கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Europe and the Dravidians
EUROPE AND THE DRAWIDIANS
1st Impression 1979 (U.K.) 2nd Impression 1980 3rd Impression 1982 4th Impression 1994
O9506823 14 Hardback *PN No. ossos828 22 Paperback
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Colombo. 4. TEL: No. 587316.
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ake House Colombo 10 Sri Lanka.
OTHER, PUBLICATIONS BY PAULINUS TAMBIMUTTU
A Life-sketch of S. Tambi,muttupillai
by S. John Rajah 1988
Maniampathiar Santhathimurai or Genealogy
of the residents of Manipay and related
Inhabitancies by T. vinasithamby 1991
Poet Tambimuttu - A Profile by Prof. P. Poologasingam
and Others 1993
A Song-Mahaweli Ganga by Paulinus Tambimuttu 1992
I acknowledge my indebtedness to the following who have helped me in various ways:- my brothers Thurairajah Tambimuttu. and Chrysanthus Tambimuttu, my sister Mrs. Josephine Pinto, my daughters Mrs. Hedy Charles and Mrs. Aruntha thy Wigneswaran, my sons Freud Tambimuttu and Dr. Neelakandan Tambi muttu, my niece Miss. Nirupa. Tambimuttu, Mr. P. R. Sittampalam, Mr. E. C. T. Candappa, Dr. S. Pathmanathan, Professor. E. H. S. Simmonds, Professor C. F. Beckingham, Professor. T. Burrow, Mr. A. S. M. Dickins, Sir Oliver Goonetilleke, Mr. T. E. Gooneratne. Professor T. B. Abeysinghe, Mr. Eric Growther, Mr. Adam Kara, Mr. Jonathan Lewis, Mrs. Eleanor Thwaites, Mrs. Heather Lottinger, the staff of the British Museum Reading Room, staff of the libraries of the School of Oriental & African Studies, London University, Royal Asiatic Society, London. India. Office. Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, Sorbonne, Paris, MisS, Jane Williams and Mrs. Eileen Scott.
Not one of them is responsible for any of my statements, but I shall utilise their comments for the larger edition.
In the present work the author attempts to adduce evidence to prove that the first neolithic farmers who came to Europe re of the same stock and spoke a similar language as the avidian-speaking peoples of India and Ceylon. The Draviian-speaking peoples are presently concentrated in the four. Southern states of Tamil Nadu. Andhra; Karnataka and Kerala in India, and in the northern and eastern parts of the neighbouring island of the Republic of Sri Lanka whose name itself is of Dravidian origin. Besides, large pockets of Dravidian speakers are found scattered all over central India and in Baluchistan in Pakistan. In southern Asia as a whole there are more than twenty languages belonging to the Dravidian family. Among them Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada are the most developed, each having a wide range of literature. The history of Tamil Literature could be traced from . pre-Christian times. The Tamils had their own kingdoms and had developed a rich literary and poetic tradition when the rest of India was under the rule of the Great Mauryas.
The Dravidians have generally been identified with the people of the megalithic culture as they have been concentrated in historical times in those parts of India where megalithic monuments have been found in large numbers. Megalithic culture was a synthetic one. The population of the megalithic Society in South India, Was not a homogeneous One, it was a composite One. Literary evidence reveals that ancient Tamil society also was such a one. The megalithic builders appear on the Indian scene long after having passed the neolithic stage. Indeed, they Were responsible for the Wide diffusion of iron technology over large parts of India and Ceylon. They were also responsible for introducing improved methods of horticulture and artificial irrigation. Available evidence suggests that the Dravidians had moved into central and southern India since the middle Of the second millenium, B.C. Anthropologists claimed that the Dravidians in India were mostly of the Mediterranean physical type and it was generally believed by historians that they once had a wide distribution in Northern India,
Ever since the publication of Caldwell's monumental treatise. The Comparative Grammer of the Dravidian family of Languages Indological studies assumed a new dimension. Caldwell pointed out convincingly that the Dravidian languages, unlike those of the Indo-European family are agglutinative an have close similarities to those of the Finno-Ugrian and
Caucasian groups. Of languages.
The problems regarding the origin and spread of the Dravidians had to be investigated by archaeologists and anthropologists. Time-honoured views on the origins and development of Indian Civilization had to be modified after the discovery of the Harappa culture. Archaeological explorations at the Harappan sites revealed that Indian Civilization had a pre-- Aryan and pre-Vedic origin. Sir John Marshall who conducted the pioneer excavations at the Harappan sites expressed the view that the Harappans who were predominantly of the Mediterranean type were in all probability Dravidian. Fr. Heras who attempted to decipher the in Scriptions. On the Harappan Seals claimed that the language of the inscriptions was Dravidien. ح Yet, these views did not find general acceptance for a long time among historians both European and Indian, whose outlook Was coloured by romanticist thinking firmly rooted in the studies of the pioneer Indo-European philologists.
The Dravidian Etymological Dictionary by Burrow and Emeneau, tWO leading authorities On Indo-Aryan philology in the contemporary West, represents a landmark in the rational and dispaSSionate approach to Indological studies. These two great Scholars recognised that the Dravidian influence on the phonetics, morphology and structure of Vedic Sanskrit was considerable. The influence of Dravidian en Vedic Sanskrit presupposes the presence of Dravidian speakers in considerable numbers in the Indo-Gangetic plain before the compilation of the Vedas. Recent studies On the Harappan script seems to confirm such a view. Asko Parpola and his colleagues who made a strenuous effort at the decipherment of the Harappan inscriptions claim that the language recorded in the inscriptions is proto-Dravidian. This claim is strongly supported by Gurov and Knorozov who made a similar effort at the decipher- . ment of these inscriptions.
There is evidence to show that the Dravidians and the Harappans had close affinities with the Sumerians. It would appear that they all had a common origin in the remote past.
It has been claimed that Sumerian is the twentieth member of the Dravidian family of languages. In Our view it is more appropriate to speak of Dravido-Sumerian than to claim that Sumerian belongs to the Dravidian family of languages. The Dravidian family of languages as known from historical records had developed in Southern Asia after branching off from ProtoDravidian. Dravido-Sumerian was presumably spoken over a wide area stretching from Asia. Minor to the Indus in preHarappan times.
The origins and spread of the Dravidians have to be analysed Systematically and Scientifically on a chronological basis by correlating anthropological, archaeological, and lin. guistic evidence. In this monograph the author has attempted to show that the Dravidians had migrated to Europe in neolithic times. Similarities between Basque and some other European languages on the one hand, and those of the DravidoSumerian group On the other are unmistakable. Yet, One has to handle linguistic evidence with caution. Mere phonetic similarity between a few words of different language groups cannot by itself prove affinity or common origin. The etymology of such words has to be explained scientifically before postulating a theory Of common origin. The wide distribution of negalithic monuments in Europe and Asia. WOuld of course suggest that the proto Dravidians had migrated to Europe in pre-historic tims.
I is hoped that this work would stimulate further interest on the subject and lead to a more systematic and detailed investigation of the problems concerning the origins and distribution of the Dravidians.
Senior Lecturer, Dept. of History, University of Sri-Lanka, Peradeniya, Sri-Lanka. 15th July, 1979.
EUROPEAN AND THE DRAVOANS
1 - THE PEOPLING OF EUROPE
Prehistorians now admit that as a result of ecological changes there was a migration of people from the East, Neolithic farmers who had discovered new techniques of cultivation spread out through most Of the areas of Western Europe, and eventually reached Britain. These pioneering immigrants were to form the basis from which the present population of Europe is descended.l --
Professor Carlton S. Coon says “Painted pottery wares had developed and spread throughout the Middle East before the beginning of the age of metal, i.e. before 3000 B.C. (they originated in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan). This was not, however, the only diffusion of Neolithic culture. Farmers who grew the conventional grains and bred the conventional animals crossed the Egyptian delta to Settle in the fertile plains and valleys of North Africa. The Neolithic people of North Africa arrived at the Straits of Gibraltar before 3000 B.C. Some of them crossed the Strait to Spain and eventually settled in France and the British Isles, While Others moving in parallel fashion along the opposite Mediterranean shore settled in Greece, Crete and Italy. In the meanwhile, other pioneers had moved across the Hellespont and along the western shore Of the Black Sea to the mouth of the Danube. Following the banks of this river and its tributaries they eventually. reached Germany where they met the vanguard of the southerly migration.”2
As early as 1858 the Rev. R. Caldwell, who first used the word Dravidian. deriving it from Dramila, Dravida, etc., stated:
"Does there not seem to be reason for regarding the Dravidian family of languages not only as a link of connection between the Indo-European and Scythian groups, but in some particulars, especially in relation to the pronoun, as the best surviving representative of a period in the history
of human speech older than the Indo-European stage:
older than the Scythian, and older than the separation of the one from the other'8
In 1924, Dr. G. Slater stated that it was possible that Dravidian culture spread from India, WestWards.4. In 1927, my uncle, the Reverend Gnana. Prakasar. Single-handed produced many volumes of his monumental Tamil Lexicon, which was more exhaustive in certain respects than the Sinhalese Lexicon, H. Heras calls Gnana Prakasar the foremost Dravidian philologist and calls himself "a Dravidian from Spain'. Gnana Prakasar arrived at the conclusion that Dravidian and IndoEuropean words were actually derived from the same primitive roots.5 I should not go so far as Gnana Prakasar and the purpose of this study is to adduce evidence to prove that the first Neolithic farmers who came to Europe were of the same stock, and spoke a similar language as the Dravidian-speaking peoples of India and Ceylon. These people were later absorbed by Indo-European speaking conquerors. There were Some who fled to the hills and escaped absorption, like the Basques, who are stated to be the oldest race in Europe6 and whose language is related to Dravidian.
“We are able to affirm without exaggeration that the Basque language is the sole remnant of a linguistic continent of unknown extent that Was Submerged by the Waves Of Indo European invaders 3000 years ago. Uhlenbeck considers Basque as a Survival of an extended language group that included not only the Basque but other languages of southern Europe no longer existing'. (The Basque Language by A. Tovar P. 18). ... "
The reason for my disagreement with Gnana Prakasar is because of Wegener's theory of continental drift which, though abandoned by earth Scientists forty-five years ago, has now been acceptesd by them as a result of advances in rock magnetism, geochronology, Oceonography. Sea-floor spreading, climates, fossils, etc. According to Wegeners's theory, a single land mass, Pangaea, broke up into two, a Southern land maSS Gondwanaland and a nortlinern one, Laurasia, I hold the view that two separate types of culture, languages, etc. developed in these areas.
The theory of continental drift was recently established by the discovery of the fossil reptile Lystrosaurus in Africa, and Antarctica. As this reptile could not have crossed the 2,700 miles of ocean that separates Antarctica and Africa, the Only explanation is that one continent broke away. The discovery of the fossil remains of the reptile Mesosaurus On both sides of the Atlantic is another proof, because being a freshWater animal, its presence can only be accounted for by presuming that at one time there were rivers or lakes on a land that is
It may be argued that man would not have evolved during such epochs of geological time, but seeing that rifting may have started as early as Cretaceous time, but that most of the displacement is Cenozoic and some as young as pleistocene, which began only 2 million years ago, and as Professor David Pilbeam, a British anthropologist, has discovered a virtually complete jaw of earliest man eight to ten million years old on the Potwar plateau in India, and as Dr. Leakey has also announced in Washington that man in Africa was four million years old8. my theory is not So far-fetched.
The main Dravidian languages are Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. The others are Brahui (in former Baluchistan), Gadba Gondi, Kota, Kodagu, Kurukh, Malto, Naiki, Parji, Toda. Tulu and Konda. In giving this list Burrow and Emeneau state that “it is not yet certain that all the Dravidiari languages of central India have been found' and that further reconnaissance work by Burrow and Bhattacharya in 1956 added one more language, Pengo. to the number of known Dravidian languages9.
The Tamil word for, city is Ur, which is the same as Ur in Sumerian referred to in the Bible as “Ur of the Chaldees'. As people migrated westwards. 'ur became “urbs' in Latin, ir in Hebrew and iri' in Basque. But there is a village called Ur in Scotland which is not found in the Atlases but which I found in the Census Reports Which Would mean that the people who first settled at Ur in Scotland were purer SumeroDravidians than the Hebrews and the Basques. There is literary evidence for an Egyptian city called A-Ur on the Canopic branch of the Nile Delta, near Alexandria, which Was founded before 3000B.C.10.
A hint as to the origin of cultivation is provided by the names given to agricultural implements. The Tamil Word for plough is “ar' in Latin "arare' is to plough, in Celtic it is 'caruca' which became 'charrue' in French, but there is an old English word for plough. "ard' which is not found in the New English Dictionary. Websters' etc. but which is known to archaeologists. An illustration of an 'ard' is given by Cunliffeli This would mean that the first farmers of England are purer Sumero-Dravidians than those of the continent. This is in accord with the ancient chronicles of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales which Speak of Settlers who came by sea, about Britons migrating to Brittany, and the Roman accounts which refer to the Druids first settling in Britain and then migrating to the Continent, etc.
