கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Hydro-Biological Survey of the Thondaimannar Lagoon - 7
MANGROVE OF THE
K. S. KI
Dallished by the 9tudeo-lial
NAR LAGOON ', 0, SS -
in No. 7
gical Зигвеч (Research (ouncil
Зeieneе Öeachers' flssociation.
DELFT - 7
PUNG U DUTI
SCALE: 1 = 4 m
MANDAIT VŪ U
MAP OF THE H SURW
THONDAIMANNAR NS VALLAI
IYDRO-BIOLOGICAL TEY AREA
DiaGa Art MATc. AEPResENTAtion of T YDR0 - BOLOGICAL SLLI
N - P -
EDUCATION حسہ| H • [ DEPT RESEARC
| ܢܓܿ R, P0||TFONDAI MANNAR P
I- Publication of Fino
-- 3 ETTER sc ENcE sou 777 — FuE LD WoRk c£ra Tes
fE NAN Fol-D to ^7 Pli ol 6A TrorNoS 2 Fo Tres RVEY PROGRAMME.
3 * 3 - || INTERESTED
ou Nc L- བསམ་ BODIES
A KOSH - TCS A NO
Guide to the understanding of C
N. P. S. T. Al-Northern Province Science
H. B. S
S, R, C s. T.
S, Sa, & Sa
-Hydro-Biological Survey o -Secretary, Research Counc
-Schools; Students and Tea
-Project Officers of Statio
(Members -Individual specific project
-Research Assistants (Memb
-Ceylonese Research Office
-Foreign s s
-Convener of this program -Working Stations.
hart overleaf :
Teachers' Association. f Thondaimannar Lagoon. til.
ns, I, II, III, etc.
of Research Council
s at student level.
at teacher level.
bers of Research Council
me, (Chairman of the Research Council)
Bulletin No. 7
es the .
к. S. кс
74 guide to the study ol the characterization of the stangre
and som o common
Dublished by tho 9tudire-biolog
Öhe Werthern 3Dropinee coe.
Olegelation - Lagoon
distribution, identifieation and pes of
jical cursoy (Research (ouncil
ionee õe asehers" olsse eiatier.
on At Nagarkovil,
Si The Mallow
ON OF MANGROVE FLORA.
N OF MANGROVE FLORA.
This is an outcome of my Thondaimannar lagoon. The main
elucidating the distribution of the explanation to the characterstic dist
description and explanation for the dis is also given. The mangrove plants ar. with necessary diagrams and data. This plants of the Thondaimannar lagoon, A of the Island, though not represented also described.
I like to convey my sincere thar University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, and Gardens, Peradeniya; for helping me I also like to thank members of the F helping me in the collection of data, for and for the constructive criticisms. I make mention of the Advanced I Madhya Maha Vidyalayam Karaveddi fo
We are able to present this here Foundation for the publication of our
Finally, I will be satisfied if Biology to probe more and more into studies, and to present other biologists
seven years study of the Flora of the heme of the work is an attempt in
mangrove flora of the lagoon and an ribution of the mangrove flora. A
urbed nature of the mangrove habitat properly studied and described in detail would serve to indentify the mangrove few other common mangrove plants in the Thondaimannar laagoon are
lks to Dr. K. Balasubramaniam of the the Systematic Botanist, Royal Botanical in identifying some of the plants. Hydro-biological Research Council for critically going through the manuscript, will be failing in my duty, if I don't evel Biology students of J/Nelliady assisting me in the collection of data.
; because of the aid given by the Asia
bulletins. I extend my sincere thanks to
this gives an incentive to students of nature, to make more of actual field
with their work.
K. S. K.
| || III || || ||||||||
M ITN |LI, X, , l,
it is . It
Mangrove plants are a class of as salt marsh plants. Mangrove plan coasts in saline swamps, back-waters, rivers) in the tropics where the soil is (inundation). The distribution of mar salinity of the location. (Refer Pla vegetation belong to varied families similarities which are adaptations to th are mostly trees which are stunted in and Under shrubs may also be seen mangrove plants as a class usually havi the soil and the chemistry of the soil and boggy, and soil areartion is exposed to strong wind and sometime very high osmotic concentration and present, the soil is described as exposed to excess of sunlight (both To overcome these hazards the plants and some of them posses special stru and underground organs. It should al. may be a daily occurrence or the area and exposed for short periods, or expi for short periods, (ie seasonal). Whatev Sometimes an upper hard crust may b even then the soil is usually very moist borne in mind that there is always a water, or brakish water, and hence salinity.
Mangrove plants exhibit many to the hazardous environment. Transpi development of adaptational modifications leaves as in Ceriops or Rhizophora ; as in Rhizophora; by the leaves being by the leaves being redused as in Tai leaves as in Salicornia; by the leaves or Salicornia; by the production of juven to the presence of more carotin) and leavcs being hairy as in, Avicennia or H
Halophytes that grow in saline swamps is are normally seen growing along the tidal flats, and estuaries (mouths of subject to periodic immersion in water grove types is according to depth and e-4). Plants grouped under mangrove , but they exhibit many points of le common habitat. Mangrove plants nature. Stragglers, Climbers. shrubs in a typical mangrove habitat but 2 woody stems. The phyrical nature of is variable. The soil is usually loose poor. The plants are generally s wave action. The soil water is of a hence even though water is physically hysiologically dry. The plants are also direct and reflected) and temperature. usually exhibit xerophytic characters ctures for the aeration of submerged so be noted that the periodical flooding is may be submerged for long periods osed for long periods and submerged ver the case is the soil is normally boggy. e formed (during the dry seasons) but I, with less soil air. Also it should be possibility for the mixing of saline the soil has a higher percentage of
xerophytic characterstics as adaptations ration is usually minimised through the as: by the possession of leathery or fleshy by the development of a thick cuticle glabrous and shining as in Lumnitzera; marix; by the possession of scale-like being shed early in life as in Suaeda ile leaves which are coloured (usually due shining as in Rhizophora : or by the eritiera. Bud scales (sheathing stipules)
may be seen that protect the buds as
structures for the storage of water. M and latex in others (Excaecaria, Tamari of transpiration and storage of water) amount of salt in their tissues (osmo intake of salts, the roots take in watt
Some mangrove plants posses sp submerged and underground organs nature and posses many pores for aera or special name Pneumatothodes or seen on stilt roots, or buttress roots,
The soil being boggy and : uns mangrove plants have special modes roots go very deep and help ln f In some the horizontal roots cover . (Avicennia, Lumnitzera). Some posses Excaecaria).
The fruits and seeds are mostly unsuitable for germination (lack of sc and unstable soil), in some plants itself and fall down as seedlings, T as Vivipary.
In mangrove plants belonging Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Ceriops etc. t This is caused as a result of the us cotyledons becoming more or less uni
We may define those plants grc
But we may have to use this ter Thondaimannar lagoon, amongst the and some others that are not typ established in such areas are seen. are also considered for description. and some amphibious plants that are described
Some chemical data of the mat of the lagoon are given at the end. result of the fresh-water scheme of t chemistry of the soil may not fall in of the Island.
in Rhizophora. Almost all plants have cillage in some (Rhizophora, Lumnitzera) x) serve for the same purpose (reduction Mangrove plants tolerate a certain tically tolerant). But to minimise the r very slowly and sparingly.
ecial structures for the ventilation of the
These special organs are spongy in tion called by the general name Lenticels pneumatopores. These pores may be or knee roots, or erect breathing roots,
teady, and wind effect being high, of fixation. In the case of some the rm anchorage. (Tamarix, Excaecaria). very large areas and help in fixation stilt roots or buttress roots (Rhizophora,
dispersed by water. The habitat being bil air, high salinity, periodic inundation, the fruits germinate when on the trees his method of germination is defined
to the Family Rhizophoraceae like here seems to be only a single cotyledon.
ually two or , sometimes three or four ted.
wing in a mangrove habitat as mangroves. m in a more broader sense, for, in the real mangrove plants many associates ical mangrove plants but have become
Such plants (Intruders and Accidentals) Some fore-runners of a mangrove habitat
usually seen in such habitats are also
ngrove soil obtained from various points It should be borne in mind that as a he Thondaimannar lagoon the present line with other typical mangrove soils
BAed case P. GALoanyLi
Plate 4 :
RA. WARGIN OF DEEA AAGOON
VITTORAL. Woo2 AR
LLL LELELES LELH LE0 LLLLLLLLS LLLLCL0LLE LLL LLLLHLLJLLLS
LLLLLL LL LLL LLLLLLL LLLLLLLLS 00CLLLLL LLLLLL
A ML0L0LSLMLLLLLLS S S LMLLLLLLLL SLLL LLLLLL LLLL TATS
Fzeo - Ayricssonnayza ote Sézanny Ca:AZa.
DISTRIBUTION OF MAN
Paper presented at the C.A.A.S.
(ii) CHECK LIST
(iii) MAP SHOWING
Sessions - December 1968)
I will start with the intr the area-a qualitative estimation, nature of Succession and Zonation account of the mangrove vegetatio
For the sake of convenience
(i) Mangrove and Mangrov (ii) Fore runners. (iii) Intruders. (iv) Mud-flat vicgetation.
(i) Mangroves and Mangrove Assoc
Real mangroves come under mangrove and mangrove associates some areas become an associate in Lumnitzera racemosa is a real II dominant vegetation in some areas, a The pattern of distribution of the associates depends mainly on salin
(ii) Fore runners :
Before mangroves appear an plants play a vital part in fo precede the appearance of mangrov, plants for sometime, and may
mangrove vegetation becomes very ferruginea and Cyperus corymbos accumulation of subsoil necessary (Refer check list for Fore runners
(iii) Intruders :
There are some outsiders tha territory. These have been classec 6
duction of the mangrove flora of then give a brief account of the in this area, and finally give an
h along the lagoon.
I have classified the plants as e Associates.
