கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: The Concept of God in Saiva Siddhanta
BR A DSVARA TEM
N SAVA S
Dr. S. N. KAN
Professor and Department of Literature, Tamil U
Released on the
Sixth World Saiva Conference Thanjavur on 19,
SAWA SIDDHANTHA PERUMANRA
PT OF GOED
| D: DHIANTITA
Head (Rtd.) niversity, Thanjavur-613005.
occasion of held in the Tamil University
M & THANJA TAMIL SANGAM
U, INDIA. -
N SAVA S
Dr. S.N. KAND Professor and H Department of Literature, Tamil U.
Released on the Sixth World Saiva Conference
Thanjavur on 19,
THANJA TAM THANJAVUR DISTRI TAMIL, NAD
PT OF GOD DDHANTA
ead (Rtd.) niversity, Thanjavur 613 005.
occasion of meld in the Tamil University 20, 21 - 12 -97.
IL SANGAM CT, THANJAVUR, U, INDIA.
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To synchronize with the Sixth Worl University on 19-21 December 1997 th Perumanram of Thanjavur has brought thi God in Saiva Siddhanta, which according the Dravidian intellect. The author with h. this book with authentic source materials i He deserves our appreciation.
It is heartening to note that the Wo historical city of Thanjavur, the capit; Rajaraja - I (A.D. 985 - A.D. 1014) h; victorious military expeditions to the expal and South East Asia, but also for his signific of Saiva Tirumurais from the shrine of Ch. the country and for the magnificent temple
The Saiva Siddhanta Perumanram and endowments, instituted by the late T administrative officer in the Tamilna established the Tamil Sangam of Thanjavur book on Tamil religion and Temples won th in 1991. The present members of Thiru N. Sarangan, Major A. Krishnamu the illustrious founder in rendering signific appreciate their interest and deep involve sion of the Saiva Conference and it gives r are to be gifted to the participants.
Thanjivur - 613 005
Dit : 14. 12.97
Saiva Conference to be held at the Tamil : office bearers of the Saiva Siddhanta significant monograph on The Concept of O Dr. G.U. Pope is the choicest product of s rich experience and erudition has written a language marked by clarity and lucidity.
rld Saiva Conference is to be held in the
l of the Imperial Colas, among whom
is ever been remembered not only for his ision of his empire all over India, Srilanka ant service ofretrieving the hidden treasures dambaram and their dissemination all over . , Rajarajeswaram, named after him. owes its existence due to the munificence hiru U. Subramaniam, I.A.S. can eminent du Government Service. He has also and patronised many authors. His research le prestigious awardofthe TamilUniversity these two cultural bodies, especially thy and Dr. V. Gurunathan, follow closely ant social service to our people at large. I ment in bringing out this book on the occahe much pleasure that the copies of the book
K. KARUNANKARAN Vice - Chancellor Tamil University
The members of Saiva Siddhantha P
are very happy to bring out the Book wit Siddhantha” written by Dr S.N. Kan of the Sixth World Saiva Conference bein
They express their sincere th Vice Chancellor of Tamil University for his are also due to Dr. S.N. Kandaswamy for Publication. He is an eminent scholar in writing reviews on books in The Hindu etc Saiva Siddhantha Perumanram, E Sivathiru Kavingar Arangamuthumani, Se
Professor of Literature in Tamil Universit
Book. They deserve the appreciation of ou
Thiru P. Maravarman M.A. (Eng), P no pains to bring out this Book neatly and p expresses heartfelt thanks to Manickam Pi
Thanjvur - 613 005
Dit : 14. 12.97
erumanram and Thanjavur Tamil Sangam the title “The Concept of God in Saiva laswamy on the memorable occasion gheld in the Tamil University on 1920 and
anks to Dr. K. Karunakaran, the appreciative foreword to this Book. Thanks his kindness in offering the Book for our writing books on various subjects and in . Sivathiru. N. Sarangan, President of the r. S. Rajendran, Vice President, cretary and Dr. V. Gurunathan, Associate y have taken the initiative to publish this
roprietor of Manickam Printers has spared erfectly with in due time. The Perumanram
The Saiva Siddhantha Perumanram
THE CONCEPT OF GOD
Dr. S.N. KA
The Philosophical system of the Tamils Tirumurais and Meykanta sastras, is know means the established conclusion, and in its of philosophy, Saiva Siddhanta indicates t Siva as the Supreme Being. This system of India as evidenced from the great temple source materials embedded in the Tamil origin in the Indus Valley Civilization.
As opposed to Vedanta (i.e. the Conc called Agamanta (i.e. the Conclusion of the twenty-eight in number. Early available 1 Santiparva of Mahabarata and Badarayau the opinion that the Agamas are ol (500 A.D.) preserves the quintessence of til tant Tamil treatise on Saiva Si
1. "That which stands many tests and is finally establi Saiva Siddhanta Journal, Volume III (Madras, 1968
"Siddhanta means proved doctrine ... According to specific form of 'ascertaining the true implication ( Chattopadhyaya, Gautama's Nyayasutra and Vatsyay
Though Siddhanta is a common name denoting any Saiva Siddhanta only. Vide, Tirumantiram, 8.15.1,
2. "Dr. Pope, who gave much thought to this sys and undoubtedly the most intrinsically valuable of all Tolkappiyam refers to Arivars or the seers who chall Saiva Agamas, especially the parts dealing withina works of the later theologians form the chief sources of
Vide, S. Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, Vol. II (
3. R. Ramanujachari, Salva Siddhanta, (Annamalainag
4. A.P. Karmarkar, The Religions of India, (New Delhi,
, based on the Saiva Agamas, Upanisads, nas Saiva Siddhanta. Siddhanta literally extension of meaning it denotes any system he philosophy of those who worship Lord philosophy has been very popular in South s dedicated to Lord Siva and the mine of language. It is a living system taking its
usion of the Vedas), Saiva Siddhanta is : Agamas). The primary Saiva Agamas are eferences to the Agamas are found in the na's Vedanta Sutrao. A.P. Karmarkar is of
der than the Vedas“. Tirumantiram he Saiva Agamas and it is the earliest exddhanta. The name “ Saiva Sid
shed is known as Siddhanta.” Vide, M. Arunachalam, ), p. 91.
Uddyotakara, Siddhanta means the knowledge in the of a system” (Sastrartha-niscaya). Vide, Debiprasad ana's Bhasya, Part I (Calcutta, 1967), p. 18.
7 system of philosophy, it is generally used to denote the l7, 25, etc.
tem, regards it as the most elaborate, influential, the religions of India' ... The earliest Tamil works, like ked out the path to freedom and bliss... The twenty eight na or knowledge, the hymns of the Saiva saints, and the Southern Saivism.'
London, 1971), pp. 772 - 3.
ar, Annamalai University, 1948), p.2.
1951), p. 276.
dhanta occurs in this text for the first A.D.) extols Lord Siva as Akamac Celvar He also mentions that the people of Koka South India) professed the faith of Sai Tirunavukkaracar points out in one of his hy His consort beneath the marutam tree in the century A.D.) praises the Lord as the Anc. celestials. He also refers in one of his la those who were well-versed in the Agama: Pallava (691 - 729 A.D.) is mentioned as * caiva cittantattir perarivu utaiyavan Saiva Siddhanta). References to Agamas : the author Manikkavacakar (800-900 A.D.) I to His consort in the Mount indicated the superiority of t
5. Tīrumantiram, 5.1.3.
7 : Ibid., 3.79.6.
The Karnataka state is the centre of Vira Saivam, a Agamas mentioned in Tirumantiram. Campantar also
piled by Siva Himself. Vide, Tevaram, 3.23.6. Further,
denote the vedas. Vide, Ibid 3.39.2.
8. Ibid., 5.15.4.
9. Ibid., 7.84.8.
10. Ibid, 7.100.8.
ll. i. M. Iracamanikkanar, Pallavar Varalaru (Madras, 1 ii T.V. Mahalingam, Kancipuram in Early South Indi
"This is the earliest epigraphical reference to Saiva
12. Tiruvacakam, 1.4. 2.9—10, 17-20.
The Agamic concepts such as mummalam, iruvinai opp 19.7, 30.7, 43.2, 51.9, 30.1. Reference to the five-fold
13. The Second hymn of Tiruvacakam (i.e. kirtti Tiruak Mount Mahendra tops the list. The Lord is known as Mak (43.9). Professor Paul Wheatley has identified this mo Kings of the Mountain', (Kuala Lumpur, University of
But the traditional scholars on the authority of Ramayan considered that the said Mount existed somewhere in the
Vide, K.S. Navanitakiruttina Parati, Tiruvacakam arayc According to Maraimalai Atikal, the Mount Mahenc Tiruvacaka Virivurai, (Madras, 1948), P. 79.
me. Tirugnana Campantar (7th century (the Rich One who revealed the Agamas). anam (a place in the Karnataka state in va Agamas. His contemporary Saint mns that the Lord revealed the Agamas to shrine at Tiruvitaimarutur. Cuntarar (8th ent One who revealed the Agamas to the thymns to the chanting of Sivanama by ...' In one of his inscriptions, Rajasimha akamappiriyan (lover of Agamas) and one, who has immense knowledge in ure many in Tiruvacakan.” In this work, mentions that the Lord revealed the Agamas
Mahendra.' He has also he Agamas over the Vedas
cult especially based on Vira Agama, one of the nine mentions that the Vedas, Angas and Agamas are comhe differentiates between Agamas and Mantras which
Đ56), pp. 152-3. an History, (Madras, 1968), p. 123.
iddhantamarga.” Ibid., p. 123, fn.
etc., are also found in the text. Vide, Ibid., 2.111-3-ن, alas is also found. Ibid., 6.229.
aval) enlists the sacred places of Siva. Among them, 2ntira verpan (2.100—101), and “Coti Makentiranatan” intain in South East Asia. Vide, His Lecture on "The Malaya, 1980), pp. 1—2.
t ofValmiki and ofKampan and also Sivadhamotra outh of Potiyil Hills.
i Perurai, (Madras, 1954), p. 74. "a is found somewhere in the Andhra Pradesh. Vide,
in the Civapuranam, the preface to Tirun hymn, he says that the Lord Himself is the A In a subsequent passage of the same hymn triple dimensions of height, breadth and de subtlest form. o References to the Agama The Saiva Siddhanta is mainly the outco mean that it rejects the Vedic tradition." T for almost all the systems of Indian philosop form the special source for this system. N dealing with cariya, kriya, yoga and jnana Nikantu (800 A.D.) a metrical lexicon in Ta jnana. * From this, it maybe understood t significant as it actually deals with the basi Chronologically speaking the Sangam ( than the Tirumurais (500 A.D. - 12 (1200 A.D.- 1400 A.D.) They bear amp Lord Siva.' Some of the principles of Saiv the Buddhist Tamil epic, Manimekalai (45( deals with the various schools of Indian the period of its author, Cattanar.
