கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Hydro-Biological Survey of the Thondaimannar Lagoon - 6

Page 1
﻿కాT ΗΥDROBOLO



Page 2
﻿


Page 3
﻿


Page 4
﻿KANKESANTHURAI — ————
KARAINAGAR —
n —~Yu
ܗ ܐ"
5fー。 . ܐ ܓܹ ̄ ܐ
f VELA NA I
كتخصص سيد *
. - . '' .LT - " _ - 5""۔--حقیے۔اً
. TMAP
SCALE : " = 4 mil.



Page 5
﻿MAP OF THE HYDRO-BI SURWEY AREA
POINT PEDRO
THONDAlMANNAR LAGOON
OR VĀDAMARACHCH LAC
NAGARKO WIL
SNAN
ELEPHANT PASS-MULLIAN

ד
OLOGICAL
3CON
CHANNEL
CHUNC
K U I. A. M


Page 6
﻿p:AGRAMMATc ARE PRESENTATIoNoF Tri HYDR0 - BIOLOGICAL- SLLR N - P - S
ED (ICATION - . . . E
യു--
T)EPT RESEARCH
Sri
R PO TRONDA MANNAR P
I.- PuBL ca ToN OF FN
-- 3 ETTER SC I E INCE SIDu
res
fi - FIELD vJORK CENTRE
bewa

ug:
E NAN FOLD fMP A TronS OF THE
VEY PROGRAMME. S - T - A
3 .. 5 - INTERESTED co u Nic * T BOTDIES
ARC - e» UANO
NGS CATION.


Page 7
﻿Guide to the understanding of
N. P. S. T. A.-Northern Province Scie
H. B. S.
S. R. C.
S. T.
PO.
Ps.
Pt.
RA.
CRO.
FRO.
C.
S, S., & S.
-Hydro-biological Survey –Secretary, Research Col -Schools, Students and
-Project Officers of Sta
(Members
-Individual specific proje
-Research Assistants (Mer -Ceylonese Research Off.
-Foreign s * * -Convener of this progral -Working Stations.

Chart overleaf:
nce Teachers' Association.'
of Thondaimanar Lagoon. İncil.
Teachers.
tions I, II, III, etc. of Research Council.)
Cts at student level.
at teacher level.
nbers of Research Council.) icers.
nne, (Chairman of the Research Council)


Page 8
﻿Bulletin No. 6
cytudg (9. ിdം
Фontedrilus lermud Odontosyllis (ýrav
LZ
M. AT”PUTIH
õues special problems take preliminarų surveys, carried out 以
and presented as tuvo sepa dhe 0eulon Klssocialion
Seience Session
AUGUST
ALL RIGHTS
3Dublished bu the 9tudro-biolog * Õhe torthern Фropince علح

4nnelid ᎾᏭarms
ensis, (ßeddard, 1891 եր, 9.aurel, 1928
TA INVAT HAN
* up for study ha sed on a de during the general ith student participations rafe research papers before
yo. the advancement ol
(cSection QD.)
1968
RESERVED
ieal currey (Research (ouncil D
ieneе беachers fossociation


Page 9
﻿


Page 10
﻿PRF
Research in schools is a new tre) science teacher in Russia gets every “The Scientific Research in schools comr the Royal Society of England in 1957. schools are encouraged to carry out res submitted as research papers for the contains two such papers attempted in (
One of the short comings of the its inception was that it did not provid specific problems. The advisers from this type of study that will yield tangib General Surveys would generate special p and even by students. The chief objecti general trend in the changes that are ta these two lines of investigations separate
The two papers mentioned here a Paper draws quite a number of data ; This was worked out with the help of College, Valvettiturai. The Second Papel Thondaimannar, but this was studied on Point Pedro where I worked at that tim group of students to investigate this pr enable pupils to participate and experien
More such research work carried Hydro-biological survey (of Thondaimann: by the Research Council and some of bulletines. Students on their own or gu projects based on the preliminary ideas these studies are also being published. of research in schools by practising i te encouragement from responsible quarters.
I wish to thank Mr. T. G. Pillai o Dr. R. W. Sims of the British Museu Arudpiragasam of the University of Ceyl of the first paper on Pontodrilus b Mr. P. Kirtisinghe former Reader in Zoo Tebble of the British Museum (Natura of the University of Cape Town fur the Bioluminescence of the worm Odontosyl
My grateful thanks are also due to paper factory, for his help in soil anal financing this publication and all Membe Council, for their help and useful criti

ACE
ld in many parts of the world. The encouragement to further his studies. hittec' was established by the council of where practising teachers of secondary arch work, and such work could be award of higher degrees. This bulletin
eylon,
Hydro-biological survey programme a for systematic and intensive study of the University of Ceylon felt that it i le results. Our opinion was that the broblems that could be studied by teachers ve of the General survey was to see the king place in the lagoon. We have kep' ly.
e the results of such a study. The Firs accumulated from the general surveys. students when I was at J/Chithambara deals with a phenomenon observed at
the sea shore close to J. Hartley College, e. It was a pleasure to lead a willing oblem. Thus research in schools would ce the thrill of scientific discovery.
i out by teachers participating in the ar lagoon) programme, is being considered
these will be published in the form of ided by teachers have carried out certain gained from the general survey. Some of (it is the fervent hope that this atmosphere achers will get its due recognition and
f the Fisheries Research Station, Colombo, m (Annelida Section) and Dr. K. D. on Colombo for their help and criticism permudensis. My thanks are also due to logy, University of Ceylon. Mr. Norman History Section) and Professor J. H. Day ir advice regarding the second paper on is Gravelyi.
) Mr. P. Manoharan, Chemist, Valaichenai ysis; the Asia Foundation of U.S.A., for
's of the Hydro-biological Survey-Rsearch cism.
M. Atputhanathan Convener Hydro-biological Survey-Research Council


Page 11
﻿Observations of some ( and the distribution of Beddard, 1891-Study of the Hydro-biological Si lagoon.
“UNESCO-CAAS Scie
Presentati

of the Ecological factors
Pontodrilus bermudensis, a specific problem from urvey of Thondaimannar
nce Teacher Award 1967”
on Address


Page 12
﻿


Page 13
﻿Students engaged in freque
The fixed mark from which
In easurements were taken.

Incy count of the worn.
Author working with students In the Wor. In Collirht,


Page 14
﻿хpсг 1пnt
Laboratory e
Sclected area for thi

:nts on pH tolerance
புண்டண்
- CxperiIIn cntal Work.