(Refer check list)
this group (Refer check list for i). Plants that are dominant in
some other areas. For example mangrove associate, but forms the und sometimes form closed colonies. se real mangroves and mangrove ity and depth.
ld become established, some other rming the habitat. These plants es, exist along with young mangrove disappear in due course when the thick. Plants like Fimbristylis sus activate sedimentation and the for the growth of mangroves. for other examples)
it have trespassed into the mangrove as intruders (Refer check list for
intruders). Depending on the natu of salinity described in Fishes of being presented), the intruders ar dendron inerme and Calophyllum i leucoxylon and Terminalia glabra mesophytes ; where as Typha jav, fresh water hydrophytes.
(iv) Mud-flat vegetation :
Plants like Hydrophylax mar nudiflora, Agyneia bacciformis, are thus. (Refer check list for Mud
Now I will lead you on to this area. There are a number of succession and play a part in estab For example at Nagarkovil, along areas Fimbristylis ferruginea, Cyperu. and Bacopa monnieri take part in si Cyperus corymbosus, Bacopa monr succession. At Nagarkovil it could b getting exposed, in addition to Fi dactylon, Fimbristylis littoralis also continue to remain if the areas ar these areas dry up-(In other words st In water Fimbristylis ferruginea ma but is absent beyond that depth. the shore up to a depth of five f but always in water. In some are present.
The types of plants in this or a mixed community; but are st racemosa is seen mostly along the
ce of the soil and salinity (details the lagoon-another paper that is varied. Thus some like Cleroophyllum are halophytic ; Vitex
are pond side or river side inica and Nymphaea nouchali are
itima, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda seen on mud flats and are classed flat vegetation)
the nature of the succession in
plants that take part in microblishing a habitat for mangroves. the fringes of the lagoon in shallow s stoloniferous. Cynodion dactylion uccession; whereas in deeper part, ieri and Chara play a part in pe also observed that where areas are mbristylis ferruginea and Cynodon
appears. Bacopa monnieri will e very moist, and disappear when ome of these plants are amphibious). ay exist up to a depth of a foot
Cyperus corymbosus extends from eet. Chara is present throughout“ as, in water, Naias marina is also
area may form closed communities :en in definite Zones. Lumnitzera shore line, followed by Excaecaria
agallocha" and finally Rhizophora Thus depth of water determines zona is always seen along the shore foi Avicennia officinalis is also seen Rhizophora mucronata, all the oth A few of these plants may be see mostly Lumnitzera racemosa some rarely Avicennia officinalis; but a the dominant vegetation.
The Thondaimannar lagoon miles (30 square miles when full d to about 3:3 miles, commencing at sea), running in a southerly direc eastwards and after another 6 miles direction and ends blindly at a di mouth (Refer map). This is a sea an outlet for surplus rain water. becomes connected to Upparu, an
As regards the mangrove ve no mangroves up to a distance of except for a few patches of Panda three pockets of real mangroves the lagoon, towards west, there is where there is a patch of Acanthl from the mouth and extending for eastern shore of the lagoon (Mark of Pandanus tectore uS Where 1 direction there is a blind arm in (Pocket ii in map) along the fring (extending to about half a mile) distance of about 7 miles from the alley of the lagoon (Pocket iii) e easterly directions This alley is th The main vegetation is Excaecar racemosa, Heritiera littoraliso and 8
mucronata in the deeper parts. ion. Pandanus tectorius, if present, ming almost the boundary line. in shallow areas. Thus except :r plants are seen in shallow areas. n in deeper parts as associatestimes Excaecaria agallocha, and lways Rhizophora mucronata forms
covers an area of about 15 sq uring the wet season). It extends Thondaimannar (outlet into the. tion to about 3 miles, then turning or so runs in a south-Southeasterly stance of about 3 li miles from the -water lake that functions also as During the rainy season it also inland arm of the Jaffna Lagoon.
getation of the lagoon, there are about 8 miles from the mouth. unus tectoreus scattered about and About 1 miles from the mouth of a small pocket (Pocket i in map) us ilicifolius. About two miles a mille or so, towards the northed X in map) there is a thick patch the lagoon turns in an easterly a southerly and westerly direction s of which is a fairly large patch of Lumnitzera racemosa. At a mouth of the lagoon is a blind (tending in southerly, westerly and ickly populated with mangroves. ia agallocha, with Lumnitzera Acanthus ilicifolius as associates,
There is a road cutting across in either sides of the road amongst t is common, Rhizophora mucronata though not very common, is one gallica is a common associate. Th this may be the cause for the sc and predominance of Excaecaria : Salicornia brachiata is present, ba Bacopa monnieri, Heliotropium and It is rather strange to note the p Typha javanica in pools of water the dry season as well as in the appeared here some 5 or 6 years b
The characteristic mangrove in map) which is about 9. miles f and, ends at Sempianpattu (Point miles from the mouth of the Lagoon. vegetation actually starts, the main on the north-eastern shore; and E. racemosa as an associate on the inerme is present along the roac the mangroves. Here too water Water.
Further down, from about 1 lagoon up to Amban (Point 7 in n the mouth of the lagoon, the n typical. Along the fringes we get as we go into the lagoon we get then finally in the deeper par Avicennia officinalis and Ceriops this vegetation. Along the fringes of Pandanus tectorius are also see 16 miles (between points 7 & 8 in points 9 & 10 in map) from the mout mucronata which is very thick in main associates are Lumnitzera ra
a north-south direction, and on he mangroves Clerodendron inerme is there, but rare, Ceriops tagal of the associates. But Tamarix is place is getting silted up, and arcity of Rhizophora mucronata agallocha. On open mud flats ut rare. Fimbristylis ferruginea. Cyperus corymbosus are common. resence of Nymphaea nouchali and amongst the mangroves both in wet season. The water lily first back.
vegetation starts at Mulli (Point 5 rom the mouth of the lagoon, 10 in map) which is about 243 At the place where the mangrove vegetation is Lumintzera recemosa xcaecaria agallocha with Lumnitzera south-eastern shore: Clerodendron i and close to the road amongst lily has appeared in the pools of
0 miles from the mouth of the map) which is about 14i miles from hangrove vegetation is somewhat mainly Lumnitzera racemosa then
mainly Excaecaria agallocha, and ts mainly Rhizophora mucronata, tagal are found scattered among of the mangrove vegetation patches n. But from a distance of about map, to about 22 miles (between h, the main vegetation is Rhizophora some places, In these areas the Icemosa, Excaecaria agallocha and
Ceriops tagal. Ceriops tagal is no the lagoon water lily appeared alon 5 or 6 years back, appearing in th flooded and disappearing in the d the lagoon dries up. In 1964 for
appearance of water lily in the ma
From 22 miles (between poi (Point 10 in map) from the mouth is Lumnitzera racemosa; with Tam and Heritiera littoralis as associates
The last 6 or 7 miles. ie fr to 31 à miles (Point 15 in map) frc of any mangroves except for a and few bushes of Lumnitzera race that plants like Calophyllum inophy. viscosa have started to colonize th lagoon.
The absence of mangroves f a distance of 8 miles, and from 24; absence of silting owing to the na areas where there are blind all creation of a mangrove habitat is of mangroves at pockets i, ii, population is thick, there had become established. In these areas get elevated, Rhizophora mucronata by Excaecaria agallocha.
As a result of the steps b into a fresh water reservoir, the m
As a result in certain areas we halophytic intruders like Calophy Pandanus tectorius, Clerodendron
persica, Vitex ñegundo, Termin: (P. glabra); river side or tank side Terminalia glabra; and fresh w nouchali and Typha javanica.
very common. In this part of g the fringes of the lagoon some wet season when the lagoon is y seasson when this portion of
the first time we observed the in lagoon itself of this area.
nts 9 & 0 in map) to 24 miles of the lagoon, the main vegetation arix gallica, Excaecaria agallocha
om 24 i miles (Point 10 in map) m the mouth, the area is devoid ew patches of Pandanus tectorius mosa, scattered about. It appears lum, Cassia marginata and Dodonia Lese. areas along the shore of the
rom the mouth of the lagoon to miles to 3 miles is due to the ture of the terrain. Even in these eys, where silting is possible, the
plausible and hence the presence ii, In the areas where mangrove been silting and mangroves have
where silting continues and areas has been and is being replaced
eing taken to convert the lagoon angrove habitat is getting disturbed.
could find the appearance of llum inophyllum, Cassia marginata, aerme . Lawsonia inermis, Salvadora lia belerica, Pongamia pinnata mesophytes like Vitex leucoxylon, ater hydrophytes like Nymphaea
Summary : To sum up, we find t
(i) The characteristic distr
part of the lagoon.
(ii) In this part there are
makes almost a rigl silting had been possib
(iii) Even in other areas v possible, and mangrove
(iv) Distribution is mainly
(v) There are signs of thc
(vi) The absence of mang!
the lagoon is due to
In addition to the mapping
of the lagoon, further investigation of the lagoon are being carried ol
Further projects planned from above
Roots of mangroves in general system of Lumnitzera racemosa
Osmotic tolerance of mangrove Salinity and distribution of m
Changes arising in the patt Fauna in the Thondaimanna interferance in the habitat.
A study of the cotyledons of Rhizophoraceae.)
ibution is restricted to the middle
many pockets and the lagoon ht-angled turn towards west, and le.
where there are pockets silting is s are present.
controlled by depth. : habitat changing and new forms
ove vegetation at both ends of the nature of the terrain.