As agriculture was linked with rivers there are similar words for river. The Tamil word for river is "aru', the longest river in Switzerland is called 'Aar' which word is probably as old as the Swiss lake dwellings. The river Gotha in Norse is "Gautelfr12 which is a compound of Gotha and "ar' which is derived from the Tamil 'aru'. The river Elbe in Germany is called "Elfur in Icelandic18 which is another compound. Dover is derived from the settlement which grew up at the mouth Of the river Dour'. The river 'Stour flows Onto the Sea, near Ipswich. The names of both rivers stem from the Tamil "aru'
The Tamil word for son is “makan”, in Scottish it is “Mac” and the Maya Word for Son is 'nehen14. As far as I am aware nobody has so far referred to similarties between the American Indian languages and the Dravidian languages, and an attempt is made in this study to supply the omission. Chaman Lal in Hindu America has referred to the colonisation of America by people from India. Whether Indian sailors reached America Kontiki-style, or the similarities arose when S. America was part of the land mass which included India, Egypt etc. before it broke up into continents is for future prehistorians to decide. Chaman Lal states that the largest temple in Mexico was the temple of Lord Siva, the war god of the Mexicans. and that the temple had a South Indian gopuram and had 3,000 temple courtesans just as in South India I am reminded of Fergusson's statement that South Indian temples were architecturally like Egyptian temples. R. A. Jairazbhoy in his Ancient Egyptians and Chinese in America makes no reference to Dravidians, but there are a few references to North Indians. Ironically he does
not include Chaman Lal's pioneering work in his bibliography Or refer to him, although Lal had published his work 34 years earlier.
Tamil Sailors hugging the coast have also given the word for Coast to SOme Europeans. The Tamil word for coast is “oram’. In Latin it is “ora”. The original Tamil word appears in the Gaelic 'earramh', as Argyll is derived from Earramh Ghaedhal' meaning the coastland of the Gaels15 (The similarity of "oram' and 'erramh' can be accounted for by the arrival of Tamil Sailors by sea.) In England the place named Itchenor in Sussex comes from the Old English "yccanora' meaning Yeca's shorel6 The word for Wave is "ola' in Spanish and 'ala' in Tamil. The Tamil word for ship is kappal', the Greek for ship is 'skaphos' which becomes skiff and ship. The word for ship in North Frisian 'skapp' is closer to the Tamil than the Anglo-Saxon 'scip’ or Scandinavian "Scheipe.'
The Tamil word for king is “kone' which becomes konig in German, "kunig' in Anglo-Saxon and king in English. The Jewish name "cohen' means rabbi. This too is derived from Tamil as originally there were priest-kings called kone' which later became "cohen'. 'I' in Brahui has the same meaning as the personal pronoun “II” in English.
*One' in English is “onru" in Tamil. In Maya it is 'hun'17 eight is "eddu in Tamil. That the Tamil "einthu' for "five' is phonologically closer to English than the other European languages ils not entirelly fortuitOus. In my article in The Sunday Times of Ceylon I stated that "Britain and Ceylon have been isolated from the mainland for ages and have retained Certain values in their pristine purity'18. For example, the word 'manor' is derived from the Tamil manai' meaning mansion'. As I wander in the English countryside and see the thatched cottages I am reminded of my native Ceylon where identical thatched cottages are found.
According to S. Lewis the derivation of Kilkenny in Ireland is most probably from the Church of St. Canice (A topographical Dictionary of Ireland Vol. II p. 109.) Lewis mentions the word "koil and states it means “WOOded hill'. I maintain that it is derived from a Druidic temple on the site as the Word for Church or Temple in Tamil is "Koil.
There are several place-names in Scotland beginning with “Kil' e.g. Kilbarchan means 'Church of St. Barchan.' J. Jamieson in his “Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish language" says that Kil is the same as the Gaelic word 'Cill' signifying a churchyard. It is obvious that kill is from the Tamil 'koil' meaning "church or temple'.
There is a soup called "kohl" in Wales and "kehel’ in Scotland. There is similar soup called 'kool' by the Tamils.
The place name Arrochar in Scotland is derived from Latin 'aratrum' (a plough) and Strachur in Scotland means "arable Strath’ according to Walton19. They are both more closely related to the Tamil "ar" meaning 'plough' than to 'aratrum'.
Statues of the fertility goddess have been found in Europe. This goddess is no other than Mariamma of the Dravidians who moving westward became Mother Mary as 'amma is "mother' in Tamil. During her sojourn in the Middle East her name appears as Miriam in the Bible.
Passage graves in South India are called "tholoi'20. In Tamil 'thulai' is “to bore a, hole and "tholoi' is a hole, which word is not in use now but is found in the ancient Tami) classic Akarathi Nigandu'. The identical Word "tholoi' is applied for the tombs in Greece. Tht tholoi graves in Grete, Los Millares in Spain and New Grange in Ireland are similar, Crampton says:
Passage graves is tht name applied to the hundreds of tombs of similar architecture in Western Europe and the British Isles. So closely allied is the architectural tomb form of New Grange in Ireland, LOS Millares and Grete, that if it were not for the sake of archaeological clarity the term “tholos' could be applied to them all.”21
In 1957 Dr. N. Lahovary published his remarkable work *La Diffusion des Langues Anciennes du Proche-Orient stating that the Dravidian languages were related to the agglutinative languages of Europe, like Basque, Caucasian, etc. A reviewer of Lahovary's work in a French journal stated that in Bopp's day the classical philologists, who had not So far studied any languages other than Latin and Greek, were filled With indignation at the attempt to extend the field of research to other
far away and little known languages, and to postulate a common ancestry for them in the remote past, and that it took a century and a half for them to learn that after all Bopp was right. Lahovary will I am sure be proved right in a shorter period. The English version which is not a direct translation of Lahovary's work appeared in 1963 under the title Drapidian Origins and the West. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri in his introduction to this version says: “There is nothing intrinsically improbable in these views and one hopes that philologists will examine Dr. Lahovary's thesis without bias and with the attention it merits'.
The Dravidian languages are related to ancient Sumerian and the language of the Indus Valley script. The Cambridge Ancient History states.
“The Dravidians almost certainly occupied much of Northern India, and especially the Indus Valley before the conquest by the Indo-Aryans about the 18th Century B.C. isolated tongues like Basque and South Causasian may. have been the speech over wide areas... the Western
Asian origin of Dravidian receives very strong support from the undoubted similarity of the Sumerian and Dravidian.”22
The hypothesis of Dravidians coming to Europe is not recent. Professor Hawkins refers to the ancient literature of Ireland and says: "There is mentioned in Some of the legends a seventh group of invaders-the Dravidians from India'23 and that “as usual in old accounts there are to be found in the midst of legend those little definite details which indicate plausibility”.24
Although there are some differences between the Sumerian and Indus Valley civilisations they had a common origin which would have been proto-Dravidian. Professor Grahame Clark
"Considering that both had roots in the Iranian plateau the surprising thing is not so much the general similarity as the differences which appear in every particular feature whether in the styles and forms of pottery, metal work and seals or in the scripts or even in political style... the use of stamp Seals and red-on-black painted pottery,
and the fact that so many of the materials worked by the urban craftsmen such as gold, silver, tin, alabaster, turquoise, and lapis lazuli came from Baluchistan, Afghanistan or Iran itself are all pointers to the ultimate source Of the Harappan civilisation."25
Professor Cappieri says:
“My study treats of the homogeneity of the Indian ProtoMediterraneans living in the late Neolithic Chalcolithic & Bronze Age ... the splendid Harappan civilisation rose among them. During the period covered by my study i.e. before the iron Age their settlements extended from Iran to the Ganges, and from the Pamirs to the river Tungabhadra in the Deccan. From the Study of their skeletal remains I assert that this population was comparatively homogeneous with a high degree of Somatic similarity ... radio-carbon tests at Nal in Baluchistan dates the skulls to about 3000 B.C., but the Harappan civilisation is evidently very much older... there is a strong morphological similarity of these Mesopotamian skulls with the male series of Mohenjo-Daro. Undoubtedly the Al-Ubaid and Kish crania are proto-Mediterranean, and spart my decisive studies on this problem there is the judgment of such eminent physical anthropoligists as Keith. Buxton, Field, Rice and Penniman" (The Population of the Indus Civilisation by M. Cappieri pp 4 &z 11).
I - DECEPHERMENT OF THE INDUS SCRIPT
A Parpola and his colleagues at the Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies in Finland used a computer to decipher the Indus Walley Script and came to the conclusion that "the Inscriptions fit only an agglutinative language like Dravidian.'26.
Russian scholars have accepted Parpola's findings that the language of the Indus Valley was Dravidian. Gurov and KnOrozov State: “This publication widely publicised in the foreign press was received by Soviet scholars with lively interest. The Finish methods are very similar to those Of OurS and in many respects and On certain points (the direction of the script, division of texts, linguistic affinity of the protoIndian inscriptions) their conclusions coincide with our deductions.27 The Soviets came to the conclusion that the protoIndian texts are written in the Dravidian language on the basis of formal (positional-statistical) study of the proto Indian blocks. The pecularities of the language excluded all languages except Dravidian and they conclude that "the Indian inscriptions have certain Specific combinations which Occur. Only in Dravidian lauguages'28. They also state that
“the question of the origin of these signs is still open. If the forefathers of the Dravidians went to India along the Tigris and the Euphrates valleys, and then along the shores of the Persian Gulf then the Sumerians who came later to Lower Mesopotamia must have come into contact with them in very early times. As a result we can expect some correspOndence in the language as well as the pictograms. The problem of a certain number of similar signs in the proto-Indian and Sumerian writing is perhaps connected with the problem of Ubaid (from the name of the pre Sumerian culture Al-Ubaid) linguistic substratum in the Sumerian language. In conclusion we consider it necessary to mention that the Finnish scholars have undoubtedly determined correctly the language of the proto-Dravidian inscriptions, and have on the whole satisfactorily explained the methods of writing (pressence of ideogram) conveying roots of words, presence of phonetic signs standing for suffixes, presence of radicals, use of homonyms, etc.29.
Professor A. Sathasivam in his monograph Sumerian a Draidian Language which embodies part of his research carried out in the Universities of Pennsylvania and California has proved that the Sumerian language is the twentieth member of the Dravidian family of languages. He states he owes. everything to Professor T. Borrow.30. His cognate sets of Dravidian and Sumerian words will be quoted later in this Study.
Dravidian - speaking peoples, the Sumerlans Indus Valley people and Egyptians, appear to have had a common origin. Christoph von Fiirer Haimendorf says:
"There is fairly general agreement that the megalithic tombs Of Southern India, are in SOme Way connected with the megalithic culture of Mediterranean countries and Western Asia, and one of the main proofs is seen in the custom of leaving open one end of the cist or breaking a hole at the rim of the capstone, the Socalled soul-hole believed to serve as an escape to the soul of the deceasedio31
Dolmens with port-holes are found in South India, Transjordania, France, Corsica, etc. This would prove kinship between the peoples of these areas. Even the Egyptians adopted this idea as the tombs had a false door and the dead man was believed to come and go through the "door' to partake of it. 32
In a thesis for the Ph.D. for a Scandinavian university in Lund, Avoid Serner says:
“My research intends to show that the oldest form of megalitic tombs in South. Scandinavia, the rectangular simple dolmen called below "dyss' by me is spread in prehistoric times Outside Scandinavia in France, in Spain just south of the Pyrenees, in Corsica, Sardinia, in North Africa. Transjordania, Abyssinia, and South India. The possibilities of bringing the prehistoric dyss burial in connection with burial customs of peoples known to history are at none of the places so favouarble as in South India. Therefore I hold the same Opinion as Montelius, Sophus Muller, Stjerna and Rydbeck viz that the dyss burial has been spread by the migration of a
dys-buing people, and in the following way. Most of the emigrants took up their abode round the Cevennes, a bifurcation reached Gerona. Lerida, and the Basque provinces. The South Of France presented very favouraable chances of development and from there the megalithic people spread principally between the Garonne and the massif central up to Brittany. Offshoots have gone further along the Channel, possibly to "les departments du Nord” and to the south of England. From Britanny a vanguard reached Jutland and South. Scandinavia ... the area. Goa, northwards appears On the whole to have neither dyss nor megalithic form of sepulchre. A singular detail of the dyss burial form is the strange porthole entrance which is instanced to the largest extent in South India, and in a smaller degree in Transjordania It is also to be found in dysses i in Numidia, Corsica and France. The pulling Of Sick people through a porthole entrance in prehistoric Stones has been instanced from England in recorded times (The Archaeology of Cornupall by H. Neill Hencken, p. 47). H. Congreve, who wished to accentuate the connection between South India and "druidic' culture in Europe in 1847 and 1861, published articles in which he among other things mentioned "excavated rock-basins' as a support of his opinion. H. RivettCarnac has also stated that the cup-marks On the boulders which surround Indian tombs are identical with the marks found in the stones placed around the same class of tumuli in Europe.' 33
The migration of the Dravidians to Europe is referred to by Alain Danielou who says:
"The Dravidian languages are related to Georgian and according to certain scholars. to Sumerian. Sumer would only have been one branch of this first Indo-Mediterranean civilization. It was also from India that the ancestors of the Egyptians would have come. They admit an oriental origin. One could derive the word "druid' which is pre-Celtic from “Dravida”. Sumerian and Hurrian seem to be the languages most directly related to Dravidian...... The skulls found in the dolmens Of Spain are dolichOcephalic and pre-Celtic and of the same type as Dravidian Skulls ... the hero of the Deluge is called Manu. Manu comes from the Dravidian root 'man' which means "clay"
we do not know from what language the Puranas were translated. It was certainly from an ancient Dravidian language, probably different from Tamil. There exist Tamil versions which are in certain cases more ancient than the Sanskrit versions ... Most of the Dionysiac rites described by the Greek authors still exist in India today. The name of Bacchus is certainly derived from the term bhakta' - the fabric wrapped round Egyptian mummies is dyed with indigo, which comes from South India, Indo-European languages were Superimposed on IndoMediterranean languages and pultures to which belonged anclent Dravidian, Sumerian, Georgian, Cretan, Etruscan, Egyptian, Tuareg, Basque, Albanian. etc.'34
Although there are similarities between the Indus and South Indian civilisations. Some Scholars do not agree about the links. Hermann Goetz says:
"There are no direct links with the Indus civilisation. Instead many Speak for a direct contact With Iran, Iraq, Arabia, Syria and Egypt. The South Indian cult of the moon god and the Lady of the Mountain at their ceremonials, nuptials, their palace-temples, the temples slaves, the hierodules (dievadasis). South Indian pottery often resembles that of Tepe Hissar in Iran Terracotta sarcophagi with or without legs have their counterparts in Syria. The most common form of burial Was the Cromlech or stone circle containing either a cist or urn, or both. funeral accessories are large eggshaped pots or ring Stands, polished black-topped potS, and lapis lazuli beads. The cists built of thick stone slabs often have a hole on the northern to eastern side. This type, which seems to have migrated north rather rate (200 B.C.) from the uttermost South appears to have come from OverSeas from the coast of the Arabian Sea, Egypt, Syria. Cyprus, even Brittany. The urn burials of Adichanaliur (Tinnevely District) contain golden diadems and mouthpiecs Iron and bronze implements are again related to Bronze Age finds in Palestine (Gaza, Gerar) and Cyprus. Some rock tombs in the Deccan (Purandhar) resemble those of nearly Jewish tombs in Palestine. The cairns and burrows of the Nil giris, on the other hand, have yielded bronze bowls similar to those found at Nimrud (Assyria) and Wan (Arme* Inia)”:35 .
