கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Sri Lanka Background Briefing 1946 - 1986
RFr 27-BI SRI "Mil Condon
LANKA II (22) BACKGROUND BRIEFING
EDITOR S. Sivanayagam
For Private Circulation only
gi Streết Monthly
ET-3 (ADI) issue Wo. 8 SFI 53 April 1987
PART II 1966-1970
A. (IRD) Publication
When we brought out Part I of the 40-year Chr Briefing: October 1986), we were aware that v enthusiastic feed-back we received from readers of contemporary Ceylon, after all, remains to be wr
The 20 years that we covered in Part I - 1946 in the memory and consciousness of the very ge through these years. That is because the 70s ar process. If one cannot grasp the nature of the past a coherent vision of the future. What is said of it memory - is alas true of peoples and nations as
To the new generation of Sinhalese and Tami schism that had been widening with every passir has been no single, balanced chronicle of even them. AS for non-Sri Lankans, both in neighboun under the belief that the problems in "Paradise Is should come as a revelation. The present Sorry Surprising development. The pattern of events th in it a sense of inevitability about the historicals from responsibility on the part of those rulers, v found themselves in the seats of power. Yet ot start in the elective process on the basis of uni Democracy itself. At which ever door the failure la it was a human failure. That continues to this da
It is sometimes said with derision that the ol nothing from it. But as Indian philosoper-statesm not on History but on human stupidity. If the Pr dene, cares to go through Part II of this Chron see in it a piece of wisdom he uttered in 1966. Senanayake, and on January 8 of that year, wa (Special Provisions) Regulations; framed under S.W. R. D. Bandaranaike government, never follo despite protestations by the widow that she was c of State J. R.Jayewardene : Blood has been si forward in connexion with the language issue." the better'. That was in 1966. Twenty one ye power for 10 years.
To talk of Tamil "intransigence' in 1987, wh blood in the land of their birth, in 1956 and 19 be not only showing a gross insensitivity to b: historical process.
onology of Ceylon events (Sri Lanka Background je were filling a lacuna in documentation. The has served to underscore that need. The history tten. What we provide are the bones of history.
5-1965 - had already become misty and blurred Ineration of Sinhalese and Tamils who had lived ld 80s have seen Sudden jumps in the historical , one cannot understand the present, nor develop individuals - that they tend to develop a selective well.
ls, totally alienated from each other by the ethnic ng day, this will come as unknown history. There its of the post-independence period available to ing India and in the West, many of whom labour le' began in July 1983, this Chronology of Events State of affairs in that country will not seem as a hat led to it becomes all too clear. Some may see equence. Others may see in it a recurring retreat who, thanks to Democracy, have time and again hers may see in it (in a country that had a head versal suffrage, beginning in 1931 ) a failure of ly, there is no getting behind the fact that ultimately
nly thing we learn from History is that we learn an S.Radhakrishnan once said, that is a comment 2sident of Sri Lanka, His Excellency J.R. Jayewarology covering the five years 1966-1970, he will He was then No.2 in the Government of Dudley S piloting through Parliament the Tamil Language an Act that was passed eight years earlier by the wed up by the Sirimavo Bandaranaike government only following her husband's policies. Said Minister ned on every occasion when Bills were brought We have to end this conflict one day. The sooner ars ago! President Jayewardene has now been in
2n two generations of Tamils have been shedding 58, and continuously from 1977 to 1987, would sic human rights but also mocking at a 30-year
Background Briefing April 1987
January 1: Ceylon begins the New Year with a holiday; January 1 being declared National Heroes' Day by the UNP government now in power, led by Dudley Senanayake.
Sunday ceases to be a holiday. The Poya Day - the weekly day of religious significance to Buddhists, which fluctuates according to the phases of the Moon, replaces Sunday as the weekly holiday. A 21-gun salute in the 'sacred' town of Kandy, 72 miles from Colombo, heralds the advent of the first Poya Day on January 6. The celebrations begin on Jan. 5 with the hoisting of the Buddhist flags on public buildings and city buses and elaborate observance of religious ceremonies. The Sunday newspapers bow out of the scene. The Governor General William Gopallawa and the elite of the Buddhist clergy exhort the people not to allow the Poya Day holiday to lapse into another Sunday given to indulgence and merry-making, but to devote it to "contemplation and meditation'
The introduction of the Poya holidays was one of the main election pledges of the United National Party last year , the Sri Lanka Freedom Party which issued its manifesto a few days later had no alternative but to make the same offer in order to appease Buddhist sentiment. Since these two parties were the main Sinhala protoganists in the election fray, the Sunday week-end was doomed either way.
The dropping of the Sunday holiday is hailed as the remedying of an "historical injustice to Buddhists during colonial rule" The week-ends for 1966 are settled after consultations with Buddhist dignitaries and astronomers. Unlike the 52 weeks in the Gregorian calendar, there will be 49 week-ends under the Poya scheme and weeks will vary between 6 to 8 days. Eight of the Poya holidays will fall on Sundays, 6 on Mondays, 6 on Tuesdays, 6 on Wednesdays, 7 on Thursdays, 8 on Fridays, and 8 on Saturdays. The Chairman of the Employers' Federation of Ceylon, Mallory Wijesinghe, pledges support of the private sector in falling in line with the new holiday SChenne.
January 2: The Government invokes the Armed Services Act requiring the Army, the Navy and Air Force to be in readiness
Background Briefing April 1987
to meet any situatic Regulations are intro on Jan. 8, for the
Northern and East Regulations were pu Paper of the House towards the end of and according to a Go are identical to tho introduced) by ti Bandaranaike when he
January 8: Gover the House of Repre language (Spe Regulations, under (Special Provisions) breaks out.
The 1958 Act - premiership of Bandaranaike laid ( Sinhalese would be tr of Ceylon under the 1956, Tamil could b of instruction, and admission to the Tamil-speaking perSC the use of Tamil for a in the Tamil-speaking provinces of the isla correspondence with administration by pers
The Act of 195 provisions should regulations to be ma charge of language remained a dead Bandaranalike (until h September 1959) pledged to follow h sought to implemen
introducing the re Minister of State emphasises that proposals were fram 1958 Act; that un Language Act of 19 these was no obstac person transacting that the present gove to give legal status te out that the Federal the interests of the accepted the implet and 1958 Acts, Mr. that blood had been
}n of violence when duced in Parliament Use of Tamil in the ern provinces. The bished in an Order 2 of Representatives last year (Dec. 26), vernment spokesman, se framed (but not he late S.W.R.D.
was Prime Minister.
nment introduces in sentatives the Tamil cial Provisions) the Tamil Language
Act of 1958. Violence
passed during the the late Solomon down that, although le only official language 'Sinhala Only' Act of e used as a medium of examination for Public Services for ns. It also permitted dministrative purposes Northern and Eastern nd, and for its use in the Central and local OnS edu:Cated in Tam.
3 stipulated that its be implemented by de by the Minister in
policy. But the Act
letter. Neither Mr. e was assassinated in nor his widow who er husband's policies t it.
gulations on this day, J. R. Jayewardene the Government's ed in the terms of the der both the Officia 56 and the 1958 Act le to a Tami-speaking usineSS in Tamíl; and rnment merely wanted this practice. Pointing party (which represents Tamil population) had nentation of the 1956 Jayewardene observes shed on every occasion
when Bills were brought forward in connexion with the language issue, and declares : 'We have to end this conflict one day. The sooner the better' ()
Outside Parliament, even as Mr. Jayewardene spoke, blood was being shed Although a Strike called by the Opposition parties as a protest against the regulations was largely ignored, some 3,000 demonstrators, led by Buddhist monks, march from the outskirts of Colombo to the heavily-guarded Parliament House in Spite of a ban on meetings and processions. The police use batons and tear gas to disperse the crowd, and in the ensuing fight buses and cars are stoned by the mob, shop windows Smashed, and about 90 people injured. A Buddhist monk, Ratnasara Thero, is killed by a shot when the Police open fire. (At a subsequent induiry; the judicial medical officer finds that, Contrary to Opposition allegations, he had not been directly hit and that the bullet which had caused his death had ricocheted off a hard surface before striking him).
Army, Navy, and Air Force personnel are called out to restore peace and order in the Capital, a State of Emergency is declared the same evening, a 9 p.m. to 4 a.m. curfew is imposed in Colombo and Suburbs, and a Press censorship introduced. Services supplying electricity, food, water and petrol are declared essential and strikes by perSons engaged in them are banned.
January 9: Order is restored and work in public offices return to normal, although armoured cars and police vans continue to patrol the streets of Colombo and to seal off those leading to Parliament House. As a further precaution, the curfew hours are extended from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. Meanwhile, in Parliament, Opposition party members led by Mrs. Bandaranake (including the Marxist parties) violently denounce the government measure.
January 11: After a heated 4-day debate, the Tamil Language (Special Provisions) Regulations are approved by the House of Representatives by 96 votes to 53. The Senate passes the Regulations the same day by 18 votes to 7. The Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake, winding up the debate, reiterates that the Government had no intention whatsoever of changing a single word in the Official Language Act. He
promises that if it was proved that the new regulations were an impediment to the implementation of the 'Sinhala Only' Act,
the Govt. would remedy the situation
and introduce further regulations forthwith.
The language question, he says, has to be settled in the interest of economic Stability. Addressing Opposition members who had raised legal objections, he declares
"You can go to the courts. You need not break heads'
Earlier, Mrs. Kusuma Rajaratne, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Home Affairs and wife of K. M. P. Rajaratne, the leader of the Jatka Vimukthi Peramuna, resigns from the Government and crosses over to the Opposition benches, as a protest against the regulations. January 15: The Government issues a communique explaining the Circumstances leading to the declaration of the Emergency and the imposition of the curfew on January 8, how after warnings, tear gas and baton charges had failed to restore order, police were 'compelled to open fire", and expressing regret that a member of the Sangha (clergy) had been killed in the incidents.
February 4: Ceylon celebrates the 18th anriversary of independence, with minority Tamils participating for the first time in 10 years. Hitherto, in the North and East, it was observed as a day of mourning, following a decision by the Federal Party to boycott the celebrations in protest against the failure of the governments to give official recognition to the Tamil language.
February 6: Leaders of parties in Parliament agree that a new Constitution should be drafted for the Country. The accord comes after the Opposition had refused to agree to a motion to nominate 50 members of the House of Representatives to a joint Select Committee to Consider revision of the existing Constitution with a view to establishing a Republic. The Opposition claims that a recent decision of the Privy Council acquitting the 11 persons in the Coup case had proved that Ceylon was not fully independent and sovereign. They say that revision of the present constitution framed by the Soulbury Commission would not therefore help them to achieve their objective.
Earlier, the Government's Parliamentary group decides that salaries and allowances pad to Members of Parlament Should be increased in consultation with leaders of Opposition parties. At present, Members of the House of Representatives receive a
salary of Rs. 600 a allowances totaling
been an unofficial agre of both Government a that the tota ermc increased to Rs.100C MPs is taxfree, and transport, telephone and subsidised food MP's hoste in Color February 9: Ministe Dahanayake announ handlooms would be order to help the loc imports of handloo virtually Come to a
31.38 milion worth
milion worth in 1964 February 12: Mir Jayawardene Clarifie respect of the Tamil
in a Press release issu that persons enterir taking examinations
of Tami would have t of the officia langua years of their entry
makes it clear that t transaction of p Tamil-speaking Nor provinces "will not will be 'in Tamil also maintained in both llar of inter-departmental
be Sinhala. A Sinha with any institutiona the sland in Sinhala receive replies in Si February 14: An a New Delhi, giving a loan to Ceylon to ena consumer goods fro February 16: An resumption of Arme Colombo. USA had S when the Siri| government was ir 1963, following th payment of compen: Over from two Ame
February 19 agreements for 196 Delhi, providing for t Commodities totalin Overal annual trade both ways.
February 21: A ends. 23 persons c of Inland Revenue of income ranging
Rs. 175. There has ement among leaders nd Opposition parties luments should be 17- Half the salary of they also enjoy free and postal facilities and lodging at the nbo - "Sravasti".
er of Home Affairs W. Ces that import of banned from July; in a handloom industry. nS from india had standst - from Rs. ir 1956 to RS 1 29 4. hister of State J.R. S certain issues in language regulations, ed today. He reterates ng public Service by through the medium O acquire a knowledge ge, Sinhala, within 3 into Service. He also he administration and ublic business in thern and Eastern pe in Tamil only" but b'. Records would be guages. The language correspondence Would ese could correspond body in any part of and was entitled to nhala. greement is signed in an Indian Rs. 2 crore ble the latter to import m india.
agreement tor the rican aid is signed in uspended aid to Ceylon mavo Bandaranaike power, in February e dispute over the sation for assets taken rican oil companies,
Indo-Ceylon Trade 6 are signed in New he exchange of specific g Rs. 7 crores - the is about Rs.20 crores
2-month Tax amnesty all at the Department and make declarations from Rs. 1 million to
month and certain
Rs. 4 milion.
March 4: Eight Army officers are arrested for alleged complicity in a plot to overthrow the Government.
Cabinet holds an Emergency session and acting Head of the Government J.R. Jayewardene (in the absence of Prisme Minister Dudley Senanayake who is away in Washington) briefs the Ministers. He says that evidence nas come to light that the plot was to assassinate not only Government leaders but also certain Leftist leaders. Dr. N. M. Perera, the leader of the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, was also being taken into confidence.
March 5: Three more Army men are taken into custody. All Navy and Air Force leave is cancelled. According to a C.I.D. spokesman, more arrests are likeiy, including "bigger men'. An official spokesman says that the Government was in complete control of the situation, and the Prime Minister was being kept informed of all developments.
Preliminary investigations into the alleged
plot show that the envisaged plan was
phased as follows : (1) Certain senior Army officers to be placed in protective custody (2) Government party leaders such as J. R. Jayewardene, Philip Gunawardene and W. Dahanayake to be assassinated (3) Lanka Sama Samaja Party leaders like Dr. N. M. Perera and Leslie Gunawardene to be assassinated (4) Radio Ceylon and national Press to be taken over (5) Senior Army officers to be released from protective custody (6) Government to be taken over by an advisory Council led by civilians master-minding the coup. (7) abolition of Parliament and all political parties.
it was stated that evidence showed that the coup plans were to be worked out primarily by non-commissioned officers with the higher officers surfacing only during the operative part of the programme. Several Suspect Officers who were stationed away from Colombo were found to have been in the city during the third week of February during which the coup was alleged to have been planned.
March 6: As investigations into the alleged Army plot proceed, Government takes action on the findings of the 3-man Committee which went into the alleged failure of the Police in meeting the threats to law and order in Colombo on January 8. Three Police officers including a Superintendent
Background Briefing April 1987
of Police are to be retired compulsorily. The report says :- There has been "undue delay by the Army in Coming to the assistance of the Police' and 'from the
Army Commander's evidence it would appear that, in the view of the inspector General of Police, he and his officers did not view their being called out under Part 3 of the Public Security Act as a serious step taken by the Government requiring the Army to be alert to meet any situation' "The Army Commander erred when he allowed himself to be lulled into complacency by the attitude of the inspector General of Police...'. The report added that the Inspector General of Police S.A. Dissanayake, who was on leave, had failed to appreciate the lively apprehension of the Government that there would be an attempt to interfere with the proceedings of the House.
March 16: Government publishes a White Paper setting out guarantees to foreign investors. Private foreign investors are assured the same terms as offered to domestic investors.
March 17: Indian High Commission in Colombo in a Press release, announces the formulation of a scheme of assistance by the Government of India to repatriates from Ceylon under the Agreement of 1964 (Under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of October 1964, 5,25,000 persons of Indian origin would be repatriated to India over a period of 15 years). This follows requests by the two organisations representing the Stateless persons of Indian origin covered by the agreement - the Ceylon Workers' Congress led by S. Thondaman and the Democratic Workers' Congress ted by A Aziz, asking the Government of India to announce its rehabilitation schemes So that they will have an idea of the treatment they would get when they go to India.
April 16: A well-known Buddhist monk, Rev. Henpitagedera Gnanaseeha Thero arrested in Connexion with the alleged plot to overthrow the Government. He was known to be a close supporter of former Prime Minister Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike's Sri Lanka Freedom Party and had in the past advocated dictatorship for Ceylon as a solution to the ills of the country.
Acting Head of Govt. J. R. Jayewardene tells the House of Representatives that the government now had "overwhelming evidence' to show that a group of persons had planned to overthrow the government even by assassination. Many of them were
Background Briefing April 1987
now coming forward
said it was unfortuna Committed Suicide, t a merchant from Rat a Corporal had leape Fourth Floor of the where they were ta Mr. Jayewardene says weeks the case woul filed, but it had ye whether it should be by normal courts of
April 20: Prime Senanayake returns 2-month tour abroad, "My mission for overwhelming succes in perfect health and \ healther now. His t health reasons. He w; the opportunity to me States and hold discu aid to Ceylon. During leaders, he had explair intentions to follow non-alignment". A cor same day says tha assured of continuing a from France and We country's economic d
May 9: A 3-day world leaders meet in Color Constitutes a World
better serve mankind to build a free, peace through the propagati The Conference also unifying the Mahay Schools of Buddhism. the Malwatte Chapter President of the Cour of Ceylon the Secret
Prime Minister assures leaders c comprising the Natio in implementing the 1964, no 'Stateless' would be unduly assurance is given to Workers' Congress Tamil workers), the F Tamil Congress.