Page 15
﻿Introduction
This paper deals with t factors that appear to influe Oligochaete worm Pontodrilus at Thondaimannar lagoon. this problem arose as a re. data from the bi-annual com carried out on this lagoon o from the year 1963 onwards. survey may be appropriate at th lagoon about 30 square miles about 25–30 miles in length not more than 10-12 feet wa at Thondaimannar in 1953 by This prevents any further in the sea but pro viding facilit away of salt with the rain f later ie. in 1963 we started a of studying the various chang lake' and the surrounding en was named the Hydro-biologi lagoon. This led to the biological survey-Research col of the Northern Province S The organisation and func programme which is now 5 the chart (Frontispice l)
Thus this specific prob Ecology of the worm, P. ber wider Hydro-biological survey study was planned by the

he study of some ecological ence the distribution of the permudensis, Beddard, 1891, Ithe need for the study of jult of the accumulation of prehensive surveys that were more correctly the lake', A few words about this is juncture. Thondaimannar in area, during rainy season, and with maximum depth s blocked at the mouth ie. 7 the Irrigation department. trusion of salt water from ies for the regular washing rom the lagoon. Ten years Limnological programme ges that might occur in this vironment. This programme cal survey of Thondaimannar establishment of the Hydrouncil under the auspicious cience Teachers Association. tioning of this Research years old is summarised in
lem of some aspects of the 'mudensis, comes under the programme. A systematic latter part of 1966 and


Page 16
﻿observations and experim December 1966 onwards
Preliminary observations :
1. Preliminary data collec
2 A) that these worms between two and four It might be worthwh the edge of the wate every February. Wat fall preceeding the s would have receeded to the bed of the la
2. Along with this worr
Nereidae were found was purely of the Ne were not abundently
3. The Oligochaetes livin halide content ranging to 39,000 p. p. m. was
These were some of investigation of the Ecolog distribution of this worm.
Distribution :
1. The location of th Lagoon was in the 2-4 feet 200 yards away from the side. Further the Worms w
2

nts were conducted from
ted since 1963 shows (Appendix were found abundantly in a belt feet from the edge of the water. ile to mention the fact that r is not at the same point r's edge depends on the rain urvey. Further, in July it
to its maximum somewhere goon.
n, few polychaetes of the group in February, but in July it
reidae type but these worms
found as the Oligochaetes.
g in a habitat of this type with g from about 11,000 p. p. m. not a normal phenomenon.
the data that led to the gical factors governing the
is worm in the Thondaimannar belt from water's edge, about
barrage towards the land ere found only on the Eastern


Page 17
﻿Shore (Appendix 5). On th the same distance from the bal On the open lagoon towards too, the worms were not see
2. Further down alon, or Lake', the worms were 2 miles, 5 miles and about 201 Lagoon, at a time when it wa and found that they were locations.
3. Though this worm sea shore of Brazil, Bermuda were not observed in the se Northern stretch between Po
4. On the other han collected off Pungudutivu sho water is shallow and muddy be a typical sea shore. The observed off Negombo Lago Fisheries Research Station. in agreement with the observa
Thus these worms app edges of shallow brackish observations at Thondaimann ecological barriers appear to distribution on the shores c not found all along the lag
Method of Study
Two approaches were study of a problem of this

e Western Shore at the about rage no worms were collected. | the sea side of the barrage ..
g the Thondaimanar Lagoon examined at points about miles from the mouth of the s abundant at Thondaimannar not seen at any of these
has been reported from the is and Jamaica, these worms a shore of at least in the int Pedro to Thondaimanar.
d these worms have been re. However this stretch of
and cannot be considered to same worm has also been on by Mr. T. G. Pillai of the Most of his observation are tions made at Thondaimanar.
ear to be common on the water lagoons. From the ar it is evident that certain be operating even in the of the lagoon, for they are Ο ΟΙ .
found to be essential in the nature. One was systematic
3


Page 18
﻿field observation and th experiments, in the laboratoi
Field observations v site of about 100x100 yard February. Later, as the extended to touch up to the permanent mark about 20 February. All measuremen from this mark every mo1 used for all quantitative est depth of the soil was betw. there was hard coral roc examine the whole soil coming Earlier 20% permanganate worm. Later 5 ml. of 40% was used and this was fo bringing out the worms.
Control experiments were done with the same collected.
Results of Systematic Study
1. Refer Appendix 2 be definitely abundant in th the edge of the water thou of the water from the fixec month (Appendix 2b)
2. Further in our careful to see that worms d neath (it is rocky underneatl 4.

other was certain control y.
'ere conducted at a selected s from the water's edge of vater receeded, the area was water's edge. There was a eet from the water’s edge of ts of the water were taken nth. One foot quadrat was mation of the worm. The een 3" and 6” and below this k and this made it easier to under the one foot quadrat. was sprayed to paralyse the Formalin diluted to one pint und to be more effective in
conducted in the laboratory soil where the worms were
c. The worms are seen to e belt between 2-4 feet from gh the position of the edge
mark is not the same every
collection method we were not go sideways or under). Therefore the possibility


Page 19
﻿that our counting - could ha time of the day, appear to b extent substantiated by the d
3. Appendix 4 shows estimation at 10 points, some areas, in the area under obs The numbers indicate the quadrats, one placed at 2feet distances from the Wate were done on the evening of that the worms were avoidir The grass that was abundant i stoloniferus.
Control eXperiments do (Appendix 8) that significar region occupied by Cyper tubers For another variety but without tubers, such a s noted. When crushed leaves quantities to loosen the s liking to the leafy soil and worms eating them. It may been in our experimental they were resorting to eat d
Leafy matter were fou worms, though in normal seen but more of calcariou is worth mentioning that worms in the habitat show of calcarious matter when c

lve been influenced by the e not valid. This is to some ata given in appendix 3.
the results of the quantitative of which were grass covered ervation (i.e. 100x100 yards).
total worms obtained from 3 feet and the other at 3-4 r's edge. These observations 3-2.67. The results indicated ng the grass populated areas in this region being Cyperus
ne in the laboratory showed tly the worms avoided the is stoloniferus runners and of grass with similar runners significant avoidance was not
were put into soil in large oil, there was a significant there were indications of the
be that as the worms had . box for more than 2 weeks ry leaves.
nd in gut contents of these worms no leafy matter were is matter. In this context it gut contents of the normal significantly large quantities ompared to the gut content
த


Page 20
﻿of Megascolex sp., Collect soil in these two regions d difference in calcium conten
4. There also seems about February and Marc starts appearing again by e The re-appearance of the w region of 207-227 from the f that the water had receede observation worth mentioning were collected were juvenile was searched, no adults wel forms were very rare (about
5. In the month of C in the 27.47 belt from the edge found. This is the time the of the lagoon and halide cc
6 The nature of the the Eastern and western sho land mass were analaysed (a western shore and that o harbour any worm (appendi different terrain. The wester 2" - 3" of loose soil and with nearly 11 "-18" depth of (i) The physical comp regions vary to som appears to have suf clay to retain the w have either more of

ld 50 yards away, though the o not show any appreciable t.
to be a population peak by h and then a decline and it arly October (appendix-2D). ' orm in early October is in the ixed mark inspite of the fact d to nearly 170', is another Further the worms that forms. Though a large area 'e found. Even the juvenile
2 per quadrat)
Dctober no worms were found ; of water. Only Nereids were ; water had receeded to middle oncentrations were fairly high.
soil in the 27-4 belt of res and also of the central ppendix 6). The belts of the f the central strip did not x 5) and these two had a one was rocky with only he central strip was marshy
soil.
osition of the soil in the 3 e extent. Working point II ficient porosity and little of later. The other two points clay & less of sand or muddy.