Temples to the moon god were erected even in Britain in prehistoric times. I had all along held the vnew that St. Paul's Cathedral, the Church at Harrow, and Notre Dame were built. On the sites of ancient temples, as when Sir Christopher Wren was building St. Paul's he found the heads of oxen which had been sacrificed, and Bede had stated that Pope Gregory in a letter to Bishop Mellitus in 601 A.D., mentioned that the English nation had been used to Slaughtering many OXen in the sacrifices to devils36. I have now been forestalled by Professor Lyle Borst of the U.S.A. who states in his book Megalithic Software that S. Paul's Canterbury Cathedral, etc, Were built on the sites of ancient temples. Some of the criticisms of Professor Borst's book 37 have not been fair. e.g. stating that he was proved wrong in a previous theory, ဗူးများ being Wrong Once does not mean he should be Wrong
The introduction of Dravidian astronomy to Europe is
oved by the word for 'moon'. In Tamil it is "ambli-maan'.
e Dutch WOrd for moon is 'maan” Which is identical to the Tamil
Survivals of the Neolithic Dravidians of Europe can be seen in the name of the bull-god. The Tamil name for oxen is "turi' and stable is "toru'. The Greek and Latin words for bull are "tauros' and 'taurus'. These became Thor the god of northern Europe as they considered thunder to be the roar of the Bull-God. Thor is the God of Thunder The Wikings wore a helmet with two horns. The prototype is to be found in the Indus Valley where the Dravidian god Siva is depicted with two horns.
The presence of a people speaking a language like Dravidian in France is proved by the phonology of French which is like Tamil. In a thesis Submitted to the University of Mont
peller, comparing the phonology of French and Tamil. M. Somassoundirampillai states:
"There are only a few languages in the world which have nasal vowels. French and Tamil are tWO of them. The frequency of the use of vowel Sounds is relatively high in these two languages-French 48.80%. Tamil 43.78%. The pattern of vowel systems is symmetrical and balanced in
the two languages. This proves that the people speaking these two languages had a balanced, calm, Sweet and aesthetic character...there are a number of common traits between the phonological system of Tamil and French.'38
Sumeria was probably peopled by people from the Indus Walley. WOOlley States:
“Quoting probably some legend of the Sumerians thenselves, the Old Testament says that "the people journeyed from the East and came into the plain of Shinar (which is Babylon) and dwelt there' and in recent years excavations so far away to the East as the valley of the Indus River have produced remains of an early civilisation which ha certain elements in common with what we find in MesO potamia. The Sumerians believed that they came int. the country with their civilisation already formed, brin ing with them the knowledge of agriculture, of working in metal, of the art of writing - since when, they said, "O new inventions had been made' -and if as Our excavations seem to show, there is a good deal of truth in that tradition, then it was not in the Euphrates valley that the a were born'89.
Hall, too, believes that Sumerians were probably Dravidins from the Indus Valley. He states:
“The ethnic type of the Sumerians so strongly marked in their statues and reliefs was as different from those of the races which surrounded them as was their language from those of the Semites, Aryans and others. They were decidedly Indian in type ... and it is this Dravidian ethnic type of India that the ancient Sumerian bears most reSemblance to. So far as We can judge from his monuments. He was very like a Southern Hind of the Deccan (who still Speaks Dravidian languages). And it is by no means improbable that the Sumerians were an Indian race, which passed certainly by land, perhaps also by sea, through Persia to the valley of the TWO Rivers. It was in the Indian home (perhaps the Indus Valley) that we suppose their culture developed. There their writing may have been invented and progressed from a purely pictorial to a simplified and abbreviated form, which afterwards in Babylonia took on its peculiar "cunelform
appearance, Owing to its being written with a square - ended Stylus On Soft clay. On the way they left the seeds of their culture in Elam. This seems a plausible theory of Sumerian Origins.'40
Professor A. Sathasivam states:
"The Sumerian language of the archaic (3500-3000 B.C.) and Ur. dynastic periods had preserved well its protoDrravidian elements. The vocabulary of these earlier periods shows that these are essentially Dravidian with few, if any foreign elements in it. The last phase Of the Sumerian language exhibits. Some un-Dravidian characteristics, especially in the areas of phonetics and compound-formation. The entry into Sumerian of elements of Semitic pronounciation may be due to the commopolitan population of the main Sumerian cities. According to LeOn Legrain, 'at Nippur three-fifths of the inhabitants Were Sumerians and two-fifths Semites. 4.
Christoph von Fuhrer Haimendorf holds the view that the Dravidians were a Mediterranean people who came to India by Sea about 500 B.C. and Spread north-Wards subjugating the earlier Neolithic, and Microlithic peoples. He Was Speaking as an anthropologist before the Fourth Session of the International Congress of Anthropology, but linguists disagree with him, for as S. Leshnik Observes:
"The postulation of Such a late Dravidian arrival also clashes with the linguistic, as Murray B. Emeneau WaS the first to observe. A marked Dravidian influence which extends to lexical, phonemic, and structural aspects is already evident in the Rig Veda, Emeneau, together with T. Burrow and Mr. Mayrhofer all specialists in Indian linguistics, take this fact to mean the presence Of Dravidian speakers in the north-west in the Vedie period, i.e. end of the 2nd millenium B.C. Moreover, the underlying assumption of this Dravidian theory that different archeological assemblages cannot belong to linguistically related peoples is demonstrably incorrect. Gordon hints that the Dravidians came directly to South India from the vicinity of Saudi Arabia and Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, the links being established by the cairn burials of both regions'.42
The Indus civilisation would appear to be older than any other, because excavations had to be suspended when water was encountered. There would appear to be other cities beneath the Water level, Mr, Mortimer Wheeler said:
"At the end of 1964 Dr. George F. Dales of the Pannsylvania University Museum drilled beneath the Surface of the floodplain in the vicinity of the so-called H. R. mound at Mohenjo Daro and reached the surface of an underlying Occupation layer. On the showing of Dr. Dales's borings Something like 13ft. of water-logged accumulation still remain unexposed. It may be that as at Harappa, there Was a preceding culture beneath the Indus city: a factor which would necessarily affect our evaluation of the evidence in the present context.'43
Referring to Mohenjo-daro he also states:
"The lower and earlier levels of the old city: are today far below water level ... a more recent theory Would add formidable floods caused by geological upheavals in the vicinity of the present coastline and Subsequent pondingback Of inland drainage.'44
In view of the above I am inclined to agree with V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar who says:
“The authors of these early cultures in the East Mediterranean were emigrants from South India Speaking the Dravidian dialects. The language migrated and with it the people who spoke that language. So my humble thesis is that civilization of the future was born not. On the shores of the Mediterranean, but on the coasts Of the Indian Peninsula, and On the banks of its mighty rivers the Kaveri, the Tambaparni, the Periyar and Amaravati, not to speak of the Kistna, Godaveri and Narmada..'45
P. Mitra, says: "The South Indian or Dravidian culture has even been thought by some scholars like Hall to be anterior to early Sumero-Elamite cultures.”46
K. M. Panikkar states that there is no evidence to prove that Dravidians brought civilisation to the Deccan from Outside India. He says: "In fact all available evidence and the re
sult of investigations into pre-history go to establish that what We call. Dravidian civilisation developed independently and without influence in the peninsula.'47
Archaeologists too disagree with Futhrer-Haimendorf, F. R. Allchin says that from archaeological evidence at Piklikal at least a significant Sub-stratum of the modern population in South India can claim ancestry from the first settlers of the neolithic period, and in the absence of any better claimants the neolithic stratum. Of Settlers introduced Dravidian languages. The carbon-14 date for Piklikal was 2138-150B.C. Referring to this, Professor T. Balakrishan Nayar says: "How far backwards in time We have to take the neolithic in South India We do not know.'48
The resemblances between the Mesopotamdan and Indus civilisations would imply that both had a common source, and this common source would appear to be Dravidian, Sir Mortimer Wheeler says: "Even the Occurrence On a few of the Indus seals of a figure resembling the familiar Gigamesh of Sumer - a Gilgamesh be it noted here, equipped appropriately with tigers in place of the traditional Mesopotamian lions - may imply a common source rather than an inter-borrowing.'49 In the words of H. R. Hall: "The Egyptian and the Semitic languages appear to have sprung from a common stock from which they separated before the grammars and vocabularies were consolidated.'50 Referring to this quotation, S. K. Ray raises the question. "Was India their common home?'51
The dynastic Egyptians are believed to have migrated from an unknown place of Origin called Punt. I would suggest that Punt is derived from the Tamili “Pandya”. Regarding the origin of the Egyptians Dr. Murray states: "The type of men of Punt as depicted by Hatshepsut's artists suggests an Asiatic, rather than an African race, and the Sweet-Smelling WOOds point to India as the land of thtir origin.'52 The line in which Egyptian mummies were wrapped were dyed in indigo which could Only have come from South India. Pharoah is the Hebrew corrupt form of the Egyptian word "per-o'meaning "the great house'53. In Tamil periya is 'great. C. H. Gordon in his "Before the Bible', states that thousands of years ago the northern part of Egypt was called Musur, and would have been named after the homelands of the colonising pioneers. This homeland would have been that part now called Mysore in South India.
Sir John Marshall states: "If these scholars are right who consider the Sumerians to have been an intrusive element in Mesopotamia, then the possibility is clearly suggested of India proving ultimately to be the cradle of their civilisation, which in its turn lay at the root of Babylonia, Assyria and Western Asiatic culture generally.”54
Only the literature of the last Tamil Sangam has survived because part of South India and Ceylon was swallowed up by the sea, probably at the time Of the Great Deluge. Tamil literature refers to the First Sangam which is stated to have flourished for 4,040 years in Southern Madura with 549 members, the second Sangam for 3,700 years in Kapatapuram with 59 members, and the last Sangam for 1,800 years in Northern Madura with 49 members. The submergence of part of India by the Sea is referred to in the Bhagavata Purana. This is confirmed by the Ceylon chronicles.
The fact that part of South India was submerged was corroborated by Professor P. Bezrukov, head of the Scientists aboard the Soviet research ship Vityaz, who announced that in the western part of the Indian Ocean they had found traces of the old Indian continent. On the eastern side of the Indian Ocean he could not trace the old contintnt. The most conspicuous submarine ridge which the Soviet research scientist discovered was situated 550 miles south-east of Ceylon in the Indian Ocean. It was traversed by the Wityaz on a track 150 miles long above the ridge. A submarine mountain about 10,000 feet in height was discovered by the echo-sounding method, and named after Afanazy Nikitini, the first Russian who navigated the Indian Ocean in the 15th Century55.