14. Tiruvacakan, 1.14.
15. Ibid., .34-5.
16. i. Tiryakkalirruppatiyar, 5.
ii. Civanana cittiyar, 1.2.46; 8.2. 13, etc.
According to Civanana munivar, Civananapotan modern scholars differed from him and suggestedt
17. Tirumaniiram, 8. l5. 28.
There is a Tamil verse of unknown authorship stati substance is this: “The Veda is the cow and the Ag extracted ghee and Civananapotam of Meykantar is the
Tirunanacampantar also praises the Lord as vetavetant
18. Pinkala n jokantu, (Madras, 1890), p. 236.
19. Akananu 7. l8l.
Риranan 4rи, 6.17—18, 55.1—6, 56.1—2, 11, 91.5.
acakam.' In the opening portion of this gama conferring the bliss on His votaries, , he declares that the Lord transcends the pth untouched by the Vedas assuming the
in the Meykanta Sastras are many." ome of Aganic tradition. But, this does not he Vedas are held to be the general source hy including Saiva Siddhanta. The Agamas Most of the Agamas contain four portions '. It is essential to note that the Pinkalantai mil, categorically states that Agama means hat the jnana portion of the Agamas is very |c principles of Saiva Siddhanta. classics (300 B.C. to 300 A.D.) are older 200 A.D.) and the Meykanta Sastras le testimony to the spiritual supremacy of a Siddhanta would be traceable in them. In ) A.D. - 500 A.D.), there is a chapter that Philosophy which were current during Among them, the Saiva system
1 is a translation of finanapada of Raurava Agamu. But, hat it should be an original work in Tamil
ng the close relationship of the various scriptures. The amas are its milk; the Tevaram and Tiruvacakam is the
relish of that ghee."
an, i.e. the essenos of Vedas and Upanisads. Vide,
is also included The exponent of this: 'debates or argues for the cause of Saivism) softhe docritines of Saiva Siddhanta. It is in Ấn Hisốaớvadarsana,ổarrấgraha; presentedt caption. Saivadasana.
...The heyday of Saiva Siddhanta; is theip being the centre of arts and religion, were cc
Siddhanta was written by Vakica Munival quently, two more works viz., Tiruyuntivar respectively by Uyyavantatevar of Tiruviya the renowned Meykantar school of Saiya S
Meykantar (13th century AD) is high nent of the Siddhanta philosophy. "His i metrical commentary Civajihana Cittivarbi dational bedrock upon which the edifice o Another great exponent Umapaticivam (14t Campantar, nurtured the system by his co Among them, Civappirakacahn and Tiruvar, Munivar (1800 A.E.), the commentat6ric spected to be the official interpreter of the
Saiva Siddhanta is a theistic philosophy It is also known as pluralistic realism, sir eternal entities. It deals with the three etern categories that are perceived and conceive cates the Supreme Lord. Pasu denotes th bonds of anava, karma and maya. All the t pasu and pasa are not created. Among the t omniscientand omnipotent. The soul's facu very beginning due to the envel In order to eliminate this evil.
20. Manimekalai, 27.86-95.
21. Sarwa darsana samgraha, Chapter VII.
22. This treatise has been critically edited along with th Siddhanta scholar, Avvai, S. Duraisamy Pillai,and publ
23. Among his eight works, Unmainerivilakkam is ascribed
system is known as Saiva vadi (onë who and through him Cattanar expressed some teresting to note that Madhva (1238 A.D.) he principles of Saiva Siddhanta tinder the
eriod of the Imperial Colas. The temples, onstructed in accordance with the prescripth-century A.D.) a classical texton Saiva r in the style of Sangam Tamil". Subseand Tirukkalirruppatiyar were composed lur and of Tirukķạțavur. Then, çợmmeạcęs iddhanta. yesteemed to be the first systematic expomortal treatise Civajnanapotam and its v his disciple Arunanticivam form the founf the existing Saiva Siddhanta is erected. h century A.D.), the disciple of Marainana Atribution of eight works on the subject*o utpayan are held in highesteem. Civanana if the Siddhanta canonical works, is resystem. . It contains both religion and philosophy. ice it accepts more than one reality to be al realities, viz., Pati, Pasu and Pasa. All i are brought under these three, Pati indine myriad souls. Pasa refers to the triple hree realities are ever-existing. Like God, hree, pati alone is independent, ubiquitous, lties are restricted and constricted from the opment of the root evil, anava. , the Lord out of His mercy
he old commentary and with valuable comments by the ished by the Annamalai University in 1954,
by Professor Anavaradavinayagam Pillaito Tattuvanatar
creates the world from maya, the primordi with the necessary equipment just to enablet purpose of casting away the evil and to gai
With this background, an attemptis bei as found in Saiva Siddhanta. Only after ha would aspire to know about His nature i realise and reach Him. First, let us consid
Proofs for the Existence of God
Saiva Siddhanta is firmly rooted on re gives due importance to Scripture to prove literature of the Saiva Nayanmar’s disclose ion with God. For them, God was not a experience. Their personal experience wit emotional outpourings of their devotional Indian philosophy which do not accept ve edge. To them. citations from the religiou held to be transcending all limits of our knc - perception is naturally to be eliminated t agreeable to both the parties are to be soug ofvalid knowledge by all systems except Cau endeavour to establish the existence of Go
seen to the unseen. XV
Vakicamunivar, the author of Gnanamir on inference to prove the existence of God. tion of the gross elements commencing fro that constitute the universe should have acre without comparison. The example given The syllogism of this argument requires so subject to division and which undergoes phenomenal world is divisible and mutab. intelligent, they require an all-intellige characterised by production, existence and of the souls is limited and the
24. Ginananiruran, 57. 1-3.
al matter and provides the desolated souls hem to engage inactivities with the ultimate in eternal union with Him. ng made here to outline the concept of God ving understood the existence of God, one n order to develop a sense of devotion to er the important proofs for His existence.
velation. Like all other theistic schools, it the existence of God. The biography and the fact that they came into direct communsubject of investigation, but an object of th the Lord is beautifully portrayed in the literature. But there are some systems of ball testimony as a valid source of knowls hymns do not carry any weight. God is wledge. He is super-sensuous. So, sense o prove His existence. Some other means ht. Inference is admitted as a sound source vaka. So, the exponents of Saiva Siddhania il through inference that leads one from the
utampresents cosmological argument based According to this argument, the aggregam earth and various objects like mountain ator, because these components are products. to support the proposition is that of a pot. me elucidation. A product is one which is changes. Each one of the contents of the le. Since the products are inert and nonint being for their division and changes destruction. Since the intelligence 'y get the knowledge only after
getting a body, they could not effect the ch Any product for its inception requires the c rial cause, the instrumental or auxiliary c from the empirical experience. For the proc the potter's wheel and other instruments are efficient cause. The world is a product anc Maya, the primordial matter is the materia root karma of the souls form the auxiliary Cause. Siva through the instrumentality o from Maya.
According to Saiva Siddhanta, God do matter which are eternal like Himself. Ete. potter who cannot create clay but can effect the manifested world and not its primal co Saiva Siddhanta, creation means the kara assuming the karya rupa (i.e. the effectedf karya rupa returning to its original state destruction. Karya rupa is fleeting and eph Though the cosmological argument atter free from defects. Standing from the side finds some drawbacks in the theory of caus A man, who has noticed the co-presence only the pots at a different place and not concomitance of the potter and pot educat there should be a potter, even though he w universe, if one has ever seen the creator an he happens to witness a different universe v very well infer the existence of its author. T anillustration.o A person observes the con fire in a kitchen and similar places. In a large column of smoke on It is reasonable for him to infer the e part of the mountain. Despite the the connmon feature in both cases
25. Ibid. S74-8.
26. Ibid., 579-18.
anges and classification all by themselves. o-operation of three causes, viz., the mateause and the efficient cause as evidenced uction of a pot, clay is the material cause, the auxiliary cause, while the potter is the its production also involves three causes. l cause. Siva's inseparabie Sakti and the cause, while Siva Himself is the Efficient His Sakti causes the universe to emerge
bes not create the souls or the primordial Inity does not mean equality. Just like the only the pot, so also the Lord creates only re, i.e. maya which is ever existing. In na rupa (i.e. the causal form of maya) orm of maya), while destruction means the of karana rupa. There is no complete emeral, while karana rupa is a reality. mpts to prove the existence of God, it is not of a novice, the author of Nanamirutam lation. The first remark is as follows: of a potand its maker at one place, notices their maker. His previous knowledge of is him in the second instance to infer that as not seen there. But with regard to the d the universe existing side by side, then if without the presence of its maker, he could his riddle is resolved by the author through comitance of a small column of smoke and lifferent situation, he happens to notice a the summit of a mountain. xistence of large fire in the invisible difference in the volume of smoke, peing smoke, which is always con
comitant with its cause viz., fire, forms th the world is a product, then there is little he the product is a small one like the pot or a: a producer. Further it is to be understood th not read complete agreement between the o The purpose of the above comparison is t small or big, requires causal agency and unknown.