Page 21
﻿(ii) Consequently air cont high in the soil thou (iii) There does not appea in pH, chemical natur
& organic mater cont points.
(iv) Laboratory experimen worm in different pH show that these wor1 such as 65 and 9.5 ranges of 7.5 to 85 because that the norr falls within 7.8-85. is difficult to say th in pH ranges of 65 7. Similar soil data w pH kept out) in all 3 workin. when the worms were abund and 6'-8" belt areas. (Appen in water content and air cont difference in the other factors. variations in water content have trials too.
Therefore the abundanc the 2'-4" belt may be due to and air content.
8. There is a definite content of the lagoon w (appendix 10). There appear between the frequency of ap the halide content of the W

ent appears to be slightly gh not significantly different r to be appreciable difference.
e, temperature, water content nt among these 3 working
ts conducted by keeping the I, ranging from 6 5-9' 5 ms tend to avoid the extremes and concentrate in the pH (Appendix 9). This may be nal pH range of the habitat Anyway from the results, it
at the worms cannot survive and 9.5
ere taken (temperature and g points on a day in February ant at distances 2'-4', 4'-67 dix. 7), Except for differences 2nt there were no appreciable
That worms are sensitive to : been tested in the laboratory
*e of worms in February in that particular water content
difference in the halide ater from month to month to be a definite correlation pearance of the worm and 'ater. (appendix 11)


Page 22
﻿The disappearance in water content as in Februar water's edge may be due The appearance of the wi area 20-30' from the fixed normally occupy in Februar 2'-4" from the water's edge lagoon from the fixed migration of the worm, alc to suit the water content a the halide content reaching appears that the life cycle is cc habitat.
9. There are wells ab fixed mark up above. The low halide content Water m prevalance of those worms lagoon in addition to the o
10 Association of Nere has been confirmed. Onl P. bermudensis is abundant l Members of Megas colids 50 yards above working poin
Discussion and Conclusion
The oligochaete worm a peculiar worm in that it other oligochaetes which are soils. The distribution seem regions and there is no record countries. Open seashores Brackish water lagoons app s

July inspite of the similar y in the 2-4 belt from the to increased halide content. orm in juvenile form in the mark (ie the area that they y, March and April) and not (which is 170' away inside the mark) also indicate that the ng with the receeding water nd air content, is limitted by a high proportion. It also pinciding with the unfavourable
out 50 yards away from the seepage of this comparatively ay also be a factor for the in the eastern sector of the ther factors mentioned.
bids along with P. bermudensis y difference is that when Nereids decrease & vice versa.
were collected further up ht I, near the fresh water well.
Ponto drillus bermudensis is is found in saline soils unlike : mostly found in fresh water is to be limitted to tropical of this worm from temperate do not show these Worms. ear to be the favoured sites.


Page 23
﻿Even in such lagoons and not found all over as seen nature of the soil, halid and air content appear the distribution. Organic m seepage may also be factors wh pH does not appear to be
The worms are defi populated in the belt of 2'- water provided the factors I are suitable. Further they v stoloniferous. Whether thesi avoided because they loosen for these worms to have an secrete some repulsive chemi Some extended work carried possibility, but further exper
The population peak numbers in March and disappearance in June, July, the appearance of only you indicate a life cycle con disapperance of those worm with the un favourable seas higher than sea water. Hen a barrier to further migarat lagoon inspite of the fact t soil nature, pH, Temperatur content are same at the 2-4

brackish water edges they are at Thondaimannar. Physical e content, water content, to be factors influncing atter content and fresh water ich needs further investigation. a limitting factor.
nitely found to be thickly -4' from the edge of the mentioned as influencing them vere found to avoid Cyperus tubers and runners are the soil and make it impossible ly compact burrows, or they cal substance, one cannot say. out, point towards the latter iments need be done.
in February, the dwindling April and the complete August and September and ung ones in October tend to nprising of 8 months. The s in June, July periods coincide on when salinity goes even ce salinity may be acting as ion down to the bed of the hat factors like water content e, Air Content and humus feet belt. The collections of
9


Page 24
﻿very young forms in the re found in January February
the above hypothesis. It is fresh water seepage may be W OrS tO COC6C tratet at C0C
Though the worms ap matter in the normal habita and probably other material
A brief review of its taxo:
This small worm 75-80 number clustering around 115 3-15 segments has also the fi The gizzard appears to be a Setae commences from 17th, of male duct on 18th segm are tubular in structure.
This worm has been in family Cryptodrillidae b admits that Pontodrilus ber degeneration and shows som Geoscolidae.
Oligochaete classificati Gates (1959) Omedeo (1958 classifications were review others he took into conside according to him (1965), th Acanthodrillidae.
It would be too hast of this worm and it is bet
fo

gion where they are normally and March also substantiates also probable that subterranean also a factor that causes the tain regions of the lagoon.
pear to be taking in calcarious ut, it could also take in leaves s too when starved.
nomу.
mm. in length with segment to 120 and clitellum occupying ollowing characteristic features. bsent in all worms examined. 18th or 19th segments. Opening ent and the prostatic glands
grouped with 15 other genera y Beddard. But he himself mudensis shows evidence of he characters of another family
on has undergone revision by } and Lee (1958). All these 2d by Dr. Sims. Unlike the ration nearly 49 characters and e genus comes under the family
y to fix the taxonomic position er to leave this matter open


Page 25
﻿for futher investigation in th of approach to taxonomy de
References.
1. Beddard, Frank Evers
p. 443 2. Gates, G. E., 1959, Bu
Museum P. 229.
3. Cain, A. J. & Harri Society London. Vol. 4. Sims, R. W. 1966. Pro
2 p. 125. 5. Atput hanathan, M. Ku nam, K. 1965. Prelim Hydrobiological Surv
6.
Jackson, Richard M. a.
Soil.

