Page 1 Emerging ISSueS and ീ VNO Segon New Challenges in Nor PlantatiOnS in Sri Lanka * Centre for Community pe Development Sistaining Communities - Enriching Lives 業 青 en Development Forum One Conference 2003 rence Report DA: theast and 3.
Page 2 VAD DIN O YOUR OMS Healthcare Ltd. 60 Trinity Road, London, SW177RH, UK Tel. +44 (0) 845.8900170 www.amsh.co.uk ANOTHER TO HEA (Q/MASS HEALTH CARE DIMIENSION HCARE
Page 3 Gender, Women's Rights & Tamil Women 17th & 18th Lon I Present Tamil Women's Dev THULA Bridge End Close, Kingston R. Pathmana6a I. 27-189High Stree Plaistoauv Aondon E13 O2 Tés: O2O8471 56. Disclaimer. TWDF have made every reasonab offered. However, we cannot be held respon for misrepresentation of the material. All c Empowerment in Sri Lanka 's Conference May 2008 dom 2d by velopment Forum S Upon Thames KT26PZ 'e effort to ensure the accuracy of the material sible for any adverse outcome of using it or ontact details are correct as of May 2008
Page 4 Tamil Women's Developmer The Tamil Women's Development Forum opportunity for Tamil speaking women to speaking women, to promote human rights a platform to voice their views, share problems affecting them and to encourage potential. The TWDF Was established in June 1995 (TIC) to improve the position and conditio with the aim of improving their quality of lif the UK. The key recommendation was that in Sri Lanka to Support capacity building in However, as a result of the tsunami disaste Community Development (CCD) as a charit arm of CCD involved in village re-generatio Eravur, Navalady, Maruthamunai, Akkaraipat TWDF aims to achieve its objectives by enga Sinhala and Muslim) as well as with internation Women Constitute more thai OWn less than 5% of th "PEACE FIRST, NEG iggset Caateescs 業 TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 "i" "i". it Forum: Mission Statement (TWDF) is committed to providing an raise consciousness of issues affecting Tamil and seek international solidarity. It provides their experiences and address common mutual support to help realise their full 5 as part of the Tamil Information Centre ns of Tamil Women in the UK and abroad e. A conference was organised in 2002 in t TWDF should engage at a grass root level local Communities. r in 2004, the TIC registered the Centre for y in the UK. TWDF now functions as an in Work in Sri Lanka. This is Carried Out in tu and Thambiluvil. ging with Women of Sri Lankan origin (Tamil, al Women's movements. n 50% of the population but he wealth in the World... OTIATIONS LATER."
Page 5 Gender, Women's Rights and Emp The 2008 Tamil Women's Development Foru WOmen and men interested in WOmen's iSSu Gender, Women's Rights & Empowerment an issues in Sri Lanka and globally and worksh refugee women, women and their role in econ in difficult situations around the World. The conference benefited from a gathering of with the humanitarian, development, and advoc experience of the role of women in building an Were encouraged to discuss, reflect on and cha During the course of the weekend we gained rights issues faced by Women, children and the personal leadership and the message that ev fundraising, raising awareness, Working with C local MP. All the while appreciating that to community need to work together to better Srilanka. Thank you for your participation. Maduri Rajkumar Chair TWDF WWW.CCduk.org powerment in Sri Lanka: ForeWord m was held in London and brought together ses. The theme of the 2 day conference was d included presentations on key human rights hops on areas such as asylum seeking and Omic development as well as women working participants and speakers working within and cacy sectors. Speakers shared knowledge and effective society in Sri Lanka, and participants lenge the conference themes. clarity and understanding of the key human elderly everyday. Key to the conference was eryone can make a difference, whether its by liaspora youth or as simple as Writing to your become effective and responsive, we as a the lives of women, children and elderly in GS
Page 6 Thank you for attendingl The Centre for Community Development and would like to thank all those of you who attende New Challenges in North-East and Plantati Conference organised by the TWDF and was North, Kingston, on 17-18 May 2008. We w women activists involved in gender advocacy They eagerly welcomed the idea of such a Con and we are delighted that some of them were from areas such as health, economic indepe resolution, peace-building, and political partici participated throughout the two days of the CC see other scholars, young students and mem debates and questions over the two days. We owe a special thank you to our spons possible. Lastly, we are deeply indebted to the time and energy to make this possible. They spirits and drive made this conference not experience. Thank you all very much and We Yours sincerely, Dr Theva Nathan Chair, Centre for Community Development TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 alli Tamil Women Development Forum (TWDF) 2d "The Gender Agenda: Emerging issues and Ons in Sri Lanka”. This Was the SeCOnd neld at the Tolworth Girls School, Fullers Way vish to thank the subject specialists and the who presented their work at the conference. ference in London when it was first suggested able to come and present their work, ranging :ndence, and access to education to Conflict pation. We also wish to thank all those who inference. In particular, we were delighted to bers of the Tamil community engaging in the ors whose generosity made the conference numerous volunteers who gave freely of their worked so hard and their good humour, high only possible but a thoroughly enjoyable look forward to Seeing you again next year. CS