May 21: Mr. Dudle an Opposition deman of Emergency and Pre since the language ri says that a number
who had confessed
Conspiracy to overth
A 40 - YEAR CHRONOLOGY
o give evidence. He that two men had two of them, one apura and the other
to death from the
C.I.D. headquarters en for questioning. that in the next few | be ready for being to be determined Court martia! Or tria
Minister Dudley to Ceylon after a and tels newSmen aid has been an s'. He said he was was beginning to feel p was primarily for is happy that he had et several Heads of SSions with them on his talks with U.S. led his Government's "a policy of true nmunique issued the Ceylon had been ssistance and support st Germany for the evelopment.
gathering of Buddhist mbo. The Conference Sangha Council "to and Contribute effortS ful and happy world bn of the Dhamma". decides to ainm at ana and Theravada The Mahanayake of of Ceylon is elected cil, and Rev. Soratha ry General.
f political parties hal Government that Sirima-Shastri Pact of Ierson of Indian origin convenienced. The eaders of the Ceylon (representing Indian ederal Party and the
for ending the State is censorship in force ts of January 8. He if coup plot detenus to complicity in the ow the Government
would be brought to trial in the near future.
May 28: The Commission on Broadcasting and Information recommends that Radio Ceylon should be placed under a Corporation on the lines of the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation, and submits draft legislation for constituting a Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation. The Commission also urges that steps should be initiated for establishing a television service of limited scope, which in due course might be developed to cover the whole island.
June 4: Actg. Minister of Commerce and Trade S.A. Pieris tells the House of Representatives that 80 per cent of imports in the island are handled by 'nationals by registration' and the Government was reviewing this position. "Nationals by registration' are those who have acquired Ceylon citizenship by registration and Comprise mainly people of Indian origin.
June 7: The State-owned Co-operative Wholesale Establishment (CWE) takes over exclusively imports of Textiles. The imports of rice, sugar, flour, dried fish and oil were already in the hands of the Government.
Finance Minister U.B. Wanninayake announces that the Cabinet had decided not to devalue the rupee. He says the Government had given careful consideration to the situation following the devaluation of the indian rupee, and had come to the conclusion that the external value of the Ceylon rupee need not be changed. It will remain at Rs. 13.33 to a pound sterling and Rs. 4.76 to a dollar.
June 23: The Federal Party's 10th Annual Convention commences at Kamunai in the Eastern province, and continues for three days. Dr. E.M.V. Naganathan elected as President.
Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake addresses the Convention on the final day. This was the first and only occasion in the history of the country when a Prime Minister was invited to address the gathering of a mainstream Tamil party.
Mr. Senanayake declares that as long as he was Prime Minister there would be no discrimination on grounds of language or religion and the Tamil people and their culture would not suffer. While paying a tribute to the Tamil leader S.J.V. Chelvanayakam, Mr. Senanayake says that if they wanted to enjoy the fruits of freedom, racial harmony must be permanent. 'Fate
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has called upon The to be instrumental in bringing about national unity and Will the Wery happy When Every persoń in this COLIntry 15 abale to say, this is his native land". On the role of minority communities in the economic development of Ceylon. he says he was not seeking their cooperation Ter Tiga sarily to owerCom a the presant Crisis bLI" On a pČfrtnament bas15.
The Federal Party conventom, in a resolution, reiterates the firm conviction of the Party that a lasting solution to the polítical problems En a Tulti-racial Curtry likę Ceylan Could bĖ found in a Federal form of government only, The resolution also pointed out that adequate steps had not been taken to implement the recently passed Tamil Language Special Provisions Regulations. Arong other resolutions adopted by the Convention were one urging the establishment of a Tartil University and another requesting the Government to take Steps to introduce legislation for the establish rent of District Councils.
July 7: Arry Cartımarıder. May, Gerberal A. R. L. dugait is who returned to ColorToo fra Ti Britain after a 4-Trinth cofficiāli tutur, is taken into custody in connection with the alleged planned coup of February 17. SOD1 after his arrival, he is whisked away in an Air Forco jeep to the Air Force Mess and later taken to the city in a police car. A helicopter circles Katunayake airport and
armed guards patrol Order is personal Inspector General O The Army General Magazine Prison a L Uduga Tha's āfr Est cl the conspiracy, whi in the arrests of 22 and a Buddhist ma
The Sarne day Bri is appointed to act Army.
July B: The secon opens with an Ada General Williar announced that a Indo-Ceylon AgreerT of Indian origin wi Parliament soon.
July 20. About 5. origin return to their plantations at the cr Neither the Gower concede anything. DBrTOCratic Worksr Aziz was avowedly
for an allowance of Widely Suspected ti Although backed b unions, the major um Congress had kept wages for 42 day: FR3.5 milli i foi
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the area. The detentium served on him by f Police Jahn Attygala, Is then här nded ywer to thorities. Maj, General ir imaxes investigation of :h häčji already resultad Army officers and men *ך
}. Betrarn Russel Heyn as ComrTander of the
session of Parliament ress by the Governor Gopallawa. It was 3:ll tÒ implemernt the ant of 1964 con peopla uld be placed before
O) Workers of India its in Tea and Rubber of a 42-day old strike. hent cor the planters e strike, Called by the Congress led by A. Support (of a der Tärid 5.7; a 10th but boa pulitically inspired. ā Irbe (f List 1, the Ceylon Workers' Jut. The Striker 5 051 and the Island about in exchange.
July 22: Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake tells the House of Representatives that it was mot the policy of his gyvernment to force the Sinhala language down the throats of unwilling people. The earlier Government had tried to do that, and thousands of Tamits and Sinhalese had lost their lives on account of the previous goverrirTent's action, and in spite of that they could not make the Tamil people accept Sinhala as thea official language. It was only undear the present National Goverrir ment that the Tamils had accepted Sinhala as the official language. It was by removing Suspicions that such a situation has been achiawed.
It is announced in New Delhi that all the air services between India and Caylor would be run om a "pool basis" when The India Аiгilпе5 Corporatioп staгt5 орагatiгig5егwicas shortly between Colombo and Trichy and Triwariidrum respectively,
Septurnber : The B-manth ald Pre55 censorship clariped in early January is lifted.
Catimet decides to curb thë inflow of Communist literature into the Country.
Over 3,500 non-riationals, mostly Indians, employed by the private sector in ColorTibo are to be replaced by Ceylonese, according to Government sources. Extension of Tertiporary Residence Permits to these persons Would mot be sancticarned in the future.
Background Briefing April 1987
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September 9: A new chapter in Jaffna's history is Written on this day, when Over 100,000 Tamils Welcome for the first time a Prime Minister of the country, The Federal Party and the Tamil Congress, the two rival parties sink their differences to welcore Mr. Dudley Senanayake. The previous Prime Ministerial visit to the north was Sir John Kotelawala's in 1954 It Was a scienco riwer beforge Witness2d iri the Northern province and newer after where only black flags and brickbats had greeted Ministers, The entire town Was decorated and a reception accorded to the Prime Minister at the Jaffna Railway station. Mr. Senarayake later addresses a mammoth gathering at the Jaffna Esplanade.
October : A Bill for the implementation of the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964 is approved by the Cabinet. The Bill will provide for the granting of Ceylon citizensnip til 300.0ÖC) JErSOrıs Caf Iridiam Origiri, whom the Ceylon government had agreed to absorb under the Agreement. The Agreement, signed at New Delhi by the late Lal Bahadur Shastri and the former
Background Briefing April 1987
Ceylon Prime Minist ctCbCr 30, 195 герatriation to lпdia
who are at prEisen I period of 15 years f Agreement. Impler Agreement had been absence of a legisla grant by the Cey citizenship on the 3) under the Agreemer with the repatriation
October 10: G, Sin Tala teachers ta
North Er 1 3rd Easter 3 rif. İnı the FA|actimal
CCCF īs fā:
Minists and the Fg The Cri:515 yw'r mitch 11:: government faced i: political observer5 s Sinhala teacher: ser 5chills; iiri tradditi rial li WOuld rial b5 W, thir H", but non-Muslim Tar
SLaa LLLLGLE L LLaaLaL LLLLLaLCtTLL LEaaaLkLClHHHH LLLHHLLLLLLLa LLLH ekHHHH LLLLLL LSL LLLLLL S S TLLLMMMTkTHS kTS SLLkHHHHLLLLHH HHHLO MMHkMEMLLLLLLLL HLL S ESekCCOS LLLHuL L LLLLLL H. Jara FrPartin Frd S. Lfangwartolor:by.
Sr Mr5. Bandar Holske 4. also provided for of 525,000 persons
"Stateless" Over 3 TOT E hĘa date of the rentation of the delayed owing to the tive provision for the lon government of
),000 persons which,
1, Was to keep place 10 India at the ratio
5 decision lo ser d the Tartil-speaking | pro WinCSS thrEā tigris Gver:rī, 3 ā betwwar, thia Pr mill:ral Party on this day Judley & Erhana'yä kg stayed off, though ül, Only temporarily to Muslin majority Tām il-Speaking areās it by the government, Il children in these
schools would be transferred to Tamil schoofs. Circumstances per Titti Tg The Federal Party also withdraws its objection to Muslim parents being allowed to teach their children in the language of their choice - Sinhala or famil. But, or the question çf midiurii caf in 15 tructicri cf Tamil child fem, the party insists that the Tot her l'Orgue should be the Compulsory Tedium and the choice should mot lig with the parents. The Party argues that parents cajoled by threats of lack of employment opportunities for persons riot proficient in the official language, Sinhala, would optior that language, causing eventual 2 radication of the Tir Til Ti E diuri and gradual extinction of the corrtunity, h„Mr. Senarnayake por CarTvises a trog and fu | LLLLLaLLLL S LLLLLLLH LLLLLL0 LL LLLLLLL before finally deciding crl the Tuestior
October 24: Sri Lanka Freedom Party wins all three by-elections, retaining two, the Balangoda and Bandarawela seats, and winning the third, Bentara-Elpitiya previously held by the UNP, The by-elections, the first since the General Election of March 1955, were caused by two merriters being
dr. Chelsvaria yaker "réels ''Er'ıları har 4. Faisarar fhiriarrama off s.
seated or election petitions Tid by cana 'gring. Mrs. Bandarana ke campaigning C" for Gwrth, without the help of Fer Marxis allies, raises the language issue *åg i 1. || * d'IUCI: that f the Gwerrimer SLI IT5 =ri! Clicy of Pleasing the Tamils tirl thi:: language Sle, it would result the Country being divided If TO two, True *lection of Mrs. ylällika Ratvate : Baltir i sgordd brings the number of "  PT-F1 Territors in the HOLJ35: Era five
With the three seats going to tha SLFP "* Fadry positior, ir ing 5-member House of Feprésertatives is urip liri Cludi rig t him. Spaaker ÉiG, Feci Eral Party - di Sri Larka freedom Socialist Party-E. Tem Congress 3. Mahajara Eksath Perartuna of Philip CiUr13 Wardene - 1 fall members ot I1 Իlatitյrig| GoyerrirT ET. Mortinated M rl li:tr: - È C1 fa Position sido, 5 EP 4: LSSP — || . Corrrrlunst Päily – 4. Jalka Wirriւյէլի, Përafi Luma 1. Independents - Although the Government has 圣 Då"riffort, Elli: "Crity of over HDISE, Ins Prime Minister has ld ticբland 10 ad Grizat Externt for the TirTi 4ts, because if the TWW (3 Tamil BarHigs, Withdraw
tfissir support to the
languag0 issue, the si P.", vrauld be reduc the Opposition's gif "oto Withi : Fg2 Cipios
November G. Filepreseri tat iwes TT = Efter thig է", "alectitirls, SFP MPs take their Pitti ES that häri vyake 2h in :rotest Հg:Im:1 = | SEEaker Shirley Coegr li-Office risicotia Government raturn -"Ting thir Egoyggt i had upheld a point of subject of the no-confi Th2 dath of I erëri i Correction with the alle - ħilit politi was the ProCēūdings, :|re Tater v
November 3: , "lt:" | o informatori anc Broad. turi tal-Cr + F, C. Piiringe ta', nisti Informātrd BrC II: field by Minister of State.
HHHS L Ha YYLLMCCHHL LL L SS LEEL LLSSSS LLLLHHMSLMTMS LSLMGHLLLLHMaaSS LLLLLLKTYYLLLKS
Government in the i'r Cerigth of 1 ha fullrig Id ta 78, as aga inst the twt) Tartl Jarlla 5 If:1
The Hous i for the tir 531 1 if the 3rd (1 tire law, tris, The Opposition out or September 'uling of the Daiuty 2ä, Çi is&allow"wing a agairm5t the the House, titler те Deputy Speaker Talder ha 1 a 3 ha :rit: rilottirl was Police custody in ged COup plot a rd subyag of Court ya 5 "SILJEn judice",
Winistry - Ministry tās tirg - īs realeri The Departner 1st Ing was hit herrn J.P. Jaye, vārcietī
Among other reshuffles of portfolios was the transference tot important departments relati rgto the irripurt. exportanti di Stribution Cit assential goods from the Minister of
Corinterce and Trade to the Minister of STET.
November 16: Prime Minister Dudley
Sananayake's lengthy letter to a Buddhist
pries: clarifying 1 ho Government's languagg policy is stiade public, The priest had r 4 KGYL0 LLKLLLSLLLLLS La LK LEELLK LLLLLLaLLLL LLL0YK LKLLYGYLCLLaLaL S YLLaL S LKKKKLK S LaLK0KS Includi ing tr1= Cut Ticial language and the sending of Sinhala teachers to Tamil medium Schools in the North and East, The Prima ELaaL L0aLLCLL0 LLLa LLLSLLLK00SL LaLL LCK LaLLLLSS LaLLS LCCLL LL0YLLLSLLCLLS LC LLL KLLCLL taken in regard 10 language. The letter defines the language policy thus: "The official language is Sinhala all over the CQ untry, tu l'arTill nöw. 35 It w35 in 1958 toO.. is re-cogni sed a 5 li region al farmguage of a national minority". Referring to the prie'5 =", th the SinhalEEE teacher5 KLLaLLS JK KKK YK SLuSLLLS KLLKK LLK LLLSKK LL LSLJY JK SS S S LL S KKKK SKK L S L LL LKL K S 15 to erforce the Officia Language ACT,
Background Briefing April 1987
the Prime Minister explains that the reason for the decision to send Sinhala teachers was not to force Sinhala down the throats of unwilling Tamil children, but to give them an opportunity to get acquainted with and learn Sinhala. He says that all previous governments had accepted the position that Tamil must be given a reasonable place and that Tamil children would have the right to be instructed in Tamil through their school career. Explaining the language policy since the time of the late S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister quotes Mr. Bandaranaike's own words: "Official language does not mean a language that is thrust down the throats of everybody for every purpose".
A Cabinet crisis averted : A threatened split in the Cabinet/is averted in the last week of November, after discussions between the Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake and the Federal Party leader S.J.V. Chelvanayakam. A week before, the Federal Party nominee in the Cabinet, M. Tiruchelvam O.C., had offered his resignation after he had been criticised by the Prime Minister for making statements that the Federal Party had not abandoned its goal of Federalism, causing embarassment to the United National Party, the main party in the Government. According to Colombo reports, Mr. Senanayake obtained assurances that the Federal Party would be more discreetin its public statements.
Meanwhile, draft legislation for the establishment of District Councils was being shelved by the Government, as Opposition leaders had alleged that it was an attempt to introduce Federalism in disguise.
December 6: The Prime Minister presents in Parliament a Bill under which persons of Indian origin in Ceylon who are to be granted citizenship under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement would have the status of citizens by registration. They would be entitled to the same rights and would be subject to the same obligations and liabilities as persons registered as citizens under any other law including "liability to loss or deprivation of Citizenship and renunciation of citizenship". Ceylon's Citizenship Act provides for two classes of citizens - citizens by descent and citizens by registration. It empowers the Minister in charge of citizenship to deprive the citizens by registration of the citizenship in certain specified circumstances. The present Bill gives every person to whom the Indo-Ceylon Agreement applies, option to apply for Ceylonese citizenship. But granting such
Background Briefing April 1987
citizenship will be discretion' of the Mi Bill refers to persi citizenship and person citizens. But it does n to those whose ap citizenship might be
December 7: Eme State of Emergency Ceylon on January incidents in connexic against the Tamil la ended today, at mi emergency had previ May 8, when the Es: was withdrawn and meetings again perm when the prohibitio public processions w control of publication: censorship lifted.
December 15: Cu After three emergen the Prime Minister announces that the Co of rice, as Burma an that they could provide Supplies. Burma had only 100,000 tons in Thailand had also foi its rice exports. Mr. the people that the panic as there w Endeavours were alsc rice from UAR, Form China, Ceylon's thirt agreed to Supply 20 ՍՏԱal in 1967.