e light of the new method vised by Dr. Sims,
Monograph on Oligochaeta
lletine of Comp Zoo. Harv.
son G. A. 1958. Proc. Zool
131. p. 85
c. Linn. Society, London 177,
gathason, K. S. and Gunaratinary observations on the ey of Thondaimannar lagoon.
nd Raw Frank, 1966. Life in


Page 26
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Page 28
﻿Appendi
Relative abundance of edge of the wa
3 亦
W. W.

f / / گھA
* 2' 3/
Edge of Distance
Water
Appendi
Frequency of appearance betwe
fixed mark every
a 4o
3 oso
so
ad
is

x 2 C
the worms from the ter upto 8 feet
/
W --
s/ 6 77 gf
from edge of water
Χ 2 D
'en the edge of the water and month. (year 1967)
علق بتجسس له سبعة ستعية سبعة :


Page 29
﻿APPEN
Number of worms are the
in the region 2'-4" .
Date Time Number
Worms
O-7 6 р. m,—7 а. m. 34
--67 3 p.m.-4 p. m. 0
5-2-67 7 p.m.-8 p.m. 99
8-2-67 I a. Πη.-1 2 a. Τη. 206
8-2-67 1 a.m.-1-0 a. m. 73
APPEN
Nature' of Habitat Grass (--) Grassless (-) (-) (-) (-) (
Number of worms ר in a quadrat in 2'-3' belt 206 18 180 and a quadrat in 3'-4" belt
W
Collection w location" I II III
* These collection locations are
plot (Ref. Appendix 5)

DX II
total for 2Xl foot quadrats. rom edge of Water.
Remarks
There can be other factors responsible for this variation
The month may also be another variable factor
- (--) (+) (一) (ー) |(+) | (ー)
2 II 0 6 OI
V
V V VII - || VIII i IX Χ
! within the selected experimental


Page 30
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'$ČIA Qồi ĶĪCIIS NH3IŁSoos /// 十 O 兴 �  Page 31 ﻿NS SHLVI SHCIXONOJW WOISSW LOd 'W (oëW ONICIn ION: HCIIXO WIIIN ONIX SIL IvS 3THOTOSNI CINV *WN “d 7 O. HRI('hLWRH3yd W: “WN * W 9 O JLWRdWE JLNICILIN ЈLNЗIJI NOO I NOILINOI N RHLJLVW OI 'punoj ələa nį jo səəei L. sə8ɛsuɔɔJəd uỊ əlɛ sựun II y 1.0 |#0.0| 1.0 |6.0||0.ZI|0,91||0.Zog, †g|g.ýž(punoj ələA suuJOAA ou) III JLNIOɖ 9NIXINHOAA G-I 19.980, zil I. z 10.gz|0. Zz|0.8% -|-||●(punoj ələAA stuJoaa ou) 60,0|| Z.0.0) # .. 0 || 1.0 || 0.II] 0. LI! 0.990 - †79|g., †Z\ 0, &*8. I唱0°ZŁ| 0.#ZII JLNIOď sƆNIXINOAA |(punoj ələwa suuJoA) ç0-0||10-0 9.0 || 1:1 || 0:3 | 06|0,190 #2|#.*?|0.7|8,08|0. *16. i II. ziļrwy|8.gs.I JLNIOɑ {DNI XIXHOAA -·주TT공「정「공후지TFTT서적© | vo | own 巩一圈一斑斑及一斑張| 3 3段ș以一期一第一张一掷 涯一河一心孤一位一冶一迈卫张 。一战一怒|6||巧一心 23 | ►á= | tri内Z©Obr心斑一入U 但一泊一批一阳以一比| S一叉狂江8|湘C 一心|  Page 32 ﻿UƏUI UIO UIƏļU UlƏ. p. әшnoА Ка—1uә} ՁաոIօA ճզ-) ,9 – , jo Ձաոլoլ οιπηΙοΛ Λα , ԹաոլoA ճգ-բ ‘ LS6 I Uļļ8 ‘ÁIen Iqəā uo quțOd >ȚIONA Əųł go qɔeə le 8–12 tuolų uoụeuȚIIIexə ĮĮos əų jo sųnsəg IIA XIGINGId&W Ienbə KĻJeəu səŋɔɔypus = . •Opunoj sou suuIoM)| * ||%的I|%2·0科) *躲获„ | %9 || %0.8)* , *必%z | % z 1% g. 9ɛ| %ỳ |% I I|?%ç 9III quỊod XIONA A XỊpuəddy • JøYI| punoj ļouSúIJOAA „ soő& I|×0.03| . || ... | ►• |%0. I || %9-93 | ► | ► | ►&g &g &T・0 %g|%にT&0gII quļod X10AA A XỊpuəddy 'Jax's -punoj əIəAA SuuJOAA „ '% g 11% 1.03 | ► | ► | ►* ||%9r|%島·『g| : || . || *&s &s &g・0g|&s &ら3%にI suļod XIONA ·IA XỊpuəddy ojos -------– —!---- -©© | ori | O| C一任沮 Q 唯一取一跳一明一暗| |罚一跳一昭一一翻 暗骂一跳一明一一 田班一心一剑一混田8R || "< || 읽5 || 村田 || .2 || 잃 || 《R || 5 || 환 E | Q | Słca | %弧一哈一ca ||$孤丽一*| L强一邻 o | 8 | es峨一俗 ||5|照一的È i ga一那一圈一知一珊一路 Q B以 一理òf | Q | 5卫一些似羽巡兴飞雅


Page 33
﻿


Page 34
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s IIA XẺ GINTHddw'

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Page 35
﻿posn xso es jo sɔmbɔI ÁIĊI
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uo %.g. e I – GI JuoluțiođxĘ
luto1.JĮuss — "'' uù %g • 98 ; "i i jutros JĮuấIS – opis jeɔT \to %1-99‘ “ sɛɔŋbɔI up %s'. £ € – O1ualulu) dx H lupo. Jų uïss so N — “ (' tio %9, † ?.· · ·感uo %s.gg – a suauis 12dx? mutɔIJļuāls — opissȘt:1ī LIŲ % E. 5 Top!5ssəIssu lī uƠ %€.06 — Wiuņuu!I) dx) Ấuellitung |- =| ---- ፮፻፵*Is] sss!! ȚĂ ɔɔyd lleurs os uosiolq?]|时國, 『司- |响|國1韓 『 (日 punoj alɔwo sɔatɔI Álp. Jo sɔɔɔld ||| |젊{}0T9|野*「용 『 CI


Page 36
﻿APPEND
T., T. & Ts were trials: For ea in each Compartment and
T - 8
T - 6
T - 7 pH 7 - 5
7 محس- T T - 8 T,, — 7 pH 8 - 5
Sum)
6 • 5 pH 7 - 5 pH - TT 7 - -s to

X X
h trial 5 worms were placed
examined after two days.
T - 2 T。一3 т. — 2 pH 6 - 5
T - 3
3 -سن- Ta T - 4
pH 9 - 5
mary
8 • 5 pH. 9 - 5 pH.
35·0J%。 16 is


Page 37
﻿APPEN
39
35
33
31 -
7 -
2.5-
2,3-
2.1 -
1
1 -
15
13 -
1 -
3.
AN.

