its simple dre hair shown in the act of readin be a royal personage: but ha Rishi, writes Dr. Vogel. The the Sage Pulastiar, the pa (Polonnaruwa). The sculptu resembles that of Agastya the finer aesthetic qualities o be considered as one of the fi style done in Ceylon."
After Parakrama Bahu attention to the construction Nissanka Malla (1198-1207). ] the Hatadage, a stone-built stI Relic, the Rankot Vihara (D, built in stone. The Mandapa which are found stone pillars ca It is surrounded by a stone ) of a wooden fence, with an e
From the inscriptions f dage, it is inferred that Nissan repairs and additions to it. Hindu shrine at Rameswaram
l. Art and Architecture of India, p. 21
ough the massive plastic reaat characterizes the Buddha iod: the representation of the , one leg slightly bent at the inary feeling of serenity and , as we have already seen, are ; in the Sinhalese sculptor's 2 of Enlightenment.”
otgal Vihare, we find a colossal ifies as the statue of Parakrama is holding a palm-leaf-like obks like a Rishi. Scholars have lity which the image represents. 'ss, imposing beard and braided g a palm leaf book, can hardly s the aspect of a Brahminical figure may be said to represent tron-saint, of Pulastianagar, ral treatment of the figure found in Java. It has all f the Chola bronzes and may nest works of art in the Chola
I, the king who devoted his of Dagobas and Temples was Buildings ascribed to him are: ucture which housed the Tooth agoba) and the Lata Mandapa consists of a stone platform on rved in the shape of lotus stems. 'ailing constructed in the form htrance.
ound on the walls of the Wataka Malla must have made SOme He is also said to have built a and called it Nissankeswaram.
This shows him to be a libera the non-Buddhist sects of his
The standing Buddha im this period and is said to have b Bahu II. The shrine which is probably the Tooth Relic shrin
Before concluding the period, I like to make a few obs the Art of this period. The a tecture of Ceylon: Polonnaru Arts Council of Ceylon, tries to Polonnaruwa period was the c. radhapura period, and that th terially affect the constructio builders during the Polonnaruv followed the Buddhist traditi constructing the Dagobas, M Buddha, but that would not hav the detail patterns and desig Sculpture which formed a par of that period. Disinterested of Art who have visited the r studied the evolution of desig recorded that the Buddhist clearly shows the influence of
The Cholas occupied Cey 80 years and it cannot be ma fluence the Art forms of the said to have employed Tamils in ings. “ Hindu'influence did ni expulsion,’writes, Dr. G.C. Mer ordinary scholarship and tra that exists between the so-ca and the Image of Agastya whi
Because of the fact th structures at Polonnanaruwa, that the style of Architecture without any other influence.
l monarch who respected even
lage of Avukana also belongs to been constructed by Parakrama. next to the Hatadage is most. e built by Vijaya Bahu I.
review of the Polonnaruwa servations on Chola influence on uthor of “The Art and Archiwa. Period, published by the ) make out that the art of the ontinuation of the earlier Anue Chola influence did not maon of the shrines. Sinhalese va period would have certainly ons of the earlier periods in onasteries and Images of the ye prevented them from copying ns of Chola Architecture and t of the culture of the people foreign Art critics and students uins of Polonnaruwa and have n and plan of buildings, have
architecture of Polonnaruwa. Chola Art.
ylon without a break for nearly intained that they did not inpeople. Parakrama. Bahu I is. n the construction of his buildot disappear with their (Chola) ndis. It does not require extraaining to note the similarity lled Parakrama Bahu Image: ch is in the Chola style.
hat Sinhalese kings built the it is no argument to maintain 2 also was purely indigenous
No one will dare to assert.
that because the Taj Mahal wa men, it is Hindu and Indian say that because the Saiva
daramoorthi are found in Cey or Chola in style. Political alien power, always brings abc artistic outlook of the subjec of history. The cultural out Ceylon today are an example
The influence of Saiv which started with the Chola continued till the arrival of stone buildings whose remains buried cities were probably and partly by Indian workm most of the gal-vaduvo actua of the Sinhalese kings in late blood, writes Dr. Ananda Sinhalese Art. He also states followed the Sanskrit book n Hindu origin and belonged t Andreas Nell writes, “These as much as in its architecture permeation of South Indian buildings is more of South In deny the influence of South I Polonnaruwa period and after, angle.
