கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: A Concise Atlas Geography of Ceylon
A P R C D U C T C F A TIL
- ACA "ایشیائی
Ամեկ- եւ ներ
A S. 8. M. A. P.S N D US TR ES
First Impression: January '71
LOCATION, SHAPE, SIZE &
MEAN ANNUAL RAIN FALL
RAINFALL; SOUTH WEST MC
RAINFALL: NORTH EAST MC
ANNUAL AWERAGE TEMPER
NATURAL VEGETATION .
TRANSPORT & COMMUNICAT
INDUSTRIES FOREIGN TRADE
CITY OF COLOMBO
DISTRICTS OF CEYLON
Dr. K. KULL.
PROFESSOR AND HEAD OF THE
Students, teachers, administr grateful to Atlas & Maps Industries, Colc Being a pioneer attempt to fill a long fe perfect. It is therefore hoped that whate due regard to the cost and size, they will criticism when the Occasion arises for a
The maps have been carefully features of the environment of Ceylon a they are in most cases self-explanatory governmental and other publications, er
A survey of national reso development is necessary before any est can be made. May one hope that th preparation of a National Atlas-a mul basis, of the Island's resources, physic Such an Atlas is basic to development citizenship, better understanding of our well as in the promotion of tourism.
Department of Geography, University of Ceylon, Colombo,
HY OF CEYLON,
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, DF CEYLON.
ators and the public at large will be ombo for bringing out this handy Atlas. It need, it cannot be expected to be ver shortcomings there may be, having l be rectified in the light of informed
selected to bring home the significant nd its impact on the people. While r, textual material based on various nhances the value of the Atlas.
urces and the existing stage of their imates of potential future development is Atlas will point the way for the tipurpose document, on a geographical :al, biological, human and economic... - planning, education for intelligent country both at home and abroad, as
Prof. K. Kularatnam.
1. Location, Shape
Ceylon is a mango - shaped Island lying off th about 6 to 10 degrees North latitude and 80 to 82 de
It covers about 25,000 square miles in area. southern continent, called Gondwanaland by geologists, of southern India.
Both peninsular India and Ceylon stand on t extend beyond about twelve miles from the coastline. only 36 fathoms. But beyond its edge, there is an all
With a maximum length of about 270 miles 1170 that of India.
In surface configuration, Ceylon comprises first
is surrounded more or less by an intermediate zone of from that of the highland massif. These two features The intermediate Zone is in turn surrounded by an ou exception of the south - west where the land abuts direct a coastal fringe consisting of a series of lagoons, sand coastal features.
From sea-level, the relief ascends in steps to : nearly a thousand feet higher than the world - renown
* For convenience. Ceylon could be divided into 2. Southwest country, 3. East Country, 4. Northern coastal fringe. 1. Central Highlands (Fault Complex).
ン・, One could subdivide the Central Highlands in
I. The Central Massif proper, consisting of (a the Horton Plains to Katugas tota, past Uva Basin. The Central massif is a fairly compact wall and on the north by the transver Incidentally, the longest river in the Is other rivers, of which there are over a Among the high plains of the Central B and Ambawela plains; the peaks in the cc (7741 ft) and Kirigalpota (7857 ft). II. The Knuckles region. III. The Rakwana or Bulutota block,
The Knuckles and Rakwana areas can be 2. Southwest Country (Appalachian type).
This is well - watered and has a characteristic valleys. The slopes of the ridges are gentle towards streams is similar to that of a trellis, and so the syst 3. East and Southeast country (Inselberg type).
This is a rolling or undulating plain dotted v and Kataragama.
Thus we can see that though small in size, t will be seen to affect her climate, vegetation and hum
The rivers of Ceylon are noted more for th Central Highlands like 'the spokes of a wheel, except in characteristics are developed. •' .
Principal River Length (miles) Mahaveli Ganga ༣ 207 Aruvi Aru (Malwatte Oya) • 104. Kala Oya 97 Yan Oya 94 Kelani Ganga i 90 Deduru Oya 87 Maduru Oya 86 , Walawe Ganga 83 * Menik Ganga i 81
Maha Oya 78
Size and Relief.
e Southeast coast of peninsular India. It stretches froc grees East longitude.
Like peninsular India, it is a fragment of an ancief and so Ceylon is, in many respects, a mere continuation
he same continental shelf, the edge of which does not The shelf is shallow and attains a miximum depth of nost abrupt drop to more than 500 fathoms in two miles
and width of 140 miles, the area of Ceylon is about
y a highland massif, situated in the south - centre. This upland ridges and valleys, at a generally lower elevation are in many places separated by well-marked scarps. ter or lower zone of coastal lowlands, perhaps, with the ly into the sea in the form of cliffs. Elsewhere, there is
bars, peninsulas, dunes, marshes and other associated
maximum elevation of about 8300 feet at Pidurutalagala,
ed Adam's Peak, 7360 feét high.
the following relief regions: 1. The Central Highlands, lowlands, Jaffna peninsula and Islands, and 5. The
turn into the following units:
) the central backbone of high plains and Peaks running from Pidurutalagala, (b) The Hatton Plateau and (c) The
unit bounded on the south by the Southern Mountain se valley of the Mahaveli Ganga from Kandy to Minipe. land, the Mahaveli Ganga is only 207 miles long, all
hundred, are shorter than one hundred miles. ackbone are Horton Plains, Moon Plains, Elk, Kandapola :ntral backbone area are Pidurutalagala (8281 ft), Totupola
considered merely as detached parts of the Central massif.
topography of elongated parallel ridges alternating with he east and steep facing the sea (west). The pattern of em of drainage is called rectangular.