Halide Concentration in thousands (Parts
Jan. 1967-F

DX X

per million against month.-Starting from ebruary 1968


Page 38
﻿Appe
Scatter diagram show
83
oco«
ộô
Halide content of lagoon wa

Indix Xl
ving negative correlation
re- A.
ーす t y
3. ۹ 31 R
ter in thousand parts per million


Page 39
﻿Observations on the Bio worm, Odontosyllis GI Northern Coast and Th
The phenomenon was o and along the coast fro santhurai. This paper
made in a selected area

uminescence of a marine avelyi Fauvel, 1928, off ondaimannar.
bserved at Thondaimannar m Point Pedro to Kankeis based on the Study
at the Point Pedro coast.


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﻿


Page 41
﻿View of the inter-tidal zone, )
, , , stained worm P. Tail segment magnified Regenerating worm in the aq Middle of the worm showing Gonad with clotted sperms Structure B & B.

Point-Pedro with Sargassm & Codi um
99. at Low tide
Bermudensis
uarium
black bodies,


Page 42
﻿


Page 43
﻿


Page 44
﻿


Page 45
﻿


Page 46
﻿Fha foirnicir

"пgraph


Page 47
﻿


Page 48
﻿Introduction
The emission of light
phenomenon of bioluminescenc some members of each group f members are either terrestrial the phenomenon is wide-spre This “cold light’ emission has three categories ; (1) lumin bacteria (2) luminescence ( certain specialised organs (pho parts of the body and (3) excretion produced from the
exhibited by Odontosyllis C Category.
Luminescence appears
among the polychaetes. Lumi the Syllidae has been observed century onwards. In the ear the luminescence of various : observed off Jamaica, Bahama coast and India. There have b on the forms of Polychaetes polynoids and some Work biochemistry of luminescence animals The anatomy anc enopla has been worked out inferences have been drawn f the mode of luminescence.
In this paper I have trie on the bioluminescence of th Gravelyi Fauvel, observed

by living organisms or the e has been observed in at least om Bacteria to fishes. Such or marine and among them ad among marine members.
been broadly divided into escence due to symbiotic lue to light production by tophores) located in different uminescence due to some body. The bioluminescence jravelyi belongs to the last
to be a common occurence nous display by members of and recorded from the 18th. ly part of the 19th. century species of Odontosyllis was s, Bermuda, Java, the Pacific een some detailed observation such as Chaetopterids and has been done on the in marine and terrestrial il histology of Odontosyllis by Galloway (1908) and some rom biochemical work as to
d to record my observations Le marine worm, Odontosyllis off Point Pedro & Thondai
g


Page 49
﻿mannar. There is a short the Fauna of British India been observed to be phosphor Bioluminescence of these the light house at Point Pe right end of the reef Zone Ceylon (Appendix I). It h at various points along the posible that this swarming all along the Northern coas because the habitat is gener variations. This has been spread over the extended ar.
Observation
Outside the brief swal found to live on Codium, of rocks (Photograph 1). M confined to the inter-tidal the light from a worm was When the worms appear in la was visible at a slightly lo possible to determine wheth in the inter-tidal Zone. observations carried out at is just beyond the low water of swarming there too. (Pl a small marine aquarium shc swim up to the surface even during dusk, both a few da and on other days did not
observations tend to show
2

description of this worm in where it is recorded as having escent in May and September. worms was first observed near dro, that is at the extreme on the Northern region of as since then been observed Northern Coast. It is highly phenomenon may be found t of the Jaffna peninsular, ally the same except for minor
ascertained by observations ca.
rming periods the worms were Sargassm and in the crevices lost of my observations were Zone. The distance to which visible was about 20 to 40 ft. rge numbers their luminescence inger distance. It was not dr the worms appeared only On one or two occasions the line of living coral, that mark, showed the appearance otograph 2) Worms reared in wed that they do not normally at nights. Plankton collections ys before and after swarming contain these animals. These hat they do not swim up to


Page 50
﻿the surface except when they scence. Those kept in the a the bottom. They produce within a few hours construc and lived inside these tubes. corners of the aquarium t constructed tubes were transp to the glass. It was not possi even by causing violent agital this agitation the worms cam tubes remained intact. Later sand grains makes these tube: On the algal thallai and on their natural habitat the wor
These worms were kep two months. Natural lumine time but irritation caused sp their tubes they seemed to be observed that they came out did so they usually returned other times they entered othe aquarium was renewed weekl seems to be widely tolerant and oxygen content.
When the worms get swarming some of them are too were seen to live in mu these tubes that regeneratio) The tubicolous habit may be the conditions in the reef whole area may be exposed

swarm and display luminequarium normally crept at d copious secretion and ted gelatinous tubes out of it The worms preferred the o its flat bottom. Newly barent and firmly attached ble to dislodge these tubes ion of the water. During e out of their tubes but the on, deposition of silt and s semi-transparent or opaque. rocky surfaces which form ms live in this manner.
it in the aquarium for nearly 'scence was not noted at any ecks of light to appear. In feeding. It was occasionally of their tubes. When they to their own tubes but at r tubes. The sea-water in the y or fortnightly but the worm to changes in salinity, temp.
down to the bottom after broken. These broken pieces cous tubes and it is within in seemed to be going on. an adaptation to withstand zone where at low tide the by the receeding of water,
s


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﻿except in the rock pools ( time the algae above the m the air.
Unlike Nereis and o small, fragile and delicate i diameter varying from 1 centers round two ranges, 3 cms. Length determination animals were moving on that they have a maximum that when swimming the specimens measured for le 58% came under short range range forms. It was also in few worms appear first í (see Fig. 7). These results a the Bahamas species. Thus i ones are females and the sh also observed that the time o could be divided into thos those with shorter duration ( at the begining of swarming on body length and duration
Structure
The number of segmer and anal segments range f Only very few individuals wit seen and these seem to be il worms have a prominent head peristomium ; prostomium
4.