In the past it was the fashion to exaggerate the influence of Sanskrit on Tamil and to make out that Tamil literature was based on Sanskrit models, The Wheel has turned and it has now been found that it was Sanskrit literature that was based. On Tamil models. A young American in his thesis for the Ph.D. at Harvard says:
“Nilakanta. Sastri has exaggerated the extent of influence of Sanskrit. It is difficult indeed to see how Nilakanta Sastri can state that early Tamil literature is full of Northern Words. Any reader who knows what words are Sanskitic can see that they are few and far between. J. W.
Chellah has estimated that the Tirumuru Karrupatai, one of the ten poems of the Pattupattu, which is later than most of the poems of the anthologies, contains Only 2% of Sanskrit words even when such words as min (Burrow’s Dravidian Etymological Dictionary 3999), tamarai. (D. E. D. 2583) and muttu (D. E. D. 4062) which are known to be of Dravidian origin, are counted as Sanskrit".56.
He even goes so far as to say that Sanskrit poets have copied Tamil poets. He says:
"The anthology of Hala is filled with SO many extremely close parallels to Tamil verses that their close relationship cannot be questioned. Furthermore, because of Dravidian meter and Dravidian rhyme, which first appear in Indo-Aryan in the Sattasai and show how dependent that anthology is on the Dravidian traition, there can be little doubt that the themes and situations which first appear in the Sattasai came from the Southern tradition of poetry and not the northern One ... the themes appear to be more at home in early Tamil society than in IndoAryan Surroundings. It has been seen that flowers were used for many different purposes in Tamiland, performing Some function by their presence in almost every significant facet of ancient Tamil Society. On the other hand, the relative unimportance of flowers in early Indo-Aryan life may be inferred by the far fewer mentions of them in the epics than in Tamil anthologies ... It has been seen that a popular tradition extending all Over South India and not Tamil poetry, was responsible for injecting southearn elements into Sanskrit, poetic tradition'57.
I believe that the Ramayana is an adaptation of an early Tamil epic, because Raman, Ramu, etc. are ancient names which are still found among the Tamils. The name is nonAryan as, in the Sumerian inscriptions, there is a name 'AbiRamu' meaning 'son of Ramu'. Abi became the Gaelic 'ap' meaning “son”, just as the Tamil “makan” meaning “son” became the Gaelic 'Mac' meaning 'son'. Abi-Ramu became 'Abraham'. in Hebrew. It was originally Abram', but the Bible says the
Lord ordered Abraham to change his name from "Abram' to Abraham'.58 There is also a Hebrew name 'Rama'. 59 The Sumerians had an air-god called Raman.60 Referring to Homer, Webster says:
"Court poetry was international in the double sense, and its poets could borrow stories from Eastern poetry. This siege story which is attested by works of art from KnOSSOS, etc, and in litrature from Ugarit (to say nothing of recorded Babylonian, Egyptian and other Eastern sieges) was the kind of story which could be sung in different ways ... new colouring could be added from Eastern poetry.'61
The story of the Ramayana relating the abduction of Sita by Ravana, is obviously derived from an ancient original as the same theme recurs in the abduction of Helen by Paris.
Further excavations may prove that India is the place where man first evolved and migrated Westwards. As the Director-General of Archaeology in India, says: "But to anyone who could glance at the map of the old world, it would be quite patent that India is one of the most favoured regions where the development of human culture is most likely to have Occurred in the early history of the human race'62.
III. BLOOD GROUès
The migration of DravidianspEurope is proved by the similarity of blood groups. The earliest group of fliodern man may have had gene frequencies of 60 O 25 A and 15B eut of every 100 A-B-O blood group genes.63 Peoples are classified in terms of blood-group frequencies by population geneticists. The O-type blood group, for example, is particularly frequent among the Basques, the Irish and the Scots64. Dried tissues of corpses contain blood group substances even after thousands of years. Out of 74 Egyptian mummies tested 62 were of O blood group. Of another lot of 23 examined. 15 were of O blood group. Out of 134 American Indian mummies tested 118 Were Of O blood group, and of another 23 and 8 American Indian mummies tested 20 and 7 respectively were of the O blood group65. Only records of a few tests conducted on Dravidians are avaiable. The Professor of Anthropology at Sorbonne has given us the results of tests conducted and the results showed that the majority of Tamils belonged to O. According to his tables. Hill's tests revealed a percentage of 51%. Bigot's test 47%. Seneviratne's test 46%. Koch's test 44% of the O. group66,
These Were recent tests. As far as I am aWare no investigation has been made into the blood-groups of the ancient Dravidians, as blood groups have been determined even from Specimens of ancient bone, e.g. of an American Indian 11,000 years old 76. As Boyd says, one of our leading workers in the field of genetics has stated clearly his own Opinion that the Study of geographic variation of a single human gene series, such as that which determine the blood groups, is capable of giving more information about the nature of races than could decades of mensuration and computing of racial averagesó8. Olivier says that Tamil blood groups are characterised by a "European frequency of the “r gene and a "European' frequency of the secretor gene69.
The ancient Dravidians were mainly dolichocephalic. Skeletons found in France were dolichocephalic70. The dolichocephalic Dravidian type is related to that of the pre-dynastic Egyptians 1. Professor Coon says that the skulls found at Badari in Egypt and Dravidian skulls in South India are identical 72. Coon says that the Tamils are primarily Caucasoid, that in India the majority of the population including speakers of both Indo-European and Drividian is Caucasoid. and that
the Sinhalese of Ceylon are also primarily Caucasoid, but also contain a Monogoloid element 73. The Sinhalese claim to be Aryans, and the Tamils are stated to be Dravidians, but both are primarily Caucasoid, but the Sinhalese also contain a Mongoloid element. As regards anthropometric data the inhabitants of India and Ceylon are essentially the same in these indices as the Europeans and near Easterners74. Both in India and Ceylon there is a minority of both Indo-European and Dravidian-speaking people who are not Caucasoid. Of the Dravidian-Speaking Australoids and Negroids Coon Says that they have probably adopted Dravidian speech'75.
Herodotus said that the Lycians “were called Termilae which was the name that they had brought with them, but after the coming of Lycus, Son of Pandion, they came in time to be called Lycians.' . These Termilae have been equated with 'I'amils. Autram SayS: 'These Dravidians of the Aegean Mediterranean had an Onomastic counterpart in the Termilai or Tramilas (in Lycian inscriptions they are referred to as Trmmile'76. That the Termilae of Lycia and the Tamils of India are of the same stock is proved by the fact that they had a king called Pandion 77. The Tamil kings Were also called Pandyan.
The Dravidians were primarily dolichocepahic. In neolithic times the population of Europe was mainly dolichocephalic. but by the close of the Bronze Age brachycephalic varieties of man began infiltrating into this initial substratum in Europe. Western Asia and Northern Africa and 'by the advent of modern times most of the people of France, Switzerland, Southern Germany, Austria the Balkans and that part of Western Asia lying near the Mediterranean had become brachycephalic. This tendency was not apparent however, in the people of Northern Europe. the Mediterranean littoral and most Of Western Asia.'78. In the late neolithic cemeteries of Kiev in Russia dolichocephalic skulls were found which risembled metrically the earliest Sumerian Skulls from Al-Ubaid. 79 This dolichocephalic Stratum in Europe is the Dravido-Sumerian Strain which entered Europe in neolithic times before the advent of Aryan-speaking peoples.
Dravido-Sumerian priest-kings moved westwards and were accepted by the Celts. The Druids were not Celts. Professor John E. Lloyd says:
"Statesmen took note of the completeness of the Druidic organisation, its hold upon the mass of the people, the thoroughness of its educational discipline. As a whole the system was to the Roman mind Strange and uncanny, a fact which lends Support to the view that it was not of Celtic origin ... In Britain its stronghold indeed the only district with which it is expressly associated, is found to be the island of Mona where the Iberian element is on other grounds believed to have been important, and thus another reason is furnished for regarding Druidism as an importation into the Celtic world.'80
These priest-kings, the forefathers of the Druids, were responsible for the megalithic circles in Britain, etc. They pOSSessed a knowledge Of metrology, geometry and astronomy. Although Stonehenge was built 2,500 years before the Druids, there is reason to believe that they were built by an earlier wave of priest-kings that accounts for the word "konig, from the Tamil 'kone'. The name conroy is found even today. This is a compound name coming from the Tamil 'kone' meaning king and the French "roi' meaning king. These priest-kings even Went to America, as Miss. Maria, Reiche, a German mathematician, discovered that the unit of measurement used in designing the figures in ancient American Indian ruins fits the British remains at Woodhenge.81
Professor Thom says:
"When the egg-shaped rings were studied they revealed the remarkable interest shown by the builders in units of maSurement, and the concomitant attempt to discover the Pythagorean triangle. This study showed up that magalithic man was well acquainted with the Small amplitude ripple on the moon’s declination, and has left such difinite indicators that we can with their help alone determine its magnitude.'82
As the Tamil 'kone' is older than the German konig Anglo-Saxon "cyning' or the Jewish “cohen', meaning rabbi, these priest-kings should have been Dravidian.
These priest-kings appear to have reached America as the "ca' in In-Ca' means king. "Ca' is related to "kone'. American Indian temples were designed. On the same lines as Stonehenge. Professor Grahame Clark says:
“One Of their most important means of taking observations was to use the lines of Sight to distant points on the horizon obtained from the tops of their temples. The ceremonial centres were themselves laid out With astronomy in mind. For example, the temple at Uaxactum was laid Out in Such a way, that an observer Standing on the steps Of the Opposite pyramid would see the Sunrise at the equinox exactly over the Centre of the middle temple, and at the Solstices over the llorth front corner of the north, and the South front corner of the South temple. The Maya Were well aware that the Solar year was in fact rather Jonger than 365 days, and developed a method of correcting the discrepancy between Solar and calendrical years by calculating with surprising accuracy
the length of the solar year. The Maya value of 365.2420 was in fact closer to the modern astronomical value (365.2422) than Was the COrrected Gregorian calendar (365.2425). They also derived an accurate lunar calendar and calculated the intervals between eclipses of sun and moon. They were also interested in Wenus, and arrived at an extremely accurate value (584 as compared with the scientifically observed 583.92 days) for the Synodical revolution of the planet Venus. They were fully aware that in approximate terms 5 Wenus years=8 solar years.'83
Evidence points to India as the place of origin of American Indian civilisations, e.g. the Mayan temple at Copan in Honduras has a gallery depicting elephants with drivers Wearing turbans.84 There were no elephants in America, and turbans are worn in India. "The Maya bar-and-dot notation Was simpler than Roman notation and superior in two respects. To Write the numbers from 1 to 19 in Roman notation it is necessary to employ the symbols I, W and X, and the processes of addition and subtraction. VI is V plus I but IV is V minus I. In order to write the same numbers in Maya bar-and-dot it is necessary to employ only the dot and the bar and one arithmetical process, that of addition85. Morley also gives the following figures to show that the ancient Mayan calendar was more accurate than the Gregorian calendar:-
Length of year according to modern astronomy - 365,422 days ... our old uncorrected Julian Calendar - 365.2500 days 9p , , present corrected Gregorian Year - 365.2425 days gy year according to ancient Maya
aStronomy - 365.2420 days
A study of Mayan mathematics also points to Indian Origin. Morley Says:
“The Maya vigesimal system of mathematics was a posi tional System, and embodied the concept of zero, a notable abstract intellectual achievement. Elsewhere the mathematical concept is known to have been developed only in the early Hindu civilisation. The ancient civilisations of Mesopotamia employed a positional system of arithmetic but it seems to have been in existence for centuries before the concept of zero diffused to them from the Hindu World.'87
If the Dravidians could have left traces in America, they could also have sailed to Europe, P. K. Padmanabhan Nair in his paper "Efatese-a Dravidian Language has proved that 40% of Efatese Words are of Dravidian Origin. Efate is an island to the north-east New Zealand (Proceedings of the First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguists, 1972 p. 458).
IV. CELTS-A PRE-INDO-EUROPEAN PEOPLE
The presence of Dravidians in France is indicated by the survival at Chartres of the cult of the Black Mother, reminding us of the goddess Kali of the Dravidians88 Autran says that the Black Virgin is worshipped at St. Victor in Marseilles and that she was imported by navigators from abroad. These navigators would have been Dravidian as the Dravidian goddess Kali is involved. She was discovered in a well under the crypt as the clergy would have hurled her there when the temple was destroyed. Autran wonders whether this could be the same virgin as the One in Cape Comorin in South India which was named after the virgin and named Kanya Kumari and which Ptolemy and the author of Periplus of the Erythrean Sea refer to as Komarion, Kamar etc.
The Dravidian New Year and Calendar start in April. In the Cathedral of Chartres a Calendar and Zodiac Occupy the two arches of the left gate at the foot of the belfry, and strange to say the Calendar starts in April89. This is further evidence of the presence of Dravidians in France.