However, the reality of God cannot be philosophical theories which only provide t The second remark” is with regard to the and hence would not be a product, even Vakicamunivar rejects this view stating th since a product is characterised by its q Further, the sound potential, being an aspe gross elements (i.e. air, fire, water and eart to be the constituent members of ether. So, be a product. Since these products have ori changes account for an eficient cause.*
The Meykantar School
The cosmological argument advanced b Meykantar school, as noticed in Civajnana aphorism in Civajnanapotam purports to p. reasoning.
The world is inert and non-intelligent. production, maintenance and destruction functions it assumes sthularupa (i.e. con one, it resolves into its original suksmarup is inert, it cannot dissolve into its causal fo itself. So, the reality of the phenomenal wo it is resolved and whence it r
27. Ibid., 57.19-20.
28. Ibid., 57.21-23.
29. i. Civajnanapotam, Cirrurai, (Madras, kalakam ed ii. Civajnanacitiyar, (Madras, kalakam edition, 197
e symbol of inference. If it is admitted that :sitation to account for its creator. Whether stupendous one like the universe, it requires at analogy is always partial and one should bjects of comparison and objects compared. o indicate that every product, whethe. It is to exhibit the known in order to infel the
grasped completely by cold logic or subtle he clue of understanding the absolute reality. nature of ether which is incorporeal (arupa) though it forms part of the universe. But, at even the ether is undoubtedly a product, uality and ether has sound for its quality. ct of ether, is mingled in the remaining four h). For this reason, these elements are said ether is divisible. What is divisible should igination, they are subject to decay and their
y Vakicamunivar is further developed in the a potam and Civajnana citiyar.” The first rove the existence of God through analogical
It undergoes three operative functions viz., . Among the three, through the first two rete, visible form), while through the last a (subtle, invisible form). Since the world brm and also it cannot manifest again a hy prld comes out of the ground of God white e-emerges. The reason for the
ition, 1981), pp. 8-:-20. 3), 1.1-7.
dissolution is to give rest to the wearied sc to exhaust their anava. The cosmic char changeless. From the seen world, the realit inferred.
The first aphorism like the restisterse a adhikarana, each of which is formulated one by one.
First Adhikarana (Part II)
The proposition or thesis (i.e. paratijnc world, identified as he, she and it, undei maintenance and destruction.
The prima facie view orantithesis (pur ity of the above statement raising the doub said changes.
This member of the syllogism represer Lokayatas of the Non-Vedic group and the that the world is eternal and it is improper reason it requires an intelligent agent know The rejoinder to this objection to pass which is supported by two other members original proposition, the following three rea
l. The sense-perceived universe is ma whole. A composite is conditioned by a ci constitute the universe are conveniently c masculine, feminine and neuter. A particula it. He or she denotes only the physica nogender in the soul, while it indicatestl sort of classification or division, regularity a it is suggested that there must be a classifi
2. Each one of the component parts in t There is difference between two men, two w even between two homogeneous things. The to inert matter. Manifoldness and mate) phenomenal world which could not self-exis in the karma of the individuals for the dif intelligent cause to effect the diversity and
uls and for the recreation is to enable them ges could be effected only by one who is of its author viz., the unseen God, is to be
ld cгурtic . It contains three parts known as in a syllogistic form. Let us consider them
or svapaksa) is that the phenomenal goes threefold changes viz., production,
Japaksa or parapaksa) questions the validwhether the universe undergoes the afore
rts the view of the opposing systems. The Mimamsakas of the Vedic group envisage to state that it suffers changes and for this in as God.
for a conclusion is known as Siddhanta viz., reason and example. To establish the sons are adduced by the Saiva Siddhantin.
de up of various parts. It is a composite ause or causes. The component parts that lassified on the principle of gender, i.e., ir object in the universe is a he, or she or features of the sentient beings for there is he in-organic and non-sentient beings. This ld design could not be self-made. Therefore, :ror designer. . . -
he entire universe differs from one another. omen and two things. There is no sameness e are innumerable kinds of things belonging iality are the significant features of the . Saiva Siddhanta postulates the difference erence in their being. There should be an mutability of things in the universe.
3. The sense-perceived objects that const dergo changes and transformations. Tha determinate perception is known as acetanc which is classified as he, she and it. Th perception are subject to change. So, the p considered as an entity, since an entity cc should not suffer change which occurs onl To sum up, since the phenomenal wo each of which is manifold and different fro and also becoming the subject of determina being to effect the changes.
The example to support the aforestated manifoldinertyarns constitute the warp an the cloth, suggest the existence of its weav This syllogistic inference is admissibli anumana as a valid source of knowledge. do not acceptanumana. Their only source to convince them, the Saiva Siddhantin er his original proposition viz., that the univ adduced reason is as follows:
Because origin and end lay on the side Without origination, the particular thin existence indicates its previous position of ence is impossible and inconceivable. It is or perception is enough to instruct the Loka three-fold changes as mentioned above. change, the universe being the whole shoul explain this point, an analogy is given:
A particular kind of plants, fruits or inse out of existence at the end of it. This process world which is ephemeral comes into existen back to its original state.
Second Adhikarana (Part II)
This adhikarana is intended for those, e universe undergoes changes, but do not acce The members of the syllogism pertaining t following:
itute the visible universe are liable to un: which is cognized through the means of pirapancam (insentient material universe) >se things being the object of determinate enomenal world as it appears could not be ould not be divided into parts, and also it y in that which is made up of parts.
ld is classified into three broad divisions, m one another undergoing transformations te perception, there must be an omniscient
reasons is that of a cloth. In the cloth, the i woof which, being the component parts of er. The weaver of the universe is God.
2 only to the Mimamsakas who accepted But, the Lokayatas (the Indian materialists) of valid knowledge is perception. In order mploys pratyaksa (perception) to establish erse is subject to threefold changes. The
s of the existing thing”.
g could not have come into existence. So origination, for without origination existfollowed by destruction. Mere observation yata that the senseperceived things undergo Since the component parts are subject to d naturally undergo the same changes. To
:cts appears in a particular season and goes is repeatedly seen. So also, the phenomenal ce, stays for some period and again resolves
specially the Samkhyas, who admit that the pt an intelligent agent to effect the changes. o this second part of the argument are the
Proposition : The world e Reason : Because ther Example (Negative) . Like the hars
In the calf of a cow and in the young one of grows, the horn is seen visibly in its head absent completely at all times. This indic existence like the hare's horn, and also it imp and unseen from (suksma) is evolved into calf's horn. The effect is emanated from its The essence of effect is not different fr Satkaryavada in Saiva Siddhanta. The rat fied. From clay only a pot could be produc could be made and not a jewel. The Sigr effect is to be considered.
The Satkaryavada out of logical necess dial entity (the material cause) known as in parts that form the universe are evolved an very subtle entity in which the penomenal v tion, just like a big banyan tree is latent in Next, the Saiva Siddhantin proceeds to and instrumental cause. The syllogism for
Proposition : The existing world has a Reason , . Because that which exist
The Samkhyas held that the world would e and hence no need for a creator. Though accept an efficient cause. The Saiva Siddha and stresses on the necessity of threefold ca have already noted. One could amplify the a carpenter and a book an author. But one for it would lead to infinite regress. That is devotional literature as one having no fath
30. i. Cilappatikaram, 5.169. i. Tīruvacakam, 12.3.
xists. 2 is no origin to that which does not exist. 's horn.
a hare, the horn is not found. When the calf ... But, in the case of the hare, the horn is ates that which is not could not come into lies that what were already there in abstract concrete and visible form (sthula) like the cause in which it existed already implicitly. om its cause. This concept is known as ional basis of this concept may be exempliced and not a cloth. From a timber, a chair ificant relationship between the cause and
ity postulated the existence of the primornaya - the seed principle out of which the d into which they again resolve. Maya is a world exists implicitly before its manifestaa minute, tiny seed, prior to its evolution. postulate the existence of the efficient cause this postulation is as follows:
CreatOr. -s could not be produced without a creator.
volve by itself from the primordial matter, they accepted Satkaryavada, they did not intin points out the defect in their argument uses for the production of anything that we examples. A pot requires a potter, a chair cannot question who is the creator of God, why the Absolute is depicted in the Tamil r and mother.”
After proving the existence of God, thi that the efficient cause should be the Un argument follows thus:
Proposition : There is no evolution ex Reason : Because it (the evolved v
there (in involution).
Even if one accepts the efficient cause for 1 regard to the agency in the theistic schools. agent, Vasudeva should be the efficient cau its place the creating agent, Brahma. Acc deities and they are only the evolved souls. obtained the authority from the Mahadeva () the elements and worlds existing in the five and Santiyatita are respectively absorbed Sadasiva under the mandate of Lord Siva w Great Cosmic involution) through the age stand to Lord Siva what the ministers to th agents to carry out the various activities; overall agent. K. Sivaraman in his disserta thuSot
The entire universe with its creators, control even as dried leaves whirl under the is the only transcendent Being (tattvatita), of the Supreme Reality as Destroyer is meta of Destroyer represents God as the Univer before Being. God is not something or som beings. He is Being itself. The Destroye temporality. Only the Destroyer is the Di the realm destroyed, and is the ultimate fol ofanxiety of transitoriness."