December 17. GC a reduction in the ric mea Sure:S tO One. N that the present rati
A flashback to 1961 : A
at the 'absolute ister Concerned, The ons granted Ceylon s recognised as Indian it make any reference plications for Ceylon rejected.
rgency ended : The declared throughout 8 following violent )n with the agitation guage regulations is dnight. The state of busly been relaxed on sential Services Order the holding of public itted; and on Sept. 8, on the holding of as also removed, the s abolished and Press,
t in Rice Rations : cy Cabinet meetings, Dudley Senanayake untry faces a shortage id Thailand had stated 2 only half their normal Said it could provide 1967 with difficulty. '' several reasons cut Senanayake assures e was no need for are enough stocks, being made to obtain osa and North Korea. i main supplier had ),000 tons of rice as
Vernet 8 frOUC8S e quantum from two Mr. Senanayake says on of two measures
gusly Ta pur Rolau
?udada " W) ur A. Ar 4 "ay Ay a
10-cent Post Card released during the Federal Party Satyagraha campaign.
A 40 - YEAR CHRONOLOGY
per person per week at 25 cents a measure was halved and it would be given free. Halving the ration would mean that the country will need to import only 400,000 tons in 1967, cutting down on the increasing import bill and conserving the foreign exchange.
December 18: State of Emergency re-imposed : Within 10 days of the lifting of the 11-month old State of Emergency, it is imposed again. Prime Minister announces that he was summoning a "very early' meeting of Parliament, now in recess till January 20, 1967, to explain the steps his government had taken to meet the food crisis caused by world shortage. "Let not anyone in this country think,' says the Prime Minister in his broadcast, 'that by civil commotion, we can resolve the problem".
The Government alerts the police and the armed Services to be in readiness to suppress any acts of violence which Marxist and other politicians may inspire as a protest against the ration cut. The Army chief, Maj. General B. R. Heyn, Navy Commander Rajan Kadirgamar and the Air Force chief Rohan Amerasekera have talks with the officials of the Ministry of Defence on how the Services could prevent an outbreak of disorder.
December 28: An Opposition motion censuring the Government over the cut in rice ration is rejected in the House of Representatives by 33 votes. Voting on the motion was 49 in favour and 82 against.
it is announced in New Delhi that Mr. Y.D. Gundevia, till recently Secretary to the President, has been appointed India's High Commissioner to Ceylon in succession to Mr. Bhim. Sen Sachar. This was Mr. Gundevia's second posting to Colombo. Earlier. he was High Commissioner from 1957-1960
January: The Communist Party's Sinhala newspaper, "Aththa' (meaning Truth in Sinhala) reports that there are moves afoot to bring together the "Rightist' forces in the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the ruling United National Party. According to the report, the merger move is headed by the President of the All Ceylon Buddhist Congress H.W.Amarasuriya and Buddhist dignitaries, and had the support of Education Minister I.M.R.A. iriyagolle and elder statesman, and President of the Senate, A. Ratnayake. The movers, according to the paper, were now soliciting the support of Ven. Rahula, ViceChancellor of Vidyodaya University and Ceylon's scholar monk who gained academic distinction in Sorbonne University to lead the movement. The paper claims that the Government 'which is living from crisis to crisis' was seeking the merger in a desperate bid to 'stop erosion of its power and popularity among the masses' and obtain a fresh image through Mrs. Bandaranaike.
The paper further reports that the movers had the promise of Mrs. Bandaranaike that the Tamil Federal Party and J.R.Jayawardene, Minister of State would be ditched if the merger succeeded.
The Government announces its decision to raise a Land Army of 100,000 unemployed youth to help increase food production. The Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Lands, irrigation and Power, Capt. C.P.J. Seneviratne has been nominated to be in charge of the Land Army, which will help bring 100,000 acres of additional land under cultivation. The Government's proposal to raise the Land Army is criticised by the Opposition as an attempt to set up a "medium to establish a dictatorship', under the guise of an agricultural Corps.
The ruling United National Party loses a crucial by-election at DOdagastanda in the northwest. It was the first by-election the Party had faced since the rice ration cut. Though the SLFP canditate Mrs. Lalitha Rajapakse won by a slender majority of 393, in a seat which was already held by her party, the election marked the fourth successive by-election loss for the ruling UNP, since it came to power.
The Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation which took over all the functions of State-operated Radio Ceylon is inaugurated by Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake. (Jan. 5). The corporation is headed by Neville Jayaweera, till recently Director General of information
February 5: The S.J.V. Chelvanayakan by the Prime Minist no compulsory repat dian origin under the Ceylon Agreement (li before Parliament.
AS the House was a 'rebel' M.P.. O V.Navaratnam (Kayts respondent in Colom the party had always wished to go to India and those who pr granted Ceylon citize Bill contained provisit pulsorily a stipulatec persons. The Indian provide for compuls( ship on any one unles Provisions of Agreer that they would e 525,000 against their persuaded to enact a honour its part of the nam says that he did the solidarity of his the Bill. He would or for the Bill.
Meanwhile the Fed assurance given by t cides to vote in favo
February 22: Th ment (Implementatio House of Representa favour and 47 against day debate on the E voices Serious doubts tion of the pact withi period in view of
foreign exchange po minimum of Rs.400C on an average of R need Rs.500 millior within the 15-year pl would be unwise t period in the legislati The opposition
Mr. Senanayake shol number of Ceylone would be in proporti Mr. Senanayake refu: troversy but statest the two Governmer entered into by them clouding the issue by
Federal Party Leader is given an assurance r that there would be ation of persons of lnorovisions of the Indoplementation) Bill now
hotly debating the Bill, the Federal Party, tellS THE HINDU Corbo that the attitude of been that those who must be allowed to go ferred to remain be nship. But the present ns to send away.comnumber of Stateless laws he said, did not brily Conferring citizenis he had applied for it. nent were SO Worded insure repatriation of will after India had been )propriate legislation to obligation. Mr. Navaratnot want to jeopardise arty by voting against ly abstain from voting
bral party, following the he Prime Minister, der of the Bil.
Indo-Ceylon Agree) Bill is passed in the ives, with 87 voting in Winding up the threel, the Prime Minister about the implementa
the stipulated 15-year
he country's difficult tion. On the basis of or each repatriate and 5,000, Ceylon would of foreign exchange iod. He argues that it lay down a definite in view of this factor
demands that clarify whether the citizens registered to those repatriated. Sto enter into a cont it was obligatory on to fulfill the number There was no point in troducing Compulsion
March 1 :
when it had not been included in the pact. He also says that Ceylon had still 1,50,000 people whose Status had to be settled at a future date. If it was stipulated in the Bill that 300,000 were to be granted citizenship now, the Bill would have to be amended when the question of the remaining 1,50,000 was taken up. It might be that Ceylon would have to accept Some of them also as Ceylon citi. zens. He was also not in favour of keeping those to whom citizenship was to be granted in suspense for long periods.
February 26: The Times of Ceylon Editor Tori de Souza and the publisher fined Rs.1,000 each by a Bench of three judges of the Supreme Court. Mr.de Souza and a Director S.B.Yatawara appear in Court on a rule issued by the Supreme Court to show cause why they should not be punished for Contempt of court arising out of a publication of a speech made by Mrs. Srimavo Bandaranaike, Leader of the Opposition.
The SLFP led by Mrs. Bandaranaike wins its fifth by-election to Parliament, by retaining the Kolonnawa constituency. The victor, T.B. langaratne was a member of the Mrs. Bandaranaike cabinet.
March 11: The SLFP retains its seat from Devinuwara in the House of Representatives. Ronnie de Mei (later to become Finance Minister under UNP governments) defeats the UNP candidate by 2,436 votes. It takes the party's victories to six of the seven by-elections held since the General Elections. In these 7 by-elections the SLFP retains all its five seats and wrests one from the ruling UNP, the seventh retained by an Independent who usually supports the Government. All except one of these by-elections were caused by election courts setting aside the elections.
March 13: A 4-day Conference of Asian editors and publishers begins in Colombo. Among other things, it decides to set up a Foundation to serve the Asian Press. An organising Committee with the current Chairman of the International Press Institute, C.E.L.Wickremasinghe as President is entrusted with the responsibility of preparing a report on the Foundation project. The Conference discusses the possibility of setting up an Asian news agency, but the proposal was not favoured by the majority. Addressing the Conference, Minister of State J. R. Jayewardene Suggests a regional development plan for South and South-East Asia under which Countries in the region would not compete
Background Briefing April 1987
with each other in certain spheres. He said that if European Countries could have a Common Market, he did not see any season why Asian countries could not have such a plan. Mr.Jayewardane adds that he was not one of those crackpots who believed in suppressing the Press. He was one who believed in the freedom of the Press.
According to the Central Bank, Ceylon's export earnings recorded a sharp decline in 1966 and reached the lowest level since 1958.
March 20: Opening of Steel Mill built with Soviet aid. The first steel-rolling mill in Ceylon is opened at Oruwela by the Minister of industries and Fisheries, Philip Gunawardene, the ceremony being attended by a Soviet Deputy Prime Minister, V.A.Sergev. The mill was built with Soviet aid under Ceylonese-Soviet agreements and contracts concluded on Feb. 25, 1958, (during the period of the late Prime Minister, S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike), July 4, 1961, and August 9, 1962. The State-owned plant sited on a 307-acre land, will be run by a public body, the Steel Corporation; its Chairman, Charles Abeyasekera states at the opening ceremony that about 30,000 tons of rolled products would be produced in 1967 and that full capacity, at 60,000 tons annually, would be achieved in 1968. The mill is expected to help in saving Rs. 10 million of foreign exchange annually.
The idea of launching a steel factory was mooted as far back as 15 years ago by G.G. Ponnambalam when he was Minister of Industries in the D.S.Senanayake Government. But the project was rejected and condemned by the World Bank as something unsuitable for Ceylon. In spite of the fact that Mr. Ponnambalam presented a good Cabinet memorandum completely demolishing the arguments of the World Bank, the project went into cold storage. Later, a team of industrialists and experts visited India and sought the advice of the late Prime Minister Nehru who placed at their disposal almost all the files dealing with the steel projects in India. The scheme found new impetus when the first economic assistance agreement was signed between Ceylon and the Soviet Union.
March 23: Ceylon's first Tyre and tube factory built with economic aid from the Soviet Union inaugurated at Kelaniya. It is expected that the production of this factory would equip almost the entirety of the Country's fleet of approximately 120,000 motor vehicles; in the first phase the factory would produce approximately 250,000 tyres and tubes. It is estimated that via foreign ex
Background Briefing April 1987
change saving to th would be effected phase of product schedule.
April 3: Foreign Ombo diSClose that Senanayake had S. China, Robert Gunav sior to North Vietna failed. The sources officials had told Mr would consider no as the United Stat North Vietnam. În an newsmen upon his r says the North Viet the war for 30 years insistent upon their fi which included with from Vietnam. 'I w Americans came ove to a shelter, but me guns strapped on th mets on their heads nests on top of the h planes". He said that had stored supplies women and extendi underground tunnels
April 17: Malays Tengku Abdul Rehma a 6-day visit. He is ac Puan Sharifah Rodzi which includes Minis kavasagam and his w
April 18: Represe ing aid to Ceylon me and 19. The Confere the World Bank it was nations - Australia, Ca United Kingdom, the Germany - would e Ceylon to helpits chr balance of payments
May 9; Joint Selec Parliament to consic Constitution meets
finalises a question seeks the views of
the present unitary
retained or whether was desirable; whe Republic, and the gu tal rights; whether t main within or outsi Opposition member Committee, but desp ment decides to go
the Committee whic ter Dudley Senanaya
une of RS.19.4 million nually when the first is carried out to
| ffice sources in Colrime Minister Dudley t his Ambassador in Irdene, on a peace mis, but the mission had aid North Vietnamese unawardene that they race proposa is as long s continued to bomb nterview with Colombo turn, Mr. Gunawardene mese would continue if necessary and were ur conditions for peace, drawi of U.S. soldiers
as in Hanoi when the
'', he said, 'I was sent h as well as girls with ir backs and Steel heilimbed into antiaircraft btel to Snipe at the U.S. the North Vietnamese in caches operated by ng for several miles in
sian Prime Minister an arrives in Ceylon on companied by his wife h and an official party ter of Labour V. Manicrife.
htatives of nations givit in Tokyo on April 18 nce was convened by decided that the seven lada, France, Japan the Inited States and West tend $ 50 million to nic deterioration in the position.
Committee set up by r the revision of the or the first time and re. The questionaire he public on whether onstitution should be : Federal Constitution er there should be a nteeing of fundament Republic should rethe Commonwealth. refuse to sit on the this boycott, Governead with the work of lects the Prime Minisas Chairman and his
deputy J. R.Jayewardene as Vice-Chairman.
May 10 Tamil Federal Party leader S.J.V.Chelvanayakam announces to the party's rank and file, at a meeting held in Jaffna, that they would not quit Mr. Dudley Senanayake's National Government "just now".
The party's militant Youth League which had held a protest meeting earlier demanding that the Federal Party parliamentarians should quit the Government are pacified by Mr. Chelvanayakam, who promises to place the full facts regarding establishment of District Councils and their discussions with the Prime Minister before every branch of the Party. The Prime Minister had earlier stated at a news conference in Colombo that the District Councils Bill was not ready even in its draft form and the Councils would not enjoy any measure of autonomy whatever, even though the Federal Party leaders had announced from public platforms that the Bill was ready and a sizable measure of autonomy would be granted to the Councils.
Mr. Chelvanayakam calls on members to be patient because the Government was now passing through a crisis and that it was therefore inadvisable to pressurise it. A certain amount of caution would have to be exercised by the Tamils, who were themselves facing a crisis. It was not in keeping with the national character of the Tamils to desert a party with which it had allied and leave it stranded.
Referring to the Indo-Ceylon Agreement implementation Bill, he says that according to his estimate only 200,000 of the Stateless persons of Indian origin in Ceylon, at the most, would voluntarily leave Ceylon. Others
would opt for Ceylon citizenship or continue
to remain as Stateless persons in the country. The Government had already announced that it could not compulsorily repatriate any Stateless person and his party's demand was that those who were left behind should be given Ceylon citizenship. The Federal Party had been Consistent in that view.
May 11: At a news Conference in Colombo, the Prime Minister explains the ruling UNP's attitude towards the demand for a separate electoral register for citizens of Indian origin. . He thought that the objective for which a separate electoral register had been demanded could be achieved by other means. He said the fear was that the number of new voters getting on to the general register would weaken the position of the indigenous population in electing their representatives to Parliament. Even if they wanted a separate 11
electoral register, they would have to amend the Consititution by a two-thirds majority. Mr. Senanayake says: "Although the Opposition wanted to dispose of the legislation (the Indo-Ceylon Agreement implementation Bill) straightaway by referring to a Committee of the whole House, l insisted that it was too important a matter to be disposed of in that hasty manner, and that it was necessary to refer to a Standing Committee, so that the public could have the opportunity of making representations".
May 18: The Lanka Sama Samaja Party retains the Agalawatte seat in Parliament. The seat is won by Dr. Colvin R. de Silva with a mere 343 majority; the earlier member Anil Moonesinghe having been unseated on an election petition. Dr. Colvin R. de Silva is the founder-President of the LSSP and one of the foremost Marxist theoreticians in the country. At 50, he is also one of Ceylon's best-known criminal lawyers. He made his entry into Parliamentary politics in 1947.
June 5: The Indo-Ceylon Agreement (Ilmplementation) Bill receives its third reading and is passed in the early hours of the morning afterai8-hour marathon session which stretched through the night. Voting was 65-33. An Opposition attempt to defer the third reading by five years is defeated. The Bill, as amended by the Standing Committee, ensures that not more than 300,000 persons of Indian origin are granted citizenship; the original Bill did not contain any specific mention of these 300,000 persons. In the original Bill, there was provision for only one register to be prepared by the Government of Ceylon, namely the IndoCeylon Agreement Citizenship register. But the Bill as amended by the Còmmittee provides for 3 registers, namely: (1) Indo-Ceylon Agreement Citizenship register - to include those persons who have been granted Ceylon citizenship; (2) Indo-Ceylon Agreement Indian citizenship register - to contain names of persons who have been recognised as citizens of India by the Indian High Commission in Ceylon; and (3) Indo-Ceylon Agreement Repatriation register - to have the names of persons who are actually repatriated from Ceylon.
Members of the Opposition Sri Lanka Freedom Party express the view that under international law, India was obliged to enact legislation to enable it to accept repatriation of 525,000 persons from Ceylon as provided in the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964. They demand that till India took steps for the enactment of such a legislation, Ceylon should not proceed with any legislation for the limplementation of the Indo-Ceylon Agreement.