Page 7 Saturday, 17 May 2008 Session Contents Registration Registration, Refreshmer Introduction Introduction and Welcom Address Keynote Implementation of UN address 1 Resolution 1325 Film Extract Documentary Film Extrac With No Guns" Panel Introduction Presentations Message Mainstreaming Gender ir Building Presentation A Gender, Rights and Empowermentin North-E Lanka Presentation B (Reading) Gender, Rights and Empowerment in the Plantations Presentation C Gender Equality in Sri La the Challenges and Opportunities Presentation D Refugee and Asylum See Women: Challenges, Cha Choices Lunch Parale 1. Women working in Diff Workshop En VirOnmentS Sessions 2. Women in ECOnomic Development 3. Asylum seeking and R Women Plenary Key Messages from Wor Sessions Closing Remarks by Cha Who դtS Mrs Nalayini Rajkumar, Mrs Pathma Perinpanayagam, Mrs Shyla Visahan Ms Maduri Rajkumar, TWDF Committee Chair Ms Charlotte Onslow, Coordinator, Gender Action for Peace and Security (GAPS UK) t-"War Ms Rhona Jack, Managing Director, Blue Click PR Ltd Session Chair: Dr Ramani Chelliah Peace Ms Susan Kramer, MP for Richmond and Kingston ast Sri Mrs Sushila Rajah, Director Synergy Ms Megamalar Shanmugam, Human Rights Education Coordinator, Home for Human Rights nka, Ms Visaka Dharmadasa Parua, Chairperson of the Association of War Affected Women, Sri Lanka eking anges, Mala Ponusamy, Solictor, ECL SoliCoitors iCult efugee Dr Ramani Chelliah, Mrs Sushila Rajah, Dr Theva Nathan kshop Facilitated by Chair, with speakers from each Workshop Session Chair: Dr Ramani Chelliah
Page 8 Sunday, 18 May 2008 Session Contents Registration Registration and refreshm Introduction Introduction and Welcome Address Keynote The Application of UN 132 Address 2 Special Focus in Sri Lank Pane Introduction Presentations Presentation A (Reading) Gender, Rights and Empowerment in the East (Amparai District) Presentation B (Reading) Gender, Rights and Empowerment in the East (Batticaloa District) Presentation C Promoting Women's (Reading) Capabilities Lunch Parallel 4. Promoting Women's Workshop Capability Sessions 5. Laying Foundations for Future Generations 6. Gender and Peace Buil Capability Plenary Key Messages from works Sessions Submission Way Forward Who entS Mrs Nalayini Rajkumar, Mrs Pathma Perinpanayagam, Mrs Shyla Visahan Dr Theva Nathan, CCD Chair Ms Margaret Owen, Head of Widows for Peace through Democracy and a member of the UK Bar Human Rights Committee مغلفن. Dr Theva Nathan, CCD Chair Nesrina Jameel Mohamed, Field Officer MUSDA Ms Vathsala Panchadcharan, Field Officer Synergy Ms Nalini Ratnarajah, Programme Officer, Gender Unit, National Peace Council of Sri Lanka ding Dr Shanthi Parameswaran, MS Maduri Rajkumar, Mrs Manchula Kuganesan shop Facilitated by Chair, with speakers from each workshop Dr Ramani Chelliah
Page 9 Keynote , Implementation of UN Security Cou Presented by Ms Charlotte On MS back Peac COS adVC effeC ReSC The deve the s Well The organisation's research is currently foci Northern Ireland, Nepal, Sierra Leone and SriL Ms Onslow pointed out the importance of unde important to peace building, mentioning the foll 1. Why is gender analysis important to p. peace building? These questions require an analysis in two part First: clarification of conflict processes and fa can be achieved by analysis of key issue: development in terms of the economy, Culture a Secondly: a clear focus on the individual and focus on gaining insight into their motivation an and reconstruction methods. Research into international crises suggests tim Conflict Construction and conflict prevention are partly because Women tend to have an incl address key social and economic issues wh building methodology. It is evident that a sustainable peace cannot b involved. Men and Women must therefore form needs, social networks in which they operatic Conflict situations. It is this understanding, ne 1325 tries to encourage. Address: mcil Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) slow, Coordinator, GAPS, UK Onslow began her address by explain some ground to her organisation, Gender Action for ce and Security (GAPS, UK), which is a Ortium of thirteen different organisations cating the UK Government to support the tive implementation of UN Security Council olution 1325. key project of her organisation is the 'lopment of a monitoring system to examine evel of implementation of UNSCR 1325, as as discovering the gaps in its implementation. ussed in six Countries: Afghanistan, Congo, ..anka. rstanding why gender and gender analysis are Owing points. eace building? What do women bring to S: ctors affecting the conflict. Such clarification S Such as power, Control, Competition and and politics. their communities caught up in the conflict; a d reactions, as well as their survival strategies e and time again that peace agreements, post Successful When Women are involved. This is usive approach to security issues and they nich are otherwise ignored in normal peace eachieved unless all the affected parties are an understanding of their specific grievances, on and forms of Survival available to them in Cessary for building a Sustainable peace, that