During the period of Mahapralaya, the ing the aforesaid minor gods are dissolved Universal Destroyer who is the ground of world is resolved in its material cause, Ma the Lord. The relation ship betweer
31. K. Sivaraman, Saivism in Philosophical Perspective,
: Saiva Siddhantin proceeds to propound Iversal Destroyer. The syllogism for this
cept in dissolution. world) becomes dissolved
he creation of the world, views differ with
The Pancaratras held that the protecting se, while the Brahmavadins maintained in ording to Saiva Siddhanta, these are petty By virtue of their accumulated merit, they Lord Siva) to create and to protect. Further, kalas viz., Nivirtti, Pratistha, Vidya, Santi
by Brahma, Wisnu, Rudra, Ananda and ho actually actuates the Mahasamhara (the cy of Sadasiva. So, the operative agents he emperor. There may be many directed but, Lord Siva is held to be the directing tion explains this concept of Supreme God
conservers and destroyers is under Siva's : control of a stormy wind. The Destroyer ranscending all tattvas..... The designation physical as it is also mystical. The Concept sal Being. Every thing is “nought” (sunya) eone which exists along with the totality of stands for eternity which truly transcends ath of Death (kalakala), the realm beyond Indation of ontological courage in the face
whole universe with all its contents includn Him. Hara (another name for Siva) is the the dissolved universe. The Phenomenal a, which takes its ground under the feet of
the material cause (maya) and the
(IDelhi, 1973), pp. 47—50.
efficient cause (the Lord) is described as that of Vyapaka and Vyapya (the Pervader adheya (the Supporter and the Supported)
God as the Material Cause
The material cause maya, its product Lord's Sakti, are compared to the seed, its contact with the moist earth, it becomes c maya reposing at the feet of the Lord receiv capable of manifesting the world. If there not shoot. Likewise, if there is no will of The world is evolved from maya with th accordance with the individual's mala to en types of psycho-physical organisms.
But some passages in the Tirumurais a nated from God Himself.' These portions who argue that God forms not only the ef Such misunderstanding would go against th immutable. Though the Lord transcends a He is simultaneously immanent in them. F material causality. Civajnanamunivar, the an illustration to explain the figurative ex germinates from its root and not from the which really means that which is born ofm from its root maya and not from God. N world is proceeded from God who actual material universe (i.e., non-intelligent princi Principle, viz., God.
If God is held to be the material cause semble Him in content and quality. Si
32. Sivајпапароtaт, pp. 15—16.
33. i. Tiruvacakam, 3.44, 4.137—141, 5. 15, 70; 22.8, e ii. Civajnanapotam, p. 16. Հ
34. i. There can be only one final conclusion, (Hawaii,
pp. 1-12 ii. Monism and Pluralism in Saiva Siddhanta, (Ibid.
35. i. Civајтатароtaт, p. 16.
ii. Civajnanacititiyar, 1.2.48, and its commentary by
abbinnabhava, i.e., inseparable union like and the Pervaded) and that of adhara and
the world, and the ground of maya, viz., ; shoot and earth.' If the seed comes into apable of manifesting a shoot. So also, if res the Divine Will of His Sakti, it becomes is no moisture in the earth, the seed could Lords's Sakti, then maya could not evolve. e will of Lord's Sakti which functions in dow the concerned souls with the different
und Agamas reveal that the world is emaare taken in a literal sense by some people icient cause but also the material cause.' e same literature which describe Him to be ll the elements that constitute the universe, His immanence should not be mistaken for able exponent of Saiva Siddhanta submits pressions in the texts. The lotus actually mud though it gets the name pankayam ud. Similarly, the world is evolved directly evertheless, it is figuratively said that the ly provides the ground for maya. So, the ple) could not originate from the Intelligent
, the product (i.e., world) also should rence there are many imperfections and
Kauai Aadheenam, The Saiva Siddhanta Church, 1983),
, 1984), pp. 16—20.
defects in the world, they are also to be acci is conceived to be absolutely perfect, impec not be postulated to be the material causew diverse features are due to anava and mula
However, K. Sivaraman attempts to e reconcile the two views in the following pa
The intelligent agent of the world is not only as related to the non-intelligent maya. cause by virtue of its being inseparably qu nails, etc., are not born of the body alone (in universe is born not of maya alone or Mal which is accordingly described as the wom Lord, the Mighty etc...” His interpretation God.
Third adhikarana (Part III)
This adhikarana is devoted to clarify w
one or many. Saiva Siddhanta advocates m
the view of polytheism. The syllogism is a
Proposition : The Universal Destroyer
Mover of the universe. The second adhikarana concludes that the sal Destroyer. This adhikarana examinest the production of a chariot involves man wonderful and stupendous universe natura their concept is refuted by the Saiva Siddh
Reason : Because the souls that c( tion have no independel transcends such a kind O
Saiva Siddhanta subsumes all the min
under the category of pasu. There are also 1 on Lord Siva who alone is indepe
36. K. Sivaraman, op, cit, pp. 112-115.
ounted from the material cause. Since God cable and immutable by nature, He could hich is subject to changes. The defects and karama of the souls. xplain the material causality in order to ssage of his dissertation.' as such the material cause of the world but . It is efficient cause which is also n laterial alified by maya. Just as the hair and the sentient) or the soul alone (sentient), so the lesvara alone, but of the Embodied Unity b of all elements and also as the Supreme obviously confirms the sole causality of
hether the efficient cause of the universe is ionotheism, and so it does not subscribe to s follows :
is the Primal
primary God to the universe is the Univerhe view of the polytheists. They argue that y carpenters and the creation of a more ly should require more than one God. But antin maintaining his proposition.
)gnize things through determinate percep1ce without the Universal Destroyer who fperception.
or gods and the spiritually elevated Souls the defective souls. They are all dependent indent, omniscient, omnipotent and
omnipresent. Though there are many car are directed by one master carpenter. So al discharge the assigned duties under the o' preme God Siva. The released souls which accounted for the cosmic functions, for th eternal bliss of the Lord which is the Sumn
Another Version of Cosmological Argun
There are many types of cosmological a ers to prove the existence of God. One of old as Plato and Aristotle and it is fashione this argument, the things in the universe ar. are two kinds of movers, viz., the prima mover, then there is no subsequent movers which in turn is moved by the consciousne: is postulated that there should be a First N Himself is not moved by anything. Movem place or condition to another. It is always and contingency. They ultimate force or P limitation and temporality, and that is the (
According to Plato, the power that gene the power that gets it and passes it on. Thi disciple, Aristotle envisaged that change motion which could be designated as God.
This sort of cosmological argument is Commentator (before 1700 A.D.) of Gnan text the following five-membered syllogisn
Proposition : The universe should hav
Reason : Since it is inert, its e impossible without an i Example : Like the vehicles such a
Application : The vehicles could not n They require a driver to Conclusion : So also, the universe rec it in accordance with the
37. John Hick, Philosophy of Religion, (New Jersey, 197.
38. Gnanamir utam, 58.4—7.
penters in fashioning a chariot, all of them so, the deities are not autonomous and they verall supervision and direction of the Suobtained godliness (sivatvam) would not be ey are held to be in constant enjoyment of num bonum of their spiritual sojourn.
ment rguments propounded by the western thinkthem is the argument from motion. It is as cd by St. Thomas Aquinas. According to emovable and they require a mover. There ry and secondary. If there is no primary . For instance, the book is moved by hand ss of one's self. To avoid infinite regress, it Mover who causes everything to move, but lent of an object indicates passing from one associated with variation, mutation, limit rime Mover should be free from mutation, sternal reality. rates motion should be logically anterior to is primal force is the un-caused cause. His Implied an unchanging absolute source of
; not unknown to Saiva Siddhanta.' The amirutam presents from the contents of the
e a CreatOr. volution and resolution would become ntelligent being.
s a chariot etc.
nove by themselves.
uires a mover who actuates
: Moral Law.
3) pp. 71—73.
Thus, the existence of the Primal Mover is However, the author from the standpo. propose that even inanimate objects posses
1. Cow's milk is inert. But it nurtures 2. The insentient magnet attracts the in
Nevertheless, the author exposes the folly c possible only from a sentient cow, and ar magnet and iron in close quarters, thus m reasonable.'
In this context, it is appropriate to quote great Saiva poet who beautifully portrays th they revolve like toys without thread (by th as the Prime Mover is further attested in century A.D.), who declares that even an idea has also reference in Kenopanisad'
The supplementary argument adduced i as the moral argument. The cosmologica cause of the universe. The purpose of ther is also the Moral governor of the universe viduals on the basis of their actions. This Saint Cekkilar' enumerates four cardinal ing the karma; 2. the performed deeds; 3. fruits of the deeds to the respective souls. Umapaticivam and they are very importan order to exhaust the potency with a body, a habitat and object
39. Ibid., 58.8-17. It seems that the author refutes t Samkhya Karika of Iswara Krishna, (Calcutta, , 195'
40. Tirukkurralakkuravanci, (Madras, 1962), p. 119.
41. Tayumanavar Tiruppatal Tiratu, enkum niraikinrapo
42. Kenopanisad, 3.1–12, 4.1-3. Radhakrishnan tra
over the Vedic gods is established beyond doubt.