with isolated hills, like Moneragala, Westminster Abbey
he Island exhibits great physical diversity. This in turn an geography. AGE
eir number than for their size. They radiate from the the case of the upper Mahaveli Ganga where abnormal
River Length (miles) Kirindi Oya 76 Kalu Ganga 70 Gin Ganga 70 Kumbukan Oya 70 Mi Oya 67 Gall Oya 62 Mundeni Aru 50 Kanakarayan Aru − 48 Nilwala Ganga 40
Ma Oya 40
SIZE AND RELEF
-- ulaitivu Betew 100”
koo' - 500'
مb- 000-3000' 3ood-5ooo
ブ aparamulaevna 6
to 5 O O 2O 40
Recent & Alluvium Pleistocene gravels NMiocene
Jurassic Kadugannawa Migmatite Galle series Crystal tine i imestone Gneiss & sch ist complex Khondalite group
Tonigala granite Dykes
Being part of a very old land mass, Ceylon h involving vertical movements resulting in the fracturing account for the scarps separating the different physical factors, one must also recognise the effect of climate il also to consider the differences in the rock types as th
Nearly nine-tenths of the Island is floored by gneisses aud schists, overlain by rocks of the Khondalit The Khondalites seem to be elatively younger and rendered crystalline through metamorphism. The gneiss-s various types of granites and pegmatites, the chief amo thene granite (known sometimes as charnockite) and Bala group comprise: quartzites, leptvnite gneisses, crystalling li rock (garnet sillimanite rock), etc.
With regard to the sedimentary rocks, only tw are so far known in Ceylon, at Tabbova and Andigama fossils. Some coal has been found in them.
The north and northwest of Ceylon is floored
The gravel deposits adjoining the sedimentary shallow marine transgression.
The Jurassic beds referred to above are found believed to be Tertiary in age.
Extensive faulting seems to have riddled the cr a result of this that we have a fault complex of high p down which streams tumble down, in zones of waterfall of them with a high potential for electricity.
The zones of hot springs on the eastern side ciated with them may have some connection with tect(
Sand dunes and alluviam are the common dep
Coral deposits occur along the coasts as at the southwest.
Structurally, Ceylon is part of a great synclino
of the downfold running NNW-SSE and pitching north this through both vertical uplifts and erosional processe
(Geological Time: Pre-Cambrian rocks are more than 6( years old and the Miocene about 35 million years old.
is passed through a long series of geological activities, and faulting of the rocks. To a large extent these regions of the Island. In addition to these internal scolpturing the surface. Together with these, we have ese are in turn reflected in the eventual landforms.
rocks of Pre-Cambrian age. They comprise a group of e system. They are both made up of metamorphic rocks. made up of ancient sediments which have since been chist complex and the khondalites are intruded into by ng which are pink Tonigala grante, bluish grey hypersngoda type zircon granite. The rocks of the Khondalite mestone, ferruginous quartzite, granulite, type khondalite
'o small outcrops of shale and sandstone of Jurassic age . They contain fern (glossopteris flora) and fish (acanthoid)
by sedimentary limestone of Miocene age.
limestones are perhaps derived from a post-Pliocene
preserved in small down faulted basins. The faulting is
ust of the earth in the Central Highlands area. It is as lains, bounded by still sharp scarps at diverse elevations s and cascades, more than fifty in number and many
of the khondalite outcrops and the dolerite dykes assobnic activity of Tertiary age.
osits of the coastal areas.
Mathagal in the north and Madampe-Ambalangoda in
rium. The ancient rocks are folded down with the keel
wards. The present topography has been developed on S. 1
0 million years old. Jurassic rocks are about 155 million
Being an island lying close to the equator ( type of climate with heat and moisture throughout thi continent of India and the neighbouring seas has monsoonal climate is superimposed on the equatorial.
What are the principal elements to be consid They are temperature, atmospheric humidity, rainfall a
Water is life. In Ceylon, water is derived fra for a good deal of their water from the ground, whi dependent on rainfall. Rainfall is the most important
Rainfall has to be considered from two point falls in each part of the country, during an average much of the rain falls during each season or part of picture of the incidence of rainfall, because there ca important factor. Besides, it is more advantageous fo several months of the year, though small, than to h short period of one or two months
The mean annual rainfall map of Ceylon sh by the sea, there is no uniform regional distribution per year, while others get less than 40 inches. The Elevation and aspect determine this. The heaviest rain southwest monsoon. It decreases towards the north a before they could reach these parts. The high areas to rise to high levels.
Some of the stations with over 150 inches of pura, Ruanwella, Labugama, etc. That is why Colo1 Peak-Watawela region actually gets over 200 inches.
The area with over 75 ins. is called the we zone; these are only relative terms. Some areas along are known as the arid Zone. Though 50 inches moisture through evaporation and there are several m lost through surface run-off. In the result, very li to be restricted to the rainy season. Hence the need
On the other hand, in the wet zone, there i prevent water-logging and the formation of marshes
5-10 degrees N) Ceylon should experience an equatorial year. However, her position in regard to the sub
esulted in a modification of this. The result is that a
Further modifications are caused by relief.
red in connection with Ceylon's weather and climate nd to some extent, wind.
pm rainfall; in some places like Jaffna, people depend ch they tap by means of wells. This source too is
element of weather and climate in Ceylon.
s of view: I. Regional. distribution, that is how much year and II. Seasonal incidence or, in other words, how
the year in every place Averages do not give a precise in be wide variations from year to year. This is an r an area to receive a well distributed rainfall during lave a higher quantity unevenly concentrated within a
ows that even though Ceylon is a small island surrounded of rainfall. There are places getting more than 200 inches central and southwest parts are the most favoured. falls are found on the slopes of the hills that face the ind east as the winds have been deprived of moisture help the condensation of moisture by making the winds
rain are: Watawala, Gingathena, Adam's Peak, Ratnanbo gets water from Labugama reservoir. The Adam's
t-zone and that with 50 to 75 ins. known as the dry the northwest and southeast coast, with less than 50 ins. looks large, unfortunately there is much loss of this onths with no rain. A good part of this rain is also tle water is retained in the soil and so cultivation has
for irrigation. v
too much water, and drainage has to be provided to
Average Annual Rainfall
ses-so INCHES .
so-r8 gy ܓܓܓ
Er 78-koo »
S. W. MONSOON
AVERAGE RAN FALL SOUTH WEST MONSOON
< 10 NCHES
keepstowawa - -6
to s o 芝令 3SO . 4O |Y?