Page 10 2. What is UNSCR 1325? Who are the glo the challenges to 1325? The UN Security Council unanimously pass principles were not new for many Women activi that area for decades. UNSCR 1325 requires all parties to conflicts participation of Women in peace negotiations a emphasises the importance of gender equali The key point of the resolution is that it avoids It acknowledges the role of Women in conflicts violence. UNSCR 1325 can be described simply throu protection. The '3Ps' provide a rationale for analysis. Gender equality becomes an import peace building at national and local levels. It e We engage in security reforms, and to take participation, demobilisation, disarmament and Global partners specifically involved in impler Norway, Sweden and Canada. Their involve funding and the development of national action There are several challenges to 1325; some enshrined in the resolution and others are n urgent need to continue raising awareness practical implementation of the resolution. Ea national action plans on 1325. Such plans wou peace and Security issues and would act as a from governments on these issues. At presen putting forward a national action plan. The discussion on the matter and needs support many other states who might consider impleme The advantages of the national action plan incl Conflict, Consult stakeholders and to initiate Women in the context of Conflict. National a objectives, benchmarks and monitoring opport Ownership among governments. They al stakeholders who may otherwise not understan 3. Sri Lanka: Status of Women Peace and security work Challenges The way forward for Sri Lanka A 1325 agenda at the local level It is not clear whether the concept of 1325 is ur the local level there is limited understanding C peace activities and the articulation of suc community level on Resolution 1325 is difficult TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 bal leaders on the 1325 agenda? What are ed the 1325 resolution in 2000 although its sts and organisations that had been working in to respect women's rights and to support the ind post conflict reconstruction. The resolution ty principles in all aspects of peace building. stereotyping women as only victims of conflict. as Combatants, informants and proponents of gh the three Ps: participation, prevention and linking peace and security work with gender ant tool for incorporating men and women into ncourages us to understand the ways in which a very close look at gender training, political demotivating combatants. menting UNSCR 1325 are the UK, Denmark, 2ment at the global level involves advocacy, plans on 1325. states do not fully understand the principles ot aware of its existence. Thus, there is an of 1325 and to explore possibilities for the ach state needs to formulate and put in place uld Constitute a comprehensive strategy linking useful mechanism to encourage commitment it, Liberia is the only country in the process of Democratic Republic of Congo is currently in to formulate a national action plan, as would inting UNSCR 1325. ude the following: it gives space to analyse the strategic action for peace and protection of ction plans are strategic in that they provide unities, as well as fostering responsibility and So Create a forum for dialogue between d the key conflict issues. lderstood at the national level in Sri Lanka. At f Resolution 1325 and little synergy between h activities as related to 1325. Work at a given a lack of resources awareness; peace
Page 11 building in Sri Lanka is not treated as a priority practice, and a lack of implementation which level. At the Same time feedback is not tra makers to provide the necessary support at g observation and information gathered from ( organisations in Sri Lanka are doing impressive However, the daily struggle for survival limits support from the international community is ess Ms. Onslow informed participants that it is not p situation in the North and East as the organ Colombo. What Could be said is that there is a One of the committees working in Sri Lanka ha peace activism in the island, which established is potentially useful to GAPS for identifying g also reassuring that Sri Lanka has a Ministry excellent entry point to relay messages upwarc also an advisory group to this ministry, but it i Sri Lanka's national action plan has a section Constitute a first step in gaining some accoun adopted, although at the present moment the p The challenges that face Sri Lanka include: networking among local groups working on 132 policy makers, a less active women's Committe / ReCOmme 1. Supporting and strengthening networ the relationship between grassroots o 2. Finance: identifying donors to suppo improving communication between l and sharing knowledge 3. Advocacy for the adoption of the N Lanka. WDF Gender Conference - May 2008 v. There is a gap between national policy and ensures that policy is not effective at ground nsmitted upwards that would enable decision round level. Yet from the speaker's personal 3olleagues, she acknowledged that Women's 2 Work. s the capacity of Women's organisations and sential. ossible to provide a report on the reality of the isation's visit was very brief and confined to 'disconnect With these areas. ad carried out a strategic mapping exercise On that basic work is being carried out. This data aps and improving coordination of Work. It is for Women Affairs Which Could Serve as an is from the local to government level. There is s currently dormant and it is worth noting that on women in peace and security. This would tability from government, provided the plan is lan is stalled in its progress. lack of resources; limited Coordination and 5, coupled with little or no communication with e; and loss of international funding. ndations N king processes, and the helping to improve rganisations nationally and regionally rt projects; training; capacity building; and Dcal organisations with a view to learning lational Plan of Action on Women in Sri ノ Q.Ş. Page 9