; out of the mangrove vegetation ls (quantitatively) of the mangrove' lt.
studies : with special reference to the root
ern of distribution of Flora and r lagoon as a result of (human)
the mangroves (particularly that of
(i) Mangrove and Mangr
(ii) Fore runners (iii) Intruders (iv) Mud-flat vegetation
(i) Mangrove and Mangrove a
Rhizophora mucronata Lumnitzera recemosa Avicennia officinalis Ceriops tagal (Rhizo) Excaecaria agallocha Tamarix gallica (Tan Heritiera littoralis (S Pandanus tectorius (F Acanthus ilicifolius Scyphiphora hydrophy
(ii) Fore-runners :
Enicostema verticillare Blumia sp. (Composi Cynodion dactylion (C Fimbristylis ferrugine Bacopa monnieri (Sc Chara sp. (Characea Cyperus stoloniferous Cyperus corymbosus
Vitex negundo (Verb Vitex leucoxylon ( Salvadora persica (Sa Clerodendron inerme
(Rhizophoraceae) (Combretaceae) (Verbenaceae)
naricaceae or Tamiriscineae)
(Acanthaceae) lacea (Rubiaceae,
(Gentianaceae) tae) Gramineae) : a. (Cyperaceae) rophulariaceae) е) wk
龄 姆 lvedoraceae)
Careya coccinea (Myrtaceae)
Cassia marginata (Leguminosa Calophyllum inophyllum (Gut Terminalia glabra (Combretace Pandanus tectorius (Pandanace Ixora parviflora (Rubiaceae)
Terminalia belerica (Combreta Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae)
Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae) Garcinia spicata (Guttiferae)
Zizyphus xylopyra (Rhamnace Pongamia pinnata (P. glabra), Acacia eburnia (LeguminosaeIndigofera oblongifolia (legum Lippia nodiflora (Verbenaceae Indigofera euneaphylla (Legun Asclepias sp. (Asclepidaceae)
Euphorbia thymifolia (Euphor Euphorbia hirta ( s Evolvulus al sinoides (Convolv Zornia diphylla (LeguminosaeMicrococca mercurialis (Euphc Typha javanica (Typhaceae) Nympheae nouchali (Nympha
v) Mud-flat vegetation
Suaeda nudiflora (Chenopodia Agyneia bacciformis (Euphorb Salicornia brachiata (Chenopol Fimbristylis littoralis (Cypera Enicostema vertieilare (Gentia: Blumia sp. (Compositae)
Fimbristylis ferruginea (Cyper Sesuvium portulacastrum (Aiz Cyperus stoloniferous (Cypera Cyperus iria , (
) ulaceae) Papilionaceae) orbiaceae)
ceae) piaceae) diaceae) ceae) naceae)
aceae) eaceae or Ficoideae) ceae)
16. 17. 18. 19.
Euphorbia thymifolia Euphorbia hirta
Hydrophylax maritima Aristolochia brachiata Cressa cretica (Convol Heliotropium sp. (Bc Ammannia sp. (Lythr Lippia nodiflora (Ver Cynodion dactylion (G
Launaea sarmentosa (
(Euphorbaceae) ( s )
(Rubiaceae) (Aristolochiaceae) vulaceae) raginaceae) aceae) benaceae) ramineae) - .. pinnatifida) (Compositae)
k" a fans.
A -ACAN7S CIFOLIS. AWAWYCOFYWA OFFICANAS.
: -0.22:N2RY Yeşayır.
CIRKOPS 7AA. . A EXCOECARA AGALOCAA. Aw - PER TETRA LIT*TrORALS. AL LIPNITZERA RACEP10SA. p-pNANS ECORIS.
guZopHORA MuCRONATA. 7 TAMARIX GALLICA. RAAIZOPHORA PREpaminANTA 7HfS AEA.
i „ZawLAIMANWAR. - Muzerzart Mou* 2. WALLAI. - 2% AİLE. SALIYALI, -ア人4 ** ANTHANATH THILA. ーア% * es. ILLI. - 92 6 KunATHANAI. 一篮2※ ” 77 AMAN. -f4X,” 8.NAGARKOM" ー」フ% " 9.KDARAPPl. 一些猛 钟 o.SEMpIANPATT; 一23亥” f RIITHANKEN. -25%a * 12. riptyTBRAI. ー27% * 3.ALIXAVALAl. -23Xe es 4. AYATTWARA. -29 so 5. MANDALA -as so
DISTRIBUTION OF MANEROWE WEETATION.
Plant Point 4
-- I || II || III || IV || V || VI | Total
7 10 4 6 8 6 61
2 7 7 8 0 9 8 49
3 - 6 1 2 7 17
4 SS S SS S S S S S SS S S S
5 - - I - 5 2 - 7
6 | 1 | سس- || -س- || --س- || --س- 1 6
7 SS S SS S S SSS S SS S 0 S SS SS S SS SS SS SS
8 - → - - -- - nnnnnnnn
9 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
0 S S SSS SSS S S LSSSMSSSSSSS S SS SS SS SS
Plant No Key.
1. Excaecaria agallocha 2. Lumnitzera racemosa 3. Tamarix gallica
Point 5 : Point 5
Mulli Mulli ܪܶ North) [Sou fh ]
III || III || Total I III || III || Total I II III
6 9 23 23 52 5 20 3 SSSS
50 34 1 || 6 32 9 2 53 2 1 18 8
m - - I - I - nu - I - | --
SLSS SS SS man 1 - - — | — —
-- ==- wwInnnnnn SS S SSS S SSSeeeSLLSSS - amaan 7 O
(1) Frequency Counts-Quadrat Method [Quadrat Silze-i i
. Ceriops tagal . Acanthus ilicifolius . Clerodendron inerme
int 6 Mulli t ဖိင်္ဂါးဒင်္ဂါး၊ South 1 UC38.81
III || III || Total || I || II i III || IV || V || VI || Total
52 5 20 3 у меча ; ника. 2 6
9 2 53 a 1 8 8 10 t 76
w_ «Amb ----- a–– --- a -- Hiwm ----- Hwwe
Nuwun s ---- l - - - - - - •თითო
— — --- · 7 1 O 8 圣 2 39
S-Quadrat Method [Quadrat Slze-10 yds Sq. ]
anus tectorius ps tagal thus ilicifolius
Avicennia officinal Heritiera littoralis
Point 7 Amban
III || III || IV || V || VI || Total
18 15 0 - - 64
30 28 8 7 5 4
SS S SS l 13 26
| ---- || ---- || ------ || 2 || --س-
Plant No Key.
1. Excaecaria agallocha. 2. Lumnitzera racemosa.
3. Tamarix gallica.
Parat Point 8
|| I || IV ||
1. 4 - || 2 | - I -
MamaMaMa va Ku- A.
MMMMNMMMM Mewn areer
s - I - I - I - I -
6 •=या mam** ---- --
•თითით-«-ო- amm eams Ww WWW
莎 2 10
9 IMRA A അം dimana
O - - - I - I -
Two Mies Off Poi Sempianpattu
V VI Total III IV V
− 7 −− Maamanns --- Vinn -ma
7 37 9 塞易 8 Η 5 20
namama nnnn 2 2 una
- WINNIN ഖ ------- ■
- --- mannin - S mu vn
2 8 6 Ι a-aus own
- Inman nnnnnn ------ 4 MMMMMMMMWM
ncy Counts - Quadrat Method (Quadrat Size - 10Yd Sql.
4. Pandanus tectorius. 8 Rhizo: ' 5. Ceriops tagal. 9. Avice 6. Acanthus ilicifolius. 10. Herite i 7. Clerodendron inerme.
Two Miles Off Point 9
Total III IV V VI VII
7 vis --- --M. ____ -- - -
7 1 9 18 ·夏5 20 7 4
-- . 2 · --
I qMSMSMAASAASS 0 SS SqSMMSSS SS SS SqS
Description of M
(I) Mangroves and M
Acanthacéae. Acanthus ilicifolius
Combretaceae Lumnitzera racemo
Euphorbiaceae Excaecaria agalloch
Lythraceae Sonneratia acida... ]
Rhizophoraceae Bruguiera gymnorhi
Carallia brachiata, Ceriops candolleana. Rhizophora candelar R. mucronata. L.
Rubiaceae Scyphiphora hydrop
Sterculiaciae Heritiera littoralis.
Tamaricaceae Tamarix gallica. L.
Verbenaceae Avicennia officinalis
Pandanaceae Pandanus odoratissim
za. Lam. Merr.
Arn. ia. D. C.
}hylacea. Gaertn. Fruct.
Acanthus il (plates
Sinhalese : Ikili or Katu-ikili :
Origin: Eastern Tropics.
Roots Stilt roots present, green.
Leaves Simple, large, opposite di spines along the margin at t mid rib. Thick, fleshy, an venation, veins faint. Stipula
Flowers : In pairs, opposite, each Bright purplish-blue. Zygormo Hypogynous, Bracts three, free, imbricate, tips slightly gamopetalous, petals fused to blue. Stamens six, epipetalo Anthers bear brush like hair mechanism). Pistil-Bicarpella
Sinhalese : Beriya T
Origin: Tropics, Mainly India an Habit: A small tree, bushy, much Bark : Smooth, purplish, dark bri Stem : Crooked, much branched,
cifolius. L 6&8) Acanthaceae.
cussate, oblong-lanceolate, large he ends of the main veins and d glabrous. Pinnately reticulate ar thorns present.
pair about half and inch apart. rphic Bisexual, Bracteate, Complete, tips spinous, Calyx three, green, spinous, Persistent. Corolla five,
form a single cup, Bright purplishus, four fertile, two staminodes, 's (for brush mechanism-pollination 'y, Syncarpous, Ovary superior.
cemosa. Willd. & 7) Combretaceae.
mil : Tipparathai or Potpaththai.
branched. own and cracked in old stems. hot straight.
Roots : Stilt roots present from th lowermost branches. These a as in Rhizophora. Bushy tu from the far spreading horiz ations (Hair-pin roots") also arise from the horizontal (ageotropic), become geotrop ends go deep dwon in the s Sometimes on a first set of appear. Tufts of very slen these bent roots. The roots anchorage but also for respi
Leaves : Simple, Alternate (spiral),
oblong, thick, fleshy and gl tip retuse, venation pinnately
Inflorescence : Racemose, simple re
Flowers : White, Regular, Bisxual,
gamosepalous, valvate, gree white, valvate, gamopetalous. inferior, Ovule one, Pendulo
Fruit: Indehiscent, firm and fle by water. Five ridges on fr
Timber : Hard; for firewood, pos
in the North.