Photograph 2). During this an tide level are exposed to
ther genera these worms are n appearance. They have - 15 mm and their length 8 to 4"8 cms. and 2 8 to 3·8 ls were made when these )etri dish. It must be noted length when creeping and ir length shortens. Of the ngth determination nearly : forms and 28% under long oted that when swarming, a ollowed by a larger number ire consistent with those of it is possible that the larger orter ones are males. It was f the duration of luminescence e with longer duration and Fig 8). Some worms collected confirmed these observations h of luminescence.
its including the peristomial om 100- 140 in most cases. h less than 100 segments were n a regenerating stage. These made up of prostomium and
with 3 tentacles arising


Page 52
﻿dorsally and two broad p disposed ventrally, (Ref. Fig. developed eyes are present, til and wider apart. It may be are characteristic features of the peristomium arises two
pair being shorter than the
all typical except the last tv has a pair of parapodia, eac and divided into notopodiur the notopodim arises a filam
of chaetae with filamentous e arises a short broad cirrus a
The filamentous chaetae of t elongated in the middle regic curious that in most of them found from 29, 30, or 31st. S about 40 to 45 segments. This of the number of segments i to note that there was one where not elongated and in were not visible. Specimens c showed these elongated chae absent in some of them. This chaetae must be an adaptatio to the surface. This may al. From the second to the fifth are greatly elongated (figs, 1 a to forward swimming. The ultimate segment have reduce segments but chaetae absent tail segments are greately elo

alps fused at their bases, 1, 2 & 3). Two pairs of well he anterior pair being larger
that these prominent eyes swarming individuals. From
pairs of cirri, one of each other. Other segments are vo. Each typical segment h Supported by an aciculum, n and neuropodium. From entous cirrus and a bundle
nds ; from the neuropodium nd chaetae with broad ends.
he notopodium are greatly in of the animal. It is very l, the elongated chaetae were egments. These extend to is the modification regardless in the worm. It is interesting : specimen where the chaetae that specimen the gonads too :ollected from the habitat too tae, though gonads were showed that these elongated n for swimming up actively so be a sexual adaptation. n segment inclusive, the cirri nd 2). This may be an aid tail segment and the pend parapodia like the posterior in both. The cirri of the ngated and these may guide
த


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﻿the animal in swimming. study has not yet been structures were studied from Some evidence on sexual m
One of the characteri black bodies grouped in the without exception, even in t In a great many there is a present at the point where formed (Photograph 5). The line extend from the peristc of the black bodies wanes segments there are nearly tv black bodies per segment ( behind, there are four grou a characteristic pattern. (Ph are found dorsally; transver that these bodies are present of black bodies is made up irregular black structures.
to do with luminescence is
Associated with the e kidney shaped structures ( from somewhere near the se elongated, but may extend modified chaetae or may ex segments. These structures are in most of them (Photograph were broken, groups of the not possible to say whethel
6

Though a detailed anatomical attempted, certain important .
whole mount so as to obtain aturity and bioluminescence.
stic features is the presence of . a mid dorsal line in all worms hose collected from the habitat. lso a group of black bodies the notopodial outgrowth is e black bodies of mid dorsal mium onwards. The density posteriorly. In the anterior vo groups of medially placed Fig. 1), but in some segments ps per segment and they have otograph 6) These black bodies se sections of the worm show in the epidermis. Each group of a large number of smaller Whether these have anything not known.
longated chaetae are present Fig. 4). These structures start gments where the chaetae are to fewer segments than the , tend for a greater number of the gonads with clotted sperms 7). When some fresh specimens
gametes were liberated: it is they were male or female


Page 54
﻿gametes The parapodia in and prominent, in Some speci
There are at the origin placed and darkly stained struc these structures have opening up of two structures placed and 6, B and B, (also see p that these are nephridia whi the posterior region. My ol luminescence makes me ques cannot be responsible for llum bodies may be some sort of
Swarming
Swarming of O. Gravel was observed by F. H. Gravi and September 1925 and 1928, Point. Off Point pedro, it wi a casual observation in 1957 preliminary observation with preliminary observation it occu was related to the New moc appearance had some relation was a short duration phenon definite characteristics about
These points are set ou data collection. Such data wer cardinal fact was thus establis swarmed every month, emitti begins after sunset, on the d

these segments were expanded
CS.
of the parapodia dorsally ures. In the posterior regions s. They seem to be made one above the other (figs. 5 hotograph 8) It is possible ch open to the exterior in oservation of the nature of ion why these structures inescent secretion. The black photogenic structures.
yi emitting luminescent fluid alyi himself on May 7 1924 off Krusadi islands and Sandy as reported in the form of In Sept. 1957, I made a team of students. From red to me that, (i) swarming n periods, (ii) the time of to sunset, (iii) the swarming nenon, (iv) there was some swarming.
t in the table used for further 'e obtained for 3 years. One shed namely that these worms ng luminescence. Swarming ay prior to new moon, the
7


Page 55
﻿new moon day or the day It is worthwhile to mentior months of December 1960 swarming for the month New noon. Being the Nc the sea was rough during two days it had calmed. Ir appeared a day before newn new moon day and the foll The worms did not appear again when the sea calmed after new moon. It should all previous Dec. the swarming sea was calm. Thus these d takes place on specified da! are favourable. It may be observers were not able to duration of each swarming v on an average (Appendix 1). swarming went on as long a only one or two worms just swarmed for a fraction of a occur only for one day in a 2, 3 or 4 days.
Comparison of fjeld that there is no increase in specified month or season (1
Another interesting fe the time of sunset one can e. within a certain interval of that in most cases, the first
S

after new moon (Appendix 1). a slight deviation in the und January 1961. The first occured two days after rth East monsoon season, the new moon days, but in november 1960 the worms hoon as usual, but on the owing day the sea was rough on these days but appeared on the 2nd. and 3rd. day so be mentioned that in the was normal because the eviation show that swarming ys, provided the conditions another reason why other note it every month. The raried from 5 mins to 63 mins. There were times when Ls 100 mins. and also when appeared on the surface and min. The swarming may month or it may go on for
notes of the 3 years showed the number swarming in any Appendix 3). ature is that if one knows xpect the swarming to begin time. Data collected reveals individuals appear about 30


Page 56
﻿to 60 mins. after sunset. He variation. In the months of March and April, they appea mins. after sunset. In the r Aug. & Sept. they appear sligh after Sunset (graph 5 c). If we of day length for Ceylon explanation for the above Oct. to April the day len except in April. In these swarming is also early. Ir length is more than 12 h. month also occurs late Observations of swarming days before and after sunset. worms were seen just for a about 5 mins. before sunrise. takes place normly after Sun
Swarming accompanied one cannot forget in his lifeti of terrestrial and quite a there is a trail of luminescen in the form of jet estimatec most cases. The werms app the bottom; then they come on the crest of the wave the fluid, and swim actively abo against the waves or sideway shore. They never move are placed in a beaker they to the inner circumference of