20, B40 miles
4. & 5 M
The wind that blows from May to October col southwest monsoon.
Just before it comes and immediately after it equatorial belt of calms tend to prevail, though modifi from the sea. The heating of the land by day causes to blow towards the land. It brings moisture and whe falls. This happens generally in the afternoons and is : of the equatorial climate In the early period, this rai too. During November, depressions form in the Bay o and east. They can result in strong winds and cause d
When the depressions weaken, the normal nort the northeast monsoon winds. The word monsoon mea from about December to March. Coming as it does f east of the Island and adds to the cyclonic rains caus brings much rain as it has traversed a great area of th only the Bay of Bengal.
It must be noted that the monsoons are not later than expected and may be of longer or shorter
Thus we see that there are both regional and It will be interesting to compare the maps showing the the various seasons, particularly those of the southwest
As rainfall is the dominant factor in the clim following major climatic regions on a simplified basis
I. WET ZONE -
(а) Lowlands, eg. Colomb
(b) Highlands, eg. Watawa
II. DRY ZONE
(a) Lowlands, eg. Trincom
(b) Highlands, eg. Badulla
III. ARID ZONE
eg. Mannar 82° F and 40 in
Although Ceylon lies close to the equator, the is due to proximity to the sea, elevation, etc.
nes from the southwest and is therefore called the
sover, the normal equatorial conditions pertaining to the ed by other local factors such as relief and distance air to rise to high levels and air from the sea tends n it tends to rise, condensation takes place and rain |ccompanied by thunder and lightning. This is typical n is felt inland only, but gradually it extends coastwards f Bengal and move westwards giving rain to the north amage and floods too.
heast trade winds assert themselves and they are called ins seasonal wind. The so-called northeast monsoon blows 'om the Bay of Bengal, it brings rain to the north and ed by the roving depressions. The southwest monsoon e ocean whereas the northeast monsoon has traversed
always punctual; they may arrive or depart earlier or duration. This adds to the hazards of agriculture.
seasonal differences in the distribution of rainfall in Ceylon. mean annual rainfall with those showing rainfall during and northeast monsoons.
ate of Ceylon, we could divide Ceylon into the taking into consideration the relief factor as well.
o 81° F and 90 ins. rain.
la 65° F and 218 ins.
alee 82° F and 64 ins.
73° F and 72 ins.
temperature figures given above are not high. This
Pattern of Average Monthly Rai
Height STATION Méနှီဇိီး Jan. Feb. March Ap
Level in ft.
1. Anuradhapura 300 Inches 4.85 2.11 3.89 7.
"Rain-days 2 6 7
2. Badulla 2,220 Inches 9.02 4.75 4.33 7."
Rain-days 17 0. 11
3. Batticaloa 20 Inches 10.99 7.02 3.34 2.
Rain-days 16 10 8
4. Colombo 20 Inches 3.46 3.78 4.63 10.
Rain-days 8 7 1
5. Galle 70 Inches 4.45 4.56 4.59 9.
Rain-days 11 9 11
6. Hambantota 60 Inches 3.97 2.30 2.61 4.
Rain-days 9 5 7
7. Jaffna 10 Inches 3.80 1.45 1.18 2."
Rain-days 8 3 3
8. Kandy 1,700 Inches 4.66 3.27 4.73 7.
Rain-days 8 5 8
9. Mannar 10 Inches 3.44 1.32 1.75 3.
Rain days 8 3 4.
10. Nuwara Eliya 6,230 Inches 5.71 2.99 3.80 6. − Rain-days 13 9 11
11. Ratnapura 130 Inches 5.96 7.11 9.59 13.
Rain-days 3 12 18
| 12 Trincomalee 30 Inches 8.29 3.75 1.90 3.
Rain-days 3 6 5
*Rain -day is a
day for which at
nfalls at Twelve Selected Stations
il May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
6 3.92 0.53 1.25 184 2.74 9.17 9.78 9.54 56.98
3 8 4 3 5 5 16 19 17 115 4 4.50 0.95 1.94 3.78 3.65 8.51 10:52.10.82 70.51 |7 11 6 7 9 9 17 20 20 154
35 1.23 0.73 1.49 2.43 1.88 7.01 11.23 16.92 67.12
7 5 3 6 5 14 18 20 116
23 13.88 8.33 5.50 4.87 6.04 13.94 12.77 6.88 94.31 8 23 22 15 15 17 21 19 12 188
}4 ! 11.90 ፧ 8.67 1 6.72 1 7,04 ! 7.06 1 14.02 ! 12.69 | 7.31 | 98.95
6 21 22 9 19 19 2 19 14 201
29 4.76 2.17 1.70 1.66 1.79 4.95 7.38 4.76 42.34
0. 12 12 7 8 8 13 15 12 118
76 2.47 0.64 0.65 1.24 1.87 9.59 16.19 10.50 52.34
7 4. 1. 2 4 3 13 18 14 80
11 1 7.48 1 7.27 | 6.08 1 5.59 1 4.81 1 10.18 1 9.88 | 8.29 ; 79.60
2 11 18 16 14 12 17 17 13 151
48 1.94 0.19 0.28 0.63 0.93 6.60 9.56 7.97 38.09
8 4. 1 2 2 11 17 3 74
)5 9.32 10.48 8.76 7.07 6.50 8.75 8.21 7.51 85.15
6 17 24 22 22 20 21 21 17 213
41 19.46 18.21, 12.07 12.90 12.40 19.62 13.92 8.41 153.06
21 24 26 24 24 22 23 21. 16 244
)2 2.67 0.73 2.13 4.05 3.50 9.24 13.9814.72 67.98
7 6 2 4 7 6 16 19 18 109
least '01 inch of rain is recorded.