From the reign of Vi that of Parakrama Bahu VII quently under the political lonnaruwa was abandoned be the north and the capital we to place. There arose in the dom which spread its power The Sinhalese kings were not
1. Medieval Sinhalese Art, p. 114.
built in India by Hindu craftsn style and form. Nor can we bronzes of Nataraja and Sunlon, they are not South Indian lomination of a country by an ut a change in the cultural and t people. This is the verdict ook and life of the people of of this universal fact. .
a Art and religion in Ceylon invasion, may be said to have the Portuguese. “The great attract so many visitors to the erected with Indian assistance len. It is most probable that lly living in Ceylon as subjects 'r times, were of South Indian Coomaraswamy in Medieval that the best Kandyan painters amed Rupavaliya, which was of o the llth century A.D. Dr. Polonnaruwa paintings show, and sculpture, the effects of the influences; the exterior of the dian character.* Therefore, to ndian Art on Ceylon during the is to read history from a wrong
jaya Bahu III (1232-1236) till I (1484-1509) Ceylon came freinfluence of South India. Pocause of constant attacks from s, therefore, shifted from place Jaffna Peninsula a Tamil King
as far as Kotte in the South. able to keep the Nallur kings
of the North under control or India.
Jatavarman Sundara P have invaded Ceylon, killed Ol captured his army, chariots, the Pandya flag with the Doul the high peak of Trikuta moun tribute from the other king.' to have killed must have been Jaffna, Peninsula and the othe Bahu II. The Double Fish P either side of the main entra These stones originally belon, waram. The Temple was de 1622 and the stones were used
The Siva Devalaya No. been built during the period o or immediately after it during t Another building in Pandyan palace at Yapahuva. It cont: cing figures. The Gaja-Simha tern and execution from the M period.
The bronze images whic were discovered at the Siva De belong to the Chola and Pan history. Some of the images w are considered as masterpiece They might have been made lived in Ceylon at that time into Ceylon from South India. of Tamil sculptors living in Ja engaged in the art of making temples.
1. Pandyan Kingdom, p. 176.
prevent invasions from South
andyan (1253-1270) is said to ne of the two kings of Ceylon, treasures, throne, etc., planted ble Fish on the Konamalai and tain, and received elephants as The first king whom he is said the ruler of Sinhapura in the r must have been Parakrama andyan emblem is still seen on İnce to the Trincomalie Fort. ged to the temple of Konesstroyed by the Portuguese in
to build the Fort.
1 at Polonnaruwa must have f Pandyan contact with Ceylon he reign of Parakrama Bahu III.
style found in Ceylon is the ains some fine carvings of danbalustrade is different in patakara balustrades of the earlier
rh are in the Colombo Museum valayas of Polonnaruwa. They dyan periods of South Indian thich belong to the Chola period s of South Indian sculpture. by South Indian Stapathis who or might have been imported
Even now there are families. ffna and other parts of Ceylon images for the use of Hindu.
VIJAYANAGARA AND NAYAKA
During this period the c Kurunegala, Gampola, Kotte, prominent architectural style C “Kandyan Architecture. Kanc and with its fall, Ceylon lost dynasty that ruled at Kandy South India.
After the fall of the P: arose another Hindu Empire Hindu Culture till the middle O Mohamedans. Hari-Hara II conquered Ceylon first. Again Raya (1438) Ceylon was invac came under his rule.