Page 12 Mainstreaming Gender in Peac Presented by Susan Krame Ms Kramer said that in spite of the availabi problems, support is denied to the victims \ Support Centres. On the other hand, there are a handful of Ver who, as a result of extraordinary circumstan leaders. The Bandaranayake family in Sri La Ms Kramer drew attention to these two extre noting that there is little mention of women Women should play a key role all conflict iss to be supported at a national and global level Visits to Sudan and Darfur have provide implementing women’s roles in the peace ke example, the UN invited a group of local conf male relatives. One angry woman insisted honestly and demanded a solution for the cor When it comes to meeting at the negotiating parties and not civil Society representatives, Conflict under disCuSSİOn. Ms Kramer pointed out that women are usu and for Working with people in agriculture, tra wants them at the peace table. She emphas issue. A look at various institutions reveals a 'government has all the solutions'. However community-based organisations and volun hesitating to let go of real power and accept c The speaker admitted that it will be difficult t of 1325. However, she drew hope from the group of women spent several years worl developing a radio station and utilising the MM DE Genda Gonfa ANGaMaaMay 2008aasääliaää ce Building: Opening Message r MP, Richmond & Kingston s Kramer began the presentation began with a Ilection of media reports showing conflict tims around the World. She mentioned that in the stories women are victims, citing the ample of a Sri Lankan soldier who has raised ention about rape victims becoming sex ves, and the setting up of a project to help 2m. Women victims of Sexual abuse in a War ntext may also contract AIDS, HIV and other Xually transmitted diseases. These victims do t Come forward for treatment, and Suffer in ence; a common phenomenon in Ethiopia. lity of programmes to address these types of who are often not allowed to visit health and y exceptional Women in the international stage ces and personalities, have become national nka represents one such group of Women. mes representing women in conflict situations, doing grassroots work on Resolution 1325. ues and for this reason, UN SCR 1325 needs ld graphic illustrations of the difficulties in eping process. On one occasion in Darfur, for lict victims to meet; Women attended with their that she be heard in the meeting; she spoke nflict, without bias and propaganda. table, the practice is often to invite the warring nor Women, who are often the victims of the ally responsible for supporting victims of war nsport, health and education, and yet, nobody sised that the West is also complacent on this nattitude of 'government knows best and that , government will often call upon civil Society, teers to implement key strategies despite ivil society as part of the solution. o complete the actual and full implementation bxample of Dalit women in Dacca, India. This ging together on the issues affecting them, radio to relay messages and news, thereby 謚k兮QG罐 匾
Page 13 demonstrating their participation in the vi politicians come together to listen to one success of this media voice, the women beg in the area and ensured that people to liste Women to make an impact on policies made Ms Kramer ended by assuring participants th Women, therefore, need to work togethel participate in the learning process. She finished by noting that the conferenc participated together was part of this learning TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 T Ilage council, where local and government another and discuss policies. Following the an to have a big impact on what was going on ened to their point of view. This allowed the in the area. at there will always be struggle on the ground. r in their communities and insist that they e event organised by TWDF where women | process. GS Page 11
Page 14 Documentary: W Presented by Ms Rhona Jack, Ma MS dOC feat in S kee 3S 3 lslar The реа the four and measure of success. The technique he used Technique and its message is a phenomenal C It has been ten years since peace was achiev place. A key reason for the peace agreeme initiative, designed by the groups of people w together post conflict. The film emphasised that external peace make conflict area. The Brigadier realised that the is peace building process and persuaded them t The matriarchal aspect of Bougainvillean Cultu evaded peace. Bridges were built between groups. The island's women pressured the participate in talks. As talks progressed, the eventually peace was achieved. The peace process demanded the support oft peace was a matter of pride for the militant additional concession of amnesty to the hard otherwise would have created obstacles and p the peace process was forgiveness, both at a accord, there was a complete loss of trust b presence of Women at the negotiating table cre Reaching the ten year point in any conflict is a generation of children and young people ha When asked to disarm, they feel naked and v harder it becomes to secure peace, simply community who remember peace. TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 lar With No Guns naging Director, Blue Click PR Ltd Jack began her presentation by showing a umentary film: "War With No Guns'. The film ured Brigadier Roger Mortlake who has served everal Wars, including Vietnam, and peaceping in Anglola and described his experiences part of a peace-keeping force on Bougainville hd. Brigadier and his soldiers served as the fourth Ce keeping force sent to Bougainville Island in Pacific Ocean. There had previously been teen failed peace agreements on the island the Brigadier was determined to achieve some to secure the peace is called the Soft Power }ՈԹ ed on Bougainville Island and it still remains in ht's Success is that it was a grassroots peace tho live in the conflict area and who must live 2rs need to understand the Cultural COntext in a land's women would be a powerful force in the O engage with Women from all conflict groups. re also proved instrumental in bringing the long he two groups of women and also within the e male fighters to lay down their guns and -re was gradually less need for violence, and he fighters' family members, as the prospect of leaders. Peace was also supported by the ened core element in the conflict groups who Iroblems. But most importantly, at the heart of Dersonal and at wider levels. Before the peace etween and within the groups. However, the lated a real tipping point for change. Crucial marker, because usually by this point a ave become familiarised with violent Conflict. ulnerable. The longer a conflict continues, the because there are not enough people in the Page 12