H EAST MONSOON
AVERAGE RANFAL. N.E. - MONSOON SEASON
(OCT - FEB)
2 O o 20 so 4.
ー。 • Sfs 36 2 /
Pas 1. 条面 づ 7
8 ffna གས་ངེ་ છ
SHOWING AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMPERATURE
Actual Temperature in F
이 한 9) -__ 이
- ܐ .
On what factors does temperature depend in C important factors: i. Latitude, ii. Altitude, iii. Distan general, the mean annual temperature for a lowland variation in temperature, that is the difference between the
about 8° F only, in the low country.
In the hill country the temperatures are lower feet of elevation. For example, the average temperatur Nuwara Eliya (6150 ft) is about 59° F.
The degree of physical discomfort felt by a pe should be considered along with the humidity of the air a day is more unbearable than a hot but dry day. Most p. 82%, Nuwara Eliya 83%, etc. Diyatalawa is comparatively and health centre.
eylon ? For any single station there are at least four ce from the sea and iv. the season of the year. In station could be taken as about 81 F. Also the annual
warmest and coolest month is very small, namely
ed at the rate of about I degree F for about 300 e of Badulla (2200 ft. above sea-leval) is 73'F and of
son is not a function of temperature alone. Temperature nd its movement in order to arrive at this. A warm damp laces in Ceylon have a high relative humidity: Colombo dry with 76%. Hence its importance as a holiday resort
TURES IN DEGREES F.
The surface of the land is generally covered v formed at site or brought from elsewhere and deposited. this material comprises grains of sand mixed sometimes clay and humus in varying stages of decay. In additi potassium, magnesium, etc.
The formation of soil requires long stretches of of chemical change accompanied by accumulation of ve. of organisms and bacterial action. All these require inc soil moisture, the vegetation, relief, soil drainage and c
In essence, soil is tne result of the interplay o ii. Climate, iii. Relief, and iv. Vegetation. Soil in any chemical properties of any sample of soil are depend any one place and time. That is why different types o point of view of plant growth, the materials present texture of the soil is equally important. Some soils are are loose and friable, while others are hard or sticky. movement. Percolation of water and aeration of soil ( to most plants, extreme porosity tends to deprive a so to move down the soluble plant nutrients found in the
A vertical section of the soil mantle in any called subsoil and the C horizon mainly made up of f
It is possible to classify the soils found in an
In the wet zone of Ceylon, climate is the don loams of reticulated texture and containing nodules or generally well drained, friable when dry and poor in b
In the dry zone, the same types of rocks give
In the Miocene sedimentary limestone area of are rich in bases but poor in organic matter. This is hot weather conditions prevalent there. Grey calcareou areas; they are suitable for rice, if water is available.
Chocolate red loams are found over the crysta are imperfectly drained owing to the high content of m areas of crystalline limestone on the geology map (No.
With regard to the soils in the formation of v could be cited as examples:
a. The patana or grassland soils. These soils
b. The kekila or fernland soils. These are al
c. Peaty soils of the lagoons and swamps. suitable for cultivation. ,
The rice soils of the low lying paddy fields an in both humus and minerals.
There are also sandy soils in the areas of dur
As soil takes ages to form, but can be easily de methods of conservation. We should also maintain its the need for the application of fertilisers.
with a mantle of material derived essentially from rocks This is the medium in which plants grow. In general, with gravel also, together with varying proportions of on there are some small quantities of salts of calcium,
time. Disintegrated rock will have to undergo processes getable mould, other waste products, borrowing activities t only much time, but also depend on the amount of ther environmental conditions.
f the following, and other minor agencies: i. Bed rock, one place is all the time changing. The physical and 2nt on the relative importance of the above factors at f soil are found in different places. Besides, from the in the soil alone are not sufficient to consider. The easy to work while others are more difficult. Some Some allow water to percolate while others prevent its lepend on texture. Whilst water logging is detrimental it of moisture and at the same time the water tends
soil. This is called leaching.
place comprises the A horizon or soil, the B horizon ragmented or decomposed rock material, etc. w
y place depending on the amount of detail desired.
ninant soil forming and characterising factor. Lateritic pellets of iron exide are the common soils. They are
rise to semi-lateritic loams and non-lateritic earths.
the north, thin mantles of red loams are common. They because organic matter is fast destroyed in the dry and S loams called rendzinas are also found in these limestone
line limestone areas of the khondalite terrain. They agnesium. They are not shown on this map, but occupy
which vegetation is the dominant factor, the following
are acid, poor in bases and rich in humus.
so acid, humic soils formed in areas of high rainfall.
Organic matter content exceeds 25% and they are not
d the alluvial soils of the flood plains of rivers are rich
hes and blown sand as well as the sand bars and spits.
stroyed, it is important to reduce soil erosion, by adopting good health. Crops tend to exhaust the soil; hence
- Lateritic Loarns ": .س
Semi Lateritic & Non Lateritic Loarns
Red Earth of Sedimentary limestone
! | b) Grey Calcareous loams (rendzinas) ( c. Chocolate red foams
di Red & Brown Sandy loams
* e ). White Sands of coasta beaches & ॐ Dunes
o Patana (grassland) soils
( b ) Kekilla (fernland) soils (c) Peaty so is
LAN D USE
TOBACCO COCOA SUGAR CANE OOTTON
tx uu cò B ɔ tro
1. Settlements and associated non-agricultura 2. Horticulture 3. Tree and other perennial crops
(a) Rice (b) Land under development (c) Other Improved permanent pasture Grassland and scrubland Woodland Swamp and marsh Waste land Inland water including Salterns
(The use of colours on this
At present only about half the food requireme present rate of increase of population of 2.5%per annu is available for this, but irrigation has to be developed practices have also to be improved, to increase yields towards the attainment of self sufficiency.