The Vijayanagara King and Culture, and they built g Mandapams. The Nayaka ki: followed their great example an Sri Rangam and other places Meenakshi Amman Temple is a yaka style of Architecture. U Dravidian style of architecture modern style of architecture iu cendent of the Nayaka style. from 1623-l1659, was a great bu
The influence of Vijayar Ceylon Art is seen on some oft Gampola period of Ceylon h mention, constructed during ti Vihara and the Saddharmatil as Gadaladeniya Vihara, both a reign of Bhuvaneka Bahu IV
apital of tha'island shifted to
Sitawaka and Kandy. The of this period is known as the ly was the last capital of Ceylon her independence. The last was a Nayaka Dynasty from
andyans in South India, there
which defended the ancient f the 16th century, against the (1879-1406) is said to have in the reign of Krishna Deva led, and the Jaffna peninsula
is were great patrons of Art reat temples with magnificent ngs of Madurai, and Tanjur d built the temples at Madurai, in South India. The Madurai | complete example of the Nander the Nayaka dynasty, the assumed its final form. The n South India is a direct desThirumalai Nayaka who ruled ilder and patron of Art.
Lagara and Madurai styles on he buildings erected during the istory. Buildings, worthy of his period are the Lankatilaka aka Vihara, popularly known it Gampola, erected during the
The Lankatilaka is a br of Polonnaruwa buildings. T rooms in front, serving as cor outer wall. The inner ten surrounding corridors there a
The Gadaladeniya Viha Kirti I, with the help of a Sc known as Ganeswara Achary stone and is built in the Vi. is smaller in size than the Lar is finer and better. The exteri elaborate. In both temples th had a coating of plaster, and been painted. There is a fri upper part of the wall of the composed of a chain of lions. this type of Ornamentation is females playing on musical active and rhythmic manner. stone corbels of sculptured entrance porch has huge mono flanking the large ones. The style belonging to the Vijayan
KANDYAN STYLE :-EMBEKKI
The Embekke Devala Kartikeya or God of Katirg Kandyan archițecture. This t by Vikrama Bahų III, who r The Drumming Hall contains craftsmanship in wood. Ther pillars in each row, with four a In these pillars are carved warriors armed with swords, animals, lions, half-bird and ha heads, the sacred geese in val in different patterns. All the usual drooping lotus capital
ck-built structure of the pattern he shrine-room has two small ridors and this is enclosed by an nple is Buddhist, but in the 'e the images of gods.
ra was built by Thera Dharma. uth Indian Stapathi (architect) r. The whole structure is of jayanagara style. This Wihara nkatilaka, but the workmanship or Ornamentation is much more he original walls appear to have this, at One time, must have eze of stone running round the: main building, under the eaves, Along the base, and on the shrine, changed into figures of dancing instruments, executed in an In the ante-chapel, there are lions, two on each side. The olithic pillars, two slender pillars. se pillars are of South Indian agara period.
ya at Gampola, dedicated to ama, is a typical example of 2mple is said to have been built. eigned at Gampola (1371-1378). the finest example of Kandyan e are four rows of seven wooden dditional pillars at the entrance.
figures of Goddess Lakshmi, idancers and wrestlers, mythical lf-human figures, birds with two ious attitudes and lotus flowers. pillars are surmounted with the:
KANDY AUDIENCE HALL
The audience hall of the style as that of the Embekke later than the Devalaya and is in 1784 by King Rajadhi Raja are richly carved in different p; square and partly octagonal. a kingpost roof. The capital is Devendra Mulacharya is said to building.
The Embekke Devalays signs carved on the central sc Audience Hall.
Vimala Dharma, Suriya
ascending the throne, built in for the Tooth Relic. Vimala I the Mahavansa, is said to have a three-storeyed one, resplend work. King Narendra Sinha, t) seeing that the Tooth Temple into decay, rebuilt it with tw Jatakas painted in colours on t The present inner temple is sa Sri Rajasinha.
In the temple of the T similar to those of the Audience less but in their place there ar tions of the pillars.