The Trotskyist Lank vin R. de Silva, refer the Bill to tie up grar with grant of Indian of four to seven pe should be betweer citizenship and repa the Agreement, the G 'clearly, conclusively accepted repatriation the granting of citize 'totaly irrelevant tot Government of India only on those who a
Prime Minister Du ing up the debate or ment, admits that th from the terms of the grant of Ceylon citize of Indian citizenship tion of 525,000 persc Ceylon pact. He says sary because he did whom Ceylon was w citizenship waiting f pending repatriatio number to lndia. Ce situation might not change for large nur leave for India in a b sary legislation, he s the creation of multito ensure that Indiar not outnumber ind areas where the lin Senanayake adds th Elections due in 19 20,000 new citizens electoral rolls. Hear far as Ceylon citizen: was concerned bu might not be able 525,000 persons e would be made in th that number volunt there would be an India to reach her r and other forms of
June 9. It is annot has been nominate missioner for Ceylo
June 14: The 19 ween Ceylon and Delhi, enabling Air C air service from CC india through Col Ceylon is at presel per week to Trich and Indian Airlines ombo.
ca Sama Party's Dr. Colring to the provision in it of Ceylon citizenship citizenship at the ratio arsons, says the ratio h granting of Ceylon triation to India. Under overnment of India and and unchallengeably' to India independent of enship. He says it was his country whether the could confer citizenship pplied for it or not".
dley Senanayake windbehalf of the Governhe Bill was a departure e Pact to the extent that 2nship was tied to grant and not to the repatriainsas Stated in the lindothis had become necesnot wish to keep those filling to admit to Ceylon or a period of 15 years n of a proportionate ylon's foreign exchange permit release of exnbers who might opt to ody at one time. Necesays, would be made for -member constituencies is granted citizenship do genous voters in rural dians predominate. Mr. hat at the next General 70, he expected a bare s to enter the country's ticipated no difficulty as ship for 300,000 persons was afraid that India O reach her number of asily. Every endeavour he first instance to reach arily, and if that failed, obligation on the part of number by inducements persuasion.
Inced that Mr. Siri Perera i as the next High Comn in India.
48 Air Agreement betndia is modified in New eylon to operate a direct tombo to Delhi, and Air ombo and beyond. Air ht operating 12 services 1, Madras and Bombay, services a week to Co
June 19: The Senate passes the IndoCeylon Agreement (implementation) Bill after a 3-day debate.
June 22: The swift 6-day War in west Asia in the early part of this month when Israel retook the Sinai and captured the Gaza strip, the Golan Heights-the strategically important highlands between Israel and Syria - and all the Arab territories on the West Bank, including the Old City of Jerusalem, leaves a fail-out in Ceylon too. The Arab newspaper, "Baghdad News" of this day carries a feature article, strongly critica of what it perceives as Ceylon's pro-Israel policy. The article says, inter alia, :-
"(Ceylon) is glaringly ranging sides with "israel" against us, by her government, by some of her deputies and of her press. Ceylon's collaboration with Israel just cannot be passed in silence very much longer. The Ceylonese newspaper "The Observer" in its issue of May 7, 1967, reported that Ceylon's intelligence bureau, the so-called "Ceylon MIS' is training its secret agents in Israel ... The newspaper also reported that an Israeli expert. had recently arrived in Ceylon to help to reorganize the bureau.... Another Ceylonese newspaper, the "Daily News' in its issue of May 15- the anniversary of the creation of "Israel" printed an article full of praise of "Israel" and of scathing attacks on the Arabs'.
The Prime Minister announces in the House that his Government had lodged a protest against this article and the Foreign Office of Iraq had tendered an apology, and at the same time had "expressed its happiness on the part played by Sri Lanka at the UN in Supporting the cause of the Arabs.
Meanwhile, United Front Opposition parties consisting of the SLFP, the LSSP and the Communist Party, hold several public meetings in Support of the Arab Countries, while demanding that the Government should condemn Israel as the aggressor and
sever diplomatic and other relations with that Country.
July: Ceylon Tea industry celebrating its centenary, is reported to be facing its worst crisis ever. Tea is the islands main foreign exchange earner. But, in 1966, exports dropped by 54 million Ibs or 11 per cent below the 1965 leve.
July 19: The Prime Minister says his government is not for severing diplomatic relations with israel. He points out that India named Israel as the aggressor and yet continued to have her Consul General at Tel Aviv.
Background Briefing April 1987
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Further, he says, not a single Asian country LLuu LGLCCK CL LLaaK La LLCLL LLLLL LCKKLL LLaLLL LLaaLaLLLLL LL0aaaaLK LCuC GLLLL LLLuuuLLS Tairing dipatoritati: rela : Iiris with || 5 rapel. A subsequent Corn Tentator Dr. Sri Lanka's Forcign policy - H.S.S., Missarika, "Sri Lanka’s Foreigr. Policy, A Study in Non-Alignmerit“ - Wikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, S000S LLLLuHuLLLLLL LLS LGLLaaaaaLa SLS SKKLaSS LLLLLLLLS Bandaarlake decided te: 55ver diploitiativ: relations with Israel. This ci=g15 On WIS ir ki:Sping with her policy of support. Ing the riCHTaligned Arat states. The leader of the Opposill: n, Jayewarene, was the OC who went to the extant of trying to establisha Sri Lanka Ern:assy at Tel Aviv during the LIKF regine
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August: A crisis in relations with China. A cning sa Note of August 15 to the Ceylor lease External Affairs Ministry alleges that "ruffians' had looted the cargo of a Chinese ship in Color|13 harbour. destroying many copies of Mao Tse-tung's works, and asserts that "suchi at: ts of rotary ariri sa tat
Background Briefing April 1987
ag 5: Wự Cf2 : Erpetrat: är at the first Tuco marit", The chines the Ceylon Gower. In 5u d' il 3 lite il Charge d'Affaires irl Meanwhile, Ceylon' Peking, Yogendra Du Exterrial Affairs Mir SITTF || der ČELTā ir Ceylon's Embassy AICCCircling to thio feĘ throw'Ti a Ti a fgyy sä pound. Some of the tad to fc rice thinair wagi DCurid tuut they wer Soldii03, Red Gard. the Ceylon Ertibass tur e display star id it tinarios".
China, which had against One court m Orth, Including lr both descrit: Eed by
i With třng Corrivace of the Ceylon Governprotest is rejected by 2 r t as "friviliquus är dat! ried la 1 he fires: Ee Col Crimbo corn August 13, i Charge d' Affaires in 'aiswarmy reports to the Stry that thers: Was a by Red Guards outside Peking on Augus 17 }rt, SOrrs Ston L5 "Eare | in 1 FC ErTit:355 y corTdern On Strator5 atteri - into the Embassy CCTprevented to Chinese also put up posts at Entrance arid Cre Hitouncing "Ceylon reac.
teen showing its arger af 1. Ef litt other | Htis
ita, sands two Notes,
li tICal ob05g: T"WEer5 ir"1 Ci"oil-.
ombo as "interTiperate". The Note of August 15 said: "The Chinase ET bassy warns a small handful of anti-Chinese elements in the Ceylon Government that 700 Tillion Chines people are not to be trified with. All plots and intrigues to underming the friendship bet. ween Chinese and Ceylonese people and to Carry Out anti-Chinese provacations will be Severely knocked or the head by the Chinese people and completely smashed", Ceylon's reply to this was as stiff as the Chinese Note but couched in diplomatic language,
On Aug 22. the Chinese Charge d'Affaires harids ovLr another protest rote accusing Ceylon of hawing clandestine relations with For Tosa. While har dirig gyer tite Notg, the Charge d' Affaires grotters into an argument with the Director of Foreign Relations, an Eyant urip reciciented ir the histCry of Foreign relations. The Note protests against the Caylor Girl Guides' Association inviting "Chiang Kai-shek tandit gang in Taiwan" to attend a Conference in Colombo on Aug. 12, It also said that "the band it gang" had also,
been invited to participate in the Asian Boxing Championship in Colombo. The Note said the present Government of Ceylon had all along been 'very bare-faced in following behind United States imperialists to create two Chinas"
The same day, Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake declares in the House of Representatives that no country, whatever its strength, could buily Ceylon.
August 28 Minister of Education, I.M. R.A. iriyagolle tells a meeting of educationists that the study of English would be made compulsory in all schools from next year. This marks a reversal of the former Bandaranaike Government's decision making the study of English optional.
Prof. O.H.de A. Wijeyasekera assumes duties as the first Vice-Chancellor of the new University of Colombo. The University, which will have as its nucleus the Colombo faculties of the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, will be Ceylon's fourth University; the others being the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, the Vidyodaya University and the Vidyalankara University.
August 31 : Governor of the Central Bank of Ceylon, D.W. Rajapathirana is relieved of his duties. The Senior Deputy Governor William Tennekoon succeeds him.
September: Ceylon's first Refinery Project: Work on Ceylon's first refinery is now in progress, at Hapugaskande, a northern suburb of Colombo. The capital investment in it will be Rs. 145 million. Designed to meet Ceylon's entire requirement of refined petroleum, now imported by the State-sponsored Ceylon Petroleum Corporation, it will be capable of processing two million tons of imported crude oil annually. Inaugurating the project, Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake says that already a French team was prospecting for oil in the Island, and there was every possibility of locating oil along the northern coastline. The contract for the setting up of the refinery has been given to SNAB PROGET TI, a subsidiary of the Italian Government's Oil Agency EN. Chairman of the Corporation is K. Alvapillai.
Power Transmission Project: A huge project to construct an electric power transmission system covering the entire island has been undertaken with Japanese collaboration. The project will involve building a network of 500-kW of 132,000 volt transmisSion line throughout the central part of Ceylon. The total extent of the line is estimated at 1400 kilometres.
September 18: Mrs. Indira Gandh a 5-day State visit tion of the Ceylon through a crowde ments, including p Minister Dudley Se lic receptions and a from Colombo, on civic receptions by Municipal Councils, Ceylon Society, and to the Sacred retic Special exposition a She also calls on th prelates — the Mahat watte Chapter and th the Asgiriya Chapte Malwatte offers ber Confident that there the security of the is
A joint communit tember 21, expresse both Governments 1964 Agreement on Indian origin'. As 150,000 persons (afte dian citizenship and 3 ship) it is agreed that taken up after the plemented in great pa
September 30: Ar with West Germany Rs.24 million to Ceylo of the Aid-Ceylon Cor in Tokyo in April this
October 4: Prim Senanayake arrives ir State visit, and ho Malayasian Prime Mir hman. A joint comm tober 8 says, interati, of Malayasia stated th application for Cey ASEAN should Ceylo ganization...".
October 20: The the by-election at Pe
October 21 GOve William Gopallawa a 12-day State visit to and his party are rec Indian President Dr. Z Minister Mrs. Gandhi Madras on Novembe visit.
October 23: A Bil Sions for the promot in the House of Rep.
ian Prime Minister rives in Colombo on Ceylon at the invitaovernment. She goes Schedule of engageical talks with Prime ayake, State and pubsit to Kandy, 80 miles 20th. She was given à Colombo and Kandy 'eception by the IndiaKandy pays obeisance Buddha's tooth at a the Dalada Maligawa. two leading Buddhist yake Thero of the MalMahanayake Thero of The Mahanayake of diction and says he is would be no threat to and from India.
ue released on Seps the determination of O work smoothly the 'Stateless persons of regards the residual r 525,000 are given in00,000 Ceylon citizenthe matter would be | Agreement is im
Agreement is signed roviding for an aid of h; this is in pursuance sortium meeting held ea f.
Minister Dudley Malayasia on a 5-day Is discussions with ter Tengku Abdul Renique issued on Oc'The Prime Minister he would supportan h's membership in ecide to join the Or
position SLFP wins 3dulla.
}r General of Ceylon es in Bombay on a dia. On the 23rd he 2d at New Delhi by Hussain and Prime s. Gopalawa leaves
at the end of their
provide tax concesif Tourism is tabled ntativeS.
October 27: A Food-for-Peace Agreement (under U.S. Public Law 480) is signed between Ceylon and the United States. Under the terms of the Agreement, USA will make available to Ceylon $9.97 million worth of wheat four and corn.
November 1: Ceylon becomes the 65th country to have a Telex service with India.
November 5: A Government motion seeking to appoint a Joint Select Committee of both Houses of Parliament to consider revision of the Constitution is passed in the House of Representatives by 25 votes to 9. Opposition parties refuse to participate in the Committee stating that a revision of the Constitution was totally inadequate and that they must draft a new Constitution as in the case of India and Burma.
November 6: A new trade pact with China is signed in Peking, Under the pact, Ceylon would pay China £11 more per ton of rice to be imported. Unlike in the previous five-year Agreements, Ceylon's rubber commitments had been left open, with the Chinese purchases being dependent on world market prices,
November 22. The Government of Ceylon devalues its rupee by 20 percent, and announces certain measures 'to soften the blow as far as possible within the means available to it". With the devaluation of the rupee, the new exchange rate between the Ceylonese and ndian rupees will be : Rs.100 (Indian) equal to Rs.79.73 (Ceylon). By this step, Ceylon gives a rude shock to Indian Tea interests, it had already been competing with India in the world tea markets and had surpassed india's exports of 175 million kilograms in 1966-67. It can now throw India's tea trade very much out of gear in Coming months.
November 24. The Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr. Kurt Georg Kiesinger arrives in Colombo on a 3-day official visit. He is the first Head of West Germany to visit Ceylon.
December 3: The Cabinet and the ruling Parliamentary group approves a Bill to make Sinhalese and Tamil the only media of instruction in all schools. English would cease to be a medium of instruction. According to the Bill, Sinhalese would be the medium of instruction for all Sinhalese children and Tamil would be the medium for all Tamil students. An earlier Government proposal was to allow the parents to choose the medium of instruction in order to induce Tamil-speakiang parents to opt for Sinhala for the children. But on protests from the Tamil Federal Party and the Tamil Con
Background Briefing April 1987
gress that the medium of instruction should be the mother-tongue of the child, the proposal was dropped. Muslim parents have been given the right to choose between Sinhalese and Tamil even though their mother tongue is Tamil. Hitherto Muslim children were allowed to opt for English. Malays and Burghers (of Dutch origin) whose mother tongue is English will now have to opt between Sinhalese and Tamil, but Sinhalese being the official language, most Burghers are likely to opt for that language, English will however continue to be taught as the second language in schools. There had been large-scale emigration of Burghers to Australia following the Bandaranaike government's decision to make Sinhala as the official language in 1956.
More than 100,00 homeless and maroo
eastern provinces ( winds, rains and floc the month. Strongga on December 6 caus port. Batticaloa, in t completely cut off fro Train services both tc disrupted.
December 11. Tw versities are closed by the government fo At the newly establis ombo, 7,000 studen Since October 19,
name. At Vidyalankar
January: A Common electoral programme is announced by three opposition parties-the Sri Lanka Freedom Party, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party and the Communist Party, on the basis of which they will contest the 1970 elections. The Common Programme does not include nationalisation of the Press, the main issue which brought about the defeat of the coalition government headed by Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranalike in December 1964. It also rules out nationalisation of Commercial banks and private sector industries, On the language question-while the common programme promises that steps would be taken to complete the implementation of the Official Language Act (Sinhala Only Act), it says that the Tamil Language (Special Provisions) Act will be implemented "in a manner acceptable to all communities',
January 3: It is announced in Colombo today that the Government had lifted the 1year old ban on import of Chinese propaganda literature. It is believed that this change in policy was part of a package deal with China which was negotiated by Minister of Trade and Commerce Dr. M.V.P.Peiris when he flew to Peking recently to sign the Sino-Ceylon Rice-Rubber Pact. The Chinese Minister of Trade had refused to sign the Trade Pact unless the Ceylon Government took necessary steps to meet the main points raised in a series of protest Notes which began over other Mao badges ban last year. An assurance that the Chinese Embassy would be accorded the same facilities as other Embassies in the clearance of diplomatic literature was given by Dr. Peiris after contacting Colombo, and the pact was signed.
Background Briefing April 1987
January 5: The rul Nattandiya seat in the tives by a much redu( by-election held afte rupee in Novemberlas didate Hugh Fernand majority of 260 vote S.L.F.P. rival.
January 9: A Bill fo a Printing and Publica bled in the House by Jayewardene.
January 12: Repor Major talking point i
Following Press re tempt to overthrow ti Minister Dudley Sena of Representatives th
proceeding to find ot true or false. He say
given to the potice on of the Opposition daranaike and anothe Felix Dias Bandarana met the Prime Minis but at the Prime Mini Bandaranaike had sai he heard from "relia Sons concerned in th Mrs. Bandararhaike w; organising another cc members of the Arm objective of the plan his informant, was to National Party gover Parliament, capable
ment. The coup lead ley Senanayake as t
persons are rendered ed in the northern and
Ceylon by cyclonic ls in the first week of is also swept Colombo ng closure of Colombo e eastern province is n the rest of the island. the east and north are
o of Ceylon's four Unior an indefinite period lowing student unrest. hed University of ColS had been on strike )rotesting against its
University, situated at
Kelaniya just outside Colombo, 2,000 students had been on strike alleging maladministration and inadequacy of teaching façilities.
December 19: A strike planned by 70,000 plantation workers beginning today is abandoned following a last-minute intervention by Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake. At an emergency meeting summoned by Mr. Senanayake, and attended by Labour Minister M.H. Mohamed and S. Thondaman, President of the Ceylon Workers' Congress which had called the strike, it was decided that necessary executive orders should be issued to double the devaluation special allowance payable to plantation workers. Congress cir
cles interpret it as a resounding success for their cause.
ng U.N.P. retains the House of Representa:ed majority in the first r devaluation of the st year. The U.N.P. can
) Scrapes through by a '
S over his immediate
r the establishment of tion Corporation is talMinister of State J. R.
ts of a Coup attempt: n the country
ports of an alleged athe Government, Prime nayake tells the House at investigations were t whether these were S the information was "anuary 9 by the Leader
Mrs. Sirimavo Banmember of her party, Ke. The latter had also er in this Connection, ter's own request. Mr. that according to what le sources", the pere Coup in 1962 when S Prime Minister were ip with the help of the di Forces. The ultimate ed coup, according to lace in power a United ment, independent of ruling without Parlia'S considered Mr. Dude most unsatisfactory
Prime Minister from their point of view. The plan included the arrest of Opposition leaders as well.