One of the most remarkable pre-Hellenic people of the Aegean who had establishments in Crete, Asia Minor, Troy and the Near East honoured a Supreme God called Zeus Triopas, i.e. the god with three eyes. The Dravidian god Siva is also depicted with three eyes. Autran says that what is remarkable is to find that these people came from the East and called themselves Tramila or Tremila according to the inscriptions. The Greeks also called then Tranila. Or Tremlila.90 Siva was also attended by dancing-priests like the Greek Corybantes. The God of Argos also had three eyes.91
One of the names of 'Jehovoh' in Hebrew is "Adonay' meaning Lord'. The Greek “Adonis is derived from Adonay. "Adonay' comes from the Tamil Nathan' which means "Lord'. The name "Nathan' is still common among the Tamils and Jews. The Israeli Lieut-Colonel who raided the airport in Uganda and freed the hostages in June 1976 was Yehonathan Tamils still have the name Yoganathan.
Sir Arthor Keith says: According to us the Arabian peninsula was occupied formerly by a people intermediate
between the Somalis on the one part and Dravidians on the other part. The problem will be solved if a common ancestry is postulated."
Hutton says Dravidians originally came from Asia Minor after a long stay in Mesopotamia 92 and that religious practices still partly observed in South India, and those of ancient Syria and in Asia Minor support the linguistic data%. Elliott Smith was unable to distinguish between Adicchannalur skulls in South India and certain pre-dynastic Egyptian skulls.94
Although the Celts speak an Aryan language they do not appear to belong to an Aryan race. Waddell SayS.
In 1865 appeared the celebrated collection of measurements of ethnic types in the British Isles by J. B. Davis and J. Thurnam, “Crania Britannica” and Dr. J. Beddoes’ "The Head-Forms of the West of Engtand in Memoirs of the Anthropological Society, London, 1864, ili pp 37, 348 et seq. They disclosed conclusively that the Celtic speaking people of the British Isles, and more particularly the Welsh, were not of the Aryan race, though they spoke an Aryan language”. 95
The ordinary term for lion in Hebrew and Syriac in 'aria.96 There were kings of Ireland called "Ari', 'Ariri', etc. The high king of Tara, Monarch of all Ireland, was called "Ariri'. These names are connected to Dravidian kings who had lion symbols and names like 'Sinkan meaning lion and used to sit on lion thrones. In Tamil 'ari' means lion, "ariana' means lion throne.
Bulls used to be sacrificed by Dravidians as well as by peoples of Europe.97
The Druids had a festival for the god Saman.98. This is the same god Saman that is worshipped even today on the sacred mountain in Ceylon called Adam's Peak, Adam's Peak is probably one of the earliest centres of worship in the world, and in course of time the earliest man may be found in the
land that was inundated by the Sea off the west coast of Ceylon.
The Druids of Ireland assembled on the feast Of Saman to sacrifice to the god Bel99. This is the same god Ball of Sumeria whose name is still in use among the Tamils as Bala Singham. "Beltain was the fire. Of Bel or Bal. "Tain' comes from the Tamil “ti” meaning “fire”. This same gOd Was called BelenOS in Gaull00. The Original name of 'Shannon' in Ireland Was "Sinnan' (A Celtic Miscellany by K. H. Jackson) Sinnan is pure Tamil. If the original names of places were known. Dravidian Origins cannot be denied.
A fire was kept burning for six years in Ireland 101. Frazer refers to the custon. Of the nuns Of St. Brigit in Ireland who tended a perpetual holy fire at Kildare right up to the time of the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII102, Keeping fires burning Was also an accient Dravidian custom which is still being followed, e.g. Satya Sai Baba of South India, Who is venerated as a Saint, and has a large number of devotees in many countries keeps a fire burning night and day. This Was because of the belief of both Hindus and Muslins that places of Worship should always be lit up103.
“The Bel-Fire or Bel-Tine rites and games which still survive in many parts of the British Isles are generally recognised to be vestiges of a former widely prevalent worship of Bel in these islands extending from St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall to Shetland. Which is now seen, to have been introduced by the Phoenicians, and to be a survival of the great star celebration at the summer Solstice. The name "Bel-Tane' or Bel-Tine' means literally Bel's Fire.”104
The fact that the Cornish word for fire tan 05 and Bel-Tine are both derived from the Tamil “ti” meaning fire, is further evidence Of the presence of intrepid Tamil sailors
whom Heras calls "The Children of the Sea'.
Waddell also states that the repositories of these sacred Perpetual Fires thus generated still exist in Britain in some churches in Cornwall. Dorset and York, and that the Phoenicians had generated their Perpetual Fire in the Temple of
Hercules at Gades (Cadiz), of which the penalty for extingushing the fire was deathloé.
In Sumeria the founder of the first Sumer dynasty about 3100B.C. is depicted with a Swastika “and being a fire-priest. The Swastika' has also been found in the Indus Valley and in South India. Was Hitler harking back to remote times when he adopted the Swastika? Had he known that "konig is derived from "kone' he would have been less dogmatic.
The names of the Druids are still found among the Dravidians. Le Roux gives. Several names Of Druids found in the ancient chronicles107, e.g. Madan, Muirgen (Murugan in Tamil from which the name Morgan is derived). Mongan, Manannan, Anmann, etc. which are pure Tamil names. There was also a Druid called Tennisan from which the name TennySon is derived. All names ending in 'an' like Callaghan, are of Druidic, i.e. Dravidian origin. The earliest Welsh poet was called Taliesin, which name is still found among the Tamils as Taliesingam. That the Original word "kone' for king appears unchanged in Ireland would indicate that the kings Of Ireland were of purer descent. For example, Le Roux says that there was a king Of Ireland called Conn 108 and the name Conroy which is a compound of the Tamil 'kone' and the French word for king 'roi' still exists among the Irish. There was a Druidic name "Ness' which is still found among the Tamils as "Nesan' and among the Jews as "NaSOn'. The genealogies appearing in the Scottish chronicles read like the genealogies recited at Tamil funerals with Tamil-Sounding names, e.g. Son of Agam, Son of Agathirai, son of Cinge, son of Luctal son of Parthai, etc.109
In Hebrew “Keenah” is lamentation. The Irish lamentation at funerals is called "keene'. There is a Similar kind of lamentation in Ceylon where hired moaners Wail.
In Mohenjo Daro the Dravidian god Siva is depicted with horns. In the Sumerian Seals there are gods Wearing horns 110. The Goths also wore horned helmets.
The Sumerians had a god called Induru, which became Indra in the Vedas. Proof that St. Andrew of Scotland is the
same as the Sumerian Induru is furnished by the sculpture at St. Andrews at the mouth of the Perth river. Where Induru is shown killing the lion by tearing the jaws asunder, just as is found in the Sumerian seals 111. It is this immigration of Dravido-Sumerians that gave the name 'Ur' to a city in Scotland.
The Rigveda refers to a Dasyu, i.e. non-Aryan leader called Cumurl112. It is possible that Cumuri is connected to the Cymri in Wales. Macdonell & Keith Say the name Cumuri does not appear to be Aryan.
The Word 'bard is derived from the Hebrew Bardahi' as Engel says: "In the Hebrew "bardahi' some clue is afforded to the original home of the Ceitic bard.”113 The Hebrew bardahi' is in turn derived from the Tamil paddu" meaning song. The Sumerian word for lyre is “al”. In Tamil it is “yal”. : “Al” became lyre’ which would account for the earliest Welsh hard, bearing a Tamil name-Teliesin.
Skeletons found at Adichanalur in South India and the predynastic skulls of Egypt are identical114. The authors have provided an ethnological map according to which the original type of skull in South India and North Ceylon was dolichocephalic. With, regards to the rest of Ceylon the authors have
placed a question mark.
Learning spread westward from Sumeria Gordon Childe SayS: “Ever since the days of Sargon, experts in the cuneiform script had been settling in the cities and citadels of Assyria, Syria, Asia Minor. Phoenicia and lastly Egypt, and training native clerks to whom the fruits of Sumerian learning were thus thrown open. The native lore of the new peoples-Hittite, Hurrians Aryans and Cretains-was transcribed and translated. This large class of literate clerks WaS aSSured Of a livelihood. In the temple leisure Was guaranteed to the learned, in fact research was endowed.lls
In Egypt, in compliance with the matriarchate inheritance passed through the female line116. The inheritance in Malabar, South India was also through the female line.
The Hebrews and Greeks were the same people. Professor Harrison says:
“Historians and others have far too long been accustomed to make the tacit assumption that Israel and Greece were independent cultures which flourished in almost conplete isolation from one another. While this is Superfcially so to the extent that there was never any Parthenon in Palestine, nor Moses in Hellas, it is now clear from the discoveries at Ras Shamra that the Ugaritio epics exhibit unmistakeble organic parallels of a kind which link the preprophetic Hebrews with the pre-philosophical Greeks. It would appear that in the 2nd millenium B.C. the Greeks and Hebrews were members of the same international social and cultural Order in the eastern Mediterranean. While the Ugaritic epic compositions are closely related in both language and thought forms to the Hebrew Old Testament, they also show an association with Aegean culture. Thus through the Helen of Troy motif in the Epic of Keret, Ugaritic literature managed to bridge the gap between Genesis and the Iliad.'117
As the Helen of Troy motif appears in the Rama and Sita legend in India and as the Ugaritic inscriptions and the Old Testament have parallels in the Sumerian inscriptions, and in literature, it would appear that they all had a common source Or were the result of migration of people westwards. The lingam or Phallus has also moved west-wards as it has been found in India, Italy, Greece, Great Britain, etc.
There was polyandry in Britain, Caesar says: "Groups of ten or twelve men have wives together in common, and particularly brothers along with brothers and fathers with sons. But the children born of the unions are reckoned to belong to the particular house to Wrich the maiden was first conducted.'ll B. As there is polyandry in Malabar, Ceylon etc. there would have been kinship between these peoples, the immigrants would have reached Britain by sea leaving the rest of Europe free from polyandry.
There were sacred courtesans attached to the temples of the Dravidians. . I believe they are still attached to a few temples in South India, As least they were when I last visited the place. There were also Sacred courtesans attached to the great temples in Greece, Phoenicia, Syria, and Asia, Minor. ProfessOr Marcade says that the idea of the sacred courtesans came to Greece from the East, and that if they sometimes accepted quite lavish payments for their services it usually went to the temple Treasury.'119. He does not identify the place in the East, but I should place it in South India and North Ceylon as the Greek word for courtesan is pallakis and the Tamil Word for courtesan is valangi. These courtesans received Special training in the art of love. This art still SurviWes in South India. Dr. Alex Comfort reports: "The best Indian accomplishment the full pompoir comes from the Tamil South and unfortunately is not taught in the texts though the devadasis learned it from their mothers'.120 and that this Superlative knack can be learned because girls in South India learn it.' 121 Because these arts have Survived in South India it is an indication that the Kama Sutra is based On the Tamil “Kokkokam' the earlier versions Of Which Would have been lost as they were written on palm leaves and only the Works of the last Tamil Sangam have survived.
The Story of St. George and the Dragon has also come from the East. The Story of a dragon guarding gold is found in the Ugaritic poem of Baal V122. The dragon also referred to in the Bible as the leviathan which is described as follows: "His Scales are his pride shut up together as with a close seal. By his neesings a light doth shine and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. Out of his mouth go burning lamps and Sparks of fire leap Out. Out Of his nostrils goeth SInoke aS Out of a Seething pot or cauldron. His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.'123 The story of St. George and the Dragon would have come to England along with a movement of people from the East.
v - LINGUISTg куповNсв.
There is linguistic evidence terpreye that either Sumerian is derived from Dravidian or that both are derived from the same source. Dr. Sathasivam calls Sumerian the 20th member of the Dravidian group. The following cognates are taken from the hundreds of cognates given by Dr. Sathasivam.
SUMERIAN "AMMA, ENGLISH
ARA. ARAI GRIND ASA ASAI PASTE AL AL RULE IA AI FIVE AL YA LYRLE: AN VAN SKY URU URU PLOUGH UR UR CITY UL ULI CRY UMBIN UKIR FINGER (French Onguille) U UN FOOD GURUN KURUTI BLOOD UBAR, CUVAR WALL, UMAR, UMLAR, MARSE UL CLI LIGHT EN EN SPEECH NI NEY OIL
RRES RA KLING (French roi) KAD KATTU BIND KA KAI FRUIT GAN KAN LOOK (English Ken) GAL KAL ROB KUT KUTU ADD KU KUNTI BUTTOCKS (English Cunt) GUR, KUR WRITE KUM KUMMU CRUSHI KUR KUTIRA HORSE GUL KUTI HOUSE
KUD KUIDAMI JAR, GUN KUN STOOP KINDA KINDU DIG T'AG TAG HAMMER. TAR TARI CUT
DI TI FLAME (English Tinder) TIN TIN STRONG:
DUG TUNKU SLEEP
The first five English meanings given have a strange similarity to the Sumerian words which again would support my theory of a Dravido-Sumerian substratum in Britain.