The wooden pillars of bekke IDevalaya, and the ston are similar in shape and style Indian temples. In Kandyar surfaces and the octagonal por patterns of conventional flor: Because of these characteristi
kings of Kandy is of the same Devalaya at Gampola. It is said to have been commenced Sinha (1780-1798). The pillars tterns and are in shape partly hey support heavy beams and
carved with a drooping lotus. have been the architect of the
has a greater variety of deuares of the pillars than the
I, the first king of Kandy, on Kandy a two-storeyed temple Dharma Suriya II, according to 2 rebuilt and converted it into ent with all kinds of artistic he last Sinhalese king of Lanka, built by his father had fallen o-storeys and had thirty-two he two walls of the courtyard. id to have been built by Kirti
ooth, we have pillars in stone : Hall. The carvings are much e paintings on the Square por
the Audience Hall, the Eme pillars of the Tooth Temple
to the stone pillars of South wooden pillars, the square ions are carved with elaborate l and other artistic designs. 's, these pillars are known as
“Kandyan Pillars, and they a in the Kandyan Districts.
The influence of South of the Kandyan kings is seen maduwa near Kandy. This w abandoned. The temple, sou and has a Viimana like tha basement has deep and he Lankatilaka and Gadaladeniya and is built of bricks. ' The enjoys the unique distinction O Buddhist temple in existence. maduwa Vimana resembles t Tanjur Palace in South India.
Before closing this se of the great stone edifice of Kovil dedicated to Siva by This magnificent temple of : pletely destroyed by the Po
MADURAI AND KANDYAN STY
Kandy was occupied by 1815, and four days later, Sri V the last king of Kandy, was ( India, where he died on the 30t attached to the temple of T built by the last king of Ka Kandy, Ceylon lost not only also her cultural independenc
Introduction of English led the people to learn it for ec tically killed the national English became the hall-mark
re found mostly in the temples
Indian Art during the period n the unfinished vihara at Galas started by Kirti Sri but later lare in plan, is built of stone, ut of a Hindu Temple. The :avy mouldings like those of . The Vimana has seven stages : Galmaduwa Vihara probably f being the most Hindu-looking ' The appearance of the Galhat of the Ullasa tower of the
:tion, mention must be made Sitawaka, known as Berendi King Rajasinha I (1554-1593). architectural beauty was comrtuguese.
7 the British on February 14th, ikrama Raja Sinha (1798-1815),
aptured and ultimately sent to h January, 1832. The Octagon
ooth Relic and the Lake were
indy in 1803. After the fall of her political independence, but
as the state language compel'onomic benefits, which act praclanguages. The knowledge of
of culture and many, not only
s IVA DEWALA *cılıbıtışı:
|-ri:lire . S'est r7''') — s'eyliji. }
YAM No. 2.
[Šዞያ ሥነJgff J+. ]
took up to the study of the Eng the Western standard and mod tion. The British rule created the country who were not ash culture and art with contempt. of the country practically live regards their culture and civil
The country was flooded articles with the result that all gradually died out. Secular a models. Even religious buildi the traditional religious plan, f matters Of Ornamentation. A titutes followed the Western te and Culture, Ceylon became a Ocean. Mr John Still very foreign rule on the Arts of Ce
“Another thing to w is the decay of art in Ce. There were famous Sinh are none now ; they sculpture is dead, too. solemn stone images with cobra heads encirc animals, elephants, hors ming still are the ban play and dance round t Now all this art is dead has gone. Buddhist k. Christian Governors: m Ousted the artist, and from all his markets. our fault than our joi who introduced into C that ruined the artist:
In the early part of the Of national revival in Art and Buddhists and Hindus toward
1. B.B.C. Broadcast, January 26th, 19
glish language, but also adopted le of living as a sign of civilizal a new type of individuals in amed to look down upon their
The so-called educated gentry d as foreigners in their land as ization.