43. Tiruttontar puranam, 34.5.
44. Tiruvaruipayan, 53.
established. nt of a novice produces two examples to s the force of motion. They are:
the calf to grow. animate filament ofiron.
f the examples pointing out that the inilkis intelligent agent is essential to bring the aking the original proposition tenable and
Tirikutaracappakkavirayar (1700 A.D.), a at the Lord set all the worlds in motion and emere will of God)." The concept of God one of the poems of Tayumanavar (18th atom could not move without Him." This
in favour of the theistic hypothesis is known l argument attempts to prove the efficient moral argument is to point out that the Lord who effects orderliness in the life of indiargument stands on the doctrine of karma, tenets of Saivism viz., I, the soul performtheir effects and 4. the Lord who allots the These four aspects“ are further attested by t to apprehend the moral argument. In of anava, the soul is invested s of experience. In the embodied
he view of the Samkhyas. Vide, John Davies (Td), the 7) p. 48, p. 66.
nslation. In this Upanisad, the supremacy of Lord Siva
condition, the soul is capable of engaging in or bad, but they are forgotten or neglected. conditioned and governed by the doctrine ofk of one's own deeds. The law of karma is rel reap” is the Tamil proverb. Though the do taken into account by the Unseen Absolute individual. The present life of a person is th also it prepares for the future. The Lord leav or mar his future. In this sense, the man is
The Jains uphold that the karma itselfca They give a fine simile to explain their view released, would search and reach its own m of karma by itself would identify and join its of this analogy is noted by the Saiva Siddh calf is sentient. So, a sentient being is not hence the analogy is fallacious. Civajnanac One may say that karma can fructify all by But it has been pointed out that this analogy archer the travel of an arrow is impossible point in blaming the arrow when there is a that the karma becomes inert and insentient its doer to join him. Then, it follows that administer the fruits of karma to the concer. the Legislator and Executor of moral law.' enforcing the law. The God as moral gover paremts. If the subjects go astray, they are pe service, they are rewarded. The Lord is the in the natural course of the universe, He set the atrocious demons and raksasas are administration. He punishes the wicked in c conduct and to instruct the need for undertak C reformatory in ch
45. Nalatiy»ar. 101.
46. Rev. G.U. Pope in his translation of Tirukkural (V men ficned that every Hindu enumeration omitted jus observation, for God is praised as Justice in many hy 6.949.5, 8; Tiruvacakam 29.1.
multifarious activities which may be good According to Saiva Siddhanta, everyone is arma. Nobody can escape the consequences lentless and inexorable. As we Sow so we er ignores or forgets his actions, they are Observer who distributes the deserts to the e outcome of his deeds in the past birth and "es free will to the individual either to make held to be the architect of his own self. nyield fruits and there is no need for God. '. In the herd of cows, a particular calf, if other to suckle the milk. So also the fruit doer in the midst of many. But the folly antin. The karma is insentient, while the a comparison to an insentient object and ittiyar also refers to a similar comparison. itself just like an arrow travelling by itself. is equally shortsighted, since without an . The Tamil proverb says that there is no narcher. So, Saiva Siddhanta concludes and hence it cannot remember or identify there should be an Omniscient Being to ned doer. The Absolute Being is held to be He is the Divine Justice who is impartial in hor is compared to the king, physician and :nalised by the king. If they do some signal Ruler of the universe. If there is any upset s it right. The puranic stories of punishing ample evidence for the Lord's moral order to make them realise the folly of their ing a virtuous way of life. All such actions aracter. He showers
side, The Sacred Kurral, New Delhi, 1980), pp. 188, tice as one of the attributes of God. But, it is a wrong mns of Tirumurai, e.g. Tevaram, 2.28. 2; 5.33.4, 94.6;
grace on the virtuous people offering all b meant for the betterment of the Souls. Saiv viz., virtuous grace (arakkarunai)— this grace (marakkarunai)--this is directed to God is also compared to the physician. God doctors the soul.” The concept of G Buddhism and Christianity. The physician patient and also prescribes sugar-coated ailments. Similarly, the pains and pleasure are carefully given as medicine by God as which is considered as a great disease. Sai the great physician who alone could cure 1
God is also compared to the parents. beings in all ages at all places. If the chil parents to correct them. Civajnana Cittiy disobedience and handcuff them - punishin but because they love them though it may much pleasure on hearing the rare achiev God treats the souls through punishment an them from the clutches of mundane life.
God is also compared to the washerr against the washing stone not to tear it, bu merely the bleeching powder to wash the i The concept of God as a moral gov Tolkappiyam' (500 B.C.) designates the Lc The same idea is preserved in Tiruccirran ancient Tamil ethics, Tirukkural (100 B.( meaning Apportioner. Those who have a what the Divine Disposer has apportioned
47. Tevaram, 6.54.8.
48. V.A. Devasenapathi, Saiva Siddhanta, (Madras, Univ
49. S.N. Kandaswamy, Timilum Tattuvamum, (Madras, 1
50. Tolkappiyam, Col. 57.
51. Tiruccirrampalakkovaiyar, 8.
52. Tirukkural, 377.
enevolence. The chastening of the Lord is Siddhanta classifies Lord's grace into two, is meant for the virtuous souls, and heroic wards the vicious souls.
The physician doctors the body, whereas Dd as a healer or physician is also found in administers at times bitter medicines to the pills in order to relieve him from physical 's being the consequence of one's won deeds ; a remedy to the malady of transmigration nt Tirunavukkaracar'extols the Lord to be he incurable disease of birth.
He is the parent patronizing all kinds of ldren are mischievous, it is the duty of the ar' says, “Parents thrash their children for gthem, not because they hate their children not appear to be so.” They actually derive ements of their children. Like the parents, ld reward, with the sole purpose of liberating
man.' The washerman smashes the cloth t to cleanse it. The pain inflicted by God is mpurity of the soul. 'ernor is very old in the Tamil tradition. rdas Fate deciding God’ (palvaraiteyvam). npalakkovaiyar of Manikkavacakar. The –100 A.D.), denotes God as vakuttan' ccumulated wealth could enjoy nothing but
ersity of Madras, 1974), p. 89. Also vide, Civajnanaciittiyar
976), pp. 331—332.
declares Tiruvalluvar. From this couplet, sents the Tamiltradition which preserves fi Thus it is evident that Saiva Siddhantap to account for the fact of ethical order.
After having understood the existence c nature, functions and forms, His relation wi as evidenced from the Saiva lore.
Nature of God
Saiva siddhanta identifies two-fold na (Cirappu iyalpu) and Tatasthalaksana (I essential and intrinsic nature, while Tatasth tal nature that arises due to His relation to static, immutable and immeasurable by the the sources of empirical knowledge. He h; refers to this nature of God in his Tiruva ilan ”. “etu avan ur? etu avan per?” € source of all knowledge (Cit) and eternal bl eight divine qualities to be His essential chal a staunch Vaisnavite in his learned commenta
l. Tamvayattan atal Svatantra 2. Tuyautampinan atal Visuddha 3. Iyarkai unarvinan atal Anadhi ba 4. Murrum unartal Sarvajnat 5. Iyalpakave pacankalin Niramaya
ninkutal 6. Perarulutaimai Nityalupt 7. Mutivil arral utiaimai Anantasal
8. Varampil in pamutaimai Nityatript
53. Tîrnuvacaktam, 11. l; 7.10.
54. Tiruildtural, with Parimeilalakar's commentary (Madra
it is crystal clear that Tiruvalluvar reprerm belief in the Divine dispensation. postulates the fact of absolute God in order
of God, let us proceed to know about His th the souls and the ways of realising Him
ature of God known as Svarupalaksana otuiyalpu). Svarupalaksana denotes His alaksana refers to His general or accidenthe souls. God in His essential nature is limits of time and space. He transcends all as no name and form. Manikkavacakar cakam as "orunamam oruruvam onrum atc. God is the Pure Being (Sat), the very iss (Ananda). The Saiva Agamas mention racteristics, as identified by Parimelalakar, ry on Tirukkural. They are the following:
deha Immaculate Body
bdham Natural understanding
Eternally free from bonds
asaktitva Infinite grace
ktita Infinite potency
aka Infinite bliss
s, Kalakam edition, 1956), p.6.
Since the Lord is associated inherently wit enkunattan, this term occurs in the nine (i.e., katavul valttu - The Praise of God) to isolate the eight qualities under refere chapter. Some considered the third and t well as the second and fifth as one. T characteristics and hence He is known as F Upanisad Tirukkuraland Tevaramtoden reminds one that the Lord's aus God in His essential nature is called inseparable energy is known as Parasakti Out of His boundless compassion towa His will of Divine energy, assuming vari souls. The Real appears in diverse ways appearances, while not exhaustive of the R they are manifested and are wholly satis Infinite in its Grace is pleased to make Itse in its fullness by the souls. These for Grace, which is otherwise known as Sakti. to commence the cosmic functions. Tatasth So, it is held that Tatastha form is not illu Svarupa and Tatastha concept of God concept of Nirguna Brahman and Saguna Brahman is devoid of any quality or at Svarupasiva has countless divine qualities qualities and it is only fictitious like a Tatasthasiva is a reality of the Absoluti literature, God is depicted as one means that He is devoid of material q
55. Tirukkural with Tantapani Pillai's commentary, (M to Lord Siva occurs in Tevaram, 5.89.8; 6.16.4; 6.9.
56. i. Svetasvatara Upanisad, 3. 11. Radhakrishnan tr
ii. Tevaram, 1.121.1.