The Dry Zone which was the granary of the rice, cotton and sugarcane can also be grown here.
The major commercial crops like tea and rubb
Other cash crops grown in Ceylon comprise c These are essentially wet Zone crops. The area of tol So also are millets such as kurakkan and also maize.
The total irrigated area in Ceylon today is abo repaired and new ones constructed. Among the old Kantalai, Nachaduva, Giritale, Kalawewa, Padaviya, ( accompanied by colonisation of these areas. Malaria w
Among the major irrigation schemes undertaker about 36 sq. miles water-spread has been created. Wala great promise is now in progress. These are multipurp power and reduce floods.
80% of our revenue is obtained by sale abroa Tea, Rubber and Coconut. There is little room for diversification and the development of the Dry Zone.
Total 16,228,230 100.0 l lands 48,270 0.3 1,448,800 9.0
636,230 3.9 - 561,850 - - 3.5 618,910 3.8 133,510 0.7
1,261 910 7.8 107,290 0.7 2,495,030 15.3
6,160 1052,010 6.4 7,164,710 44.2 81,020 0.5 106,620 0.7 505,910 3.2
map will be found helpful).
nts of the country are produced at home. With the im, food production needs to be stepped up fast. Land . Methods and techniques of cultivation and agricultural per acre. Every effort is being made by Government
past will have to come into its own in future. Besides
er are confined to the wet zone.
cocoa, cinnamon, citronella, cardamoms, arecanut, etc. pacco is increasing, but mainly as a dry zone crop.
ut 640,000 acres. The ancient irrigation works are being works may be listed Parakrama Samudra, Minneriya, 3iant's Tank, etc. The rehabilitation of these has been which inhibited this in the past has been eradicated.
1 recently, Gal Oya ranks first. An artificial lake of we Ganga is another scheme. The Mahaveli scheme of pose schemes which will give water for irrigation, provide
ad of the products of the wet zone plantations, viz: further expansion in these. Hence the need for crop
Ceylon has been occupied by man for so ma1 by human activity to a large extent. Wet zone fores and thence tea, rubber and coconuts. In the Dry Zon
Before man interfered with it, the natural veg have been as sketched in the map. It comprised:
1. The low country wet zone (equatorial type 2 Thę mountain forest,
3. The thorn jungle of the arid zone,
4. The low country dry zone forest.
In addition, the following two types of grassl.
6. The patanas or montane grassland
7. The savannah or low country grasslands, c
69% of the Island comprises forest, grassland Proposed Reserves comprise 17% of the total land ar.
The best-developed wet evergreen forests are timbers such as milla, del, na, Dun, Alubo, etc. Th Hulanidda, Tinya, Malaboda, Kekuna and Kirihembili
The larger portion of the dry zone forests cultivation. The individual exploitable trees are scatter hulankik as well as utility species such as milla, rana
With a view to meeting the increased demand fi of the jungle and intensive silviculture in the wet zon
The estimated total mean annual production c forest reserves is 30,000,000 cubic feet. Considerable fibre, etc. are also expected.
ly centuries that the natural vegetation has been altered ts have been cleared for the cultivation of coffee first e, rice cultivation has replaced some of the natural forests.
station cover determined by climate, soil and relief would
and may also be distinguished:
}omprising the talawas, damanas, etc.
and waste land still. Forests proclaimed as Reserves and
in the Sinharaja area. They contain very valuable utility ey are also the source of the plywood timbers such as
are of poor composition, partly rendered so by chena
ed, but they comprise luxury timbers such as satin, ebony, i and palu.
or timber in the future and cut out imports, reforestation e have been started.
f 190,000 acres of planted forests and 5,000,000 acres of amounts of by-products such as tans and dyes, gums,
Grassland Inter monsoon forest
Monsoon forest V
For administrative-eonvenience, the Island is d
in turn sub-divided into Districts.
I. Northern Province
Jaffna Mannar Vavuniya II. North Central Province
III. Northwestern Province
IV. Eastern Pr
Trincon Battical Ampara V. Southern P
Galle Matara Hambar
VI. Western P.
Each District is administered by a Governmer Revenue. Officer's Divisions, as listed below:
JF. 1. Jaffna Division JF. 2. Punakarai JF. 3. Tunukkai JF. 4. Karachchi JF. 5. Pachillaipali JF. 6. Tenmaradchi JF. 7. Vadamaradichi JF. 8. Valikamam East JF. 9. - Valikamam North JF. 10. Valikamam West JF. 11. Islands JF. 12. Delft
PN... 1. Meda Pattu and Egoda Pattu PN... 2. Sinhala Pattu.
PT. 1. Puttalam Pattu and Gravets PT. 2. Kalpitiya P'T. 3. Rajavanni Palata PT. 4. Kumaravanni Palata PT. 5. Pitiga Korale North PT. 6. Pitigal Korale South
MN. 1. Mannar Island MN. 2. Mantai MN. 3. Musali Vavuniya District V V. , 1. Vavuniya South Tamil VV. 2. Vangalacheddikulam WV. 3. Vavuniya South Sinhala
VV, 4. Vavuniya North WW ... 5. Maritime Pattus
AN 1. Nuvaragam Palata East AN. 2. Nuvaragam Palata North AN. 3. Hurulu Palata North AN. 4. Hurulu Palata Central AN. 5. Huruu Palata South AN. 6. Kalagam Palata North AN. 7. Kalagam Palata South AN. 8. Nuvaragam Palata South AN, 9. Nuvaragam Palata West
Kurunegala District KU. 1. Weudawili Hat pattuva
KU. 2. Dammbadeni Hatpattuva KU. 3. Pannalla KU. 4 Kuliyapitiya w KU. 5. Bingiriya Yሎ KU. 6. Devamedi Hatpattuva KU. 7. Nikaweratiya KU. 8. Maho ཆེན་ ༤༡ན་ KU. 9. Galgamuva ~ KU, 10. Hiryala S.