Note: This is the main mangrove
Excaecaria agallocha (Syn : Sapium insig
Sinha lese : Tala-kiriya.
Origin: Ceylon and Eastern Tropi Habit : Small tree with milky juic Bark : Smooth, Ashy-white.
e base of the stem and bases of re in tufts and not so prominent fts of slender ageotropic branches ontal roots. Slender knee formseen. The 'Hair-pin bent" roots branches come above ground lic turn downwards and the free oil thus (also ) helping in anchorage. hair-pin roots, a second set also der ageotropic roots arise from are pithy and help not only for ration (Aeration).
petiole very short-almost sessile, labrous, shining, margin crenate,
reticulate, veins faint.
Complete, Epigynous. Calyx five, n and persistent. Corolla five, Stamens ten, free. Pistil-Ovary
ԱS » shy. Well protected for dispersal uit. ts etc. Branches used for fencing
associate in certain areas of the
L. (Plates 5 & 8 ne. Trim) Euphorbiaceae.
Tamil : Thillai.
CS e, which blisters the skin.
Stem : Straight. Lenticels promin from the base of the stem Roots : Buttress roots commonly from base of stem up to : ranches Prominent lent roots Knee formations, w Leaves : Simple, petiolate, exstip
acute, Venation pinnately
and glabrous Latex preser flowering season. Old leavi
Inflorescence : Mixed Cyathia o
Flower : Unisexual. Female flow trilocular, syncarpous oval
Male flowers represented by is a male flower.
Fruit : Regma. Timber : Used for local boats an Note: Excaecaria is a mangrove
Sinhalese : Kirilla.
Origin : Estern Tropics. Habit : Small tree ; overtops oth Bark: Brown. Affords tan. Stem : Branches quadrangular. Roots : Breathing roots as in a may grow to about three fe are very light and soft, but aerials. Leaves : Opposite, entire, thick, reticulate venation. Veins f 18
:nt and many. Lenticels denser up to 3-4 feet. Latex present. seen. Stilt roots occasionally seen feet, and from base of lower most
icels on exposed portions of the th lenticels may also be seen.
late, spirally arranged, Leaf tip reticulate Leaves some what thick
t. Leaves usually shed during the is reddish-brown.
ter represented by a tricarpellary, y on a stalk, Ovary superior. ' stamens on stalks. Each stamen
a acida L. 8) Lythraceae or Sonnerataceae
Tamil : Kinnai.
vicennia present. The aerial roots :et or more in height. These roots firm. Corks are madc from these
somewhat fleshy, with pinnately aint.
Flowers : Pink. large, solitary, term five, gamosepalous, green. Sl
Fruit: Large, globular, fleshy Dis Timber : White, soft. Notes: This tree is not present ir
Bruguiera gymn (Syn. B. seXangu
Sinhalese : Pat-kadol
Origin: Eastern Tropics and Africa Habit: Small tree. The tree is
apiculata. Bark : Brown. Used for tanning. Roots. The horizontal roots come
formations on which lenticels a stilt roots are few or absent. Leaves : Simple, petiolate, spiral, th
entire. Weins faint, except sheathing bud scales, Flower: Showy, orange-yellow, soliti Fruit: Crowned by the sepals. Sca reaching from 9-0 inches in Rhizophora here the embryo Timber : Red, hard and strong.
and for flooring. Notes : This plant is absent in the
inal. Petals fall off soon. Calyx amens many.
persed by water.
the Thondaimannar lagoon area.
orhiza. Lam. la) Rhizophoraceae.
Tamil : Uppu-kandal
to Australia. somewhat similar to Rhizophora
above the soil forming kneerecrowdod and help in respiration.
ick, fleshy and glabrous. Margin the midrib. Buds protected by
ary, axillary, bisexual, regular.
rlet. Exhibits vivipary, the embryo length, is six angled. Unlike in falls with the fruit.
Used as firewood, for furniture
Thondaimannar lagoon area.
Carallia bracl (Syn—C. integi
Simhalese : Davata.
Similar to Avicennia officin Huge trees. Stilt roots are often see are creamy-white in colour. Fruit
Notes : This tree is not represente
Ceriops candolleana . (Syn-C.
Origin: Eastern tropics. Habit : Small tree. Much branche Bark: Dark brown, Cracked. Roots : Stilt roots from base of st very prominent and dense of Leaves : Simple, petiolate, opposite
pale green. Margin entire. Flowers : In terminal clusters, alm bisexual, complete, hypogyno Calyx five, green or yellowis five, white, valvate, Stamens usually one. Fruit : Usually one Seeded, li germination. Embryo 2'-3' Timber: Hard and woody. Usual Note: This is an associate, but it
hiata. Merr errima D. C)
alis, but with these differences. n but no pneumatophores. Flowers a berry, smooth, red in colour.
d in the Thondaimannar lagoon
Arn. (plates 5 & 8)
Tamil : Chiru-kandal.
em and lower branches. Lenticels h them. Buttress roots also present. decussate, thick, leathery, glabrous, Venation pinnately reticulate.
host resembling an umbel. Regular us, with very slender pedicels. h-green, valvate, persistent. Corolla five. Pistill-Ovary superior, Ovules
ndehiscent. Exhibits viviparous
ly used as poles and posts.
s a rare one in the lagoon area.
Rhizophora ca (Syn : R.
Sin : Kadol.
Similar to R. mucronata with flowers are sessile, solitary, cri branchest
Note: This plant is absent in th
Sin : Kadol or Elakadol
Origin: Eastern Tropics. Inhabits Habit: Tree, 25-30 feet, with spre Bark : Ashy, cracked, used for tal The stain from the bark giv Water. Leaves : Simple, petiolate, opposit glabrous. Leaves closely a ovate, margin entire, tip venation, veins faint, Black side of leaves. Stipules larg off when leaves open. Youn Inflorescence : Cymose. Flowers : Regular, bisexual comple
two. persistent. Calyx four, valvate persistent. Corolla with conspicuous corolline coro . Pistil-carpels 4-8, syncarpous.
one and very rarely two. Fruit: One seeded, Indehiscent.
Embryo l?-18 inches long.
delaria D. C apiculata)
Tamil : Kandal
this difference - in this plant the owded close to the tips of the
Thondaimannar lagoon area.
L. (Plates 5 & 7)
Rhizophoraceae. Tamil: Kandal
Ceylon and East Tropics. ading crown of branches.
nning and dyeing of nets and sails. rs a reddish colour to the lagoon
e, decussate, thick, fleshy, and rranged at the shoot tips. Shape
mucronate, pinnately reticulate dots closely arranged on under 2, sheathing as bud seales, drops g leaves purple.
te, bracteate, hypogynous. Bracts yellow or yellowish green in colour, four, white, valvate, deciduous, ona. Stamens 4-8 (usually 6), free.
Ovary superior. Ovules usually
Exhibits viviparous germination.
Timber : Hard and woody. Leaf twigs. Stem brown, certain Can be used for sleepers ar Roots: Deep seated and far spre rage. Stilt roots from stem Lenticells on stilt roots help Germination : (Plate-7) The seed
attached to the tree and pr the length of from 1-1 feet is actually preceded by th grow only to a very short seedling drops off. The lenticels on it, with a nar dilates and then suddenly When it drops the sharp seedling soon cuts off rc plumule starts to grow. V with the sharp end down a water, may be carried about ground, roots are produced a is Rhizophora may take fro:
Origin: Old World tropics.
Habit : Small trees or shrubs. M tZera raceno sa to Some exte
Bark: Brown. Cracked.
Stem : Slender, much branched,
scars and stipular scars seen on areas ashy. Used for fuel, ceilings. d furniture. ading-helps in fixation and anchoand branches for additional support.
in aeration. germinates in the fruit while still oduces a hypocotyl that may reach
(The growth of the hypocotyl e growth of the cotyledons which length.) When fully formed the hypo cotyl is lance shaped with ow plumular end that gradually tapers off at the radiclar end. end sticks into the mud, the bots, becomes fixed add then the When it falls in watern it floats, nd the plumular end well above by waves and when it touches the ind the seedling grows, Germination m 3 - 9 months.
lacea Gaertn. & Fruct. - 5 & 8)
Rubiaceae. Tamil : Alaiyathi.
such branched. Resembles Lumnint.
with dense hair, branching as in
Leaves : Small, simple, petioles ve
arranged towards the apices, either side of lamina. Ver faint.
Flowers : White, axillary, regular,
Calyx five, green, gamosep a five, white, gamopetalous. S Fruit about I/3', within a p Timber : Small, hard, for posts a fencing instead of, or along. Note: Common associate in
Remarkably like Lumnitzera
Heritiera litto Pla
Sin : Etuna or Ho-mediriya.
Origin: Tropics Habit : Tree, 20-30 feet or more Bark : Ashy, cracked, vertically f Stem : Straight. Roots : Wery prominent and chara Leaves : Large, leathery, simple, 2 and cracked transversely a leaf blade elliptical, tip acut lower side ashy white and s young leaves pink - blown, c Inflorescence: Much branched and Flowers : Greenish-pink. Bisexual, five. Corolla five. Stamens te
ry short, opposite, decussate closely thick, fleshy, smooth hairs on nation pinnately reticulate, veins
bisexual, epigynous, pentamerous. lous, valvate, persistent. Corolla tamens five, epipetalous, exserted. ersistent calyx, obovate-ovoid
nd firewood. Branches used for
certain parts of the Lagoon. racemosa, with which it grows,
ralis, Dryand. te 6)
Tami : Chomunthiri.