Page 15 The following points resulting from personal ob "Men and women want the same thing. Wher future for their children. Perhaps there is a dif is thinking of territory, borders, wealth and pr period. This sometimes gets twisted and the This may be a reason why men will carry on Women look at borders for protection, safety may be the reason why women are interested, SDyMDkDkeMkeSeeS0SSSDSSSLeBDSDSyAMDDeBD0DDgDrD0DeeDBDDeeDS TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 კ*ssვ--ჯე-sპ-> servation were presented to the audience: there is a conflict, all want peace and want a ference in the interpretation. The man possibly psperity and fending for children over a longer desire for territory and wealth becomes greed. fighting until they have wiped everybody out. and continuity and the future generation. This іт реace.” GS
Page 16 Message from Les Tamil Women's D Ms Abdela bega Development Foru Sri Lanka She had She has followed C the tragedy of the t MS Abdela deSCY Observer in KOSOV has Seen the Sam international COmr perspective of WC negotiations and p United Nations Security Council Resolution 1 the first resolution ever passed by the Security of war on women, and Women's Contributions t Resolution 1325 spells out what needs to be the UN, to ensure the participation of wom protection of women in conflict zones. There groups in peace processes and in the impleme MS Abdela described an even more trencha Parliament (EP) by MEP Maj Britt Theorin and Women's Committee recommendation accor should have at least 40 percent represent reconciliation, peace-keeping, peace enforcem The Speaker pointed out that resolutions alone COUntS. The challenge for everyone committed to de determined commitment from politicians to resolution. In the aftermath of dictatorship an democracy - yet women find themselves havir situation of millions of Women around the Wor politics. Despite a plethora of Conferences, advocacy World leaders, diplomats and UN Secretary G this problem. Women continue to be excluded from negot appointed governments, post-Conflict reconst whole, men continue to appoint men to power, agenda. TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 sley Abdela for the evelopment Forum an by Congratulating the Tamil Women's m on their timely event and described a visit to undertaken several few years ago. Since then levelopments on the conflict, peace efforts and Sunami. ibed her professional career as a civilian o, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan and Iraq, where e damaging mistakes made repeatedly by the munity, which ignores the participation and )men and men as equal partners in peace eace initiatives. 325, passed unanimously in October 2000, is Council that specifically addresses the impact o Conflict resolution and sustainable peace. done by all actors, including governments and len in peace processes and to improve the solution endorses the inclusion of civil society :ntation of peace agreements. ant resolution piloted through the European passed by the EP in November 2000. An EP mpanying this resolution specifies that women tation at all levels of international roles in ent and peace-building entities. are insufficient - it is their implementation that 'mocracy and human rights is how to trigger implement 1325 and its European sister d conflict, everyone talks of human rights and ng to fight for any voice at all. It seems that the ld still fails to arouse passions in "mainstream' from NGOs and good words from politicians, 2nerals, not enough has happened to address iations, treaty-making, interim and transitionruction planning and policy-making. On the and it is largely men who set the post conflict Page 14
Page 17 What do Nepal, Kosovo and Sri Lanka have experienced terrible civil wars or Severe interr populations - Nepalese women, Kosovar wom from their peace processes. What has happe given that the resolution was passed unanimo as equal partners in peace processes? Where are women in Sri Lanka in the painful ef The problem of the under-representation of V representation of men. The comment of o Conference at the Joan B Kroc institute for current peace processes the peace is not for This is the wrong focus." Making a difference The inclusion of Women from the informal S paradigm of how peace agreements are mac 1996 South African Constitution WaS 50% fel fundamental to an outcome acceptable to twe former South African High Commissioner to Lo Indeed, the art of peacebuilding is far more sul in power have had centuries of experience). amongst them patience, Creative dialogue, it minutiae, and avoidance of grandstanding. The gap between Resolution 1325's words a creates a challenge for everyone Committed to determined commitment from politicians to in sister resolution, passed on 30 November 2000 To quote the words of the anti-war song (perf they ever learn?' The answer is, only when w conference persuade them. Ms Abdela ent participants: "Best of Luck for Peace!' About Lesley: Lesley Abdela is the Senior Partner in Shevolu conflict reconstruction, with on-the-ground Afghanistan, Iraq and Nepal. She recently spe gender adviser to United Nations humanitarian a TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 TT in common? These are states which have hal conflicts, yet in which half or more of their en, Sri Lankan women, - have been excluded ened to UNSCR 1325 in these Conflict ZOnes, usly by the Security Council to include women forts to overcome its conflict nightmare? Women could equally be defined as the overne Woman from a Conflict-ZOne at a recent Peace and Justice has wide relevance: "In the people, it is for the male power groups. ector