It is interesting to note that the Sinhalese of Ceylon who claim Ariyan Ancestry have retained many Sumerian words which the Tamils have lost e.g. Sumerian ges. Sinhalese gas meaning tree, Sumerian Kis Sinhalese Kes meaning hair etc.
The following parallels between Basque and Tamil which are only a few of those discovered by Lahovary are taken
from Lahovary's book.125
IKAN TO SEE
ALI Woman (French elle
she, Berber illi girl, Sinhalese Kelle - girl)
IRACHCH - Meat, Sinhalese Harak
KAN -- to See (English - Ken)
MUGAM - face (Arabic - Mujha)
face, English Mug)
MATU - Word - Egyptian m-dt
word, French mot word.
KU - to coo Sumerian gu-voice
KAI - hand - Greek Cheiros Hand.
KALLAN - thief (Arabic - Kalla
TOTTU - Nipple (Greek Tithos)
Nipple, English Tit, Teat,
BAY URU-BELLY (AS Sudanese belge is belly the English belly is derived from a pre-European WOrd.
PAL MILK (Greek gala
PATT-Prostitute (French putain prostitute).
MUIDI-t0-kil (French MOUrir to Kil)
VDU HOUSe (Provencia and Gascon Baitha - House Hebrew baith, house, Alpine, baitha-house.
TURU-Heap (Hebrew tur toWerrench tourreau tower).
KUR SHEEP (Hebrew Kar. lamb Greek Kar, Kerais, ewe, ancient Irish Caera. Sheep).
SIRIYA SMALL (Egyptian S-R-Y-Small)
ADU GROW, crease English add)
PAR ENCLOSURE (Old English parrac)
MARAM TREE (Italian
alpine dealect mar Small tree)
MANIDA CIURDS (Spanish
AR PLOUGH (Latin
arare to plough)
A Few of the English parallels are:-
BREAST STOMACH SMALL CHILD
SHIP (Greek Skaphos) KEMP (Latin cannabis)
PEN (French femme) WOMAN
It may be argued that the English words like curl cottage
corner, feminine etc. Professor Burrow says Kona panda,
Kati, Kona, Panda, etc. 126.
Were derived from the Sanskrit but that the Sanskrit words Kurula, Kuti, etc. were derived from the Tamil words Kurul,
In the inscriptions found at Ras Shamra, a house is called byd which is vidu in Tamil, there was a goddess called Mrym which is the Tamil goddess Mariamma the Wife of the God El is called pnn of Ell27. In Tannil pen is Woman.
Horner calls his beggar in Odyssey Iros. This is probably because he is harking back to the original from which the story is derived as the Tamil word for beggar is Ira. The Greek for boy is pais, the Tamil for boy paiyan. Greek "thallu' is to push, grow. Tamil thallu' is to push. Greek palaios is old. Tamil palai is old. Greek arkouda is bear in Tamil Karadi is bear. Greek polls is city, Tamil palli is village. This suffix still appears in towns like Trichnopoly. The personal pronoun yai in Tamil is "l'. This appears as 'ion' in the epiphoriques inscription of the Beotians. There are hundreds of other parallels between Greek and Tamil in language, mythology, anthropology etc. which will require a separate
Tamil is also related to Finnish, Hungarian, etc. as Oppert analysed the structure of the Sumerian language which led him to conclude that it had close affinities with Turkish, Finnish and Iungarian 128.
K. O. Shamsuddin gives several parallels between TamillMalayalam and Arabic:129, from which I have selected a few.
English Tamil - Malayalam. Arabic
kinS al alu people makkal maxlukku mouth vay vajhu face mugam muhya belly • Va vayaru bajira house Veedu baytu fire nerippu al duck tara. tara OW kuman bu man CrOWC kasa CaSSa. food teen tanun. man Sion : munai alax frog makkaci ImiqaSSu, fly para faľľa
. Ω3. h ala,
We. la nahmi
At the same conference, quoting, "The Alphabet", by for. David Diringer he stated: "In the light of the above facts we can come to the conclusion that the Dravidian and Semitic languages originated from one and the same base.'130
Comparing the Mitanni and Dravidian languages, G. W. Brown says that the Mitanni who in the 15th century B.C. were on the upper bend of the Euphrates and who occupied the northern part of Syria at the height of their power, were the non-Aryan people ruled over by an Aryan dynasty and that the remains of the Mitanni languages show no relationship to Indo-European. He finds resemblances between Tamil and Mitanni in the fields of phonology, grammar and lexicology and that grammatical agreement is generally accepted as the supreme proof of linguistic affinity. Among the parallels given by Brown may be mentioned the following:-
Mitanni English T'omiZ English.
marad tree 82 tree anni γου ni you
atti that adu that tana gdve ta give
irl rule iru rulle asti Wife atti wife kul tell choll tell
"The present study is entirely philological. The most that Such a study could prove would be a migration of language. Since western Asia seems to be the home of Mitanni and Elamite it could be a reasonable conclusion that the Dravidian language also came from that region. However, Since language is not apt to migrate without a migration of people who use the language, it would seem that a migration of people from this area in India must have taken place and that they brought protoDravidian with them. The theory that the Dravidians came from this part of Asia has often been presented. This study would seem to offer some confirmatory evidence. 131
The migration of Dravidians to America is proved by the following parallels in the American Indian languages:
ys Paranawa Siriono Guarategaja Kanou Kabisiana Meuren Algonquian
tai kinyai masira
OO፫ ̊ prenak Wet
haWii ciya nali wati tlawa
mouth monkey Squirrel bOW
boat pigeon house breath . lives bowstring knife frog
tanni kai kOdi-all
kan masir vai
anbu Oru pira vidu
eye har mouth 132 monkey squirrel bOW boat pigeon house 133 breath
Wes bowstring knife frog
nagapampu cobra 134
pe biSamta tuberculosis kasam tuberculosis
Language English ' Tamtl English
Seneca. takh ta give
99 Каа kathai story
y9 aenaks tOngule nakku tongue
99 Kanae Cunni penis 135
It is possible that the Dravidians used Japan as a springboard to land in America as there is a Caucasian race in Japan,
who were pushed to the north and South by the
invading Japanese and who have similar words as Tamil. e.g.:-
Aint. English Tamil English.
r ... to skin uri to skin
katch fire-sticks Kultichu matches
huchi grand-mother achi grand-mother pasa speak PaSU speak
eani * * you you
Se seat aSalar Seat
e open d'Ora Open
arakke sake charalyann arrack 138
Naert, quoting Sternberg, says that the Ainus are a dolichocephalic bearded race “with a remarkable variability in colour that is found among the Dravidians (Todas)'l37.
Just as Tamil words are found so far out in the East, they are also found far out in the West, for instance among the Guanchos, one of the oldest races in Europe, who are related to the Basques, e.g. :-
Сиатcho English Toni English
38 farm 3. a plough
behold par behold
gitan SO makan SO 138
In Vallancy's collection of Egyptian and Irish words related to each other we have 'eanshorn' meaning beginning of Sunmer, and 'ear and 'samh' in Irish having the same meaning. Ear' in Old English is "to plough' which comes from the Tamil ar’ meaning а plough. The word for grove in both Hebrew and Cornish is Bethl39.
Similar names appear in Tamil, Ugarit and Egyptian, e.g. sgr son of Baal in Ugaritla.0, the Egyptian king, Sekenenre, and the Tamil name Sekaran which is still extant.
Lahovary states: "It is no wonder in these circumstances if the Dravidian and Basque place names without mentioning here other more or less similar ones in other parts of Europe or of the ancient Mediterranean World are often so much alike that it is difficult to distinguish the first from the latter.'141
He gives a long list of place-names which are identical in Basque and Dravidian like Lashkar, Agara, Aranda, etc. He also mentions names for which I have found parallels, e.g. Basaur in Basque, Pasaur in North Ceylon, names ending in "ri' like Komari, Wattiry, in the Tamil districts of Ceylon, names ending in "li' like Tinnevely in Ceylon, etc. The Tamil Malai mountain appears in Greek as "Malea Maleia", Maleion', tte. Austran refers to a hill called Maleion in Laconia, and to a Mala in Lesbosi42. He derives Tyre from another Tamil word but I am of the opinion that it is derived from the Tamil "turai' meaning harbour. The Royal Commission on the ancient ånd historicål monuments of Scotland on "Argyll Vol. I refer to Kintyre as a formidable sea-mark of early mariners navigating the North Channel. Irish records irtfer to Kintyre as 'Ceann Tire'. I suggest that Tire is from Tamil 'tural' meaning "harbour'
Waddell states that the river Thames was named after the river Thyamis in Epirus (Asia Minor). the river Avon after the river Aban in Damascus 143. Selsey is the Isle of Sels or Cilicians, the river Ouse after Aouis in Epirus, and that the chief tributary is called Cadmus, after the sea-king of the Phoenicians144. Strabo refers to a town called Karura among the Carians of Asia Minorláks. Ptolemy too refers to it 146. As the Carians are stated to have come from the East I suggest that they are the Karayars, the sea-faring section of the Dravidians who still have towns , called Karayur, e.g. the the One in North Ceylon, and Karur in South India.
Kaer, the Cymric word for fortified city, is derived frorna the Sunnerian 'gar - fort. The Dravidian Kerala is derived from the proto-Dravidian velerizzed Keral' according to BurroW147.
In a Latin work published in Oxford in 1716 the following derivations which are clitarily Dravido-Sumerian are given:-
Old Notine Roman mammte PreSeገጊt ፃጌዉፃme
Kair Gloi Gloucestria Gloucester Kair DOrin D'Orcestria D'OrcheSterf Kair Colden Colecestria Colchester Kair Lundene Lundonia London Kair Kent Cantuaria Canterbury Kair Grant GranteceStria Granchester Kair Gewent Wyncestria. Winchester Kair Ceri Cicestria Chichester
Ceri still appears in place names in Tamil lands, e.g. Chavaka-Ceri, Pudu-Ceri, etc.
This work also confirms the old chronicles that the first king of Britain was Brutus, and that his son was Kamber and that there was a later king called Madan.148 The names Kanber and Madan are still found among the Tamils, Although it was the fashion to denigrate these ancient chronicles, the discovery of early British coins with the names of early British kings confirms the names mentioned in the chronicles as these coins had not been unearthed and were unknown at the period
of Geoffrey and other chroniclersld9.
Several place-names in Scotland are pure Dravidian, There is a place called Cara and S. Lewis states that the population Of Cara “exhibit more of the maritime than the agricultural character. The young men generally become sailors.'150. This supports my theory that the Tamils sea-faring tribe the Karayars would have been the progenitors of the Carians of Asia Minor who have a city Karoura (Karur and Karayur among the Tamilis) and of the people of Cara in Scotland. .
Lewis has recorded the following place names which are pure I'amill:-
Annan Arinangur Cara Conan Conagan Copay Inchture Linga Panmure Oncan Raasay Rachan Ramsay Rathven Urr Tirie, etc.
The following place-names in Ireland are pure Tamil:-
Racavan, now called Rathcoon Ramoan, or Rathmoran Ballinagore Kilala
Aghavallin, meaning fresh ford, formerly
called Aghour or Achadur Omey (formerly Umma) Ballisumaghan Athena SSy
Racavan and Raman are common names among the | Tamils. There is a place called Killaly in North Ceylon. Lewis says Achadur means “green ford’’. In Tamil “pacha’ is “green”.
Wintu in Tamil means mountain. In ancient Spain there was a mountain Winduisliš3. In India there are the Windya mountains. The Great St. Bernard's mountain in Switzerland was formerly called Hohes Wenn says J. T. Cornelius154.
The old name for Marseilles was Massalia. There was a river in ancient Crete called Massalios. In South India there is Masuli-Patnam. On the coast. Patnam means city and MaSul and Massalia and Marseilles have a common origin.
Carmarthen in Wales come from Garthmadrin, Garth is cliff and madrin is the obsolete word for foxls5. The word for fox in Tamil is nari, which is closer to the French "renard' than to Madrin." Garth is derived from the same root as the Sumerian Gar and the Tamil Keral.
The Greeks and others had a god they called Zeus Triopas, i.e. the God with Three Eyes. The Dravidian God Siva is also depicted as having a third eye on the forehead and the Dravidians still mark their foreheads with the third eye.
The signs in the Palace of Minos and Mohenjo Daro are the same. The sailing vessels used by the Dravidians and those used in the ancient Mediterranean were the same. Evans, referring to the old Mediterranean sea-goddess says: "It is interestig to note that on a contorniate medal a really antiquarian illustration is Supplied Of this tradition, the goddess standing on a primitive log-raft with raised prow-such as those still in use at Madras to hold the upper COrners of the sail before the Wind.'56
Marshall says the drainage pipes in Mohenjo Daro and Knossos are identical.
New evidence is gradually being uncovered which will link the agricultural Systems in the East and West Prehistoric field system underneath peat bogs were discovered recently in Western Ireland. The fields were associated with early Neolithic occupation material dating to about 3000 B.C. or possibly earlier. They had been covered for several thousand years by blanket bog which had preserved the lines of field walls. The report stated that a complete prehistoric land surface with traces of cultivation still intact may be uncovered 157.