Type of Council
Municipal Urban Town Willage
Matale District ML. I. Matale ML. 2. Rattota ML. 3. Laggala ML. 4. Dambulla ML. 5. Galewela
Kandy District KD. I. Kandy and
KD. 2. Yatinuwara KD. 3. Tumpane KD. 4. Haris Pattu KD. 5. Pata Dumb KD. 6. Uda Dumb o. KD. 7. Meda Dum KD. 8. Pata Hewa
KD. 9. Uda Palata
KD. 10. Padbage K
* KD. 11. Ambagamu
Nuwara Eliya Di NIE. I 1. Nuwara Eli NIE. 2. Kotmale NIE. 3. Uda Hewa NIE. 4. Walapane
CL. 1 Colombo CL. 2. Salpiti Kori
CL. 3. Hewagam K CL. 4. Hewagam K CL. 5. Siyana Kor CL. 6. Siyana Ko1
CL. 7. Siyana Kora CL. 8. Hapitigam . CL. 9. Alutkuru K
CLIL. 10. Alutkuru K. CL. 11. Alutkuru K Kalutara Distric
KL. 1. Kalutara T KL. 2. Panadura T
KL. 3. Rayigam K
KL. 4. Gangaboda
KL. 5. Maha Pattu KL. 6. Pasdun Kol
Hambantota Dis1 HM. 1. Magam Pa HM. 2. Giruva Pat H.M. 3. Ciruva Pat HM. 4. Girvua Pat
GL. 1. Four Grave GL. 2. Wellaboda GL. 3. Bentota Wa GL. 4. Bentota Wall GL. 5. Hinidum. P; GL. 6. Gangaboda: ʻ - GL. 7. Talpe Pattu Local Go
ivided into nine Provinces and each of the Provinces is
V. Centra Province
Matale Kandy Nuwara Eliya VIII. Sabaragamuva Province
IX. Uva Provice
t Agent. Each District is subdivided into Divisional
Cravets and Udunuwara
IVa ara a8 bara heta
orale va. Korale
alle Korale West Corale East ale East rale West (Adikari
Pattuva) le West (Meda Pattuva) Korale orale North “B'o orale North A'o orale South.
ae West. trict
ttuva tu East tu North tu South.
Pattuva llalawiti Korale West Ilalawiti Korale East attuVa
}Vernment )f Councils
Matara o District MR. 1. Wellaboda Pattuva and Four
Gravets MR. 2. Welligam Korale MR. 3. Gangaboda Pattuva MR. 4. Kandaboda Pattuva MR. 5. Moravak Korale East MR. 6. Moravak Korale West
TM. 1. Town and Gravets TM. 2. Kattukulam Pattu Bast TM. 3. Kattukulam Pattu West TM. 4. Kinniya TM. 5. Kantalai TM. 6. Koddiyar Pattu
BT. 1. Manmunai Pattu North BT. 2. Manmunai South and Eruvil
- - Poraitivu Pattu BT. 3. Manmunai West Pattu BT. 4. Eravur Pattu BT. 5. Koralai Pattu
AM. 1. Sammanturai Pattu AM. 2. Nintavur and Karaivaku AM. 3. Akkarai Pattu AM. 4. Panama Pattu AM. 5, Wevgam Pattu AM. 6. Bintenna Pattu
KE... 1. Beligal Korale KE. 2. Parannkuru Korale KE... 3. Galboda Korale KE. 4. Dehigampal and Lower
Bulatgama Korale KE. 5. Alutgam and Panawal Korales.
Ratnapura District RT. 1. Kuruviti Korale RT. 2. Navadun Korale RT. 3. Kadawatta and Meda Korales RT. 4. Atakalan Korale RT. 5. Kolonna Karale RT. 6. Kukul Korale
Monaragala District MG. 1, Monaragala MG. 2. Wellassa MG. 3. Madulla MG. 4. Wellawaya Badulla District BD 1, Yatikinda BD. 2. Bintenna BD. 3. Passara BD. 4. Medakinda BD. 5. Udukinda
1,173,000 640,000 764,000 9,000,000
0. h * & ' &
4. v ۰۰۰ نفر
.i کی۔ ہ*? ۔ ۔ ۔ g Y-g
w ”ص جبکہ۔۔۔ محمش* -g؟ " غه رستم هم
t, Kegalle خمسلم
f * .هم * "ه . Colombo : "... N y t *.
N - DISTRICTS
an ག་ལ་ལ་ ལས་ཕ་མ་མ་།
& Trincomalee - a
i o --
Batticaloa ..3 """"" عـحه مع - ه - س - - - .~ : −−V * دموياً
Matale - ལ་བ་
1 - İ Ampara :"......... به ۰:
لهم andy m . . •
. . .
Wara من" t ༦ཉི་
. 夷” i
C EY LON
“r RANsfPORT I COMMUNICATIONS
Rogds (motorobio ser-inRowoys
Odig A Kanrei
Public Roads 13,315
Total Motor vehicles 161,164
Motor cycles 18,000
Lorries and vans 33,410
Total number of passengers carried by Total number of passengers carried by t
Total shipping entered and cleared in a
Total number of Post and telegraph of Total number of wireless receivers: 272
International Services. Total International Services. Total :
Domestic Services. Total r
bus 1250,000,000 rain 82,000,000
ll ports: 6,000,000 tons.
number of arriving passengers 46,000 number of departing passengers 50,000
lumber of passengers carried: 34,000
The resources of a country comprise the follo Natural Resources and Human Resources. Natural Resources in turn can be sub-divided The Physical Resources consist of :
l. Land, its area, relief and variety, 2. Climate, namely temperature, rainfall,
seasonal variations, 3. Soils, their distribution and suitability 4. Rocks and minerals, 5. Surface and underground water, The Biological Resources comprise : 1 . Natura 2. Anima 3. Fish,
The Human resources consist of the numbers : we mean the level of education, skills, technical knowOf these, land, climate soils, vegetation, popu shall therefore take into consideration some of the oth ROCKS and MINERALS,
Almost 90% of the Island is floored by ro khondalite rocks and granites. They provide suitable b large quantities of clays (for bricks, tiles, pottery, et buildings, glass-making, peat deposits (eg Muthurajawela), cement manufacture exists in large quantities in the Kh Island, respectively.