Spreading, dense canopy. urrowed.
acterstic buttress roots present, alternate, petiolate - petioles woody nd bent in some: Margin wavy, e, upper side green and shining, hiny, Venation pinnately reticulate. ld leaves yellow.
complicated - panicle. , regular and Pentamerous. Calyx n. Pistil-pentacarpellary apocarpous. 客@
Fruit: Hard and indehiscent. W.
Boat shaped with a keel, water and sails away before
Timber : Hard, dark red - brown.
Note: Heritiera is a halophyte,
Sinhalese :– Origin : Ceylon; also India and Habit: Small tree or shrub.
Willowy. Bark : Grey-brown. Reticulate cr Stem : Bushy.
Roots: Tufts of slender stilt roo
Leaves : Small, scale like, alternat
Inflorescence : Racemose
Flowers : Pink, regular, bisexual,
gamosepalous and valvate. C five, free. Pistil-Ovary su Placentation basal.
Fruit : A capsule, seeds hairy.
Timber : Small, tough, and durab
ill protected for dispersal by water. and often a sail. Drops into the
for boats: put may also be seen as a mangrove
L. (Plates-2 & 8) amaricaceae or Tamariscineae. Tamil : Kiranchi or Kiri. Africa. Much branched and casuarina like.
ts from the base of the stem and
e. (spiral), Sessile, and exstipulate.
hypogynous. Calyx five, persistent. Corolla five, free, valvate. Stamens perior, uniloeular, with free styles.
le. Used for ploughs and as fire
Verbenaceae. Sinhalese : –
Origin : Eastern tropics. Habit. Bushy tree. Bark: White, pealing, smooth, ni Stem : Straight, nodes prominent
4 sided. Roots : * Buttress and stilt roots frc tips of young buttress roots fOOtS. Leaves : Opposite decussate, sim green, shiny. Underside wh presence of small velvetty hai1 oval. Young leaves - brow yellow. Inflorescence : Racemose, Compou Flowers : Orange - yellow, bracteat tetramerous. Calyx four, fr. valvate. Stamens four epipe Fruit: Capsule. Germination vivi Timber: Hard. Useful for build firewood. Branches much barricades in shallow waters
Similar to Avicennia off elliptical, and more or apiculata. The trees are sr Notes : This tree is absent in th
lis L., (Plate-5 &z 8)
Tamil : Kanna.
ot cracked. i in twigs, tender stems angular
om base of stem. Pneumatothodes on i. Pneumatophores from horizontal
ple, small, petiolate, leathery, hite, shiny (luminous) due to the is. Margin entire, tip acute, shape nish orange. Old leaves - lemon
nd spike. e, regular, hypogynous, complete, ee, imbricate. Corolla four, united, talous. Ovary superior. Ovule one.
par Ous. ings, furniture. Commonly used as used by fishermen for errecting for catching fish.
Tamil :: Venkandal.
icinalis but the leaves are larger,
ess like the leaves of Rhizophora
hall and bushy.
2 Thondaimannar lagoon Area.
Pandanus odo (Syn : P.
Habit : Tree or bushy shrub. Bark: Rrown. Stem : Erect, cylindrical, with a
lenticels on stem. Roots : Roots at base of stem lo arise from stem, grow at an afford additional suport. P roots, The root caps of the Leaves : Form a crown at the til glabrous, thick and leathery. along the under-side of the young, dark green when ma Inflorescence : Spike. Flowers : Unisexual, trimerous, hy pollinated. Male spikes pro Fruit: Composite, large. Green
mature; red when fully mat composite fruit break up ea Water.
ratissimus L. tectorius)
Tamil : Thalai.
thick skin. Branched. Prominent
ng and deep-feeding. Stilt roots angle, go deep thto the soil, and cominent lenticels are seen on these aerial roots are also very prominent. ps of branches. Long, simple, large, Spines along the margin and mid ribs. White or yellow when tUTC.
/pogynous ond incomplete. Wind duce an abundance of pollen.
when young, orange when half ured: The componant parts of the sily on maturity. Dispersed by
Combretaceae Terminalia beleri
Guttiferae Calophyllum inoj
Leguminosae. Cassia marginata
Papilionaceae Pongamia pinir
Myrtaceae Careya coccina.
Salvadoraceae Salvadora persica
Verben aceae Clerodendrop ine Vitex leucoxylon. V. negundo. L.
ica. Roxb. T. glabra. W. & A.
phyllum. L. -
• مL .
Terimalia | (plate-10) C.
Origin : Ceylon, India and Malaya Habit: Huge trees, with dence ca. Bark: Brown. slightly cracked, cr: Stem : Buttressed as in T. glabra.
Leaves : Simple, petiolate, alterna entire. Lamina somewhat rou
Inflorescence : As in T. glabra, Flowers : As in T. glabra.
Fruits : Small, rounded, Used fo:
Cotyledons and primary axis
Timber: Used for planking.
Notes: This is not a mangrove, b close to mangrove plants in c Nagarkovil area.
Terminalia glabra V (Syn-T. arjuna. Bedd.)
Sinhalese : Kumbuk
Origin: Ceylon and India. Habit: Very large tree. Bark : Smooth, green; peeling, pe obtained by burning the bar) Stem : Grows to a wide girth; b Roots : Prominent buttress roots p
Leaves Simple, petiolate, petiol oval, tip cuspidate, margin í blunt, venation pinnately re reddish in colour. Deciduous
belerica Roxb. »mbretaceae
Tamil : Thantri
ору. cks even and in vertical strips.
te thick and leathery. Margin nded. Petioles slightly elongate.
r tanning. Dispersal by water. edible as in the case of T. catapa.
but is seen growing amongst and :ertain areas of the lagoon especially
W. & A. (plates-2&11) | Combretaceae.
Tamil : Maruthu
els ashy grey. Rich in lime, lime k, used for betel chewing.
short, arrangement spiral, shape faintly toothccd, teeth broad and ticulate. Old leaves drange or
Inflorescence : Compound spike,
Flower: Honey scented; one of
regular, bisexual, complete gamosepalous, valvate, g polypetalous, valvate, gree Pistil-ovary inferior, ovule ridges on ovary. Resin du stamens and on pistil. Hai
Fruit:Five winged, dispersed by v
Timber : For bridges, furniture.
Notes : This is not a mangrove. in the dry zone, and on This plant has become estal
Calophyllum i (Plates-2&11) C
Sinhalese : Domba
Origin : Ceylon, and Eastern Tro Habit: Medium sized or large h; Bark : Dark and light grey. Thi Stem : Straight. Leaves : Handsome, dark, evergreel petiolate, thick, glabrous. S retuse. Finely and closely Stipules as bud scales. N lemon-yellow. Little latex Inflorescence : Large, cymose. Flowers: White, fragrant, regul hypognous. Calyx four, fre in, two out). Corolla four, in bundles (tetra-adelphous).
the best for bees. Greenish yellow, ', bracteate, sessile. Calyx five, reenish yellow. Corrolla five, nish yellow. Stamens ten, free. one, pendulous. Five prominent ucts in fruit wall. Hairs between rs white, base brown.
Seen along river banks, especially the bunds of tanks and ponds. blished at various points along the
inophyllum. L. Guttiferae
Tami : Punnai
pics, to Australia. andsome tree. 50-70 feet. ck, rough, and cracked.
n foliage. Large, opposite, decussate, shape oblong. Margin entire. Tip veined, pinnately parallel vennation. ew leaves pale green, old leaves in leaves.
ar, bisexual, complete, bracteate, e, white, deciduous, imbricate (two free, white, valvate. Stamens many, Pistil-ovary superior, ovule one. 29
Fruit : Fleshy, one-seeded, spongy it light for dispersal by wa yield abundant, dark green, used in some areas for mec
Timber : Tough, pliable, and dura
Note: Calophyllum ís cheifly a h
at various points along the
(Syn C. roxburghii. D. C.
Sinhalese : Ratu-wa
Origin: Ceylon, South India. Habit : Small graceful tree; 15 to spreading. drooping branche Bark: Dark-brown; very hard; de Leaves : Alternate; paripinnate, pi notch at the leaf tip. Lea the ground (branches also mo:
auriculate, drop off early. T and soft.
Inflorescence : Racemose-corymbs. Flowers : Zygomorphic, complete,
three, one large and two sin imbricate. Corolla five, imbricate. Stamens ten, fr and some represented as, superior with marginal place the ovary. Fruit: A legume. Black when ri partitioned for many brown Timber : Brown, strong and durab Notes : This is a common plant Ceylon and South India. It along the lagoon at certain
layer encloses the seed rendering er, Latex in young fruits. Seeds
thick and strongly scented oil, icine and for burning. ble. Used for boats plywood.
alophyte but has become established
Roxb. (Plates-10 & 11) Leguminosae - Caesalpinoideae
20 feet. Umbrella shaped with
:eply and closely cracked.
innately reticulate venation, small ves flatly arranged horrizontal to stly horizontal). Stipulate, stipules ender leaves and shoots very wooly
rose coloured, hypogynous. Bracts hall. Calyx five, free, petalloid, free, rose coloured, ascendingly ee, some complete, some reduced staminodes. Pistil-monocarpellary ntation. Honey disc present below
pe. Cylindrical, 6"-l2" in length,
ble, Useful for posts.
in the dry and arid zones of is not a mangrove, but is common points,
Pongamia pin (Syn : P. gla
Origin: Ceylon, India, and Far-E Habit : Small or large trees, with Bark : Grey, smooth. Leaves : Imparipinnately compounc
in colour. Used as manure Inflorescence : Racemes, simplé, o Flowers : Pink or white, small, bis Petamerous. Calyx five, bro valvate, persistent. Corolla fi standard, two wing, and two Pistil monocarpellary, monol There is only a single ovule Fruit : A one seeded lugume, but
water. Seeds yield an c burning as lamp oil. Timber : Whitish-yellow, hard, use
Notes : This is not a mangrove.
tree of the low-country, bu territory of the Thondaiman
Careya coccinea. A.
(Syn: C. art
Sinhalese : Kahata.