're there seem to be yearly Oct.. Nov., Dec. Jan., Feb., r quickly ; ie. between 30-40 nonths of May, June, July, tly late ie, about 45-60 mins. work out the yearly variation (Fig 10), there lies the mentioned variation. From gth is shorter than 12 hrs months the appearance of the other months the day rs. and swarming in those (Compare Fig. 10 Fig. 9). were done for an year, few Only on one occasion few short period for 15 mins, This confirms that swarming | Set.
by luminescence is a sight me. Unlike the luminescence number of marine animals, ce, issued from the worm i to be nearly 2ft. long in ear as a speck of light at up obliquely. As they appear by start emitting 2 trails of but in a curvy way, either 's; but seldom towards the in circles. When these move in circles very close the beaker. Students posted
9


Page 57
﻿at different places along the observed the direction individuals. The results f direction. The colour of t to be bluish green. In m Substance was seen to be se of the animal. A sew speci sea and in the beaker show from which the luminescent the worm and finally the se posterior most end of th double trail found at the shortened to a speck. The this speck of light, crept at corner of the beaker. The luminescent fluid is secreted the more probable one fron to be coming.
The swarming takes a few worms appcaring and sw on an average for two mins. 4 by a large number of worms lasting for a shorter time, ie. 1 The sudden outburst of lui same way as it appeared, bu to appear for every 5 to 10 some time. Except for a fe stopped when the appearar reduced to one in 5-10 mins to swim with luminescence watch in places where there

5 mile stretch of the coast, of movement of swarming ailed to show any perticular he light in darkness appears ost cases the light giving creted from the posterior half mens closely examined in the ed that gradually the length fluid emanated decreased in cretion was confined to the e animal. By this time the begining of swarming had animal, then went down with the bottom and settled in a region through which the also points to structure B as in which these secretion seem
definit , pattern. I noted a imming with long trails lasting 5 secs. This is quickly followed that have shorter trails and min. 10 secs. to 1 min. 30 secs. minescence fades away in the ut occasional worms were seen mins. and this goes on for w months, observations were ce of the worm became ;. The time taken by a worm was recorded with a stop was less of rock or when


Page 58
﻿the tide was high. In the l be strong for it was found submerged the animals. T appearance of the swarmers
To determine the patte a perticular spot and made a my reach for every 3 mins. counting the same worm twi reappearance after being inte dashing on rocks or shore), sudden increase in number b{ estimate it. Graphs plotted constancy of the pattern of
Temperature of the w and before and after, were ta included the extremes of this region (Appendix 2). I does not influence the ons table 8 it is clear that t tropics is higher than that Secondly the temperature in constant throughout the year Both these may be causes f Bioluminescençe.
It was also suggested swarm with luminescence following day. Worms were and by this method a great on a perticular area were tr pattern of swarming was not

atter case waves should not that strong waves sometimes limes given represent the at the surface. Fig 8
'rn of swarming I selected pproximate countings within or more (this is to avoid ce but this does not eliminate rrupted by submergence or At times when there was a yond the normal I had to with such values show the swarming (Fig. 7).
ater on the day of swarming aken for a few months which temperature variation in )ata shows that temperature set of swarming. From the he mean temperature of the of the temperate regions. the tropics is more or less unlike in temperate countries. or the monthly occurence of
that the same worms could a second time or on the
collected with plankton nets percentage of that swarmed apped. Even then the normal :ed on the following day too.


Page 59
﻿Sometimes repitition of th occured slightly late on worms trapped and kept in emit luminescence, either on or even the next month. I swarming is interrupted by collection that reappearance cases the duration of lumine
It is worthwhile to m days after this swarming time. specks of light appear of light also appear when specially on new moon de appear. Under experimental these specks of luminescence well as by the use of chemi of luminescence though p characteristically different f luminescence associated with to get such continuous flow these animals swim up, there is especially in the middle regi
The fact that these needle emit luminescence rea by a thin layer of water a production of luminescent fl is on the crest of the wave. oxygen may be a requisite fo of dil. alkali were added, flashes of luminescence for
2

e same pattern of swarming the same day also. Further, marine aquarium did not that day, the day following t is only when the normal rocks, heavy waves or by were seen to occur. In such scence was short.
ention here that for some phenomenon, at the specified under water. These specks these animals are irritated ys when only a few worms condition, I have produced by mechanical irritation as cal irritants. These specks roduced by secretion are rom the continous flow of swarming. I was not able w by any method. When a peculiar quivering movement on of the body.
worms on irritation with a dily only when it is covered nd the fact that the copious uid occurs when the animal show that free supply of or luminescence. When drops the worms started emitting sometime after which they


Page 60
﻿died. According to luciferi reaction going on in the dire is facilitated by the alkaline this or it may be that these ch causing them ... to secrete lun animals, being used to an emitting luminescence.
Conclusion
Thus it appears that t occuling along the reef frin a monthly feature. Like ma1 earlier it is associated with lu sometime after sunset. T sunset depends on the length of the individuals show th; The differentiated portion c from of the anterior end to : the gonads may extend to m is probable that a few fem followed by hordes of males luminescent secretion, her bioluminescence could be a s partners. The fact that th month may be taken to m larva reaches sexual maturit It is possible that every mol become sexually mature an effect swarming at this perticul animals make a vertical mig accompanied by luminescent

ne-luciferase hypothesis the :ction of liberation of light medium. It may be due to : emicals had caused irritation, ninescent fluid and that the alkaline fluid survive longer
he swarming of O. Gravelyi ged coast of Point. Pedro is ny such phenomena observed unar periodicity and appears he time of appearance after of the day. The structure at they are sexually mature. if the body being roughly from the anterior end; but nore posterior segments. It ales which appear first are
extruding their gametes with ce this phenomenon of exual display to attract the is phenomenon occurs every ean that within a month a y. This is highly unlikely. hth at least Some worms will d the sexually mature ones ar time. The fact that these ration only once when it is secretion too indicates this
13


Page 61
﻿possibility. Another ol explanation is that during make isolated appearance their gametes may take a months or even an year) then what causes them to in relation to day length investigation.
Reference
l. Harvey, E. N. Biolum 2. Fauvel : Fauna of Indi 8. Biological Review Feb.
Fig. 1
Prostomial cirri Palp Peristomial cirri Prostonial lip Eyes Bucca cavity Black bodies Pharynx Notopodium
Fig 3
Blunt chaetae fro
Aciculum Oar shaped chaet Structure A - dar! except in the las
Fig. 5 N Fig. 6 D

servation that supports my
certain months only few worms s. Those that have extruded nother period (it may be some before they swarm again. Even
swarm at this perticular time nd lunar phase requires further
inescence 1952 a pages 160-161, 1928
1960-Cambridge Philosophical
Society.
Fig. 2
Prostomial tentacles Fused palp Peristomial cirri Eyes
Black bodies Ventral chaetae Dorsal chaetae Neuropodium
m upper side.
ae from underside
tly stained structure seen in all parapoda
it few
entral view showing Gonad. otopodium showing structure B etail of structure B


Page 62
﻿Fig.
Head Region O Grave
s Ꭽ
S S (P
リ S Áy E.