in formal peace talks can change the le. The negotiating team which drew up the male. This remarkable gender balance was 2nty six different political parties, according to ndon, Cheryl Carolus. btle than the practice of warfare (in which men It requires almost opposite characteristics, magination, empathy, attention to the Critical nd the reality of today’s unresolved Conflicts ) democracy and human rights: how to trigger nplement 1325 (and its European parliament ))? prmed by Joan Baez in the 1960s): “When will Omen Such as those assembled at the TWDF ded her presentation by wishing Conference tion. She is an independent consultant in postexperience in Kosova, Aceh, Sierra Leone, :nt six months in Kathmandu as Gencap senior gencies. egeiieikiBeB Beeeieekekyyyyky SB mBBkBu yiyuiykykyyyimeeei ieiymeeBeeSSy ieS0DhDSBeSiSeiBSSBBeeSegrgSBiymeiBBmmBBiBi རྒྱ་རྒྱུ་ཤུགས་ཕྱིན་ Page 5
Page 18 Gender, Rights and Empowerment Presentation by Intrc MS parti in SC of a genc WOs expє An basis auto 啊 emp Writing; and marital, parental and religious rig one possesses in society that fosters power i Own lives and in their Communities to act On iss as empowerment: a multi-dimensional social || their lives. Historical Analysis It is in this Context that the situation in the independence, the Sinhala and Tamil commu Control Over resources. This has led tO COnSta and Women exposed to violence as a result. I Liberation Tigers of TamilEelam took up arms During the 1980s the battle for Eelam was infrastructure in these areas with heavy casua East resulted in increasing militarisation and ir the meantime, the two Communities have heightened mistrust. Although the "right to se Solution to the Conflict, various factions from strategies to solve the problems of their people Although many women in the North assemble challenge the government regarding disappeal the majority of women in the North and East oppression arising from the government's dis Within their OWn Communities. During the 1990s mothers in the North and Ea into warring factions of the struggle killed eac necessitates long term mental health care for th in cultural identification caused by ethnic confli is women who experience the brunt of this portrayed as guardians of their community's cu the increase and causes extreme anxiety Communities have traditionally co-existed in a WDF Gender Conference - May 2008 a in the North and East of Sri Lanka y Ms Sushi Raja Dduction Raja began by asserting that gender issues, cularly regarding the perceived role of women ociety, are vitally important to the development ny society. Thus it is important to focus on der equality, ensuring the participation of en and acknowledging the different roles and 2ctations of men and women in a community. understanding of Women's rights forms the s of gender equality. This is essentially about nomy; rights associated with voting; education; loyment; ownership; freedom of speech and hts. Gender equality encompasses the rights n people, rights that can be used in women's sues they deem important. This can be termed process that helps people to gain control over North and East should be examined. Since nities have struggled to share power and take nt conflict between the Communities, with men n the event of a lack of political settlement, the to claim a separate state. fought in the North and East, destroying alties On both sides. Conflict in the North and tensifying violence throughout the country. In become polarised and live in a context of lf-determination' has been posited as the only minority Communities have sought alternative d under the banner of the 'Mother's Front to ing Sons, and some joined the combat forces, have stayed with their families, suffering Criminatory practices and SOcial Oppression ast faced a new dilemma as children recruited h other. This was a regular occurrence and he families involved. Furthermore, an increase ct has led to other forms of fundamentalism: it wave of fundamentalist thinking, for they are lture, religion and honour. This is currently on amongst women. Though many of these Oeaceful manner, the Conflict intensifies hatred
Page 19 towards the 'enemy' and anything belonging again become vulnerable targets. The Fou Beijing, examined these issues regarding Wom The Peace Process and the Tsunami Disast The ceasefire of 2002 brought fresh hope to caused a level of destruction not witnessed Or disproportionately affected as they were more highlighted the problems experienced by Wom against women in the camps, poverty, Sexual of exploitation. Further Displacement After the breakdown of peace talks, the Cor escalated, with further displacement followe government. Disempowered and traumatis themselves dependant on donors and exposec issues of Concern o The education system has failed rural C O The legal system becomes complicate and widows find themselves without leg O The health system has left villagers to t many o Government departments face a huge and rehabilitation. Bureaucracy and other agencies Conclusion The government has a responsibility to ensure in place to enable Women to take Control of the 1325 offers a framework in which to mainstrea In any community while there is creative g experience developmental stages where a sh are replaced by new perceptions. This para community. Sri Lanka has had its fair share crises can be used to build a peaceful, equal a yeAeyyLLhyeyyyyyyySySSLyLLSeyeyykBeyyyySSyyyySh TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 to that community; women and children yet rth Working Conference on Women, held in en and armed Conflict. e Sri Lankans, but the tsunami disaster of 2004 the island before. Women and children Were dependent on others for help. Donor agencies en, including mental health problems, violence abuse and vulnerability to various other types nflict between the government and the LTTE d by re-settlement in areas captured by the ed, women robbed of human dignity found to abuse, violence and exploitation. Ommunities in the North and East d in the context of different cultural practices, jal ownership of their properties ake care of themselves and is inaccessible for task in terms of reconstruction, replacement ack of Capacity necessitates synergising with that the necessary systems and structures are eir lives in an effective manner. UN Resolution m gender and peace issues. |rowth change is inevitable. Societies often ift in thinking occurs and old ways of thinking digm shift is an essential step for a maturing of disasters and the lessons learnt from these nd just society for future generations. GS Page 17 EEErriSiESyyyyySgS iBSSSDSDBSEEEESEEDEr00Og eBBiSBSyBkike S BBySi S rESrE SHSiyyyyeyeySyySyy yiiiE