57. Tiruvacakam, 2.3.
58. V.A. Devasenapthi, Of human bondage and Divin
59. Tiruvacakam, 6.46, 18. l., 22.4, 40,4, 41.6, etc.
nthese eight divine features, He is known as th couplet of the first chapter in Tirukkural and hence one commentator ably attempted nce in the first eight couplets of the same he fourth qualities may be counted as one as us the Lord is said to possess six divine 'akavan which name occurs in Svetasvlitara bte Lord Siva." However, Manikkavacakar bicious qualities are innumerable." as Parasivam or Svarupasivam, and His
rds the souls, He becomes dynamic through ous forms and names for the benefit of the . But the appearances are of the Real. The 'eal, are adequate for the purpose for which ying to the persons concerned... While the lf available to souls, It cannot be possessed ms are not material, but they are out of His In this state, God becomes Sivam and Sakti a forms of God become the object of worship. lsory and it is as real as Svarupa form. should not be equated respectively with the ' Brahman of Vedanta philosophy. Nirguna tribute and it is a mere abstraction. But . Saguna Brahman of Vedanta has material snake in rope, water in mirage etc. But, 2. However, in the Saiva Tamil devotional who has no quality or symbol which ualities and forms. It is worth mention
Madras 1956), pp. 1-8. "enkunattan” being an epithet 8.10; 7.40.3.
e Grace, (Annamalainagar, Annamalai University 1963),
ing that Tirumular praises the Lord as one viz., sattva, rajas and tamas (Mukkauna nin
Transcendence and Immanence
The spiritual experiences of the Tamil literature reveal the Lord's transcendental a present some of these features.
God transcends description. He is bey scends the five-fold sense-perception.' I impenetrable even by the Scriptures.' He also to the Hindu Trinities.' He surpasses things.' He transcends all the elements decay.'" He is eternal and immutable.' Before His greatnes, even the universe is bu atom would becomethe magnificient univers He is Omniscient." Though God transcend is immanent in all animate and inanimate be This feature of God is know occupies a supreme place also in the Vaisn
60. Tirилатiram, 8.9.1
finvocajam, 3.40, 111,274, etc. 62. Ibid. 3.113, 5.76, etc. 63. Ibid. 1:24, 3.41, 4204, 77, 10.16, etc.
64. Ibid. 349, 5.95, 11.4.
65. Ibid. 4.1-9, 5.30, 43, 8.2 11.14, 41.1, etc.
66. Ibid. 1.41, 73. 67. Ibid. 4.133, 5.70, 7.1, etc.
68. Ibid 5.91, 22.5.
69. Criwayinaonaciittiyar; 1.44.
70. i Tirawacakam, 3.5-12.
ii. Nanamirutam, 55.21—23.
71. Tiruvacakam, 1.38,40, 4.107, 5.50, 25.10, etc.
72. S. Radhakrishnan, (Tr), The Brahma Sutra - The Ph
who is bereft of the triple material gunas, kkunan).“
Saiva saints as recorded in the devotional s well as immanent features. Let us briefly
ond the word and its content.' He tranHe is beyond the ken of thought.' He is is inconceivable not only to the deities but the limits of beginning, middle and end of (Tattvatita). He has no origin and so no He is free from bondage and liberation.' tanatom. Before His subtle state, even an e." His greatness cannot be exhausted. severything, He pervades all objects. He ings. He is their indweller and inner ruler. 3S antaryamit va which ava theology.'
ilosophy of Spiritual Life, (London, 1960) pp. 53-54.
The Lord abides everywhere without le five gross elements (viz., earth, water, fire, souls (collectively known as Astamurta). F the organs of knowledge." He is the soul
His immanence with the souls and mat ship of body and soul, word and its meanin oil and sesamum, etc." He is the fire conc the milk and the brilliance in the great gem. stick of intense devotion entwined by the rop transparent to the devotee."
The description of the immanent nata seems to be similar to that of the Upanis. below from the Svetasvatara Upanisad
As oil in sesamum seeds, as butter in c. fire in friction sticks, so is the Self (God) st with truthfulness and austerity.” “The si contained in milk, which is the root of self man, the highest mystic doctrine. That ist
Siva and Sakti
The static state of the Absolute is Siva Sakti are like the sun and its rays. They a (guna gunibhava i.e. Samavaya sambandh a tree and its hardcore." Like fire which God becomes Siva and Sakti. There is nc without substance. So also, there is
73. Tiruvacakam, 3.116-117.
74. Ibid., 15.5.
75. Ibid., 33.5, 34.4, etc.
76. Ibid., 1.69, 2.2, 22.4.
77. i. Tevaram, 3.105.1, 34.4.
ii. Tiruvucakam, 1.44; 3.116-7, 20.7; 5.46.
78. Tevaram, 590.10.
79. Svetasvatara Upanisad, 1.15, 16. Radhakrishnan trar 80. Civajnanaciittiyar, 1.3.67.
aving any space.' He' is immanent in the air and ether) and in the sun, moon and the e is seated in the consciousness and also in fall souls."
er is compared to the inseparable relation3, fragrance and flower, relish and the fruit, aled in the wood; he is likewise the ghee in If one churns in his consciousness with the e of knowledge, the immanent God becomes
ire of Siva by the Tamil devotional poets adic seers. A significant parallel is given
eam, as water in the drybed of a stream, as ized in one's won soul if one looks for Him lf which pervades all things as butter is -knowledge and austerity, that is the Brahhe highest mystic doctrine.'
and its dynamic state is Sakti. Siva and tre similar to the substance and its quality a). The two are inseparably connected like is red in colour and hot in quality, the One substance without quality and no quality
no Siva without Sakti and no Sakti
without Siva. This sort of relationship is al. of two things which are really two aspects The Lord's grace is personified as His c Pure Intelligence.* Siva's Sakti is One only) But due to the variation in the cosmic acti (Iccha Sakti) is the supreme love ofthe Lord (malas) of the souls. Through Congnitive needs of the souls and through Conative En distribute their deserts.'
The Cosmic Functions
The Lord discharges the cosmic functic or effort, by His mere Will. That is whyth as His sports.' Here, sport does not meal would not derive any pleasure at the expense them to undergo under cosmic functions. S that He performs all the activities with effo. is to bestow on the souls all the earthly an ripe time dawns, granting them the everla return to the temporal abode of empirical life
Pataippu Srsti Kappu Sthiti Alippu Samhara Maraippu Tirobhav Arulal Anugraha
Let us briefly consider them one by one:
81. Ibid. 5.2.9.
. Ibid., 1.3.62.
. Ibid., 1.3.63.
84. i Tiruwacakam, 7. 11, 12.
ii. Ciwgnanacitiyar, 1.2.36.
85. i. Tirunantiram, 2.9.1-10; 2.10.1-10, 2.11.1-l
ii. (Ciwajnanaciittiyar, 1.2.37.
so known as Tatatmya (i.e., the relationship of one thing).
onsort Sakti." Sakti is the embodiment of known as Parasakti (the Supreme Energy). lities, It becomes many. Volitional Energy concerned with the removal of the impurities Energy (Jnana Sakti) the Lord knows the ergy (kriyasakti) He creates the universe to
ins through His Sakti without any exertion ay are described in the devotional literature n a pastime or an amusement. Surely, He ofuntold miseries to the souls by subjecting o, it is clear that the word sport indicates rtless ease. The purpose of these functions d celestial happiness and finally when the sting eternal bliss from which there is no . The five cosmic functions are as follows:
Destruction Obscuration or concealment Bestowal of Grace
.10-سس-2.13.1 ;10---2.12.1 ;0
God creates the universe fran the mate the betterment of the souls, providing the world for habitation. Creation is intendec and to get various kinds of experiences si would be exhausted.
Protection or maintenance is exercised purpose of making the souls experience th births. The Lord protects the souls in such a due to them, whether it is pleasurable or karma. He protects the souls according to
According to the law of karma, the sc various kinds of bodies in various births. energies get tired and their physical frames to give them rest, destruction takes place. one's energies for the task of the following with the matter.
The souls are eternally in conjunction v the potency to veil the soul from having a Pati, Pasu and Pasa. Onlybymaking the its evil could be extirpated. So, Tirodhan enchant the soul to earthly pursuits and sel emptied. At this stage, the soul developes karma and also a sense of equanimity in a samya (iruvinai oppu). So, the purpose o anava mala. As soon as the power of anar vision of God.
5. Bestowal of Grace
Observing the ripening of anava and 1 appears in the form of Guru (Preceptor), rites known as diksa and imparts Diving souls to realise their oneness with the Lol grace on the souls.
rial cause, Maya through His Cit-Sakti for n with psychophysical organisms, and the to enable the souls to engage in activities ) that the potency of the root evil, anava,
by the Lord through His Sakti with the sole e yields of their karma accrued in various way that they should not miss the experience painful depending upon the nature of their the Moral Law.
uls embark on transmigration vested with In experiencing the fruits of karma, their become like the worn out clothes. in order it is often compared with sleep that recoups birth. God destroys only the contact of soul
ith anava, the spiritual darkness which has clear knowledge of the three realities, viz., obscuring power of anava to fully function, a Sakti of the Lord works through anava to usual enjoyment, till its power is completely a sense of indifference towards the yields of dversity and prosperity resulting in karmafobscuration is meant for the maturation of a is destroyed, the soul is open to have the
he spiritual progress of the souls, the Lord purifies them through performance of some
Wisdom (Patijnana) which illumines the d. Through Anugraha Sakti, God bestows
The first three functions are with partic Souls, i.e., God creates only the physical b two actions are directly concerned with the order to make them mature by extermina perfected souls He showers grace which i first four actions culminate in the final one All His five actions are actually the acts grace. These five cosmic functions of Goc in the beautiful image of Lord Nataraja." grace are considered to be one action, w Thus, the Lord's functions are also known actually the acts of grace.
The Ground of His Activities
Next, the question arises with regard to to commence His cosmic functions. The pc the production of pot. Likewise, is there functions? If it were essential to station Hi before His creation work. If He would no circular argument, the Agamas present a cl Time principle.o” It is the lapse of time tha destruction of the seven worlds. But time d for bringing about the aforesaid changes. L stand to place Himself, for He performs known as Sakti. This analogy is only parti is a product of impure matter (Asuddha ma automatically. It is employed as an auxilia
Does God undergo any changes?