, ట్రిస్తరిస్టాgzN
R ప్లైడ్లో ༄། * s യു ක්‍රීක්‍ෂුණී

lyi - Dorsal view.


Page 63
﻿F: Head Region of O Gr
Fi; Neuropodium Fr

ig. 2 - avelyi - Ventral view.
N
g. 3 om 19th Segment


Page 64
﻿纱,
2

Fig. 4
STRuctures
NOTOPEN
Fig. 6. X 400
Fa C v SS Eb
Da RSA
Fig. 4 Ventral view sl
Fig. 5 Notopodium sh Fig. 6 Detail of struc

GoN Ao
STRucuRE e
Y ENTRA VIEW, X, 22
Goats
Fig. 5. X 100
slightly 3 flow 1
E. su Race. CSe 3 ငွó'ိုင္ငံမ္ဘ_
nowing Gonad.
owing structure B
:ture B


Page 65
﻿Fi
Pattern of sw,
• 1:#*「파「여「터녀1서乡
suuJow Jo 124uun NĮ
Luminescence of e

... 7
irming numbers
———
ਡਨ
in minutes
g. 8
icence by each worm.
ހަ

ach worm in minutes.


Page 66
﻿F.
Beginning of biollumi
55
i
The average time for each month wa two years' results were
Fig
Variation of day en (EDrawn with the he
Ը)
A.

ig. 9
nescence after sunset.
is taken and plotted. Wherever possible
taken into consideration.
gth in ara year-Ceylon. lp of Tamil almanac)


Page 67
﻿


Page 68
﻿APPENI
Date Relationship to Lunar phase
Feb. 9th Day following New Moon
, 10th soma
I th. xiddi
s
1 2 th.
March 8th.
Day before New moon
ss 9th. New moon day April 8th. . . . . , , .

May 26th. Day following New moon July 24th. s 9 9 s
, 25th. , Sept. 20th. ..., s ss
, 21st.
, 22nd. Oct. 19th. Day before New moon
,, 20th. New moon day
St. Day following New moon Nov. 17th Day before New moon
s 8th New moon day
19th Day following New moon
, 20th. -··
ss 21 St. M Dec. 30th. 2nd day after New moon
s 2 St. kadK
Jan 19th. 2nd day after New moon
, 20th. www. Feb. 15th. New moon day March 16th. Day before New moon
, 17th. New moon day April 15th. New moon day June 1 1 th. I iš 2 days before new moon
,, 14th. Day after New moon July 13th. New moon day Sept. Oth. s 9 S Oct. 9th. Day before New moon
, 10th New moon day
, 11th. Day following New moon

DX
Begining after Average Remarks
SUSCt t6C
34 mins
29 ,
29 s 3 mins. 31 , 23 , 28 , 26 35 , 35 , 35 52 , 52 53 , 53 60 , 50 ,, 55 52 , 52
54 , 54 30 , 30 ..., O 6. ,
46 , 49 41 , , a 30 , 30 . 3 O 30 ,

Sea rough
40, 37 no appearance 35 , వీటి , 33 , 33
د 4 4 44 , 44 35 , 32 , 32 , 32 32 , 3别 53 , 55 , 54 49 , 49 6. , 6 31 ,
33 岛2
3.


Page 69
﻿Appen
Temperature of sea water
Month. Mean temp.
in deg. C
Dec. 27
9 p. 26 Feb. 26.5 March 29 April 32 May --a June 29 July 27.5 Aug. 29 Sept. 28 Oct. 295 Nov. 28
Apper Comparison of the approximate 59, 60,
The general terms used are
Dash indicates no Question mark indicates that the
Months 1959
Jan. O Feb.“ Large March Medium April Large May Small June Small July Large Aug. Small Sept. Large Oct. p Nov. p
Dec.

dix - 2
bout the time of swarming,
sa
REMARKS
Rainy season, N. E. monsoon
y y
hot season not observed
South west windy season
Rainy season North east monsoon.
dix 3
number swarming in the years, & 6.
, large, medium and small.
observation made.
'e is no record of number appeared.
1960 1961
Large Large
www. Medium
Large محس۔ mlm-sur Small Medium --
- Small Large Small
Large Small Large Large Large Medium
Large u


Page 70
﻿MEMBERS
HYDRO - BIOLOGICAL SURVEY
M. Atputhanathan Convener &
. K. S. Kugathasan, Project Off
K. Selvavenayagam, Project Of
K. Ponnampalam, Secretary-cun
K. Chitravadivelu, Project As
P. Ganeshamoorth y 99
S. Roy Kanthoraj 99
R. Ponnambalam 29 T. Puthrasingam
V. Rajanayagam s
P. Sabaratnam s
K. Shanmugasundaram ,,
K. Sivapathasundaram , N. Sundaramoorthy s
V. Sundaralingam த
T. Thamby
S. Sathyamoorthy 29
99
99
29

92

OF THE
RESEARCH COUNCIL-Aug. 1968
; Project Officer, Station I
icer, Station III
ficer, Station II
n-Treasurer, Research Council.
St.


Page 71
﻿


Page 72
﻿10.
ll.
12.
13.
4.
15.
Particip
American Mission Coll
Chithambara College, V
Gnanasaria College, Ka
Hatley College, Point
Holy Family Convent, J
Jaffna Central College,
Nelliady M. M. V., Kar
Puloly Boys' English Sc
Uduppiddy Girls' High
Urumpirai Hindu Colle
Vada-Hindu Girls' Coll
Vaideswara Vidyalayam,
Vigneshwara College, K
Methodist Girls' High
Thondaimannar M. V.,
Mahajana College, Telli

ating Schools
ge, Uduppiddy.
alvettithuräi.
raveddy.
Pedro.
saffna.
Jaffna.
aveddy.
hool, Point-Pedro.
School, Uduppiddy.
ge, Urumpirai.
ege, Point-Pedro.
Jaffna\
araveddy.
Schuol, Point-Pedro.
Thorndaimannar.
palai.


Page 73
﻿