Page 20 Gender Equality in Sri Lanka: Presented by Mrs' Background Information about Women in Sr o Sri Lankan population is 19 mi o Women Constitute 51.9% O Literacy rate 89.4% o University entrance rate 50.6% o Advanced Level Classes 11.2% O Life expectancy of Women 75.4 y o Infant mortality 12.2% Women’s Contribution o Contribution to the GNP 34% o Main income earners for Women are: fo the tea plantation sector Women in Politics o Women gained voting rights in 1931 o First Woman-headed State in 1962 o Female President for 11 yea o Women in Parliament 5.7% o Women in Provincial Councils 3.9% o Women in Local government 2.9% • Women inPradeshya Saba 1.7% o Women Cabinet MinisterS 6.1% Women in the Administrative Services Permanent Secretaries to Ministers Additional Secretaries District Secretaries Divisional Secretaries SL Administrative services SL mission heads abroad Other relevant Services TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 a Challenges and Opportunities Visaka Dharmadasa i Lanka: lion of the population D D are girls "eaS freign employment, garment factory Work and S 16% 24% 20% 14% 26.7% 2.8% 21.1%
Page 21 Association of War Affected Women (AWAV This organisation was established by Visaka Kandy, Sri Lanka. The organisation focuses UN Resolution 1325 on women, peace and s range of projects which highlight the key iss other related organisations through workshops Activities of AWAW include: o Taking 1325 to village level o Aproject to disseminate the Content oft O 25 workshops in all districts of the count Women Affected by Conflict O The three decade-long conflict has resu and millions of rupees worth of dama affected by the armed conflict as they zones. For example, in Jaffna, by 2002 Opportunities for Women in Sri Lanka: o Sri Lanka had the World's first female positions of political authority has long b Educational opportunities exist Women are the worst affected by conflic Women are able to bring an entirely new Challenges: O Negative attitude of society at large, c and women) o Violent elections o Lack of funds TWDF Gender Conference May 2008 N) Tharmadasa in 1998; its offices are based in its efforts on supporting the implementation of security. The organisation implements a wide Jes of UNSCR 1325 at a village level and to and leaflets. he resolution at local and urban levels ry in 2003–2004 ilted in the deaths of more than 65,000 people ged property. Women are disproportionately y are rendered victims throughout all conflict there were 18,000 widows due to the Conflict. e head of state, thus the idea of women in een accepted :t which, in itself, offers valuable experience v perspective to the negotiating table of the family unit and of individuals (both men GS Page 19 |
Page 22 Workshop 1: Asylum See Facilitated by Dr Th Aim: To examine the experiences of asylum seekir Consisted of participants of diverse backgrou female asylum seekers and the challenges f part in a stimulating and informative debat included professionals such as lawyers, docto Immigration This appeared to be one of the main issues fo difficult to access appropriate advice regardi was also highlighted that some legal professi down by them. The cost of legal service affordability. Health Many people mentioned the difficulties asyl services. It appears that many GP practices example, request passports with valid visas refugees from registering with them. Withou specialist treatment from hospitals. It is poss from Accident & Emergency units. Asylum seekers often experience a range ( problems. Some find it difficult to communic further compounds this. Hence some sensitive Children of Asylum Seekers and Refugees There are significant problems amongst th Schools, lack of appropriate advice for school teenagers and significant mental health proble Employment and Finance Unemployment is a problem for asylum S employment without appropriate immigrations TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008s a king and Refugee Women evakunchary Nathan * * P g | I || 4 r i i I i : ‘ .<* : ρ ܪܳܢܶ ༈ ། 螺 ج జిఃపజేణికఃకణ:.శ ng refugee women living in the UK. The group nds and experiences. The problems affecting acing them were discussed. Participants took e. As well as asylum seekers, participants S and Council WorkerS. or refugees. It was felt that many people find it ng immigration matters in a timely fashion. It onals are not helpful and clients feel rather let S was also thought to be beyond refugees' Jm Seekers experience in accessing medical s are reluctant to register refugees; some, for and proof of address. This excludes many it the help of a GP it is impossible to access ible, however, to access emergency treatment Df medical problems, including mental health cate problems and the lack of language skills e issues are Overlooked. ese children including: lack access to good eavers, shortage of counselling and support for ms have all been reported. seekerS as it is difficult to Secure Suitable tatus. This leads to financial hardship; benefits Page 20.