Representations of the mother goddess appear in iconography in Mohenjo Daro Asia Minor Minoan Crete, Egypt, Balkans, Italy etc. and are obviously of common origin.
The swastika and pipal leaf were of religious significance in the Indus Valley 158. The druids held certain trees as sacred and the swastika has been found in Peru among the Inca ruins and adopted by Hitler who was ignorant of the origin. The lingam or phallus has travelled from India right up to reland. . . It was found in Ireland at Turoe in the country of Galwaylis. John Sharkey draws attention to the extraordinary similarity between the Turoe stone and the Naval of the World stone from Delphi.160.
There is a bilingual Phoenician inscription in Scotland of about 400 B.C. where the inscriber calls himself by all three titles "Phoenician'. "Briton' and 'Scot' and gives his name and native town in Cilicia, Asia Minor161. The Anglo-Saxon chronicle states: "At first the inhabitants of this island were Britons, who came from Armenia and first Occupied Southern Britain'.162 From the evidence it would appear that Armenia is refered to and not Armorica as some editors of the chronicle try to make utס
The bilingual inscription proves that the Armorica referred to in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles is Armenia and not Brittany.
The inscription on the Newton stone at Newton House in the upper valley of the Don in Aberdeenshire reads as follows:- "This Sun-Cross (Swastika) was raised to Bill (or Bel, the God of the Sun-fire) by the Kassi or Cassibel (an) of Kast or the Siluyr (sub-clan) of the Khiland the Phoenician named lkar of Cilicia, the Prwt.'163 Casivelan is a pure Tamil name. There is a Tamil Saliyur clan from Saliyur in South India. When this clan was invited to Ceylon by the Sinhalese kings, in course of time they called themselves Salagamas.
In the Sumerian seals the sun is also represented by the dual and concentric circle rayed circle, petalled and rosetted circles, spirals and swastika as precisely as they are figured in all the conventional ways in the early British coins 164.
The emblem of the Pandyan Dravidian kings, two fishes, appears in a pre-Christian cross in Scotland.165. In the Sumerian story Indiara slays the dragon 166. It is the same story that has come to England, that of St. George and the Dragon. Indara becomes Indra of the Rigveda, which proves that th Rigveda was based On earlier pre-Aryan material. -
The ancient gold-working of Mysore is similar to that of Egypt as recordita by Agarthacides in the 5nd ctntury B.C. 16 The techniques of production of burnished black-and-red ware by inverted firing in India is identical to that used to produce the black-and-red ware of pre-dynastic Egypt or of the modern Sudan.168. . .
The Rev. H. S. David has established links between the Indus Valley, Sumerian, Egyptian and Minoan civilisations.169
Iron was probably first discovered in South India because in Northern India and other countries the Copper Age preceded the Iron Age, whereas in the Deccan copper and Iron implements are mingled together. Chakravarti say this would mean that iron might have been invented independently in the Deccan and did not come from Outsidel70. Gowland, the great metallurgist, refers to the indigenous production of iron in South India and States that the Smelting of iron may have been discovered by sheer accident in India, where according to the best authorities the iron industry is more ancient than in Europe. According to McDonnell the iron age in India is dated prior to 200 B.C. 171.
Kendrick States that there is a crypt in the Cathedral at Chartres in France in the foundation of the masonry of which is a grotto, now called the Druids' grotto. A stela of Druidic date was also found. He also refers to a legend that the Druids worshipped here the Mother of God (La vierge devants enfanter) 172. The prototype for this mother of God was Mariamman of the Dravidians.
The sign for ten in Mohenjo Daro is the same in the Egyptian signary 173. The sign for hane and garden is identical in Mohenjo Daro and Sumerian174. Dr. W. F. Leemans wrote to A Parpola that Several signs in the Indus script "show more or less resemblance to signs of the Sumerian Script, to much ago, that One could be inclined to suppose a relationship which in that case must have existed in a very early stage of writing.'176
Ernst Arbman has analysed vedic literature and proved that Rudra, the Wedic God is the same as the Dravidian GOd Siva. Rudra means red (Greek erudros) and Siva is derived from Proto-Dravidian Civa which means red'176. Both Rudra and Siva have the same hair style, carry tridents, wear tiger skins. etc.177.
B. B. Lal discovered inscriptions in megalithic black-andred ware from the Deccan and South India, which show striking similarity to signs of the Indus Script-89% of 61 marks were similarl B.
The bull couchant appears in the coins of the Dravidians as well as those in Kabul Afghanistan. An illustration of the Kabul coin with the bull appears in Filliozat's book179. The same bull appears in the coins and banners of my ancestors.
Bonstettan propounded the view that the people of the dolmens starttd frtm the west coast of Malabar and entered Europel 80. After studying the cairns in the U.K. at Northumberland and those in South India Breeks concluded that the English and South Indian cairns and cists are identical in structure 181. At any given period in the Pleistocene one can take almost without selection tools from South India and South England which show identical technique of manufacture 182 Burials of bodies in large jars are reported at Tinnevely in South India. Similar jars were found in Babylonia. Where they are coated with bitumen, a black Smear prepared from the juice of the Abutilon indicum.183.
Sankalia, stated that the structural affinity between European megaliths and South Indian megaliths remained unexplained as they are far removed geographically and in time. Gordon Childe had also told him that there was no indication
of Dravidian languages in Western Europe 184. Since Childe's time the relationship between Dravidian, Basque, Finnish,
Hungarian etc. has been established and the structural affinity between the megaliths now need no explanation.
There is a remarkable similarity according to Newbingen between the skeletons found in South India, and those found in the tumuli of Great Britain. France and Germany which exhibit features of a dolichocephalic people185.
Physical anthropologists after studying the skulls of the early British consider that descendants of Iron Age people continued to occupy the country during the period of AngloSaxon domination “and were so far from being driven away or exterminated that it might always be Said that it was they who eventually absorbed the Anglo-Saxons while adopting the language of their conquerors..." As Coon has pointed out, it is these people-the least Celtic in the ethnic sense of all the inhabitants of Great Britain-that have clung most Obstinately to the language that their conquerors first taught them, 2,000 years ago. In an interesting lecture in Genetics and Prehistory largely concerned with the ethnic evidence derived from blood-groups the late Sir Gavin de Beer remarked "In Ireland, Wales and Scotland are found people with dark eyes and jet black hair who have completely erroneously been spoken of as Celtic'186.
The presence of non-Aryan people in Europe in the 2nd millenium B.C. is proved by the discovery of dark people with black hair in Denmark. Acid in bog water had preserved many bodies in Oak coffins. A priest reported On one of the finds: "Tht Skull was still quite intact and the top of the head and neck was covered with long, heavy coal-black hair.'187. Professor Sven Nilsson believed that some carved Stones found had been executed by the Phoenicians who had established a trading colony in the area and they depicted the worship of the great god Ball88. These may not have been traders as generally Supposed but the neolithic immigrants to Europe.
Glob also reports the discovery of strange terraces at BOrgbjerg that resembled the structures known in Mesopotamia as ziggurats: the cult of the sacred bull, horned twin god, evidence of the worship of Baal as at Ras Shamrah and the
goddess with a snake which "marked the entry into the north of the Oriental goddess of fecundity with a snake'189. Glob also says that it has been debated whether the fertility goddess found in Denmark Was of Celtic or Oriental origin, but that it did not matter as the northern and the Celtic fertility goddesses both have oriental prototypes. The goddess was to be seen in all her majesty splendidly fashioned in Celtic bronze and Silver vessels offered Sacrificially in Danish bogs.
Celtic symbolism reveals its Dravidian origin in the adoption of the Dravidian goddess Kali, John Sharkey says:
"The characteristic nanifestation of the devouring mother aspect Of the goddess in Celtic Symbolism-and analogous to the bloody Kali of the Hindus Or the Coatli One of the Aztecs-is graphically illustrated by the stone effigies known under the name of Sheela-na-gig found in mediewall churches and castles ...... There is a variety of Celtic place names Stemming from the Sun god Lugh. There are other gods like Bel etc.'190.
These gods are no other than the Sumerian gods Lughal and Bal which would indicate that the Celts are of Dravido-Sumerian Origin. Cernunnos, the horned god of the Celts, is the same horned Siva found in Mohenjo Daro and the horned Sumerian god.
Sharkey also says: "The customs of hanging clooties in trees or bushes by a Sacred well was once widespread throughout Scotland, Wales and Ireland. It is also common in the Middle East. The Symbolism connected with the mother goddess has been largely forgotten since the change to church-based Christian ritual.”191. This custom still obtains in India and Ceylon and is a pointer to the origin of the Scots. Welsh and Irish.
In response to an appeal from Unesco, the Government of India Sent out an Archaeological Mission to Egyptian Nubia to help salvage the past. "Most interesting yet baffling was the similarity in bowls of black-and-red ware and ring-stands of red ware from these graves with those found in the megalithic tombs of South India. The black-and-red Ware bowls and jar
stands of red ware as well as the circular stone wallings enclosing the graves are all reminiscent, of what obtains in the negalithic tombs of South India'192.
I Would suggest that the Scottish kilt originated from Mohenjo Daro as the Seated alabaster male figures from Mohenjo Daro illustrated in Wheeler's work wears a kilt-like garment193.
Wheeler states that the finger-ring of plain bronze of the spiral type occurs in widely different times and places extending from Mohenjo Daro in the 3rd millennium B.C. to Transcaucasia in the first millennium B.C. and early Iron Age Europe of the first centuries B.C.194. He further states that there is a similarity between the male figures at Mesopotamia and the Indus, that the sturdy neck and shaven upper lip are common to the art of both countries and that the use of inlay for the eyes-a sufficient obvious device-is familiar also in Mesopotamia and Egypt. He refers to the dishes at Harappa that had been marked with a cogged wheel or roulette which millenia afterwards was adopted by the Greeks and Romans, and to identical beads that had been found at Harappa. Sumeria and Troy, Segmented beads had been found at Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Syria, Crete, Egypt, etc. He says:
It is even found in barrows of Wiltshire where it is regarded as a fixed chronological point in Our Middle Bronze Age. Dr. P. D. Ritchie has shown by spectographic analysis that the segmented beads respectively from Knossos and Harappa are absolutely identical in composition and it is to be presumed therefore that they were derived from the same source approximately at the same time.'195
Among other statements made by Wheeler are the following:-
"The spread-eagle motif is found at Harappa, Mesopotamia, Syria etc. It is also found with a snake in its beak at Harappa. Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, with a snake in its break is derived from this. In one seal at Harappa a man appears to be vaulting over a bull in Minoan style.
In the Mohenjo Daro Seals a man is shown holding back two tigers with both arms outstretched just like the Sumerian Gilgamesh holding back two lions. The Babylonian Tree of Life has its counterpart in the Sacred tree at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa where the god is seated under a tree which is enclosed by a railing. Identical etched carnelian and other beads have been found in the Indus Valley and in Mesopotamia 196.
Copper spiral-headed pins found in Mohenjo Daro and Persia appear as late as 1300 B.C. in Italy. Referring to these, Wheeler says "that it may establish a link however tenuous and indirect between the Indus, the Caspian and Anatolia regions where it is at home.' 197 Referring to an animal headed pin from Mohenjo Daro, and an animal-headed rod from Harappa which have appeared in Anatolia only after 2000 B.C. Wheeler says:-
"Mention has been made of the potential chronological value of certain Segmented beads from the Harappan sites. The formal identity of these beads with others from the Mediterranean and even as far afield as England has long been recognised, but has now been reinforced by spectographic analysis which demonstrates an apparently sig - nificant identity by comparison between a bead from Harappa and another from Knossos.”198
Wheeler refers to the drilling at Mohenjo Daro by Dr. G. F. Dales of Pennsylvania. University who could not proceed beyond a certain level as it was water-logged. He says: .
"It may be that as at Harappa there was a preceding culture beneath the Indus city, a factor which would necessarily affect Our evaluation of the evidence in the present context ... The black-and-red pottery which occurs in the Sub-Indus period at Lothal reached its mature phase in the Iron Age of central and southern India if, as Seems probable, a single continuous tradition is involved. In One way and another in a part of India immune from primary Aryan impact the evidence for significant continuity begins to add up ... Mesopotamia and Indus were both indebted to a pre-existing underlying continuum of ideas, The civilisation alike of the Twin
Rivers and the Indus converge retrospectively in the vast massif which extends from the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush westwards across Iran into Anatolia. In the mountainous Zone broken by patches of Steppe and Stony plateau a great variety of Small related cultures developed in the fifth millenium B.C.'
He would not aScribe the resemblances to trade and does not think that Gilgamesh was carried from Sumer to Mohenjo Daro but that “it is easier to postulate an ancestral Gilgamesh native to both civilisations and absorbed independently into the two environments' 199.
There are similarities as far north as Norway, e.g. the skulls found in South India and Norway are dolichocephalic. Men and women were buried together with food, dishes, bowls etc. In the rock-faces of Bohuslan and the pictured slabs of the Kuick barrow the men are shown with the penis erectus like the god at Mohenjo Daro200.