As regards minerals, the following deserve attel
1. Iron Ore. Considerable quantities exist in the Rat Akuressa, Ruwanwella, Matale and Chilaw areas, a quality, suitable for electr-smelting and the deposit besides, they are easy to work, being near the su: 2. Ilmenite. Large quantities of this black sand exist and Mullaitivu) containing about 4 million ton titanium and the sand is exported at present mostl Monazite. This mineral also exists in the beaches Induruva is a good source of monazite. Deposits a Rutile, zircon and garnet sands also occur in asso Graphite (Plumbago). Ceylon is famous for her a occurs in many places as veins in the Khondalite roc Mica too occurs in Ceylon, but of inferior quality Clays. Clay is widely distributed in the Island, esp of kaolin or china clay exist at Boralesgamuva, M Quartz for glass making occurs both in crystal important sand deposits are along the Point Pedro-Mulla Cement raw material - Limestone. The miocene dep for cement making. They are found in abundance. I0. Precious Minerals. Ceylon is well-known for her
sapphires, cat's eyes, star stones, alexandrite, moon are not found. Gold has also been found in the rocks. Radio-acti also are known to exist. SAT
Thanks to her favourable coastal features, lago Ceylon has a high potential for salt - making using st epsom salt, plaster of Paris, chlorine, etc. can also be at Elephant Pass, Puttalam, Nilaveli and Hambantota. GROUND WATER
This is a great need in the Dry Zone. Abu well as in the alluvial depgsits of the Dry Zone lowla WATER FOR POWER
More than fifty waterfalls of considerable size irrigation works like Gal Oya, Walawe and Mahaveli a
Fish and other edible marine life abound in t marine fish production in about 3 million hundred wei LVESTOCK
There are in Ceylon about 1,500 000 cattle, 60 and 3 million chicken,
Timber production amounts to about 4 million
(The use of colours on this
into Physical and Biological.
humidity, winds and their regional distribution and
l vegetation, including forests and grasslands, ls and birds life, including prawns, lobsters, crabs, oysters (edible and pearl), and quality of the population. By quality of the population how, entrepreneurship, etc. lation, etc. are dealt with seperately in this Atlas. We er items here.
cks of pre-cambrian age; they are the gneisses, schists, uilding stone, road metal, etc. In addition there are tc. and also kaolin deposits) sand deposits for use in etc. Dolomite for fertiliser and Miocene limestone for ondalite country and the North and northwest of the
ntion: ܵ napura — Balangoda area, Kalutara - Baddegama, Matara - t Sandalankawa, etc. Ceylon's iron ore is of very high 's can satisfy local needs for over one hundred years; rface and not needing mining at depth. مح۔ t as beach deposits at Pulmoddai (between Trincomalee s, Tirukkovil, Pamunugama, etc. Ilmenite is an ore of y to Japan.
as sand along with ilmenite. Kaikawela beach near are found also off Kudremalai Point. }ciation with these deposits. lmost inexhaustible deposits of high grade graphite. It ks, intruded into by granites. (1942 Production 27000 tons) t and only in small quantities. )ecially in the flood plains of rivers. Large quantities
etyagoda, etc. line form as well as in the form of white sand. The itivu coast, Chavakachery, Maravila-Natandiya area. etc. osits of the Northwest and Jaffna are of high quality
variety and quantity of gemstones, such as rubies and stone, amethyst, etc., but diamond, emeralds and opal
we minerals such as thorite, thorianite, and uraninite
ons, long periods of rainlessness in the Dry Zone, etc.
a water by solar evaporation. Many by-products like made in large quantities. The principal salterns are
undant supplies exist in the Miocene limestone area as nds. ャ
are found in the hill country; in addition, the major lso can provide much water power.
he seas around the Island and in the rivers. Current ghts per annum and fresh water about 170,000 cwt.
10,000 buffaloes, 300,000 sheep and goats, 50,000 pigs
cubic feet of logs and 5 million cubic feet of firewood.
map will be found helpful).
Hydro Ekectricpctea .
Saters E - mestone
He Principal Gern areas E. Principal Graphite areas
Gass San CS
Thoranite Fishing Banks
go Pearl Banks
A vu Chank Fisheries
OColonies and Tanks
DENSITY PER SQUARE MILE &
TOTALS BY DISTRICTS. (1963 Censusル
Population of Ceylon by districts.
Colombo Kalutara Kandy Matale Nuwara Eliya Galle
Matara Hambantota Jaffna Mannar Vavuniya Batticaloa Amparai Trincomalee Kurunegala Puttalam Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Badulla Moneragala Ratnapura Kegalle Ceylon Total
Low Country Sinhala Kandyan Sinhala Ceylon Tamils Indian Tamils Ceylon Moors Indian Moors Burghers and Eurasians Malays
Religious Groups. .
Buddhists Hindus Christians Muslims Others
Estimated total population 200
%. Population by age groups.