Origin: Ceylon, India, BurmaHabit: Tree, 25 - 30 feet; short, s Bark: Brown or Dark-ash; thiek
Leguminosae-Papilionaceae. Tamil : Punku.
l, glabrous, shiny, spinach green
for various crops. r compound. exual, hypogynous and complete. wnish purple and gamosepalous. ve, free, descendingly inbricate - one keel petals. Stamens ten, united. ocular, with marginal placentation. Ovary superior. ኣ is indehiscent. Flat. Dispersal by oil used in skin diseases and for
d for posts, wheels, and as firewood
This is a river bank and sea shore ut is intruding into the mangrove nar lagoon in some areas.
Chev. (Plates-2 & 11) porea. Roxb.) .
Myrtaceae. Tamil: Kasaddai or Kaiddai
traight, stem; round top.
and hard; rough; cracked
Leaves : Large, simple, petiolate, arrangement spiral; venation slightly serrate and wavy; le eoloured with pink margins February to March. Inflorescence : Raceme. Flowers : Large, stinks; regular, bise Bracts green, persistent, thr persistent; Corolla four, greer many, outer whorls pink, ir in bud, monadelphous; Pi Syncarpous. Fruit: Many seeded berry. Timber : Durable; for sleepers, pc Note: This is not a mangrove. I up to 5000 feet. But many along the laggon at Kudara other neighbouring areas.
Salvadora pe "sica
Sinhalese : Malitan.
Origin: Ceylon, North Africa to
Habit : Small tree.
Bark: Grey; cracked and rough
Stem : Erect; Branches weeping.
Leaves : Small, simple, petiolate decussate, margin entire, ti pinnately reticulate venatic very small.
Infloroscence : Racemose, Compo1 32
existippulate, leathery, glabrous; pinnately reticulate; Laminal margin af tip cuspidate; new leaves bronze ; Old leaves mottled red: deciduous
vual, bracteate, complete, epigynous, ee; Calyx four, free, imbricate, nish-white, free, imbricate; Stamens ner whorls white, curved inwards still-ovary inferior, tetracarpellary
sts, bridge planks etc.
ts habitat is Patanas and Talawas, trees have become established ppu, Nagarkovil, Kudaththanai and
L. (Plates-10 & 11)
Tamil : Uvay or Vivai.
India ; Persia.
, pale olive green, oval, opposite p obtuse, thick, fleshy, glabrous, in, veins faint, stipulate-stipules
flowers : Small, greenish, white, tetramerous. Calyx four, g gamopetalous, valvate. S Bicarpellary syncarpous, mo Fruit: Pinkish - red, berry. Timber : White, soft, not much commonly used as tooth brush tree'. Notes : Salvadora is mainly a
established in certain areas
Origin: Ceylon, India, and Bur Habit: Bush ; straggler, Bark : Ashy-brown. Stem : Wuody; somewhat weak. Leaves : Simple, opposite, decussa Thin, glabrous. Pinnately petioles reddish brown. Inflorescence : Terminal cymose Flower: Regular, bisexul, cc
hypogynous. Calyx five, Corolla five, white, united, filaments pink, bent away Bicarpellary syncarpous, foi Fruit: Dry, stony. Four distinct Note: Clerodendron is mainly
amongst mangroves also mangroves.
regular, complete, hypogynous, amosepalous, valvate. Corolla four tamens four, epipetalous. Pistilnolocular, ovary superior, ovule one.
used in Ceylon. Twigs and roots brush - hence , the name 'Tooth
sea-coast plant, but has become
of the lagoon.
Gaertn. (Plates-10 & 11)
Tamil : Pinchil or Pinari.
te, oval, tip retuse, margin entire. reticulate venation. Petiolate,
clusters. omplete, bracticate, pentamerous, green, united, valvate, persistent. imbricate. Stamens five, epipetalous. from the style and stigma. Pistillur lobed. Ovary superior.
a halophyte, but may be seen as small bushes, or sprawling on
Vitex, leucoxylon Verbel Sinhalese: Ne-bedda.
Origin: Ceylon and South India. Habit: Tree 30 - 50 feet. Larg Common in dry regions espe Bark : White or ; ashy white ; sm Stem : Usually straight. Leaves : Pale, paler lower sides. palmately compound, leaflet entire, leaf tip acute. Vena leaves almost colourless. Inflorescence : Dichasial cyme. Flower: White, with purplish
bisexual, complete, hypog gamosepalous, Valvate, persist purplish hairs, gamopetalou: Stamens four, free epipetalo four, chambered. Ovary supe Fruit : Small, Rounded or oval. Timber : Purple-brown or dark-g
for cart frames.
Note: Not a mangrove. Common water. Few trees at Kudara
Vitex negundo L. Verben
Origin: Ceylon, India, Afghanistal Habit: Shrub or small slender tre
... " Tamil : Nir-nochchi.
tree with a spreading head. cially near tanks.
ooth or slightly cracked.
Opposite decussate o exstipulate three to five, margin of leaflets tion pinnately reticulate. New
hairs at the throat. Zygomorphic, synous, bracteate. Calyx five, ent. Corolla five, white with s, two - lipped, with honey guides. us. Pistil-Bicarpellary syncarpous, rior.
Fey; hard, fine grained, durable;
near tanks and ponds; Indicates ppu and neighbouring areas.
(Plates-10 & 11) aCCaC
l, East Asia, Philippines and China. es; Bushy and much branched.
Stem : Leaves
Bark smooth, ashy white, : Strongly aromatic. Opposi trifoliate, tetra or penta-foliat wavy. Leaf tip acute or acumi Under side of leaves whitish. scence : Mixed-Cymes on rac : Light blue. Zygomorphic, bracteate. Calyx five, green persistent. Corolla five, light with honey guides. Stamens Bicarpellary syncarpous, four
Small black, rounded. This is not a mangrove bu country wet and dry - Zones areas. It has become establi places.
e decussate, cxstipulate, palmately e. Margin of leaflets entire and nate. Wenation pinnately reticulate
bisexual, complete, hypogynous, or whitish, gamo sepalous, valvate, blue, gamopetalous, two-lipped, four, free epipetalous. Pistil chambered, ovary superior.
it is a plant common in the Lowalong stream sides and costal shed along the lagoon at many
Mud flat vegetation.
pium scabrum. Retz.
nemum indicum. Moq. ia brachiata. Roxb. nudiflora. Moq.
; bacciformis. A. Juss.
nylax maritima. L.
tylis ferruginia. Vahl. ralis. Gaud.
Heliotropium. Scabr1 Boragi
Spreading herb with deep-f Leaves simple, slender and long, o whitish green in colour, margin er veins very faint. Flowers white in
(Syn : Salicornia Chemopc
Similar to Salicornia brachia
(i) Arthrocnemum is not ere
ascending branehes. (ii) Much branched. (iii) Pairs of prominent, opposite.
on the stem towards the up (iv) Green, or pinkish green, or
Notes : This plant is absent i but is common in the Islan
um Retz. (Plate -9) neae.
eeding roots. Stemisoft and fleshy.
pposite, thick and fleshy ; hairy
ntire venation pinnately reticulate;
indica. Willd.) bdiaceae.
Tamil : Koddanai.
ta with these differences :
ct but somewhat prostrate, with
pinkish, ridge like marks are seen per end of each internode.
pinkish in colour.
n the Thondaimannar lagoon area, ds off Jaffna.
Habit: Erect herb
Stem : Woody at the base. Clad
few.. slender and succulent. internode ends in a narrow of the one above.
Roots : Deep feeding and far spri Leaves: Minute scales, shed early are apparently leafless. Inflorescence : Spike. Flowers: Bisexual, 3-4 perianth lol Fruit: Nut; Embryo curved. Notes: Salicornia brachiata usua forms closed colonies (mo with Arthrocnemum indicau differentiated from its erect light green or yellow colour.
Suaeda nudi Chenop(
Habit : Prostrate herb. Amongst
from 4-5 feet.
Stem : Weak, usually prostrate, w
erect or prostrate.
Roots: Deep feeding and far spri
Leaves : Many, small, simple,
becoming cylindrical when f early. Colour; light green, g orange and pink.
Roxb. (Plates 9 & 13)
Tamil : Koddanai.
de. Internodes swollen. Branches Green or yellow in colour. Each cup lika which embraces the base
so that the succulent jointed stems
pes. One, rarely two stamens.
illy grows on mud flats. It often no-specific). It is often confused m from which it could be easily nature, fewer branches, and green,
flora. Moq. bdiaceae.
support may grow to a height of
oody at base. Branches numerous,
eading. oblong, more or less fleshy, flat.
ully grown. The leaves are shed reen, yellow, and various shades of
Inflorescence : Spike. Flowers : Bisexual, hypogynous. F Fruit i Nut. The embryo is rolle fills the seed. Plants becom off, bearing mature fruits. dispersed thus. Notes : This is somewhat commc
but rare elsewhere.
Sinhalese : Etpitawakka.
Similar to Phyllanthus nirur usually reddish in colour. On ol amongst other plants the stem may by the support of the neighbourir Flowers are reddish yellow in col
Rubi Sinhalese : Mudu-getakola.
Habit: Trailing, prostrate herb, roc
succulent, glabrous, green or
Leaves . In pairs at nodes, oppo
fleshy, oval, flat, become pink in colour. Stipulate, (sheating).
Flowers : Bisexual, tetramerous, ep bluish - purple in colour, C lobes. Stamens four. Ovary
'erianth lobes green.
i up spirally and almost completely
e uprooted, or shoots get broken and roll in the wind and are
in , at Thondaimannar and Vallai,
: A. Juss. (Plate - 9) biaceae.
i, but leaves are larger. Stem is pen ground usually prostrate, but be ascending-becoming erect aided ng plants. Leaves thick and fleshy.