| with cheap ang machine-made the traditional arts and crafts rchitecture followed the British ngs, though built according to ollowed the Western designs in rt teaching in schools and ins2chnique. In the sphere of Art “little England in the Indian aptly describes the effect of ylon. He says:-
reigh against material prosperity ylon: art in its widest meaning. |alese poets in the past. There read English instead. Their In the ruined cities one finds of Buddha and godlike forms ling their head : and figures of es, lions and bulls. More chards of merry little dwarfs who he capitals of the stone pillars. l, or nearly dead. The motive ings have been succeeded by ass produced commodities have even the village craftsman, One may say that this is less nt misfortune, but it was we aylon the machine-made goods S. 1
20th century there was a wave Culture, and this inspired the s a national regeneration pro
gramme. The writings and sp swamy and Colonel Olcott cre people to revive their arts an educational institutions were societies for the restoration also formed. The Ruwanwel The old Kelaniya Vihara wa of architecture with the assi tors) from South India.
The Kelaniya Vihara h tics of the Art of the Kand shrines On a rectangular base broad. The base and the step are built of stone. The octag is constructed in the Kandy
The Outer walls of the other have ornamented nich thoranams wherein beautiful ir are three friezes which run rol containing delicately carved and elephants with finely car leading to the front Mandapa on both sides with Gajasimha in stone. On either side of t Dwarapalas standing on one and resting on the back wall, frames are all in the Kandyan delicate carvings.
宰 The old paintings at E shrine room. The new mural portion of the Vihara and th halese painter with a 'Sigiriy
The new Vihara at temple in the island built comp ture of the country during t
eeches of Dr. Ananda Coomaraated a desire on the part of the d crafts. Buddhist and Hindu ! started in the Island, and
of religious monuments were isaya was restored completely. s rebuilt in the Kandyan style stance of stone-masons (sculp
as all the beautiful characterisyan period. It consists of two : of 150 feet long and 90 feet. s leading to the front Mandapam onal tower over the new shrine an style.
Temple from one end to the es like Vimanas, with makara. mages of Gods are placed. There und the walls below the shrines, figures of sacred geese, dwarfs. Ved trappings. The stone steps. m of the main shrine are flanked balustrades. They are carved he main door are two figures of foot with the other foot raised
The wooden doors and doorstyle and contain elaborate and
Kelaniya Temple are in the old
paintings are found in the new ey are by Soliyas, a gifted Sin-- a touch.
Kelaniya is the only Buddhist. letely in the traditional architeche British period.
The other architectura built, during the British peri Kochchikade, Colombo, by Si the great patron of Hindu Ar temple is built of stone in the India. The pillars and sculpt the modern temples of South I balavaneswaram may be cons of South Indian Art in Ceylo
After the attainment C being made by Buddhists and shrines and to build new one who are endeavouring to do t purely traditional architecture ( of mixing up local styles with
edifice worthy of mention ld, is the Siva Devalayam at ' Ponnambalam Ramanathan, t and Culture in Ceylon. The modern Madurai style of South ures are of the type found in ndia. The teimple of Ponnamidered the architectural gem n today. *
f independence, attempts are Hindus to restore their old . It is desirable that those, his, should build them in the of the respective faiths, instead hose of the West.
History of Indian and I
History and Culture of th
Journal of the C. B. R. A
Short History of Ceylon
Buddhist Remains in An
Early History of Ceylon
Art and Architecture of
The Cholas—-Vol. 1—K.
The Buddhist Art in Ind
Medieval Sinhalese Art
Pallavas of Kanchi—R.
Southern Indian Bronze
ndonesian Art— DR. ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY.
he Indian People
WoL. l. VEDICAGE.
. S. No. 70. 1917.
K. R. SUBRAMANIAM, M.A.
-DR. G. C. MENDIS, M.A.
India-BY BENJAMIN ROWLAND.
ol. 1—-PERCY BROWN.
A. NILAKANTA SASTRI, M.A.
ia, Ceylon and Java
DR. J. PH. VOGEL.
DR. ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY...
A. NILAKANTA SASTRI, M.A.
s-O. C. GANG OLY.
Ned A INTERS L M lrEĊb