0-14 years about 40% 15-55 years about 52%
for 1963 census figures)
2489 20.80 706 5.90
84 287 443 718 586 311 694 68 77 227 239 156 969 335 31 13 586 55 622 670 12,000
on by Ethnic Groups
4470 42.2 3043 28.8 1165 11.0 1123 627 55 46 33 20
7003 1958 885 724 2
0 A. C. 26 millions.
State Production Per Annum: 1968/69
Milk, processed Condensed milk Paper Ceramic ware Crockery Kaolin (refined) Coconut oil Animal foods Fatty acid Plywood Shoes Caustic Soda Chlorine Table Salt Cement (Kankesanturai)
(Galle) Sugar (Kantalai)
(Gal Oya) Ilmenite Rutile Salt Cotton Yarn Cotton Textiles Furniture Bricks and Tiles Drugs Rolled iron
Mamotties Builders Hardware Cutlery
Fertiliser Fish (caught) Dried fish Flour (milled)
25 million pints. 12 million cans
1000 1000 , 2,750 , 1,500 , 53000 , 8000 99.
25 milion sq. ft. 300,000 pairs
1020 tons 640 tons 205 , 155,000 tons 85,000 ,
3500 4500 , 72,000 , 1200 , 91,000 ,
2.3 million lbs. 6.1 million yards Rs. 4 million
Rs. 3 , Rs... 1 26,000 tons
4,000 62,000 43,000 , 200,000 ,
1.1 million units 75,000 units 220 million lbs. 10 millon lbs. 650,000 lbs. 4,500 tons.
Total value of industrial production:
Rs. 1300 million equal to 12 pc of Gross National Proc
I a S -
M.S.R. - O a F -
P-C · Pe
Pla AMK P-R O
Ta T -
Ti ^_^_ To -
Arrack Aluminium Bacon
Cerment Carpentry Ceramics Chemicals Chocolate Cigarette
Clay Confectionery Electroplating Fertiliser Fish (Canning) Galvanising Glass
Iron & Steel Leather
Matches Milk Condensery Mineral Sand Refinery Oils & Fats
Paper Paper Converters Pencil - Pharmaceuticals Plastic Petroleum Refinery Refrigerator Sugar
Textile Tyre & Tubes Tile
s_טמבר-אי היא השאר ע"י בש - "אs e=e=2
*: CEYLO EXPORT حيټه ::
in Lakhs of
Lakhs of Rs.
PORTS Lakhs of Rs. . .
s of Rupees
9 1 -ܖ
Rubber Coconut Products Others
Sugar Milk and milk products Meat, fish and eggs Food, other
Textiles Other consumer goods Fertilises Petroleum products Chemicals
Yarn and thread Cement Transport equipment Machinery and equipment Unclassified imports
Total including others not mentioned ab
EXPORTS AND IMPOR
Pakistan Total Commonwealth
U A R
G D R German (Fed.) Italy
Japan Netherlands Poland Rumania S. Africa U. S. A. U S S JR Total non-Commonwealth
Million Rupees Percentage of Exports.
1061 56.6 431 23.0 22 11.8 162 8, 6
341 15.7 250 11.5 97 4.5 74 3.4 70 3.2 127 5.8 77 3.5 81 3.7 110 S.1 196 90 45 2. 37 1.7 71 3.3 17 0.8 80 3 7 195 9. O 14 O 6
Ove 273 100.0
TS BY DESTINATION
% of exports % of imports.
20.2 7.4 4.2 4. 2.6 1.4 13 8.3 1.8 0.3 2.6 3.0 41.1 39.3
6.2 0.9 2.4 1.2 12.8 11.1 2.4 0.7 0.9 2.8 0.7 3.3 4.1 6.3 1.9 1.4 2.4 7.4 1.8 1.4 1.5 0.9 1.1 0.6 4.5 0.4 8.0 8.4 4.8 2.0
16. CITY OF
Colombo city lies in the Colo including 16 sq. miles of water. Th average maximum and minimum tempt The city covers an area of about 13 about 600,000.
The growth of the city is indicated by
1871. 96,000 1901. 155,000 1955. 461,000 1963. 511,000
The first settlement of Colombo was mouth of Kolon Ganga which entered area was the choice of the Portuguese proximity to Kotte and the cinnamo roadstead till the British decided to b wall of the breakwater was completed
Colombo lies between 10 and up area covers about 5700 acres.
The road pattern in the Fort suited to their original military purpo: from Kayman's Gate. With time, sub. at road junctions.
Colombo is the administrative Industries also have grown, but now th the city into new suburbs, including Maharagama and Homagama.
Colombo in also the education and the principal shopping centre for t
mbo District which covers 808 sq. miles, e average rainfall is 94 ins. and the ratures are 86 and 75 F.
sq. miles and has a population of
7 the following population figures:
a scattered Muslim settlement at the the sea near Pettah bay. The Fort for strategic reasons, because of its l hinterland. It remained an open ild a breakwater. The inner harbour only in 1880.
40 ft. above sea - level and its built
and Pettah shows a gridiron pattern ses. This pattern extends fanwise sidiary cores and suburbs have grown
and commercial capital of Ceylon. he tendency is to move them outside Ratmalana, Ekala Industrial Estate,
al and cultural metropolis of Ceylon, he Island.
This small contribution is t to numerous requests to . literature on Ceylon. It doe is based on various governn too numerous to list here;
sources and to the several p planning and execution of to acknowledge. We inv and criticisms from the u in our next edition we ma
HY OF CEYLON.
he outcome of our response fill an urgent void in our es not claim originality. It ment and other publications we are grateful to all these ersons whose advise in the this work we are pleased ite comments, suggestions sers of this book so that
I make it more useful and
Atlas & Maps Industries.
Kurunegale . '.
K egalle oبی
Colombo y Ni
۰۰۶- میروی ۰-- * : ح . مقدمه
"r v} : : - Galle ' ;Matara.
* This mot may be detached for usé in su
.۰۰عه: i Amparai
له ndy x -
s '. wara li 3liya "' Badulla : w
' fހސ, ,:
- - - - - - محسن
st 32: "...':'۔ۂ
ATLAS & MA
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A Concise Atlas Ge SINHALA & TAMIL
A WORLD ATLAS FOI IN SINHALA & TAN
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Ct. DAM STREET, COLON1BO-2.
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ography of Ceylon
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