Maritima : IL
ting at nodes. Rranches cylindrical, pink in colour. Roots-deep feeding. site, sessile, simple, small, thick and cylindrical on maturity. Green or with stipules covering up the nodes
igynous. Sessile, solitary, axillary orolla funnel shaped, with four bicarpellary, bilocular. Stigmas two.
Fimbristylis Ferrugir Cyper
Origin: Eastern Tropics. Habit : Small grass 4-5 inches to
forming clones. Stem : Reduced, rhizomious. Roots : Fibrous, in tufts from th Leaves : Slender, needle like. Inflorescence : Spike of spikelets.
Usually three heads in one Flowers : Bisexual, stamens three.
Style filamentous, stigmas - fe one. Placentation basal.
Fruit : Nut.
imbristylis littoral Cyper Sinhalese : Origin: Eastern Tropics. Habit. Small grass, li - 2 inches
clones. Stem : Reduced, rhizomious. Roots : Fibrous, in tufts from th - Leaves: Small, slender, needle lik
Inflorescence : Spike like infloresc at the end of a stalk.
Flowers : Bisexual. Stamens thr superior. Style filamentous, locular. Ovule one, placenta
Fruit : Nut.
ia : Vahl. (Plate - 9) aceae.
1-2 feet in height. Seen in tufts,
e bases of the stems.
group, each unit unbranched.
Carpels three, syncarpous, superior athery, evary monolocular. Ovule
lis Gaud... (Plate - 9) aCCaC・
in height. Seen in tufts, forming
e bases of the stems. e, soft. ence of spikelets. Usually one head
ee. Carpels three, syncarpous, stigmas Feathery. 9 Ovary onetion basal.
Asclepidaceae Pentatropis micrc
Convolvulaceae Cuscuta reflexa.
Papilionaceae Derris uliginosa.
Loranthaceae Loranthus falcatu L. Cuneatus. Hey Viscum orientale.
Olacineae Olax scandens.
phylla. W. & A.
Penta tropis microphyll
(Syn : Cynanchum
Habit: Climber (Twiner) Stem : Slender, Weak. Leaves : Small, simple, oval, opposi
Pinnately reticulate venation, and buds reddish. Inflorescence : Simple umbels, axil Flowers : Minute, reddish, bisexual,
Sepals five; Petals five, Stame Fruit : Two follicles from each flo hair (Plumed). Fruits small, a point. Note: This is a common climber
Custuta refle Convolv Sinhalese: Origin: Ceylon, India and Malaya Habit: Total parasite. Stem : Long, stout, glabrous, pale Leaves : Absent. Inflorescence : Cymose. Flowers : White, usually in bunche hypogynous, complete. Caly, united. Stamens 5, epipetalous. bilocular, syncarpous, axile p Fruit: A capsule.
a W & A (Plate 12) cuminatum. Thunb)
e, decussate, thick, fleshy, glabrous, veins faint. Young leaves stems.
ary. “egular, hypogynous, and complete. ns five, Carpels two, free. wer Seeds with an apical tuft of smooth, narrowing gradually to
seen on mangroves in the Thondai
exa : Roxb ulaceae.
s of two to four. Regular bisexual x 5, frce, imbricate. Corolla 5,
Pistill-Ovary superior, bicarpellary, placentation.
Derris uliginosa B Leguminosae-l
Snhalese : Kala-wel.
Origin : Eastern Tropics
Bark : Brown t
Stem : Woody, weak, lenticels on :
Roots : Stilt roots at base of stem
Leaves: Alternate, pinnately or tr Margin entire. Venation pinu
Inflorescence : Racemose, simple o
Flowers : Irregular, bisexual, hypog 5, gamosepalous, valvate, grei wings, two keels, keel petals Stamens ten, one bundle. P with marginal placentation.
Fruit: Flat, oval, one seeded dispi
Notes : Common woody climber o
Has mangrove affinities.
Loranthus longiflorous (Syn : L. fa.
Habit: Partial stem parasite, Bark : Brown Stem : Woody, branched.
Roots : Special sucking roots or
enth. (Plate - 12) Papilionaceae
Tamil : Teki.
stem dense and prominent.
may be seen.
ifoliately compound. Tip acute. hately reticulate: Leaf-lets 3 to 5
compound racemes. Terminal or
ynous, complete, light pink. Calyx
en. Corolla. 5, one standard, two united along the ventral margin.
istil - monoċarpellary, monolocular,
ersed by water.
n mangrove plants of the lagoon.
Desrouss (Plate 13) lcatus. Linn)
Leaves : Opposite, decussate, som
simple, large, exstipulate, reticulate. Margin entire. leaves orange, red, brown, Inflorescence : Axllary, cymose, « Flowers : Greenish yellow in colour
complete, regular, calyx 5, valvate upper portions of c. tips greenish-yellow. Stamen Ovary inferior. Style long, with juicy sticky pulp. Fru Notes : This is a common stem
Lorant. Sinhalese : Pilila
Origin : Ceylon and South India Habit : Partial stem parasite. Bark : Ashy brown Stem : Woody, slender, branched, Roots: Special sucking roots, or Leaves. Alternate, simple, exstipul
Weins faint. - pinnately retic Pale green in colou. Flowers : Axillary, few-one, tw Greenish orange. Bisexu pentamerous, complete, regul: Petals 5, gamopetalous, filaments red. Pistill-Ovary rounded. Fruit a one - see Fruits edible, seeds disperse
Notes : This is a semi-stem par
ewhat oblong. thick, fleshy, glabrous, Veins faint, venation pinnately Young leaves pale green. Old or a mixture of these shades, lusters.
Bisexual, epigynous, pentamerous, inited, valvate. Corolla 5, united, prolla tube orange-yellow, corolla s 5, epipetalous, filaments yellow. green. Fruit a one seeded berry, its edible. Seeds dispersed by birds. parasite seen on the mangroves.
Heyne. (Plate - 13) haceae.
branches few. haustoria present,
ate, obovate, thick, fleshy, glabrous. late. Margin entire. Tip rounded.
to or three only in one group. al, epigynous, short pedicelled, ar. Calyx 5, gamosepalous valvate. valvate. Stamens 5, epipetalous, inferior ; style long, red; stigma ded berry, with juicy sticky pulp.
asite seen rarely on mangroves.
Viscum orier Lorant
Similar to loranthus with th branched, the branching sometimes (false dichotomy) Stem green, le colour. Venation palmately retic green. Long corolla tube absent.
Olax scandens. ]
Habit: Large shrub or a woody Bark : Ashy brown. Stem : Much branched, some of t
form long shoots. Leaves : Opposite, decussate, marg
venation pinnately reticulate. Inflorescence : Cymose-simple cyn Flowers : Regular, bisexual, hypogy Calyx 5, gamosepalous, valva free, twisted. Stamens 3, fre ovary superior. Fruit : Red, berry, edible - very sw Timber : Small, not much of any Notes: Has become a mangrove
lagoon, especially at Kudarapp
areas. Common in some
tale. Willd. һaceae
se differences. Stem is profusely resembling the dichotomous type
aves are oval and dark green in ulate. Veins very faint. Flowers
Roxb. (Plate 12)
Tamil : Kadalranhi
he main branches thrown out to
in very faintly serrate, tip acute,
ynous, complete, greenish yellow. ate, green, persistent, corolla 5, :e. Pistil tricarpellary syncarpous,
feet. One seeded. value.
associate in certain areas of the 'u, Sempianpattu and neighbouring areas as a woodland flora.
Plate 5 : Habit Sketches - Twig
1. Avicennia officinalis. 3. Rhizophora mucromat 5. Excaecaria agallocha
Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. 4. Ceriops tagal
Plate 6: Habit Sketches - Twig
1. Acanthus ilici
2. Sonneratia ac 3. Heritiera littc
ifolius ida. oralis.
. . a e FoRAz.
229. Z. S, CF PKFZ,
& Jesse T
Plate 7 :
1. A-F-Rhizophora 1 2. A-H-Lumnitzera
A.D. FZapat paffi RAzz ur. Flaez. FORM uLA :
2. Es of
*. G. APLARAK AraafyfZA,
g 's*ം 6,
ero araz Artaxerzawroak, aerodor Armarra
Aku. Av 4V AGozrape
z D. CAFA Parz: | 3. E. Gerentzawazeparruazko
4.C. AZORAL RIAARAA ANA)
† BK. A
G s (s) se (2)
6.D. A.ORAA Dia
1. Excaecaria agallocha 3. A-E. Ceriops tagal 5. A-—B. Sonneratia acida 7. A-C. Scyphiphora hydrophyla
e K4. فره رم؟ ae. a poró avasoraMW. MAIWP
z C. Vzoríaż zonas RAM AND
ATOR&& AFORAwug A
AZA 7s. 8,
2. A—E. Avicennia officinalis
4. A-C. Acanthus ilicifolious
6. A-D. Tamarix gallica Cea.
Plate 9 :Habit Sketches
Agynaea baccifo Salicornia brach Heliotropium sc Fimbristylis litt F. ferruginia
Plate 10 :
l. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Clerodendron Terminalia be Salvadora per Vitex negund Cassia margi
hes – Twigs. inerme
A rows تحصی
، 0 & KeC AہوBگ + 1B.FLORAL DAGRAN1. ÅND
8 Fl-ORAL FOR'ULA
6. g 941 A. 0°ლი 3B. FORAL DIAGRAt1 AND
N ) N-1 GAFLOWER se.
5. FlorAl DIAGRAMAND FLORAL FORULA
~ആണ് ب&Bre ki, cA" 69 78. Foral. DARA ANó FLORA. FORULA
i. A-B. Cassia marginata 2. A-C. Vitex negundo 3. A-B. Salvadora persica 4. A-B. Clerodendron inerme
PGA, f'୍ଭa Ga ÁA AGRAft AN
OAL QRiul, FRA F QAruLA
ᏕS ᏮᎠ 1.5. ᎤᎮ .