The next doubt arises whether the Lorc Agamas dispel this doubt again through a lotus is blooming (creation), the sun-glass evaporates (destruction). Though t changes, they do not effect any change
86. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, The Dance of Shiva, (Nev
87. i. Nanamirutam, 62.4-7.
ii. Civqјтатасittiyar; 1.2.37.
ular reference to the physical aspect of the dy, protects it and destroys it. But the last souls. He conceals the souls from Him in ting their impurity (i.e., anava). On the s really the grant of eternal freedom. The Anugraha is the aim and end of all souls. of His Sakti which is otherwise known as | are symbolically and artistically reflected Sometimes, protection and bestowal of hile concealment and destruction are one. as three (muttolil). All His functions are
the place where God could station Himself otter places himself on earth before starting any ground for the Lord to inaugurate His mself in some place, then that space exists t create, there could be no place. To this lear explanation through the analogy of the ut causes the production, maintenance and oes not require to station itself somewhere like the time principle, the Lord requires no the functions through His Will, otherwise al, for Saiva Siddhanta considers that time ya), and so it is inert. It could not function ry cause for the Lord's cosmic functions.
| is affected by His cosmic activities. The nalogy. In the presence of sun-shine, the emits fire (protection) and the pool water he sun is held responsible for these in the sun. The Lord is like the sun. He
v Delhi, 1971) pp. 66-79.
i is not disturbed by His functions that tak analogy gets a fresh interpretation in Gnan causes some lotus-buds to bloom, the othe wither, these changes do not hit the sun. S. to His cosmic functions.*? He does not su He were only immanent in the things, si simultaneously transcendent and hence no c physical body would be affected. Since affected. He is eternally immutable (avika :Will, the five modifications known as Si maya (pure matter) and they form the grour actually assigned to His inseparable Sakti. Two more analogies are given in Civajr of wakefulness, dreaming, dreamless sleep affect the soul. Though the words and the in and reemerge from the soul's conscious though the worlds are evolved and resolve stands with the world being united and at th is worth mentioning. The three realities v compared to ether, sea and salt. God is like of the sea which are compared to the souls souls and not with God are like the salt t occupied by the sea. Thus, God remains ul souls and matter.'
In Civanerippirakacam some more illu does not leave the ether mingles with the ether, it does not affect the ether. The sna possesses it. Though asafoetida kills any tr the tree on which it grows.' These compa not at all affected by the triple bonds and
88. Civajnanaciittiyar, 1.2.33.
89. Ginanamirutan, 63.1-4,
90. Civajnanaciittiyar, i.2.31.
91. i. Civajnanapotam, 7.3.44.
ii. Civajnanaciittiyar; 7.3. 92. V.A. Devasenapathi, Of Human Bondage and Divine
e place in His mere presence. The sun amirutam which states that though the sun flowers like lily to fade and the old ones to ) also. God is untouched by any change due ffer any weariness due to His activities. If rely, he would be affected. But, He is thange is possible. Only those who act with God acts through His Sakti, He is least ri). Also it is to be noted that through His vastattvas are emanated from the Suddha ld for the Lord's cosmic activities which are
ana Citiyar Though the different states etc., arise and merge in the soul, they do not ir sense as understood in the books subside ness, they do not affect the soul. So also, d in Him. He is not affected by them. He le same time not united. One more analogy viz., Pati, Pasu and Pasa are respectively the ether that provides space for the waters : The triple bonds (pasa) that go with the hat clings to the water and not the space haffected though. He is inseparable from the
ustrations are found. Though the air that fragrance, heat and cold and moves in the ke is not afflicted by the poison, though it ee that comes into its contact, it will not kill risons are sufficient to maintain that God is He is eternally independent.
Grace, pp. 23-24.
Next, ietus proceed to deal with the rel; the Saiva Siddhanta.
God's relationship with the souls
Tevaram and Meykantasastras denote t
the souls. Accordingly, He is one with the
along with them (utanay). These are illust
1. The soul and the body
The Lord becomes one with the souls
functions. To illustrate this sort of relation body. Like the soul that animates the bod soul and the body are one due to their comb also the Lord and the soul are one due to the This sort of oneness is known as Advaita and inseparable contact of two things which as Advaita (or abheda) in Saiva Siddhantic are one as held in Vedanta philosophy of S
2. The Sunlight and the eye-sight
Though the soul and the Lord are insep comtent. Their difference is just like the si perceive things in its own right. It requil sunlight. The souls are like the eyes, whi proclaims the concept of bheda.
3. The finite-consciousness and the eyeThe third comparison to explain the Lor finite consciousness and the eye-sight. In th external light for its perception. Here, it is sakti (i.e. the soul's finite consciousness). sight in illuminating the objects. Like the se consciousness-force stands to
93. i. Tevaram, i. 1.2.
ii. C. vrajnanapotam, 2. 1. iii. ( ivajnanacattiyar. 2. l., iv. 7 irukkqlirruppatiyar, 86.,
ationship of God with the souls as found in
hree kinds of relationship of the Lord with m (onray), different from them (veray) and rated through some analogies.
in actuating them to undergo the five fold ship the usual simile is that of the soul and y, the Lord animates the soul. Though the ination, they are different in substance. So ir intimacy, but they are different categories. or Ananya (non-difference). The intimate makes them appear to be one is recognised 7. Advaita does not mean that God and soul amkara.
arably connected, they are not of the same unlight and the eye-sight. The eye cannot res the help of an external power viz., the ile the Lord likens the sun. This analogy
sight d's relationship with the souls is that of the le former illustration, the eye-sight requires in need of inner-light known as atman's citIt is purely internal and pervades the eyeoul's consciousness to the eye, the Lord's the soul. He is the
life of the souls. Here, in this relation, h different from it. Hence, this relationship Thus, Saiva Siddhanta propounds thu viz., 1. abheda like body and soul, 2. bhea bhedabheda like the finite-consciousness prefer only one among the three and add view-points. The Kevaladvaita of Samka reality, and that is why it is known as mon different modes of the same stufflike the g advocates dualism considering that the v According to this school, God and soul a and darkness. The Pancaratras, a sect behdabheda taking the two like word and according to the commentary of Civajnan not agree with these views. Its concept of advaita as explained through the three an The relationship of God and soul is fur fresh analogy derived from the alphabetic the alphabetical series. It is an independer mouth. Since all sounds - let them be vo (mey - also means body) are to be pronour A is naturally mingled in them. Its influ whereas the consonants require the help position in the Indian languages. The Sai source to elucidate the relationship of Goc He is the Primary Being. Souls are like the He pervades not only the souls (uyir) but a are no vowels and consonants. Likewise matter. This Siddhantic concept has its 1 which illumines that like the alphabets ha world has the Lord, Atipakavan, to be its
94. i. Ummaivilakkam, 29.
ii. Civajnanapotam, 2.1.7. iii. Civajnanaciittiyar, 2. l. l. iv. Tiruvarutpayan, 1.1. This analogy has already gained currency in the Tirun Vide, i. Tirumantiram, 7.5.1.
iii. Tevaram, 1.88.5; 6.28.5; 7.3.7.
Please see, Bhagavad Gita, 10.33.
e is one with the soul and at the same time
is known as bhedabheda. "ee kinds of relationship of God with soul, la like the sunlight and eye-sight, and 3. and eye-sight. But other theistic schools luce different illustrations to maintain their tra interprets the word advaitato mean one lism. This school treats God and soul as the old and its ornament. The Dvaita of Madhva Vord advaita means more than one reality. re completely different categories like light of Vaisnavism propounds the concept of its sense. All these ideas are presented here apotam. It seems that Saiva Siddhanta did advaita is known as Suddhadvaita, i.e. pure alogies cited earlier. ther explained in Saiva siddhanta through a al system.' A is the first vowel sound in ut sound, pronounced by the mere opening of Wels (uyir, also means soul) or consonants nced only after mouth-opening, the influence ence is implicitly found in the vowel series, of A for their pronunciation. This is the va Siddhanta develops an analogy from this il with the souls and matter. God is like A. : vowels, and the matter like the consonants. lso the matter (mey). If there is no A, there , if there is no God, there are no souls and oot in the very first couplet of Tirukkural ving A as their primary sound, so also the
The Forms of God
The svarupa state of the Lord denotes th His Tatastha state indicates that He is the G the Lord who actuates the cosmic function think that if He had a form, He should be tre argue that if he had no form, the cosmic ful Saiva Siddhanta expatiates that the Lord ci soul that has no form, but animating the bo form not because that He cannot function w be benefited of His form. The Lord condes.( the reach of the souls. This simplicity of th Tiruvacakam and Saulabhya in Visistadvail us than breathing and nearer than hands an He reveals Himself in various manifesta tions. He even takes the form of a mother-p when they lose their mother. Nevertheless, of the central tenets in Visistadvaita is not a scholar in the system of Visistadvaita obs The vast puranic literature is said to be birth in flesh and blood. It is contended that subject to that process.'