Haruspicy as practised in Babylon was in vogue in various places up to Italy. A clay model of a liver similar to those uSed in the East was found in Falerii. Veteres near ROme. The two models excavated at Megiddo in Palestine near the same characteristic elements as the model of Falerii201. The double-axe which became a sacred symbol in Crete was borrowed from the Sunnerians.202
The vases found in South India are similar to the Egyptian, Greek and Etruscan ceramic Wares. We have numerous neolithic vessels with several legs which are exactly similar to the vessels found in the ruins of Troy. The terracotta Sacrophagi discovered in Pallavaram bear resemblance to certain terra cotta coffins found near Baghdad as also with the Etruscan terra iotta coffins.208
Fergusson speaks of the identity of the megaliths in Etruria with many a group he was familiar with in the jungles of Coimbatore and Mysore.204
The Indian eramples of copper implements frequently resemble the Irish in type, while including peculiar forms, unknown in Europe, The Irish and Indian implements also
agree in chemical composition both being practically pure copper with Small admixtures of tin, lead and other imple
Two small lakes in Wales have produced remains which can almost certainly be regarded as votive deposits.206. The American Indians too threw votive Offering in Wells. This would account for the identical measurements at Woodhenge and American Indian ruins.
A study of the statues and reliefs of Sumer shows ethnically a South Indian type2O7.
VI. MUSIC CAVE FROM THE EAST
A study of the music of East, and West wif Sigyide prbof of migration. Carl Engel, one of thé greatest aoûéflorities Ol music and who according to Groves's Dictionary of Music formed a private museum library that could hardly be rivalled except by a few public institutions states that the Oriental harp has been found in Ireland and that the construction of the Persian bagpipe must be nearly identical with that of the Scottish, since Sir William Ouseley relates that a Scotch gentleman played On it several tunes of his own country in a very pleasing manner- without any previous practice208. Most commentators on Hebrew music are of the Opinion that it was one of the Hebrew wind instruments mentioned in the Bible. The bagpipe with its drones is an instrument almost universal not only in European but also in Asiatic countries209. Sonnerat says "the Hindus maintain that the ravan astron, one of their old instruments, played with the bow was invented about 5,000 years ago by Ravanen, a might king of Ceylon.'210 Ravanan was a Dravidian king. The Oriental harp referred to it "al' in Sumerian, “yal” in Tamil “which is Lyre in English”. The drone is an essential instrument in Dravidian music and forms part of the bagpipe. Engel also refers to a bagpipe used by the Tamil called titty which was brought from Coimbatore in South India and lodged in the East India Museum, London 211.
Similar melodies have been found in the East and West, The Hon. Monstuart Elphinstone says that in Afghanistan he Witnessed performances of the national Songs and dances of that country when a love song was sung to an extremely pretty melody very simple and not unlike a Scottish air'212.
Engel also refers to various European travellers in Asia who encountered Scottish tunes. One John Barrow reported that "one air in particular attracted our attention: whose slow melancholy movement breathed that kind of plaintive softness SO peculiar to the native airs of the Scotch to which indeed it bore a close resemblance'.
G. F. Fleming reported.
"Though before and since those happy days I have been dinned, delighted and distracted by pibrochs, strathspeys. and all the variations which can be appended to the entire catalogue of Celtic music, the air which threw me
into an almost catacleptic state on that night remains preserved in my memory in all its original simplicity and unalloyed genuineness as told in pure-pathoS by a few notes on a simple instrument. MacKrimmon's Lament. We return no more.'213
M. Fetis Says: 'I have not the least doubt that this musical notation used in ecclesiastical music by the modern Greeks belonged to ancient Egypt. I have in Support of my opinion the resemblance borne by the signs of this notation erroneously attributed to St. John Of Damascus to those of the denotic or popular characters of the ancient Egyptians.214 Egypt herself got the notations from the Sumerians and Dravidian S.
Engel also states that the Oriental harp does not exist among European nations at present, but that there are indications of its having been formerly in use. The Finns preserved it the longest. The Finnish god Wainamainen played on it like Orpheus with Such effect that men and animals became enchanted 215.
A study of Welsh and Scottish music will reveal the Oriental strains running through them. There are several melodies among the collections of Welsh Airs which are purely oriental, e.g. Castell Rhos-y-Lian (Rhos-y-Lian castle) 216.
There are similarities in art. In Urartian art in Armenia there is a bronze open fieze showing a bull kneeling before the Sun Symbol. The same motif appears in the banners and coins of my ancestors in North Ceylon. The grand cult of the Mother Goddess is another proof of the common origin. In Babylonia she is called Istar-Nanna, in Asia. Minor. Palmyra, Persia, Armenia, Bactria etc. She is called Nanna, in India. she is called Bibi Nani and Maina Devi.
Temple courtesans were called pallakis in ancient Greece, pillege in Hebrew and valangi in Tamil. That the same word is used in all these lands would mean that either the Dravidians moved westwards, or the words had a common origin which I suggest is proto-Dravidian.
Herodotus states that the Tramillas of Lycia had a matrilinear society. There is a matrilinear society in South India which is further evidence of the Tramilas and Tamils being the same people.
The bull-god of the Dravidians is Taurus in Latin "the old Tamil word for bull is turi’ which became Thor, the god of Thunder' of Northern Europe. The Northerners thought that thunder was the roar of the bull god. There are several effigies of the bull-god found in Europe. e.g. the bronze bull-god dated 1st century B.C. at the Museum of National Antiquities, Saint-German-en-Laye. The bull-god has three horns, arranged in the form of a trident which is the same trident used by the Dravidians, by Poseidon of the Greeks, etc.
G. L. Gomme quotes F. J. Hewitt to prove that the Aryan "rillage in India is formed on the lines laid down by Dravidians217. Sir Alfred Lyall States that village settlement modes. cultivation in India are non-Aryan218. Gomme refers to
"the parallels between the villages of Britain and India. both lands being the battleground of races where the results of the conflict Show the non-Aryan agriculturist subordinated to an Aryan Overlordship, and that the conCuered BritOns have a history of their OWn unwritten and which reveals some remarkable last chapters in early British History'219.
He shows with some degree of precision that the terrace cultivation adopted by the British “differs entirely from the Aryan system of land settlement and that it does in point of fact find its true parallel among the non-Aryan tribes of India. I shall seek to establish the fact that in this system of terrace cultivation we have remnants of the Iberic or non-Aryan races of Britain. '220
He states that terrace cultivation can be seen in Hampshire On the down about 3 miles South of Winchester, and close to Shawford Station, on the hillsides at Easton. Michelmersh, Houghton, St. Mary Bourne, Woodcot etc. in the vale of Tweed. The hill villages of Madras are surrounded by terraced fields running along the sides of the valley.
Referring to Caesar's statement of the Druids' settling controversies, adjudging of crime, settlement of boundary disputes and succession to property, Gomme says: "The appropriation of all these functions to a priestly or Sacred caste is opposed to Aryan sentiment' because among the Aryans the head of the clan was priest and judge. He agrees With Professor Rhys Who Stated that the cultus of the Druids bespeaks a non-Aryan origin. and that that is the most perfect explanation as to why these functions were performed by the Druids. Referring to practies in England Gomme Says:
"collectively they afford a very near parallel to the South Indian practices, and the Suggestion is that they form the detritus in England of an old non-Aryan festival which has been preserved by these scattered fragments from absolute abolition, while a still more significant coincidence with the English Survivals at Holine in Devonshire Was the Sacrifice of a kid or faWn. From all these Subjects of investigation we have obtained so far at least as my judgement goes a not unconsiderable body of evidence as to the existence of a non-Aryan element in village communities of Britain. Over and over again the certain evidence of these race relations which is forthcoming from the unamalgamated elements in Indian villages finds a parallel among the existing archaeological and traditional facts of English villages, and my contention is that the parallel must be true all along the linemust therefore tell us of the old race origins of the English village life.ʼ221
In an ancient chapel on One of the islands attached to Harris was “a flat thin stone called Brownies' Stone upon which the ancient inhabitants offered cows' milk every Sunday."222 A custom which has its counterpart among the Dravidians.
Caesar says that Druids handed down a tradition that the Gauls were descended from Dis223. Dis or Dias was a god of the Sumerians.
The ancient place names of Southern France are mostly of non-Aryan origin224. Among the Carians of Asia Minor there was a river called Indus and a town called Karural25. The solitary ear of corn in early British coins is just like the ear of corn in the Phoenician coins found in Cilicia.
In Madras at the feast of Chaudesvari, avatar of Kali, the puSari balances a long Sword above a jug of water. The Same ritual is recorded at Busiris at the feast of Isis among the Carians. Herodotus believes that this is proof of the
foreign origin of the Carians.
Two serpents entwined with rosette are identical in the deccrations found in Egypt and the Naga steles in India. In the sculptures the Snakes are always inter wined as in Mercury's caduceus.226 The son of Minoan Cretan Daedalus is called Icarus, the man who tried to fly. This is related to the Dravidian Telugu ika meaning wing.
That the Dravidians are the heirs of the first antrOnomers is evidenced by the Skill observed in the remarkable Tamil Calendair makerS. In 1825 Lt-CO1. John Warren met a Tamil
who computed for him the eclipse with remarkable accuracy by mental calculation aided by means of shells he had arranged On the ground. Warren, made calculations for the longitude of the Sun according to printed tables he had brought. The Tamil computed the longitude mentally and Warren was dumbfounded to find that the Tamil's calculation was more accurate than his computation from the tables
About Warren's book which was published in 1825 it is Stated that
"it presents the first attempt that was made in India to investigate and explain the elements of Hindu astronomical chronology to disclose to Europeans the contents and structure of these humble annual calendars. Which Written On palmyrah leaves have during nearly two centures been
sold under their eyes without their even suspecting the skill and labour which computation required'
“I had often heard and read Of the singular process by means of which the common Indian almanac makers computed eclipses scoring their quantities with shells and dispensing with the use of tables, and was long desirous to obtain a positive proof of the truth of that report which I always Suspected to be much exaggerated. After a long Search for One Of these mechanical computers a person was introduced to me by Abbe Motet'.227
As Warren's account is too technical I shall quote the summary of O. Neugebauer of Brown University who States that after a long Search for One Of these mechanical computers Warren found a kalendar maker residing in Pondicherry who showed him how to compute a lunar eclipse by means of shells placed on the ground and from tables memorised by means of certain artificial words and syllables. He found the Tamil Sashia introduced to him.
“endowed with a retentive memory which enabled him to arrange very distinctively his operations in his mind and On the ground. Thus his Tamil informer computed for him the circumstances Of the lunar eclipse of 1825 May 31 June 1 with an error of + 4 minutes for the beginning - 23 minutes for the middle and - 52 minutes for the end. But it is not the degree of accuracy of this result which interests us here, it is the fact that a continuous tradition Still Survived in 1825. 228
It is significant that Warren fou ud this continuous tradition Surviving only among the Tamils, There are Tamils Who can add total columns of figures mentally faster than adding machines. I have tested them myself with the aid of an adding machine. One such person is Mr. S. Selvaratnam of the Electrical Dept. Colombo, Ceylon.
Writing about the Tamil language the Rev. W. Taylor says: It is one of the most copious, refined and polished languages Spoken by man'229. In his Law of the Weda the Rev. P. Percival has the following to say on the Tamil language: "Perhaps no language combines greater force with equal brevity and it may be asserted that no human speech is more close and philosophic in its expression as an exponent of the mind'.230
In recent years several Scholars have examined the connection between the Dravidians and Europe, e.g. Y. Y. Glazov "On the problem of typological affinity between Dravidian and Turkish languages'. M. S. Andronov in "New Evidence of possible linguistic ties between Deccan and the Urals', the Hungarian G. S. Balint in his "Hungarian-Tamil RootInvtstigating Dictionary” etc.
Since concluding this study I have only now read Kinnier-Wilson's monograph on Indo-Sumerian. KinnierWilson argues that the Indus Script is derived from Sumerian and not from proto-Dravidian, He has discovered Words which are common to both Sumerian and the Indus folk. He states that “imin' is derived from the Sumerian “ia, meaning five' and that "ban' meaning 'bOW and 'an' meaning 'god' are derived from Sumerian. In modern Tamil "five' is “einthu' "bow' is "anbu and 'god' is 'andavar' which in proto-Dravidian would nave been closer to “ia', 'ban' and "an'. Therefore the presence of common Words in both seripts does not prove that the Indus script is not derived from proto-Dravidian. Kinner-Wilson is nearer to the truth When he states that "it would be compatible with this conclusion to Suppose that the tWO ScriptS branched Out from a Single Stem at SOme early period and that original features are preserved in both'.231 This single stem is proto-Dravidian KinnierWilson also pleads for a Study of proto-Elamite. Such a study Will prove that the Dravidians did move Westwards, through Elam as Elamite and Dravidian both Stem from protoDravidian. It has been been stated by Gerard Clauson in Antiquity, Vol. XII, iii No. 171 (September 1969) p. 202 that Elamite and Dravidian are genetically related following I. M.
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