Wec • An 3 w گ69 6.C. FORAL D AGRAM ANd
cট টািৰ্মr ???ל 6י
5. Calophyllum inophyllum
A-D. Terminalia glabra A-D. Carreya coccinia
1. A-C. Pentatropis micro 2. A-C. Derris uliginosa 3. A-D. Olax scandens
A PORTIC OFSTEP FLER
ELS OF SMAll
30. C.S. OF FRI
PATE . 3.
1. A-D. Salicornia brachiata 2. Loranthus falcatus
ᏉᏯ) A ریح؟
ဂိဇ္ဇီr ́နိÅe:AီAယ်နီ' Final ORMulk,
3. A. Loranthus cuneatus 3. B-E. Loranthus falcatus
B. MUD F.
OVE VEGETATION - KEY.
LAT VEGETATION - KEY.
Appendix I. A.
Key to the genera of S
plants and th
Leaves pinnate. Leaves entire
Leaf paripinnate, li-1" long Leaf imparipinnate, l-3" - D.
Leaf bipinnate, Leaf once pinnate
Leaf imparipinnate, 7 or 8 leaf Leaf paripinnate, 1 or 2 pairs
Leaf 2'-4" Leaf 4'-6"
Leaf very small, scale like-T Leaf not as abve ܢ
Herb or undershrub Tree or large shrub
Leaf spiny, rigid-Acanthis il Leaf not as above
Leaves decurrent-Sphaeranthus Leaves not decurrent - - -
Leaf " ... ܫ Dy Leaf l"-l." Ses
Plants have erect breathing rc Plants not as above
Knee like breathing roots presen Knee like breathing roots abs
Plants with erect tapering pne
e Erect pnenmatophores absent
One Connon mangrove eir asSociates
- Dalbergia candenatensis erris uliginosa
Carapa granata. Cynometra ramilfloIa. amarix gallica.
schoriste madurensis. suvium portulacastrum.
bots in mud or prop roots l. P. t, emerging from the mud-Bruguiera
eumatophores erging from the mud ...
Leaves fleshy, green on both si
Leaves not very fleshy, bright
Leaves mucronate Leaf apex rounded or retuse Leaves opposite
Leaves alternate Leaves with interpetiolar stipule
Leaves exstipulate Leaf large, 4'-6", lateral veins
Leaf small, 1"-1", veins not a Plants with latex
Plants with no latex
Leaf 23"-3", lateral veins incons Leaf 5'-10", lateral veins nume
Leaf under 5" long Leaf over 5" long
Leaf sessile, fleshy, shining-Ll
Leaf with short petiole, pale g
Leaf glabrous above, covered v
beneath Leaf not as above
Leaf shortly acuminate, petiole Leaf not as above-Terminalia Leaf l" -2", small hairs on lea
Leaves leniar, very long, spines ventral side of mic
Flowers small, white, axillary,
some extent...... Scy
Leaves form a crown; Multiple when ripe; still ro
des-Sonneratia green above, white beneath - Avicennia.
− 0 − w w . numerous, close and —Calophyllum inophyllum. s above-Clerodendron inerme.
umnitzera reen, glaucous
Aegiceras. with silvery scales
curved-Samadera indica. catappa. tes. Opposite decussate... y.
along margin and along
rib м « . a 4 z
plant resembles Lumnitzera to phiphora. ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔
fruit, green when young, red ots present..... Pandanus
er Prof. B. A. Abeyawickrema.
Appendix I B.
Key to the mud - flat W
Leaves simple, entire ... Leaves simple, serrate or den Leaves reduced or absent Leaves slender, Cylindrical
A Oval or rounded, flat or cyli Oval or round, flat, thin or so Oval or rounded, flat, small, Leniar, sessile, thin ر
B Oval, somewhat elongated, sli, Fleshy or thin, Hairy or glab Thick, hairy, dentate contains Leaves large, somewhat Cordate Oval, fleshy, glabrous, pale g Serrate, slightly fleshy, small, Somewhat long, thin or sligh
C. Stem a cladode, erect, few br
Stem a cladode, prostrate pro in colour - Arthrocner
|D 1" - 13" long, Runner, solitary
seeded cupsule (Tap r Sesuvium portulacastr 1'-2' long, needlelike; Red flbrous roots, Flower; of each stalk-Fimbris 4"-5" to l'-2" in length, mee stem; Tufts of fibrol (Spikes) usually three Fimbristylis ferruginea
egetation of the Lagoon.
indrical, fleshy glabrous me what fleshy, glabrous
thin or fleshy
ghtly fleshy, opposite brous, Sessile, Alternate...
latex ... toothed, petiolate, alternate, thin reen, opposite
opposite, glabrous tly fleshy, pinnatifid
anches, green or greenish yellow
fusely branched, green or pink num indicum s
pink flowers, Fruit a many oot often tuberous)
. uced rhizomious, stem tufts of ng head one (spike) at the end ylis littoralis
dlelike; Reduced rhizomious is roots; Flowering heads
at the end of each stalk
Erect or prostrate herb or sme amongst support; yello terminal, racemose...... s Runner; green or reddish pink; solitary, axillary; small Hydrophylax martima
Erect or prostrate, herb; leaves branches that resemble solitary axillary, yellow trilocular capsule. Pla colour=Agyneia baccif
Green above, pink below; late) Stem pink, prostrate-E
Small, erect much branched her flowers-Cressa cretica.
Small, erect few branches, he: brown in colour...... Ar
3'-13" long; stem rhizomeous
branched spike - Cynod "-2" long, thin silicious spi corm, stolons present, spike. Cyperus stolonif }"–1" thick, fleshy; Infloresce
Small, erect herb; white flowe Enecostema verticillare.
Capitulum inflorescence, disc
violet. pink or yellow
Prostrate herb, green; Cyathiul
ll shrub, may reach 4'-5' V, orange, red or pink; flowers uaeda nudiflora
leaves opposite; flowers , sheathing stipule present
; alternate on horizontal
compound leaves; flowers "; Fruit a tricarpellary nt green or sometimes reddish in primis
« present; Cyathium inflorescence; Euphorbia thymifolia. b; Ashy white; Funnel like small
rbaceous, green and reddish mmannia.
underground or runner; Inflorescence on dactylon.
ne on tip; stem undergroundInflorescence short branched erous.
nc very short branched spike...
rs in axillary clusters (Verticillaster)
florets alone, various shades of -Blumea.
m inflorescence ..
K. Funnel like, mauve flowers pollination); basket mechanism for disp -. -Aristic
L. White flowers on scorpioid
M. Pink flowers on (head like)
Prostrate, herbaceou Lippia nodiflora.
N Runner; tap root tuberous,
plumed fruits . Laur
Soil Analysis Data.
Refer Bulletin 4 :
Water Analysis Data.
Refer Buletin 4 :
(exhibiting pit-fall mechanism for like septicidal (exhibiting censer rsal of seeds).
inflorescences; Prostrate herb...
condensed racemose inflorescences ls, green or slightly pink...
flowers yellow, head inflorescence; laea, SarmentOSa .
Five year report.
Five year report.
Worthington. T. B., -Ceylo Rendle, Alfred Barton -The
Gunawardena, D. C. -The
Senaratna. S. D. J. E. The
Pulimood. S. G. and Joshua. A.
Lowson. J. M. & Sahni. B.
Dutta. A. C. --A Cl Macmillan. H. F. -Trop Fernando, Dorothy -Wild
Bond. E. T., Thomas -Wild Stork. J. E. & Renouf. L. P. W. Weaver. J. E. & Clement F. E.
Mc Lean. R. C. & Ivimey Cook
Cure. E. L. -Plant Ta
Trimen. H. -Hand Bc (Parts I
Lewis. F. —A Descr Tress a
Parsons. T. H. - An Al Roy Alston. A. H. G. — The Ki
Willis J. C. - Flower.
n Trees. Classification of flowering plant Flowering Plants of Ceylon. Grasses of Ceylon.
K. -A Text Book of Botany,
-Text Book of Botany. lass Book of Botany. ical Planting and Gardening.
Flowers of Ceylon. Flowers of the Ceylon Hills.
-Plant and Animal Ecology. -Plant Ecology. ... W. R.-Practical Field Ecology.
xonomy. ok of the Flora of Ceylon to W & Plates) iptive Catalogue of the more Useful nd Flowering plants of the Western pragamuwa Provinces of Ceylon.
phabetical list of Plants in the ral Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya.
undy Flora. .ng Plants and Ferns of Ceylon.
Members of the Hy
M Atputhanathan, Convene K. S. Kugathasan, Project C K. Selvavinayagam, Project K. Ponnampalam
-K. Chitravadivelu, Project
P. Ganesamoorthy, Project S. Roy Kantharaj, s
R. Ponnampalam T Puthrasingam 3 3 V. Rajanayagam 萝梦 P. Sabaratnam s
K. Shanmugasunderam ,,
. K. Sivapathasunderam, Pro.
N. Sundaramoorthy, Projec S. Sathiamoorthy 罗多 P. Satchithanandan P. Manoharan s W. Ponnampalam, SecretaryS. Sellathurai, Project Assis K. Gunaratnam , s
A. Jeganathan ?罗 s
"dro. - Biological Survey
ch Council .
r & Project officer, Station I. )fficer, Station III. officer, Station II.
Officer, Station I. Assistant.
ject Officer, Station IV it. Assistant.
-cum-Treasurer, Research Council.
American Mission Col.
Gnanasaria College, K
Hartley College, Point
Holy Family Convent Jaffna Central College,
Nelliady M. M. V., K
Puloly Boys' English
Uduppiddy - Girls’ Hig
Urumpirai Hindu Col.
Vada-Hindu Girls' CC
Methodist Girls' High
Thondaimannar M. V.
Mahajana College, Te
h School, Uduppiddy
lege, Urumpirai. ollege, Point-Pedro.
PLANTS OF THE L.
12. STUDENTS PROJECTS
S of THE RESEARCH COUNCIL HERN PROVINCE