It is said that the Lord appears and dis radically different from those of the mortal (maya). Since the souls are fettered by anav, the maya - type of pasa. Since the Lord by (viz., anava, karma and maya), His form ha manifests His form. All His forms are the and brilliance all at once. Tirumular declar All the objects have one of the three foi poreal form (arupa) and corporeal-cum-i not subject to sense-perception like the inference. Rupa form is perceptible like ceived and at other times inferred like the
95. R. Ramanujachari, op.cit. p. 13.
96. Tirumantiram, 1.18.1.,
at He is the Absolute of philosophy, while od of theism. It is natural to anticipate that s should possess some form. Some would ated one among the people. Others would ictions could not be carried out. In reply, un function even without form just like the dy. The Lord manifests Himselfin some lithout form, but because the souls would :ending from His absolute nature comes to e Highest Being is known as elivarutal in a. The devotee feels that God is closer to d feet tions to His devotees under different situafig at His own Will to feed her young-ones the concept of incarnation (avatara), one dmissible in Saiva Siddhanta. An erudite
CTVeS: singularly free from any account of Siva's the author of evolution cannot himself be
appears at His own Will. His forms are s whose forms are the products of matter a -type of pasa, they get their bodies from nature is free from the three types of pasa s no connection with maya. His own sakti forms of sakti which is grace, intelligence es that love is Godoo Tms, viz., corporeal form (rupa), incorncorporeal form (ruparupa). Arupa is ether. It could be knowable through earth. Ruparupa form is sometimes per; air and vapour. Likewise, the Lord's
forms are also held to be threefold. The Siva, due to the variation in the substrate functions. They are collectively known a They are classified into three groups. S arupa forms. Sadasiva is the ruparupa Sivalinga. Mahesvara, Rudra, Visnu a (rupa). From Siva, Sakti arises; from Sc and so on. Among these nine, Sakti and Corresponding to the variations in the for vary. Thus, Siva and Sakti, Nada and Bir and Mahesvari, Rudra and Uma, Visnu form the Divine couple to initiate the cosn
It is to be borne in mind that Rudra, V Sambhupaksa (i.e. the variations of Siva (i.e. the group of spiritually evolved souls. the Tirumurais.
All the corporeal forms that the Lord h are classified into three kinds, viz., Bhoga, In this manifestation, the Lord with His c and Mother (Ammai Appar). Umamahesv symbolic of enjoyment, conferring on the sc sets an example to all species of livin Tirunavukkaracar had the vision of God in exposed to the sacred shrine at Tiruvaiya pointed out by Tirunanacampantar and M murta is symbolic of His right( and wicked people. Among his m. They are portrayed in Tirumantir the triple flying fortress of the Asur
97. Civajnanaciittiyar; 1.2. 38, 55.
98. Ibid., 1.2.50.
99. levaram, 421-3.
100. i. Ibid., 3.24.I.
ii. Tiruvacakam. - 12.9.
01. Tirumantiram, 2.2.-8.
re are nine variations in the manifestation of s where he stays for performing the cosmic s navam taru petam in Civajnanacittiyar iva, Sakti, Nada and Bindu constitute the form and it is represented in the form of nd Brahma are the fully manifested forms akti, Nada arises; from Nada, Bindh: arises Bindu are the variations of Sakti tattva. m of Siva, the manifestations of Sakti also du, Sadasiva and Manonmani, Mahesvara and Mahalaksmi and Brhma and Sarasvati aic activities.
isnu and Brahma under reference belong to ) while the Trimurtis belong to Anupaksa ) This sort of classification is also found in
as assumed for the deliverance of the souls vega and Yoga. Bhoga means enjoyment. onsort, Sakti is known as the Divine Father ara murta belongs to this kind. This form is ouls the earthly pleasures. The Lord Himself g beings to live in conjugal life. Saint the pairs of birds and animals when he was u.' The significance of this murta is also anikkavacakar." Vega means anger. Vega
•ous anger to correct the vicious any heroic deeds, eight are important. am. They include the burning of as, the kicking to death of Yama, the
killing of Jalandhara, the subjugation of R Lord takes Yoga murta also. He becomes becomes an ideal preceptor to instruct the r example of this murta is the form of Daks and Cilappatikaram. In this form, He rei
Though the Lord assumes these manife the puranic story that narrates the arduou (anupaksa) in search of His origin and end He alone is the only transcendental Suprem
The Lord's eight-fold form (astamurta) includes the five gross-elements, the sun a first seven are material products in which th also the inner ruler of the souls. Through til conveyed. The concept of astamurta is ver the Indus Valley Civilization. Paripatalar literature to refer to this form. Kalidasa al
The concept of God as adhvamurti is a means pathway or steps leading one to pro viz., mantra, pada, varna, bhuvana, tati he is known as adhvamurti. Since He per are figuratively attributed to be His form. A special form. So, He is also known as Man the pure matter (suddhamaya). They are m to secure happiness and release. Even an significant form, since they are the primar from Suddhamaya. So, He is also known a is hinted in Manimekalai also."
102. S.N. Kandaswamy, Paripatalinkalam, (Annamalain
103. i. Civajnanaciittiyar, 1.2.56-59.
ii. Kantarkalivenpa, 60—62.
104. Manimekalai, 27.91.
avana, etc. Yoga means meditation. The an ascetic of a very high order. He also natured souls to attain salvation. The best inamurti which is referred to in Kalittokai vealed the Vedas and Agamas. stations, He transcends the universe. Even s but vain attempts of Brahma and Visnu (literally His head and feet) indicates that he Being.
is a recurrent theme in the Tirumurais. It ind moon besides the manifold souls. The he Lordabides as the inner principle. He is his form, His omnipresence is symbolically y ancient.' It is noticed in the religion of ld Manimekalai are the early extant Tamil so extols this form of Siva.
lso worth mentioning.' Adhava literally gress. The Agamas mention six adhvas, fva and kala to be His manifestation. Thus vades all these six material products, they Among the six adhvas, mantra adhva is His tramurti. Mantras are the modifications of heant for the contemplation of the devotees nong the mantras, the five constitute His y ones emanating before all other mantras as Panca Brahma mantra murti. This form
Lagar, 1972), pp. 34—35.
Realisation of God
The Meykanta Sastra mentions two kin God.' They are the knowledge of the Div The first one is to be directly derived fro divine knowledge known as Patijnana Tiruvaraulinanam as per the commentary that the Tevaram Trio, Karaikkalammaia edge. Agamajnana is to be obtained as a 1 However, this is only indirect knowledg receipients of this kind of jnana.
The limitations of bookish knowledge tional literature. The knowledge of the te Absolute. It is just like seeing a city in a m knowledge does not make one to apprehe sixfold sources of knowledge (i.e. pramanc Vedas and Agamas." He could not be ad of epistemology. Intense devotion toward Him. It is followed by the prescribed ethi have realised Him through devotion and m of their spiritual perfection, a thorough trar attained divinity. It is said that God spok expression of their divine experience. They the only pramana for the existence of God Tirunanacmpantar advises the peoplenc since he is Self - Effulgent." Tirunavuk existence of God who has thrust Himsel Tirumurais and the life of the Nayanmars r is the pathway to reach Him. Meykanta through pramanas is only pasa It is only through Patijnana that realisa vacakar proclaims that he saw God w
105. Civappirakacam, (Madras, kalakam edition, 1975),
106. Ginanamirutam, 55.24-27.
107. Tevaram, 3.54.5.
108. Ibid. 4.98.1.
is ofknowledge to be the means of realising ne Grace and the knowledge of the Agamas. h God. He chooses the ripe soul to impart or Sivajnana. This is also known as of Civappirakacam which clearly mentions ld others received this kind of divine knowlesult of a close study of the Saiva Agamas, e of God. The Santanakuravars are the
are clearly pointed out in the Tamil devoxts is of little use to the realisation of the ap. Tiruvacakam declares that the bookish ind the Reality. His is far away from the Is) which are like boats to cross the ocean of equately understood through the principles is God is a preliminary requisite to realise cal preparations. The devotional hymnists editation leading to Divine Grace. Because sformation took over their body which also e through them. Their words are the true are held to be the trustworthy words being
otto investigate God through logical means, karacar declares : How could I deny the f into the circle of my consciousness.' 2veal that sincere service to God and society isastras mention that knowledge obtained jnana (i.e. material knowledge). tion of God is made possible. Manikkarith his won eyes (perhaps after being
possessed by Him). He mentions in n directly from the Lord." He indicates also the divine wisdom by the Lord Himself int way of seeing the reality. It is known aska, to grasp the Reality. This way is clea Civajnanapotam and its commentaries. "
Without the guidance of the soul, the ey only as instrument. It cannot see itself. It i see all by itself without the guidance of the see. It is not so. It is actually the consc inherent with the soul pervades the eye to co that the eye sees, actually it is the soul thats of the soul. Thus, the soul helps the eye object (kattum upakaram and kanum upaka to the eye. Lord's grace known as sakti per Lord who is the life of the soul. In one of extolled to be the eye of the soul (avan consciousness-force becomes explicit due creates an unquenchable desire (sivaraga Him, and through this desire manifests Siv
Saiva Siddhanta is a theistic philosophy and rich literature. Though the Meykantas the existence of God, the devotional hymns to understand His existence and nature. His transcendence and immanence, static and etc., are delineated in the Tamil devotiona intense devotion and meditatior e could the mystery of God.
109. Tiruvacakam, 3.58.
10.Ibid, .32, 2.102, 3.117-124, 5.43, 44, 84-S, 95, 8.
111.i. Civajnanapotam, cirrurai, pp. 142-154.
ii. Civajnanaciittiyar, 11.1-6.
12. levaram, 6-970.
hany contexts that he received Patijnana the manner by which he was initiated with he form of a Guru. He says that there is a numaru kanal, i.e. seeing in such a way as rly elaborated in the llth aphorism of
e could not see an object. The eye serves Sinert and a product of matter. If it could soul, the eye in the dead body also should ciousness-force (atman's cit-sakti) that is gnize a thing. Though it is commonly said ees through the eye. The eye is the window in two ways, viz., showing and seeing an aram). God is to the soul what the soul is vades the soul, illumines it and reveals the the hymns of Tevaram, Divine Grace is arulekan).' The luminosity of soul's to the on-set of Divine Grace. The lord or sivakama) in such souls to experience 'ananda, the eternal bliss.
based on revelation. It has a long history astras employ logical means to establish of the Nayanmars are the authentic source intrinsic as well as related characteristics, dynamic features, His cosmic functions al hymns and Meykantasastras. Through get Divine Grace which alone could unfold
12, 18, 104,30.1-7,31.1-10, etc.
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