The alleged plot remains the talking point for several days in Colombo and the rest of the Island. Some newspaper reports went to the extent of saying that the names of a Minister of State. high-ranking officials, a retired inspector General of Police and some of those acquitted in the previous Coup case, were being mentioned. Those interrogated include Members of Parliament and some women VPs.
January 17:The foundation stone of Ceylon's biggest textile plant is laid at Tulhiriya, near Kegalle, by the Prime Minister. East Germany had undertaken to finance the foreign exchange cost óf the project. The
factory, estimated to cost Rs.170 million will
manufacture sufficient yarn to turn out 75 million yards of cloth per year. Annual foreign exchange savings are estimated to be Rs.25 million. The plant will begin production in April 1969 and will be ready for full production in October 1970. Minister of Industries, Philip Gunawardene says that according to present plans, Ceylon would be producing 90 per cent of her requirements of textiles by 1975.
January 19:A Publicity Centre for all State industrial corporations is opened in Colombo. Mr. Philip Gunawardene refers to the progress which State industries had achieved, both in the variety of product and in the total volume of output. State industrial corporations are active in the following fields: Cement, Ceramics, Leather, Plywood,Oils and Fats, Papers, Caustic Soda, Textiles, Mineral Sands, Salt, Steel and Motor Tyres and Tubes.
Fabruary : Ceylon's rubber production soared to 316 million lbs, an all-time high, in 1967. according to a Government announcement. The country however had not benefited fully from the increase in crop due to the continued fall in the price of natural rubber in world markets.
Fabruary 4: At a ceremony on independence Day today, a key irrigation scheme is launched with the release of water to fill the reservoir for the Uda Walawe Multi-purpose project. Minister of Land, irrigation and Power, C. P.de Silve lowers the sluice gate and diverts the waters from the Walawe Ganga (river) to fill the new reservoir. This project will provide irrigation facilities for 60,000 acres, which will be brought under paddy, sugarcane and cotton, On completion of the project, the thinly-populated regions in the Sabaragamuwa and Southern Provinces which are now jungle-infested will be converted into fertile agricultural lands, while a hydo-electric scheme which is a part of the project, will bring power to a network of towns and villages.
February 12: The 2-day annual session of the Ceylon Workers Congress begins in Nuwara Eliya. In his presidential address. S.Thondaman M.P., calls for "complete equality' between citizens by descent and citizens by registration. He says that "it is not only possible but absolutely essential that citizens by registration enjoy complete equality in every sphere of life. Punishments for wrong-doing of whatever nature must be no different for citizens by registration and citizens by descent." In its concluding session on Feb. 13, the Congress expresses concern over the difficulties and hardships experienced by plantation workers who desire to leave for India (under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement) in matters pertaining to the withdraw of their provident fund benefits, travel and exchange control facilities. It also urges that applications of plantation workers for exchange permits to transfer their savings and belongings on their repatriation to India should be dealt with 'expeditiously and humanely”.
Februrary 18: The Federal Party fails to win the predominantly-Muslim electorate of Kalmunaiinaby-election held today. The successful candidate M.C.Ahmed (SLFP) polls 1,254 votes more than his F.P. rival Mashoor Moulana. it the last General Elections, Independent candidate Gate Mudaliyar M.S. Kariappar won the seat by a majority of 491 votes over the same F.P. nominee Mashoor Moulana.
March: Ceylon r world's leading ex cording to a Gov The Island had outs dhe last dhree years March4 the Joi plementation of the meets in Colombo made. It discusses for full-scale imple
ment of 1964,
March 3. Merr M.Sivasithamparam Deputy Speaker oft tives. He Succeeds cently resigned his
March 15: Sir E elected Mayor ( E.L.Senanayake wł Health.
April A Wor ited Ceylon recently sent pace of agricu maintained, Ceylon ciency in Rice and n ciency in subsidiary report of the Missic ment before a meet Group in Paris last n
- the National Cout (NCHE) recommend made compulsory at 1972. Chairman of th era, while being nationalists", says it altogether a world (Sinhalese replaced guage in 1956. C facilities in Schools those who could af able to learn this lang that when the Gene tion examination wa to Select Students 175 out of 31,000 glish). April 5: A state tory is opened at Minister Dudley Sei entire requirements hitherto been impor tion, the Condensary ion 14-oz. cans of C which represents tion of condensed r condensary was ul and technical assist land Government (Rs. 1.35 milion).
lined its position as the rter of Tea in 1967, acnnent annOUshCement. ipped India in export for
Committee for the imhdo-Ceylon Agreement d reviews the progress rther steps to be taken entation of the Agree
er for Udupiddy, is unanimously elected e House of RepresentaSir Razik Fareed who reӨat.
annet Soysa (UNP) is Kandy succeeding
O is now Minister of
Bank Mission that vis
reports that if the pretural development was
could attain self-suffear if not total self-sufficrops in 10 years. The yn was the main docuing of the Aid-to-Ceylon nonth.
hcil of Higher Education s that English should be the four Universities by e NCHE, G.P.MalalasekCritical of 'Pseudo is foolhardy to discard language like English. nglish as the official lanOnsequently, with no to study English, only )rd private tuition were Jage. It led to a situation al Certificate of Educaheld in December 1966 the Universities, only andidates offered En
un Condensed Mikfacolonnaruwa by Prime Inayake. The country's f condensed milk had d. When in full producfillmanufacture 25milldensed milk per year, e island's consumpk. Construction of the ertaken with financial ce from the New Zeaounting to f100,000
April 24: Deadline fixed for Citizenship applications. By a notification made today, the Government fixes a period of 2 years within which those desiring to choose Cerdor? citizenship under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964 would have to make their applications. The period is between May 1, 1968 and April 30, 1970 (Under the Agreement, Ceylon had agreed to grant citizenship to 300,000 persons of Indian origin, while India agreed to accept repatriation of 525,000 over a period of 15 years).
The federal Party expels the M.P. for Kayts. V. Navaratnam, for opposing the party's stand on the Registration of Persons Bill introduced in the House of Representatives. The F.P., a constituent of the UNP-led government had decided to support the Bill, subject to certain amendments. Mr. Navaratnam who was a
pioneer member of the party and one of its
acknowledged theoreticians had in recent times adopted a tougher line, particularly in opposing any attempt to repatriate Tamils of Indian origin in the plantations against their CՕրSeրt.
May Aid Consortium's third loan : The Aid Consortium, comprising USA, Britain, Canada, West Germany, France, Australia and Japan offers the third loan of its kind to Ceylon, following review of the 's- land's economy by the World Bank, which said: "...Despite a difficuit political situation, the Government had established a creditable record of action on several important economic fronts'. The report said that the crisis atmosphere was over and economic recovery was under way. "The worst is now over. A sound foundation has been laid for future economic development'.
The Soviet Union is to assist Ceylon in the
construction of the second and third stages
of the metallurgical works established with Soviet assistance, and in the development of the Ceylon institute of Scientific and ndustrial Research. A Protocol to the SovietCeylon Economic and Technical Co-operation Agreement of 1955 is signed in Colombo.
A National Science Council is established, headed by Sir Nicholas Attygalle, formerly Vice-Chancellor of Ceylon University. Consisting of 21 members, the Council will advice the Ministry of Scientific Research, and also promote fundamental and applied research to develop the economic resources of the country.
May 5: Sweeping Exchange Control reforms : introduction of FEECS scheme Sweeping changes in the import structure
Background Briefing April 1987
and exchange regulations are announced by the Prime Minister at a news Conference in Colombo today. The new scheme, called the Foreign Exchange Entitlement Scheme, comes into operation from tomorrow, May 6. Explaining the scheme, Mr.Senanayake says that the entire imports into Ceylon would be divided into two categories:- Those which would be permitted to be brought in freely, and the other only with Foreign Exchange Entitlement Certificates (FEECS). All non-traditional exports are entitled for foreign exchange entitlement vouchers to the face value of exports. The entitlement will also cover incorne from investments abroad. remittances from abroad, inheritance, gifts and foreign exchange earnings from professional services brought into the country Tourists who Cash their drafts in banks would be entitled, in addition to the official rate of exchange, certificates also. Mr.Senanayake says the scheme would provide incentives to increased exports and tourism, induce Ceylonese to bring in their earnings from abroad, and reduce the scope of blackmarketing in foreign currency, With the coming into effect of the new financial policy, the cost of air travel however will go up. For example, an air return ticket from Colombo to Madras which went up from Rs.220 to Rs.285 after the recent devaluation of the Ceylon rupee, will now cost Rs.384/75 including the cost of the foreign exchange entitlement certifiCate.
May 6: The House of Representatives adopts the Registration of Persons Bill with virtual unanimity. The Bill provides for the registration of all persons above the age of 18 in the Island and for the issue of laentity cards with photographs to all those so registered. All sections of the House, including the SLFP, support the Bill, with only two dissentients-S.D.Bandaranayake and the expelled Federal Party M.P., V. Navaratnam. Mr. Navaratnam who had crossed over to the Opposition benches after his expulsion has said he would function from the Opposition side as "an independent Federal Party member'. Earlier, both Prime Minister and Opposition Mrs. Bandaranaike described the problem of illicit immigration into Ceylon as a very serious one. Mrs. Bandaranaike said she believed that the problem would be solved to a large extent through the working of this legislation
May 20 Canada will provide a loan of $750,000 for Ceylon's electrification programme. The loan will be used to complete Stages and I of the 3-stage Maskeliya Oya Hydro-electric project. The agreement is
Background Briefing April 1987
of the (c) Mayors of Muni
signed in Colombo tod to which also Canad come into operation in
Ceylon's leading E the Buddhist Congres tee to inquire into " other influences opera public sectors in the C detrimental to r economic stability and people" and to recC eliminate such influer
June 5: A Whit als for the establ. Councils under control of the Cen tabled in the hot tivos.
According to a dra White Paper, the Go District would be the and all employees ot be public servants u Government Agent. would not be local a exténsions of the Cer over Some functions kachcheris. The COu in each Administrativ of ex-offico Counci elected Members ( electoral district wh ministrative districtS; House C
of local bodies withi trict. There would a nominated Councilc function under the
country. The records out the Island woul language (Sinhala). ern provinces, recorc also. Corresponder Government would bo
June 8: Walk-o ing of copies of the
Councils. Beginnin campaign against
The entire opposit resentatives, with memberS, walk Ou! and tearing copies o the Chamber as Senanayake rose t( the White Paper tab 5th. As they were Chamber, some m
ay. Stage of thë project a provided credit will the first half of 1969.
Buddhist organisation, s, appoints a commit'foreign, religious and ating in the private and ountry at large that are national sovereignty | cultural integrity of the mmend measures to
o Paper on proposlishment of District the direction and tral Government is se of Representa
aft bill attached to the
vernment Agent of the Chief Executive officer F these Councils would nder the control of the The District Councils uthorities but would be ntral Government taking now performed by the ncils, to be constituted e District, would consist Ilors consisting of (a) of parliament for each ich lay within such ad(b) appointed members f Representatives cipalities and Chairmen n the administrative dislso be not more than 3 irs. The Councils would language laws of the of the Councils throughi be kept in the Official the Northern and Eastls would be kept in Tamil Ce with the Central e in the Official language. ut in Parliament. BurnWhite Paper on District g of Sinhala-Buddhist District Councils.
ion in the House of Repthe exception of three of the House burning f the White Paper within Prime Minister Dudely ) initiate the debate on led in the House on the
marching out of the embers tear the docu
ment and throw the pieces in the air, while a leading member of the SLFP, T.B.Tennekoon burns his copy. Deputy Speaker M.Sivasithamparam who was in the chair repeatedly warns him that action would be taken if he burns anything. Despite the warnings, the member sets fire to copies of the White Paper as he walks out, and the Deputy Speaker orders the sergeant-at-arms to extinguish the fire immediately. The members who had earlier walked out, led by the Leader of the Opposition Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, gather outside the precincts of the Parliament building and make a bonfire of copies before they disperse.
June 11 : Debate on the White Paper. Opposition coalitionists led by Mrs. Bandaranaike continue to boycott the debate, but 3 Vice-President of the SLFP. R.G.Senanayake defies the party's decision to keep away and launches an attack on the White Paper. He says he saw in District Councils the distinct possibility of the division of the island into two or three parts. The expelled Federal Party member, Mr.V. Navaratnam on the other hand says that the proposal now before the House was a very wide deviation from the agreement that the Party had entered
into with the Prime Minister. Not only did it
not do any justice to the Tamil people, but it contained "obnoxious and pernicious Sections" detrimental to the Tamils. The most vehement
attack on the District Councils proposals come from a Tamil member on the Government side, G.G. Ponnambalarm, the leader of the Tamil Congress. He calls the proposal a "hideous hybrid monstrosity' and says that the establishment of District Councils would lead to the eventual segregation of the Sinhalese and the Tamiis, while FP Members accuse Mr. Ponnambalam of betraying the Tamil People.
June 13: Winding up the debate, Prime Minister Dudely Senanayake lashes out at the Opposition for 'carrying on a false propaganda and spreading communal hatred'. He quotes from the speeches of Opposition leaders and points out how they had earlier favoured the establishment of District Counciis and even incorporated the idea in the numerous Throne Speeches. They could not now face the House and "ran away from the debate". He says most people spoke very glibly of communalamity; the communal harmony which his cousin, R.G.Senanayake was talking about was "the biggest sham perpetrated on the people of the country'. 'The unity some people want is the subjugation of the rest, subjugation of another's culture,
V. Navaratnam, the radical rebel Federal Party M.P. who
was sacked from the party, and was a forerunner of the nnovement for Self-Rule for Tamils.
language and aspirations, to their dominant force'. 'This reminds me of the boasts of peace by the British who always claimed that they brought peace to India and Ceylon. May the country be saved from those who speak of national unity, and then do their utmost to prevent it from being achieved"
Commenting on the bitter attack against each other of the Tamil Congress and the Federal Party, Mr.Senanayake says:"The tragedy of the Tamil race is the existence of a set of self-seeking sycophants making the sweet speech of saviours. If the Tamils are ever to regain their birthright in Ceylon, they should send away the present saviours of the Tamil Congress and the Federal Party".
The Prime Minister does not indicate when he proposes to introduce the legislation in Parliament, which is prorogued after June 18.
Despite efforts made by Mr. Dudley Senanayake to dispel what he called the false propaganda against the proposed District Councils bill, the campaign both in the Press and on platforms against the Bill increases in tempo. A section of the Press reports under banner headlines that an influential section of the Government parliamentary group would shortly issue an ultimatum to the Prime Minister either to give up the con
troversial Dustrict (
volt within its ranks
party in a circular to
the proposed Bill a
'secret pact' betw and the Tamil leade rallies are organise to the Bill. It is alle device to divide the
ot the Sinhala pe Mahanayakes of th Chapters, as well a Ceylon Buddhist CC Minister to make kr the proposed Distric bodies in the Sinhala political, social, relig sations pass resolut Government give up mounting, orchestra it becomes doubtful whether the DC Bill liamentary agenda.
June 20: Ceylon ion as aid from the F many this year, unde in Colombo today.
Another Agreen Washington betwee national Developme the provision of a c finance a lift irrigation pose of the project is tion of subsidiary foot and onions, in certai and youth settlemer
(Editoria Note: CI been traditionally cul antly Tamil Jaffna surpolus, that the bui ported to other distr
it is also announ velopment Bank has lent to $ 2 million Ceylon for financing Tea factories.
June 30 France credit facilities for bu and light equipment ing to 40 million Fre ing to the credit are today between the
Dr. Gamani Corea,
Ministry of Planning
July 1: Ceylon : lear Non-Proliferatic capitals the same da Ambassador Dr.M.V
uncils Bill or face a reshe Sri Lanka Freedom S Supporters describes the consequence of a en the Prime Minister Chelvanayakam. Mass to whip up opposition ed that the Bill was "a ountry to the detriment ple". The Buddhist Malwatte and Asgiriya a deputation of the All gress meet the Prime own their opposition to Councils. Various local areas as wel as Sinhala pus and cultural organions demanding that the the proposal. With the ed campaign against it, with every passing day would get into the Par
will receive Rs.30 millederal Republic of Gerir an Agreement signed
ment is signed in n Ceylon and the interht ASsociation (IDA) for redit of $ 2 milion to
project. The stated purto increase the produci crops, primarily chillies Colonization Schemes t schemes.
'illies and Onions have ivated in the predomindistrict, and in such of the produce is extS)
ed that the Asian Deapproved a loan equivaO the Centra Bank of
the modernisation of
offers Ceylon special ing intermediate goods f French origin amounth francs. Letters relatxchanged in Colombo ench ambassador and ermanent Secretary,
ins the Treaty on Nuc
It is signed at three in Moscow by Ceylon . Peiris, in London by
High Commissioner Sir Lalita Rajapakse, and in Washington by Ambassador Oliver Weerasinghe.
July 7: No firm commitment is made on the Controversial District Councils Bill in the Speech from the Throne-the policy statement of the Government for the Current session of Parliament-delivered by Governor General William Gopallawa to the joint session of Parliament today. A watered-down Reference that fullest consideration would be given to the views expressed on the White Paper, is widely interpreted in the country to mean that the Government had already bowed to pressure.
The Federal Party meanwhile gives its Executive Committee time till September 6 to come to some settlement with the Government before the rank and file of the party decide what their position in relation to the Government should be, in the tight of these developments. While the younger elements in the party urge a withdraw from the Government, it is also thought not prudent to go into the unwilling arms of the Opposition or help defeat the Dudley Senanayake-led Goverment.
July 7-11: A group of Soviet naval ships call at Colombo harbour in the course of a Cruise of the Indian Ocean.
July 20: The State Timber Corporation is inaugurated in Colombo by the Minister of Land, irrigation and Power, C. P.de Silva.
July 25: West Germany gifts capital equipment for expanding the transmissions of the Ceylon Broadcasting Corporation. Under an Agreement signed today, an outright grant of two powerful medium wave transmitters, each generating 50-kW power, and another medium wave transmitter generating 10-kW power, will be made.The total value of the gift is about Rs.5 million. When the transmitters come into operation with German assistance, the effective listening area on medium wave transmitters will be stepped up by over 200 percent, and the number of listeners by almost 300 percent.
Under another Agreement signed today, the Italian Government will provide a loan equivalent to $ 4 million to assist Ceylon's economic development programme. It wil be utilised for the import of Italian goods and services.
Winding up the debate on the Speech from the Throne, Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake declares that the District Councils proposals would be abandoned
Background Briefing April 1987
if a majority of the people did not want them. He adds that he had tried to bring together the different communities and that he would continue his efforts.
August:The Government has decided to start work next year on the Mahaweli Ganga Basin Development Project, according to an Official announcement. It will be the biggest multi-purpose scheme to be undertaken in Ceylon. The project is designed to irrigate 600,000 acres of new land and benefit a further 300,000 acres now under cultivation. It will also have 400 mw of installed hydro-power capacity.
A Bill enabling the Minister of Finance to lift the restrictions placed in 1961 on foreign banks from opening new accounts for Ceylonese customers is passed.
August 3: Finance Minister U.B.Wanninayake presenting his Budget estimates in Parliament announces that work will begin on a Rs.24 million new harbour at the northern port of Kankesanturai. This was the first time since indepence where provision was made for a major development work in the Tamil-majority Jaffna district.
August 5: The International Airport at Katunayake is ceremonially opened by Prime Minister. Brought up to international standards at a cost of Rs.66million, it has a runway 11,050 feet in length and a fully air-conditioned terminal building designed to handle 300 peak hour passengers. The Canadian Government had contributed more than 50 percent of the cost of the project.
September 14: The Federal Party decides to quit the Government. At a meeting of the General Council held in Jaffna today, it is decided that its lone representative in the Cabinet, M.Tiruchelvam should resign.
The party had been one of the constituents of the 32-month old Cabinet since it came to power. The party will henceforth function as an independent group in Parliament Supporting the Government on all issues not adverse to the interests of the Tamils. The FP withdraw still left Premier Senanayake's government with a strength of 84.
Already disillusioned by the Government's surrender on the District Councils proposals, a more immediate provocation for the Federal Party's decision was the suspension by Mr. Dudely Senanayake of a commission appointed by Mr.Tiruchelvam to go into the question of declaring the Fort Frederick area of Trincomalee, a sacred site. Fort Frederick,
Background Briefing April 1987
built by the Portugues pre-historic Hindu shr now houses the re-cre
September 16: lin the Senate today, M. to a letter sent by th the Buddhist priest forming him of the su mittee appointed to of the sacred site
Mr.Tiruchelvam says letter is a public anno dus of Ceylon that u Buddhist priest, how or ill-intentioned the
ous wish of all the Hi and Tamil local bodi the country, for the area-rot the whole O Sacred area should b is the atmosphere in ficult to continue to
September 14 N liamentary Secretary i mation and Broadcas appointed Minister fo place of Mr.M.Tiruch Another new Minister the Upper House whi information and Broa
Eighty (80) person: been granted Ceylor lndo-Ceylon Agreemé nouncement by the sion in Delhi. They 300,000 to be admitt under the 1964 Agre
Japan extends its ion to Ceylon as its c cial assistance being the recommendation sortium. Finance Mi states that the pace foreign aid flowed w
September 23: proves a Treasury the Service of Over servants, who hac years ago but not t proficiency in th Sinhala.
Proficiency in Sinha One of the terms
when they were to the Federal Party ha to the Prime Minis stayed. The future C
on the ruins of the ne of Koneswaram, ated temple.
a statement made in Tiruchelvam refers e Prime Minister to of trincomalee inpension of the comlemarcate the areas
in Fort Frederick. :"The effect of this uncement to the Hinbon the request of a ver well-intentioned
request, the unanim
indu religious bodies is in various parts of
declaration of this . .
f Fort Frederick-as a e set at nought. That
Which found if difbe a member of this
lr.R. Premadasa, Parn the Ministry of inforting is promoted and r Local Government in helvam who resigned. is A.Amaratunga from o becomes Minister of dcasting.
s of Indian origin have
citizenship under the ent, according to an anCeylon High Commisorm the first batch of 2d to Ceylon citizenship erment.
Ourth Credit of S 5 millbontribution to the finanprovided as a result of softhe Aid-Ceylon Conister U.B.Wanninayake at which the pledged as very satisfactory.
he Prime Minister apmove to discontinue 1,000 new Tamil public been recruited three ken any steps to gain e Official language
within three years was f employment. Earlier, be discharged in June, d made representations er and the move was 3,000 or more old Tamil
entrants into the public service who had entered Government Service before 1965 also still hang in the balance.
September 27: Unity move among Tamils. Prominent non-political Tamils meet in Colombo and appoint a committee to bring about a rapprochement between the Federal Party and the Tamil Congress so that Tamils could speak with one voice and obtain their legitimate rights and fight against discrimination on grounds of race and religion.
The leaders who met in Colombo included professors, lawyers, religious heads and administrators. Later in the day, Tamil Congress leader G.G. Ponnambalam calls for unity among Tamils and a United Tamil Front in view of the hardships the community was facing at the hands of the majority Sinhala parties. He was prepared to join hands with the Federal Party on condition they drop the demand for Federalism, even temporarily. He expresses the view that as long as the party retained the demand for Federalism, the Sinhala communalistS would deliberately misinterpret it to mean separatism and consequent division of the country. The fears of Sinhala masses could therefore, never be dispelled. The failure of the FP to obtain District Councils was the direct result of the Federal cry which made the Sinhala community suspect this as being the first step to federalism.
October 9: Pakistan Minister's flight over Kachchativu: Ceylon rejects India's request.
According to reports published in Colombo newspapers today, the Ceylon Government has rejected India's request that Ceylon should inform it of all its flights over the disputed islet of Kachchativu in the Palk Straits. The reported request was a sequel to the flight of the Pakistani Law Minister Mohammed Zaffer over the islet while on his recent visit to Colombo and a subsequent statement at a news Conference in Colombo that Kachchativu was 'essentially an integral part of Ceylon legally and constitutionally'. In reply to the Indian request, the Defence and External Affairs Ministry maintained that there was no need for Ceylon to inform any one else when flying over national territory.
Reports quoted diplomatic circles as saying that Mr.Zaffar's flight over Kachchativu and his unilateral statements on the islet were obviously part of a pre-conceived plan. The English-language daily, the SUN said that preliminary inquiries made by the Foreign Ministry had revealed that Mr.Zaffar had
taken advantage of his visit for a religious celebration for a "political purpose'. Mr.Zaffar, with other members of his entourage and a Pakistani Embassy official, was taken on an air flight first over Adam's Peak and then to Jaffna, the northern capital. On the way, a member of the party expressed a wish to fly over the islands of Ceylon's northern coast. The Embassy official had then asked the Ceylonese pilot to show Kachchativu to Mr.Zaffar. At the news conference, Mr.Zaffar said that the pilot of the plane 'showed me the island with great pride and patriotism'
October 10: The Federal Party, which had withdrawn from the Government votes with the Government neverthless, on a noconfidence motion brought by the Opposition. Voting was 82 to 49.
Ceylon shows concern over India's proposed Sethusamudram project. Kankesanturai port to be developed in order to enable Ceylon to stay in the direct sea route.
According to Colombo reports, the Ceylon Government will go ahead with plans to develop Kankesanthurai harbour at the northern extremity of Ceylon in the fight of the Indian government's decision to go ahead with the Sethusamudram project. A World Bank expert, J.W. Lowden had visited Kankesanturai (KKS) port and carried out preliminary, investigations on the feasibility of the project. He is reported to have advised the Ceylon Government not to delay the project.
(The object of the Indian proposal is to allow
big vessels to navigate safety and avoid a circuitous route around Ceylon. It envisages
the provision of a cai island to considerab tance between the India, thus cutting C of the direct sea rou could expect to stay is by developing t which is now in a very
Development of t tion to imports and need of coastal shipp from the cement fac the Southern Coast, a ernment''S decision ti of this port. Mr. Lowd with officials of the ( reed on the merits bouk from KKS to C proposal to transport materials necessary 1 ment-from Mutur on 1
Editorial Note: As with the Indian Gove over the SethuSamUC Government in turns the idea of developi
The Prime Ministe of Six Permanent Se utilization and futuri facilities and resourc comalee area. The CC recommendations re. within Fort Frederick serving structureS O archaelogical interes ity of declaring such a
January 7: Rubber - Rice barter trade with China to continue. A trade protocol is signed in Colombo for the supply of 200,000 tonnes of Chinese rice in exchange for 62,000 tonnes of Ceylonese rubber.
January 17: The state of Emergency proclaimed over 2 years ago, ends today, as the Governor General does not extend it. The emergency had been extended in the past on a monthly basis through Gazette notifications.
January 23-26: The joint Committee on Economic Co-operation between India and Ceylon holds its first meeting in Colombo. The Indian team to the talks is led by Dinesh Singh, Minister of Commerce and the Ceylon team by J. R. Jayewardene, Minister of State.
February 3: Gover on its policy on liqu forth banned at all
Government of Cey abroad. Other mea: at the Senate to
licenses to hotels, beissued except for
February 4: The 2 pendence is celel pageantry, parades Prime Minister Du broadcast claims th a stage when the C "pull itself through throes of an econc ahead'
lacross Rameswaram f shorten the Sea disst and west Coasts of lombo completely out !. The only way Ceylon on the direct sea route e Kankesanturai port oad state of neglect.
e KKS harbour in rela!xports and the urgent ng to transport clinker ory at KKS to Galle, on lso influenced the Govconsider development en who had discussions cement Corporation agof shipping cement in lombo as well as the clay-one of the vital raw or the production of cehe east Coast to KKS.
it eventually turned out, nment dragging its feet 'ram project, the Ceylon topped proceeding with ng the KKSport)
r appoints a committee Cretaries to inquire into e development of the es available in the Trinmmittee will also make arding the demarcation for the purpose of prereligious, historical or , including the desirabiln area a 'sacred area'.
November 27. Senanayake arrives in India on a 2-day goodwill visit. The issue of Kachchativu figures prominently among a host of bilateral and international subjects discussed between Mr.Senanayake and Indian Premier Mrs. Indira Gandhi, on Nov. 28 and 29.
Prime Minister Dudley
On the question of Kachchativu , the discussion centred on the possibility of evolving a flexible formula for settling the whole range of territorial, navigational and fishing rights in the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar. if Ceylon decided to extend the limit of its territorial waters from the present 6 miles to 12 miles, as india had already done, it would be necessary to draw a new medial line to determine the maritime jurisdiction of the two countries as their territorial seas. It would then be easier to resolve the Kachchativu issue by determining its location either on the Indian or the Ceylonese side of the medial line. This would also avoid an examination of the historical rights and claims of the two sides to the islet.
A Joint communidue issued at the end of the talks express the common resolve' on the part of the two countries to approach the problem of Kachchativu island in a spirit of friendly co-operation and in the broader perspective of territorial waters jurisdiction Before leaving for home from Bombay on December 4, Mr.Senanayake holds a news conference. He expresses confidence that 'in the near future, the two countries will satisfactorily solve not only the Kachchativu issue but certain other problems also in the Palk Straits"
mentadopts a hardline r, Liquor will be hencefficial functions of the in, whether at home or ures include: The bars e closed; new liquor Staurants, etc. Will not rtherance of Tourism.
st anniversary of Indeated . with traditional and Cultural shows. ley Senanayake in a
the occasion marked intry had been able to own efforts from the lic crisis and to forge
February 18: Two loan Agreements totalling Canadian $ 2,000,000 between Canada and Ceylon are signed in Colombo.
February 19: The third major Economic Agreement between the United States and Ceylon in the past 18 months is signed in Colombo. It provides for the supply of approximately 150,000 metric tons of wheat flour at an estimated cost of $17,500,000.
February 21: Ceylon and UAR sign Letters in Colombo relating to the exchange of Commodities between the two countries in 1969. Trade between the two countries is expected to expand to the level of E8,000,000 this year.
Background Briefing April 1987
Irlæ "Tü ፡ነ' LLeMk HHH HH LCLC LL LLH SkkLLaE LLLLL SLLLHLLLLLLLS MM Hurri Eury ri LLL LtaLL Mkk GG Ea LLLLtLHHLHLHHLHLHG aSllGTTuC HCOLLLL aEk LLL LkLLL EFEF గా TFFFF LLLLLkLLH LLaEE ELLLLLLL LLLLLLLaaa LLLLLLL LLLk L MHCLLLLL LLLLLS L LLLLLLL kkkkkLkLL LLLL LLL LLLaLaH LL
March 11 : Aid Ceylon Group Toets In Paris, Fierror osseri ta twas of coumtrios arid ir
Situtions interes te: Ir assisting Ceylon meet
Ir Paris under lhe auspices of the World Barik, The Ceylonesedelegation is led by Ga. mari Corea, Permanent Secretary to the ",Mirıi5 t F"w of Fla" nirng ar1::; Er:or"OrTniC /i, fi3 ir5. TilÉ. Áid Group re-affirr's IHS Endarserrisrit of Ceylor's long-term die velopment 5.lrategy of encouraging growth in the two most prom|Strig sectors of the 2COriory-agriculture and riħa fi Lufa : turing-d f'id wyal Corries the rTmajor polli:"w dicĊisicrisi taker tigwards, This erilir, 1938
March 14: 'wla, Gem. H. W. Wick Con. CLtLeS LLMLLLLLLLLuuuLkLLL LL LSLLLLLLLL LL0 H LLLHuS lid hospital of injuris CCGived in a car acci. Id=rit, M.Maj. Ĝerm. Wijck Cam yas urg-time CiriTäTder of the Caylon Army.
March 17: Indo-Ceylon tentative AgreeTnent ori Kachchatiiwu. Iridia and Ceylon agree to refrain from taking any adminis
Background Briefing April 1987
trElive action to altg buttress their res KachchE IWL in the P Easter festiwal, pendi TEt of the "TITUT t '''WE5 de Cid It it 3 n'y uniformac:d policar CIal5. Or" rG2:SOr T. t. Eg naval patrolling of the E the 4-day St.Anthony Week of March, whe arid Ceylon go to Kact thl El li:Ca | Rig T13 (Cä, Fi Ceyl: r s Erit ä police torms 3: Lud to regulal frIT :ICTI COJIrig; ( It Howal bao3t5 also patro to the Falk, Strait: |
ir Ti Tigratiam or Smug: m(I'W It W35 agres: Trië pular-lÇat F1:5 policemi a r2": regLulai te: ; h.e m"g'yc:
L LLLL LLLLLLLLS CCCOCaaakTLASS L MMLL GLLLLLLL LL LLLLLLLlalEHLLLLLLL LLLL HLGH OO L cLELLL LLLLLL
ALS T CTTTT LaaaEea LLLLLL LLLLLLLLkOCeL HLH Ha LLLLLLLCCLC LLeHLLLGLLLLL LLLL LaLS LLaS LHHLHHLLS Sri Iliriki fi ar ffil yo terra.
I r the status quo or pective claims to alk Straits during the ng a peaceful settleerritorial dispute". It hÜr Country 'yıl | 5erid Ti f L 5 JT15 ITFГа! гвісаппаisапсе ог idjacer it waters during S festival r tH5 tFir
pilgrims frar Ti, India hitsu to worship at ilir: Church. Last year, : ritirgent di Cu5EN EHE fly, af pilgrims E yli: TIESE är Cfäft and |lej ta Southern Eido llegalו סח זaחז eזנ54חE !li rig] tock. [ıl3CE. BLuti. !t ( *1=T= WJuli to: Comi'y -2 | TI rħir" Taini u rrider ament of pilgrir's. The
Custortis Hrd Health Officias Would operale from their respective territories as the pilgrirms proCeedsd to Kathchativu and rgէurritt: htյrit:
March 27: A UMDP Special Fund allocation of it, 1.482.400 is made for a Water Supply Schéffi8, 1 HET=fit two äreä5 in GalIL In the SOL1 and low is not of Colombo.
March 28: An Agreement is signed in CalOtto under which Britain would give Caylor about f 1,000, OCIO for tuying Wheal during 13 ES
Increase in Tea and Rubber production. Production of tea and rubber reached row highs in 1968, Official estimates place Tea LaaaaL CC K0LS SS LLLLMLH L0S00 LLLLLLLLS more that in 1967. Rubber output contri its upward trers 13Ei when it totalled 328 LLLLaa LL0SaaL LHHLLLLLLL LS 000KS LLLHLLLL LLLLLLSS
Trade with india. According to Customs returns, Ceylon exported to India Rs.2.3 crores
worth of goods, compared with Rs.1.6.Crores in 1967. Imports from India also increased in 1968 from Rs.12.3 Crores to Rs.15.3 crores.
April 7-9 : The Federal Party holds its 11th Convention at Uduvil in Jaffna and decides to withdraw its support to the Senanayake Government. The decision comes after 4 years of Tamil Participation in mainstream politics. A resolution passed by the Convention charges the Government with practising "gross discrimination' in the establishment of industries and failing to provide appropriate means of communication in the Tamil-speaking areas. It says there had been "total neglect and disregard' of the cultural and educational needs of Tamils and a "deliberate attempt to sever the cultural links between the Tamil-speaking people of Ceylon and South India."
n his presidential Mr.S.M. Rasamanickam says that Tamils had been completely disillusioned after having strengthened the hands of the Government for four years. All development projects launched with foreign aid were located only in the Sinhala areas and not one in the North or East. There has been inordinate delay in putting into effect the Tamil Language regulations. The Government's assurance onestablishing a University in Trincomalee had not been fulfilled. He said that the miserable state of affairs of the Tamil people in this land was due to the fact that the unitary type of Constitution had made the majority community the rulers and the Tamils the ruled. Their leader, S.J.V. Chelvanayakam foresaw what was in store for the Tamil people many years ago and had urged that the salvation of the Tamils lay only in a Federal type of Constitution.
The Central Bank of Ceylon in its annual report for 1968, released in the third week of April, States that the lsland had achieved a record rate of economic growth last year. The increase in real output amounted to 8.3 percent, and in per capita terms the growth rate was 6.1 percent. In agriculture, the output of rice increased to 64.6 million bushels (900,000 long tons) last year from 55.1 million bushels in 1967-an increase of 17.2 percent.
West Germany would make capital aid valued at DM 25 million (S 6.25 million) available to Ceylon in 1969, according to an announcement made in Colombo.
April 21-22 : At a 2by the Ceylon Work ombo, the following by Ceylonese and in officials:- India has gra to about 37500 ''Sta dian origin under the l. of 1964. Out of that ready left for India.Th. Sons with their own r of them had asked tance. The Governm other hand had gran only to 450 persons the Agreement, India bility for the grant of and Ceylon to 300,0 natural increase.)
May 27: Prime Minis arrives at Cairo on a 5 United Arab Republic. ident Nasser on a w joint communique is that Mr.Senanayakeh support for the “le Palestinian people ir their homelands or to in accordance with t re-affirms his country forces should withdra Arab territory to positi to June 5, 1967.
June 29. The found: Textile mill, a joint ve Indian industrial hou Horana by the Prime
of the project at a ne vious day, Mr. B.K. B proposed mill started change of Rs.11 m Ceylon in the very
Would have 70 perc percent Indian capita would be supplied b
July 23: The World of a $21 million loan of electric generat sociated transmissio be given to the Ceylc be guaranteed by th
July 25: The House proves a Governmer Thanks to the Gov Throne Speech (July ious Opposition am lasted 5 days. In hi Prime Minister Dudle the demand for an
day Seminar organised ers' Congress in Colinformation was given ian High Commission inted Indian citizenship teless' persons of Inhdo-Ceylon Agreement number, 8.200 had aley were apparently peresources and very few for Government assisent of Ceylon, on the ted Ceylon citizenship approximately. (Under had accepted responsicitizenship to 525,000 00 together with their
ter Dudley Senanayake -day official visit to the He has talks with Preside range of issues. A sued on May 31 says Iad expressed Ceylon's gitimate rights of the cluding their right to receive compensation he UN resolution". He 's position that Israel's Iw unconditionally from ons they occupied prior
ation Stone of a modern nture of Ceylon and the se of Birla, is laid at Minister. Giving details ws conference the preirla said that once the production, foreign exillion would flow into first year. The project ent Ceylonese and 30 al. Technical personnel f india.
3ank announces a grant O install 115 megawats ng Capacity and asfacilities. The loan, to in Electricity Board, will e Government.
of Representatives apt-sponsored Motion of ernor General for the 10), after rejecting varendments. The debate S reply to the debate, y Senanayake refers to immediate ban on the
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and asked. "will you give me the legislative power to ban any political party which has foreign links and which works against the nation's interest?" An Opposition front bench member replied: "we shall give that power only against the DMK'. Mr.Senanayake states that there were other political parties which had definite foreign links, whereas the Indian DMK had denied any connections with the DMK in Ceylon.
Explaining the break-away of the Tamil Federal Party from the Government, in reply to allegations made earlier in the debate by the Secretary of the Party A. Amirthalingam, Mr.Senanayake assures the FP members that he would never forget the assistance they had given his party at a critical time. He says he had to withdraw the District Councils Bill because of the misleading propaganda carried on by the Opposition and because the country had turned against him. However, as the introduction of District Councils legislation was one of the promises he had held out to Federal Party members when they joined the Government, he had told them while withdrawing the Bill that he was prepared to resign the Premiership on that issue. But the Federal Party had told him that there was no need for him to resign.
July 31: The expelled Federal Party Member of Parliament for Kayts, V. Navaratnam, forms a new political party called Eela Suya Aadchi Kazhagam. Addressing the first meeting of the party, Mr. Navaratnam says that Tamils should either live with dignity and self-respect as a separate nation of assimilate themselves with the Sinhala people. Ruling out the latter proposition, he says that Tamils should fight for full responsible gove rr ment.
August 1: The Government decides that from today private Sales of Tea outside the auctions be allowed, to all countries, as a trial measure.
August 3: An Agreement is signed in Colombo under which Ceylon would receive Rs.37.25 million as aid from West Germany during the Current year.
The World Bank announces a loan of $8 million to the Development Finance Corporation for promoting industrial development in the private sector. The Government-sponsored Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon was set up in 1956 to act as the principal financial institution serving private industry in the island. Mr. C. Loganathan, for
Background Briefing April 1987
S. Kodeeswaran - the Tamil public servant who nude legal history.
many years General Manager of the Bank of Ceylon, recently took over as head of the DFC.
September 13: Workers' Strikes: State of Emergency declared. The Government proclaims a State of Emergency when State electricai workers go on strike in protest against a decision to convert the Department of Electrical Undertakings into a corporation. The conversion of the Department into a corporation had been recommended by the
World Bank. The employees claim that the Government had failed to compensate them
for the loss of security and other privileges as a result of the conversion. Although this strike was called off after a Government asSurance, the Emergency Continues because Petroleum workers also go on strike, along with Fisheries and Tyre Corporation workers.
September 18: The first stage of the Thuhiriya textile mill, the largest in the Country, is opened. The mill, established with assistance from the German Democratic Republic, costing Rs.240 million, is expected to be complete by 1971.
September 21: Ceylon and Canada sign
Background Briefing April 1987
an Agreement in Ceylon would buy ne ion and asbestos fib loan terms.
October 12 Ceyl formally opened by t at a cost of Rs.200
process 1.7 million tC
October 31: A Crs milion from thé Inté Association (DA) to flood Contro WorkS
in Washington. The g the inCome of 1 000C tiguous areas along t of the Island, and im of payments position imports. Agricultura areas is now limited of poor drainage and
November 5: The the House of Rep member's motion Ca a State-takeover of a tion areas. The hou unanimously thus CO demand of the Indian ration of their School tional education Sche in the plantation area owners and are ill-e maintained and staffe teachers.
The motion, tabled seconded by Mr. A Of the Federal Par children of the esta tion and the Sam adopted by the res' Island.
December 15 r known as the Ko Privy Council holds servantin Ceylon di against the Crown thus reversing a C decision, and causi ment to the Gover
Mr. S. Kodeeswara in the executive gra Clerical Service and
olombo under which vsprint worth $1.5 mill2 worth S 500,000, on
n's first oil refinery is e Prime Minister. Built hillion, the refinery will is of crude oil per year.
dit equivalent to $ 2.5 national Development finance a drainage and n Ceylon is announced oject will also increase farmers in six non-Cone South-Western Coast prove Ceylon's balance through savings on rice production in these and uncertain because frequent flooding.
Government accepts in esentatives a private |ling for early steps for | Schools in Tea plantase adopts the motion nceding a long-standing estate labour for integng systern with the name. At present, schools is are run by the estate quipped, unhygenically }d mostly by unqualified
by Mr.K.P. Ratnam and . Amirthalingam both y, wil ensure for the te labour free educacurricula as those
of the schools in the
what comes to be leeswaran Case, the
that a civil (clerical) have a right of action for arrears of salary, !ylon Supreme Court ig a major embarass
n, a Senior Tam officer ie of the Government resident of the newly
formed famil Trade Union - the Arasanka Euthu Vinaignar Sangam - had refused to sit the Sinhala proficiency examination, resulting in the stoppage of his annual salary increments. In 1962, he sued the Government in the Colombo District Court on the grounds that the regulation under which his increment had been stopped was illegal and unreasonable, since the Official Language Act of 1956 transgressed the Section 29 constitutional prohibition against discrimination. The trial judge, O.L. de Kretser, a Burgher and the most senior member of the judical service, and renowned for his sturdy independence, upheld Kodeeswaran's plea and ruled that the Official Language Act and the regulation in question were "ultra vires" and contravened the section 29 prohibition. The government appealed against the judgement in the Supreme Court, which Set aside the judgement on the ground that a Government servant had no right to sue the Crown in a Court of law for salary or increment. The Supreme Court failed to consider the Constitutional issue, but gave judgement on the preliminary point to the Crown. The Supreme Court, however stated that if it became necessary to consider the constitutional issue, the matter would be placed by the Chief Justice before a five-judge Court. Thereafter, Kodeeswaran appealed to the Privy Council in London, which now sets aside the Ceylon Supreme Court's decision and directs that the Supreme Court should now rule on the constitutional question.
December 15: The government party, the UN P, retains control of the Colombo Municipal Council, the island's premier local body. The UNP wins 32 of the 47 seats, the SLFP wins 6, the LSSP 5, the CP 2 and Independents two. The UNP also wrests Control of the Leftist stronghold at Badulla winning 9 Out of the 15 seats. Observers see this breakthrough for the party as due to the Prime Minister's strategic move of making one of the Leftist Stalwarts from Badulla-Jack Kotelawala-as Ceylon's envoy to Moscow recently.
The year ends with floods caused by heavy continuous rains for 6 successive days in the last week of the month. At least 40 persons lose their lives, and the floods devastate extensive paddy fields and destroy several thousand houses. The rainfall was heaviest in the southern and eastern provinces.
January 7: Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake in a review of his United National Party's performance (published in the Daily News today), lists stabilisation of communal amity, success on the food front and raising of the general level of economic prosperity as its most notable achievements. He also announces plans to step down from office and keep away from active politics after his next five-year term in Parliament. Mr. Senanayake contrasts the 'harmony and goodwill" now prevailing among different communities to the situation during the Opposition Coalition rule a few years ago.
There were Communal riots and certain (minority) communities lived in terror. It was also the time when race and religion were prime considerations in selecting individuals for appointments. Today I am proud to say it is different'
January 8: Indian President V.V. Giri arrives in Colombo on a 5-day State visit to Ceylon. It is his first visit abroad after his assumption of office. Mr. Giri had earlier been India's first High Commissioner in Ceylon and is revisiting the island after 20 years. Mr.Giri visits Kandy as well as Jaffna, the Tamil city in the north. During his visit, two separate delegations representing tne 1 million Tamil plantation labour meet Mr. Giri and apprise him of the hardships suffered by repatriates to India under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement. Mr.S.Thondaman, leading a 9-member delegation of the largest Indian plantation union, the Ceylon Workers' Congress, tells Mr.Giri that the repatriates were being harassed by the Indian Customs. They should be treated with courtesy and not subjected to un necessary inconvenience. The Indian Government should inform the intending repatriates in advance of their expected place of settlement and the facilities which would be made available to them, and ensure that they reached their respective destinations from the port of entry without delay. Mr.A.Aziz, leading a 9-member delegation of the Democratic Workers' Congress, the next largest union, tells Mr. Giri that the Citizenship Agreement was not being implemented properly by the Ceylon Government.
January 17: Indian Minister for Power and irrigation and an international authority on dam design, Dr. K. L. Rao, is on a visit to Ceylon at the invitation of irrigation Minister C.P. de Silva to advise on the Mahaweli project. Addressing Ceylon's Institute of Electrical Engineers on this day,
he estimates that C was 800,000 kW, 25 be thermal and 75 develop its presen 200,000 kW to this possible time'. On , a news conferenc Ceylon Governmen idea of exchange of the two Countries to ge and ensure stat
The World Bank International Develo have already annou order of $29 milion Ganga scheme foi agriculture and ele features of the firs' are two major diver the Mahaweli Ganga and the other at BO Ganga - which will pe at Polgola to be Separate areas in t of Ceylon. The 40 m plant will be installe Completion will be tr, Electricity Board wh the generation, trans of electricity throug The improved wate about 127,000 acres Cultivation, mainly 4,000 acres of suga
January 22: The the All Ceylon Tar Chavakachcheri in adopts a resolution r 'a united Ceylon wit ernment' At the S. equal official status and equality of opp( Tamils throughout th gress, led by G.G.Por acknowledged as t Tamils as well as ot party greatly reducec Tamil community, v bers supporting the teadership of S.J.V.(
February 8: A co" ing mill is to be estat Chinese assistance. project are exchange man Corea, Perm Ministry of Planning
ylon's immediate need Dercent of which Could 2rcent hydro. It should power production of level in the 'duickest anuary 18, Dr. Rao tells in Colombo that the was receptive to his lectric power between meet seasonal shortality in power Supply.
and its affiliate, the ment Association (IDA) ced assistance of the o finance the Mahaweli the development of tric power. The main stage of the Scheme sion schemes - one on at Polgola near Kandy, watenna on the Amban rmit the water diverted shared between two he Southern dry zone W hydro electric power d at Polgola which, on ansferred to the Ceylon nich is responsible for mission and distribution hout most of Ceylon. br Supply will benefit of land already under n rice, but including r Cane.
25th annual session of nil Congress held at the Jaffna peninsula -iterating its support to a unitary form of Govme time, it demands to the Tamil language rtunity to the minority Island. The Tamil Connambalam, (at one time e Sole leader of the er minorities) is now a in influence among the th the bulk of its memederal Party under the helvanayakam.
on spinning and weavshed at Minneriya with letters relating to the today between Dr. Gaent secretary to the and Economic Affairs
and the Charge d' Affaires of the Chinese Embassy in Colombo.
February 21: Parliament is to be dissolved and fresh elections to be held soon after March 25 when the Government would have completed its full 5-year term. This is announced by Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake at an election rally at Horana, 50 km from Colombo.
February 22: The Federal Party declares that it would support any political party in the South to form a government after the next General Elections, provided that party was prepared to grant the main demands of the Tamils, for equal status for the Tamil language along with Sinhala, and regional autonomy for the Tamil areas. President of the Federal Party S.M. Rasamanickam states this at an election meeting in Jaffna. The Federal Party has now 12 members in the 157member House of Representatives.
February 28: Work on the multi-million rupee Mahaweli Ganga diversion project is formally inaugurated by Prime Minister Senanayake at the Polgoila diversion site. Prior to the inauguration ceremony, the Prime Minister, Minister of Land, Irrigation and Power C. P.de Silva and other members of the Cabinet worship at the Dalada Maligawa (the sacred Buddhist Temple of the Tooth) at Kandy, in keeping with custom and tradition observed by Sinhalese kings before they embarked on projects of national importance.
The Mahaweli project has been divided into three phases by the UNDP team which prepared the feasibility report. The construction period is scheduled to extend from 1970 to 1999, Phase is scheduled to cover the period 1970-80. Phase II is programmed for a 10-year period and Phase III for a further 10-year period.
March 23: Delegates from eight nonaligned countries in Asia begin a 2-day meeting in Colombo for an informal exchange of views on subjects likely to come up for discussion at the preparatory meeting of nonaligned Countries scheduled for April in Dares-Salaam.
March 25: The Sixth Parliament is dissolved by the Governor General on the recommendations of the Prime Minister, marking completion of a term of five years' for Mr. Dudley Senanayakeas Prime Minister. Nomi
Background Briefing April 1987
nations from candidates for the next elections will be received on April 27, and polling will take place in all 145 constituencies on May 27. The next Parliament is to meet on June 7.
April 9: A contract is signed in Colombo for the export of 20,000 metric tons of sheet rubber to China. With the signing of this contract, the total quantity of sheet rubber that China will buy from Ceylon in 1970 will be 64,000 tons. An earlier contract was signed with Poland for the supply of 13,700 tons to that country
May 27: General Elections. An unprecedented landslide victory for Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike. The SLFPLeft wing coalition captures 115 of the 150 seats contested. One seat had already gone to SLFP uncontested. The United National Party which had been ruling Ceylon for the last five years wins only 17 seats, in contrast to the 66 seats it won in 1965. In one constituency - katana - the election had to be postponed, because of the death of a candidate.
Here are the final party positions as compared with 1965:
97O1965 Sri Lanka Freedom Party 90 41 United National Party 17 66 Lanka Sama Samaja Party 19 10
Federal Party 13 14 Communist Party 6 4. Tamil Congress 3 3
Independents & others 2 6
More than 85 percent of the electorate of 5,500,000 went to the polls.
Mrs. Bandaranaike wins with a personal majority of 21,000 votes, while Mr. Dudley Senanayake's majority was only 1,067 votes. Eleven of the 15 UNP Ministers lost their seats. Besides Mrs. Bandaranaike, five other women candidates, a members of the SLFP- Left Coalition Front, are returned to Parliament.
May 28:Mr. Dudley Senanayake hands over his resignation to the Governor General; the latter in turn calls upon Mrs. Bandaranaike to form the new government.
May 29: Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranalike (54) is sworn in as Prime Minister for a second time; the previous occasion was in 1960 when she became the world's first women Prime Minister. Even as she is sworn in, serious disturbances occur in Colombo and some other areas. Crowds of her suppor
ters storm Lake House, the premises of the
Background Briefing April 1987
Associated Newspa which publishes t newspapers in En Tamil (Ceylon Daily Thinakaran) and tw English and Sinhale and Janata). The ri the support given Mr. Dudley Senana break through a si storm the offices, files, smash window ture and equipmen to disperse the riote is caled in to help t order. Elsewhere, ri spector at Dedigami ombo, and the con Prime Minister.
May 31:A 21-memb
- the biggest since inc ing 17 SLFP memb Trotskyite LSSP and munist Party. LSSP le Finance Minister, Dep de Silva is Minister of
Communist leader Pie ter of Housing and CC Leftist in the Cabinet is Goonewardene, in ct
tions. The sole Mu: Badiudin Mahmud, is
and a Tamil, hitherto public life, Cheliah k nated to Parliament an and Telecommunicati tionally reserved for
Communities (Eart portfolios included C. San, V. Nafiah and C Minister of Finance served in the same c Mrs. Bandaranaike GC spell (1964-65), the ot accepting office for th Keuenemen who hap Dutch Burgher comn only Burgher to ach Ceylon. Other memb clude Maithripala S Power and Highwa daranaike (Public Adm ernment and Home
garatne(Foreign and E of whom had held of
June 7: Government imports as a first ste Banned items range and electric irons to to SetS.
pers of Ceylon Ltd., ree major/morning lish, Sinhalese and Wews, Dinamina and o evening dailies in se (Ceylon Observer oters, who resented by these papers to rake's government, rong police cordon, urn the Library and is and destroy furni. Police fire tear gas s, and later the Army he Police to maintain oters ki a Police ln, 35 miles from Costituency of the ex
2 Cabinet is Sworn in lependence - CompriserS, three from the
one from the Comader Dr. N. M. Perera is uty leader Dr. Colvin R. Plantation industry and ter Keunerman is Minis)nstruction. The fourth LSSP Secretary Leslie harge of Communica
slim in the Cabinet, Minister of Education, unknown in politics or (umarasuriar is nomid given charge of Post ons, a portfolio tradimembers of minority r holders of the Sittampalam, S. NateA.S. Marikkar) White Dr. N.M. Perera had pacity in the previous vernment for a short her three Marxists are e first time. Mr. Pieter pens to belong to the unity, is the first and eve Cabinet rank in }rs of the Cabinet in'nanayake (irrigation, s), Felix Dias Ban'nistration, Local Govaffairs), and T.B. lanternal Trade), all three Ce previously.
bans all non-essential
in its austerity drive. "om Cutlery, crockery hlights and transistor
June 14: The first session of the Seventh Parliament is opened by Governor General William Gopalawa Far-reach ing policy changes are announced in the Speech from the Throne. A new Constitution was to be Drafted to declare Ceylon a "free, sovereign and independent' Republic, thus ending the existing link with the British monarchy within the Commonwealth, it was also announced that the Ceylonese Government would recognise North Vietnam, North Korea, Viet Cong Provisional Revolutionery Government in South Vietnam and Eastern Germany and would suspend relations with Israel pending an agreed Settlement in the Arab-Israel conflict. In internal matters, the speech from the Throne announces, inter alia. plans for the nationalisation of banks and of foreign trade. State direction of the Tea, Rubber and COConut plantation industries and control of the British-owned agency houses at present managing these industries, and encuragement of independent newspapers" as a means to end the present domination of the daily press by Capitaiist monopolies“.
It is also announced that machinery would be set up to inquire into and deal with all "cases of gross abuse of State power under the former Government', and that all 'subversive imperialist agencies' which operated in Ceylon would be wound up.
June 15: Retirement age lowered. All public servants and corporation employees will from now on retire on Compiettion of the age of 55. Those who are over 55 and still in service will also retire. A Government communique at the end of a meeting of the new Cabinet today states: "Except in exceptional circumstances where the Minister considers that by reason of specialised tra ning and skilor qualifications. the retention of the service of any officer beyond 55 years is essential in the interests r of the service, no extension will be granted."
inquiry into newspaper chain.
Government decides to investigate the largest newspaper chain known as Lake House to determine whether it had violated foreign exchange regulations. A Communique states that a Royal Commission would determine whether the company Or any of its Directors had disposed of funds improperly, in breach of the country's exchange control regulations and revenue laws.
June 16: Recognition of Eastern Germany. The Prime Minister, Mrs. Bandaranaike, in fulfilment of one of her major election pledges on international affairs, ac
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cords full diplomatic recognition to the East German Government.
July: Chinese Ambassador named.
After a lapse of four years, China announces the appointment of an Ambassador to Colombo. During the last four years, the Colombo Embassy was headed by a Charge d' Affaires, although Ceylon had an Ambassador in Peking. Meanwhile, according to Colombo reports, China had promised Ceylon substantial assistance to help tide Over its exchange crisis. China will also build an auditorium in memory of the late Prime Minister S.W. R. D. Bandaranaike.
July 14: A 3-member Committee is appointed to devise measures for 'ending the present domination of the daily Press by capitalist monopolies and to examine the feasibility of setting up a Press Council".
Earlier, Government had taken a decision to withhold Government advertisements to Lake House.
It is also announced today that the Government had extended full diplomatic recognition to North Viet-Nam with effect from June 24.
July 15: The Ministry of Defence and External Affairs announces that Ceylon would establish diplomatic relations with North Korea at Embassy level. Ceylon has had no diplomatic representation at Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, so far.
July 19: Members of the House of Representatives, constituting themselves into a Constituent Assembly, meet a Navarangahala, the auditorium of the Royal Junior School in Colombo.
Prime Minister Mrs. Bandaranaike, in the course of her speech, says: 'We have met in this hall to emphasize the fact that this is a meeting of the Members of the House of Representatives as representatives of the people of Sri Lanka, but not a meeting of the House of Representatives. We have adopted this course to underline the fact that both the Constituent Assembly which we have meant to establish, and the Constitution which the Constituent ASsembly will draft, enact and establish, will derive their authority from the people of Sri Lanka and not from the power and authority assumed and exercised by the British Crown and Parliament in establishing the present Constitution of Ceylon, nor from the Constitution they gave us ....."
July 21: At the
which took place
House of Represe for the establishing titution, proposed
and seconded by nimously approved the Opposition part Party, the Federal Congress. Mr. Stan President. The Dra: ded by Dr. Colvion Plantation industry.
July 29: Ceylon relations with Sra fect, it is announc Defence and Exte,
It is also announc dance with election Front, the Cabinet American-sponsorec been among those referred to in the S as 'subversive imp
July 30: On the Colombo, the Cey China, Robert Gun interview in Peking t Chou En-lai had Conv 'is all admiration' fo of Mrs. Bandaranaik possible' to help it.
quotes Mr. Gunawa that Peking would
Ceylon's additional n
August 7: An ag New Delhi covering India of 10,000 me' consignment was of Ceylon's official re Sugar for early deli
The Canadian Go
the allocation to Ce
the value of Rs. 1 under the Colomb 1970-71. The total about 25,000 ton S.
Canada and Ceyl Agreements relevar elopment of the isl, ment, a commodity a Memorandum of operation in a select Forest Reserve.
August 16: Th the Government t 'Stateless' persons
nd of a 3-day debate, the Chamber of the tatives, the resolution of a Republican consby Mrs. Bandaranaike, r. N. M. Perera, is unaSupported also by all es, the United National Party and the Tamil y Tillekeratne is elected ing Committee is heaR. de Silva, Minister of
suspends diplomatic el with immediate efed by the Ministry of nal Affairs.
ed today that in accormanifesto of the United had decided that the Asia Foundation had nstitutioons which were Oeech from the Throne erialist agencies'.
eve of his return to onese Ambassador to awardene says in an hat the Chinese Premier /eyed to him that China }r the new Government 2 and wil! 'do everthing The Ceylon Daily Mirror rdene today as saying be willing to discuss eeds and requirements.
eement is signed in the sale to Ceylon by ric tons of sugar. This ered by India following Juest for supplies of ery.
ernment has approved ylon of wheat flour of 7.1 million as a grant
Plan programme for uantity of flour will be
n also conclude three
to the economic devnd-a formal Aid Agreeloan Agreemment and a mechanised logging darea in the Sinharajah
Federal Party calls on grant citizenship for findian origin 'without
any further delay" in proportion to the number registered so far as Indian citizens under the Sirirnavo-Shastri Pact. The Party Contests the decision of the Government to revert to the terms of the lindo-Ceylon Agreement of 1964 which links the pace of grant of Ceylon nationality to the number of per
sons repatriated to India. Mr. Dudley Senanayake, during his Premiership, had amended the terms of the Agreement through legislation in 1967 to link the pace of implementation to those registered as citizens by both Sides.
The Indian Government has so far granted citizenship to about 72,000 persons, of whom 3,000 had left for India. The present Government contends that since about 7,300 persons had been granted Ceylon nationality during this period, it had kept up to the pace (prescribed under the 1964 Agreement) of four being granted Ceylon nationality to every seven repatriated to India. The Federal Party now joins hands with the Ceylon Workers' Congress and insists on provisions of the 1967 legislation which would have by now enabled about 41,000 Stateless persons gain Ceylon nationality.
The Working Committee of the Federal Party, by another resolution, condemns the
reported move by the Government to prohibit or drastically reduce the import of Tamil newspapers and periodicals from India, and the proposal to stop broadcasting Tamil film music over Radio Ceylon.
In a third resolution, the Party urges Tamil parents to refrain from permitting their children to study Sinhala in school till the Government solved the language problem to the satisfaction of the Tamils.
August 20: Beginning today, Switzerland will represent Israeli interests in Ceylon, following suspension of diplomatic links between Ceylon and Israel, and the closure of the Legation of srael in Colombo. The request was made by Switzerland on behalf of the Government of Israel.
Chairman of the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation, E.R.S.R.Coomaraswamy has sent out letters to international ship owners and shipping agents in Colombo informing them of the Corporation's decision to take over the bunkering trade. The oil companies, Shell, ESSO, and Caltex had been permitted to continue bunkering operations when Mrs. Bandaranaike's Government nationalized the oil trade in 1961.
Minister of industries and Scientific Af
Background Briefing April 1987
fairs T.B. Subasinghe has directed the Ceylon Steel Corporation to go ahead with the implementation of State 1 of the Steel project at Oruwela. A feasiblity report on this project was submitted by USSR in 1969. The Project was designed for implementation in three stages, commencing with the rolling mill in the first stage. The rolling mill has been functioning for some years.
State Trading corporations are to be set up, to prevent profiteering and free the economy from the control offoreign mercantile interests. Meanwhile, the State-run emporium, Lanka Salu Sala, has been made the sole importer of textiles from January 1971.
A 5-member Youth Council has been appointed by the Prime Minister to formulate and implement youth service programmes.
Mr. K.Shinya, a lawyer, is appointed Chairman of the Bank of Ceylon. Besides Mr. K. Shinya, the Bank's Board of Directors will consist of U.K. Edmund, D.W. Wanigasekera, S.E. Satarasinghe, Dr. Jayantha Kelegama and N. Satyendra.
September: A 5-member trade delegation led by Minister of Foreign and internal Trade, T.B. langaratne, visits Peking and negotiates an interest-free loan for buying 100,000 tons of rice which China provides annually under the Sino-Ceylon Rubber-Rice Trade Agreement. From Peking, the delegation proceeds to Pyongyang, capital of North Korea, and signs two Agreements and two Protocols with North Korea.
September 19. A committee appointed by the Government to go into the question of import of South Indian newspapers and periodicals into the Island advises against imposition of a ban, but recommends abolition of the present agency system in order to eliminate foreign exchange malpractICeS.
October 25: Finance Minister Dr. N. M. Perera presents to Parliament the United Front's first Budget, which contains many radical proposals. The proposals, he says, are designed for austere living, but it would not do to tax only the rich. All citizens should live in "a climate of austerity' But in the nature of things, the heaviest burdens would fall on
Background Briefing April 1987
he rich. Apart from in on various items suc and beer, and increa: communication charg fees etc. the budget a once-for-all capital continuing wealth tax Rs. 50 and RS 1 OO no currency. The Budge House of Representa by a large majority of tions. The Tamil Cong dents voted with the UNP voted against abstained.
November 3: Min T.B. langaratne goes 3-9) to the German along with a party of
November 24 Wo. Memorial Hal in Colo Prime Minister Mrs. ject, estimated to cos financed by China. M the construction of a ence Hall was one cherished by her at Bandaranaike. She sa a symbol of Sino-Cey
December 10: Th a proclamation, exte waters from 6 to 12 lows approval by the 1 of a recommendatio "in keeping with th trend towards the acc the maximum breadth lndia extended the lin to 12 nautical miles or Earlier, in 1955, the
had been extended fr to six. According to where the territoria w Countries overlap, a r determine their respe
it was earlier agri governments that v Ceylon of the limit: to 12 miles, a soluti over the ownership inhabited islet of Ka Straits would be fo
reases in excise duties as petrol, cigarettes es in postal and telees and motor license ry proposals included evy in addition to the and demonetization of es to bring out hoarded was adopted by the cives on November 1 1 16 to 8, with 7 absteness and three indepenGovernment while the ind the Federal Party
ster of Foreign Trade on an official visit (Now Democratic Republic, officials.
rk on the Bandaranaike mbo is inaugurated by 3andaranaike. The prot Rs. 35 million, will be |rs. Bandaranalike says n international Conferof the ideas greatly e husband, S.W.R.D. ys the Hall will remain lon friendship.
e Governor General by nds Ceylon's territorial nautical miles. This folCabinet on November n by the Prime Minister 2 Current international :eptance of 12 miles as of the territorial sea' hits of its territorial Sea Septermber 30, 1967. territorial waters' limit Dm three nautical miles international practice, 'aters of two sovereign nedian line is drawn to ctive jurisdictions.
led between the two tith the extension by of its territorial sea on to the controversy of the barren and unchchativu in the Palk und. If the proposed
median line places Kachchativu closer to Ceylon, ownership of the islet will go to that country. It is at present a no-man's land, except for a chapel dedicated to St. Anthony at its western tip. The chapel was built through donations by devout Christians between 1894 and 1905, when both countries were under British rule. It is visited by pilgrims in March every year, from both countries. Kachchativu was once a piece of barren real estate owned by the Raja of Ramanathapuram (Ramnaid).
December 16: A Bill giving effect to the Budget proposal to enforce a Compulsory Savings Levy is passed in the House of Representatives. The levy is enforceable on all individuals and companies except Government Corporations and charitable institutions. A persons and institutions earning more than Rs. 6,000 a year would be compeiled to contribute to a special, fund controllied oy the Central Bank. The purpose of the levy. the Finance Minister says, is not taxation but an attempt by the Government to get more funds for development. He was aware of the hardships people might have to undergo, but they should be prepared to make certain sacrifices during a period of national Crisis.
December 17: The foreignExchange Amnesty Bill is passed. Under the Bill, all persons resident in Ceylon who own movable property outside the country will be granted an amnesty if a full declaration is made to the Central Bank before March 31, 1971. It is believed that the Bill would be an incentive to persons who owned large amounts of undeclared assets abroad to bring them back home. The country could then utilize the foreign exchange for development purposes. Under the prevailing law, it is an offence for any person to possess undeclared assets abroad.
December 30: The Cabinet decides to introduce legislation for setting up Price Control courts for the expeditious disposal of cases arising under the Price Control Act. The Government recently brought several locally manufactureditems under price control. These include soap, tooth paste, torch cells, shirts and slates.
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Keesing's Contemporary Archives U.K.
Asian Recorder, (Editor M. Henry S.
K.M. De Silva, A History of Sri L
K.M. De Silva (Editor), Universal | Experience - Department of Infor Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, J
H.S.S. Nissanka, Sri Lanka's Forei Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.,
Shelton U. Kodikara, Foreign P Perspective, Chanakya Publication
lllankai Tamil Arasu Kadchi, Silvei
Paul Sieghart, Sri Lanka: A Mountin
Satchi Ponnambalam, Sri Lanka: Liberation Struggle, The Tamil lini
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anka, Oxford University Press, 1981. || Franchise, 1931-1981: The Sri Lankan
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gn Policy: A Study in Non-Alignment,
olicy of Sri Lanka: A Third World IS, Delhi, 1982.
Jubilee Volume, 1974.
g Tragedy of Errors, l.C.J. March 1984.
The National Ouestion and the Tamil formation Centre, London, 1983.
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