Page 23 for which they are eligible may be inadequate 1 for these benefits in the first place. Housing Housing is a problem, especially for those inadequate accommodation and the lack of ap from accessing Council housing. / - ReCOmme O Lobby relevant officials to highli with a view to resolving some issu o Create a helpline in CCD with asylum seekers with information training and Support) O Create a database of various V Could offer advice and informat Seekers ܢܠ WDF Gender conference - May 2008" or their needs or the refugees might not qualify with young children. They live in grossly propriate immigration status excludes refugees เndations N ght problems related to immigration eS a full time CO-Ordinator and furnish and support. (Co-ordinator requires pluntary and statutory agencies who tion to Tamil refugees and asylum ン GS "Page 21
Page 24 Workshop 2: Women an Facilitated by LLSLLZZZ LLLZY S ZTETiL DLDDLzEL LYB BYL LZY EDZZYLLLSLLYYYYL 韃 3. Aim: To examine the experiences of Tamil won employment or securing an income. Participa backgrounds and experiences. The discussio a grass root level which resulted in a stimul were suggested to tackle these problems. individual and Community The group examined the economic position of and of the country as a whole. An importal opportunities to individuals but in recent years in this area. Difference between Employment and Livelil Though education offers opportunities formal rely for a livelihood on working alongside However, these opportunities too are Curbed b Values within Community Secure, permanent and pensionable job o Very often men work away from the difficult circumstances o The focus on white collar jobs restricts c TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 d Economic Development Ms Sushi Raja hen living in Sri Lanka in terms of seeking nts Consisted of men and Women from diverse n covered problems experienced by Women at ating and informative debate. Many solutions Sri Lankan individuals and their communities, ht point raised was that education offers vital due to standardisation many have missed out hood ny people who seek employment, rural people men in agriculture or in Cottage industries. y displacement Or lack of Skills and Capital. S are sought home, whilst their wives and children live in hoiCes Page 22,
Page 26 Workshop 3: Women Working Facilitated by Dr Women in the North-East of the island are f Women in the South. The Conflict situation often leads Women to Women are very cautious about their interactio them. During periods of heightened insecur than individually. They do not speak about the by the armed forces. In addition, women temporary houses are flimsy, and they have concern is to protect their children. Women are generally angry and frustrated with adequate Services and resources. They are r government offices, schools and other places t Displacement due to the tsunami and conflict h kitchen utensils and a mat to sleep on. Me borrow utensils from each other. The loss of the difficulty of obtaining death allowances a deprives them and their children of their rig enrolment in Schools. Women often struggle financially. The lack of force them into dependency on moneylenders. their role in the family and has blurred the so was the basis of community respect. They a child care. Women are also forced to take ove require help from their children and from mol male dominated spheres and often experience Many Tamil-speaking women from the North-E difficulties. Temporary work in the Middle Ea children's prospects. They pay little attentic domestic work. Finally, women sometimes eng TWIDEGender Conference - May 2008 Under Difficult Circumstances Ramani Cheliah aced with a different range of problems than ) experience harassment from armed men. ns with men and they maintain a distance from ity women pass checkpoints in groups rather ir political views or of the distress caused them do not feel Secure in their homes, as their no male figure to protect them. Their main the government's failure to provide them with nade to feel inferior when they go to the local O Work. as left many women with little more than some mbers of female-headed households tend to identify cards, birth and land certificates, and and entitlements, decreases their safety and nts to return to previous settlements and to permanent employment and financial support The absence of a husband has also changed cially accepted gender division of labour that dapt using different strategies to find time for r their husband's previous tasks and inevitably hey lenders. Women perform these tasks in gender-based humiliation as a result. East consider migration as a solution to these st provides the opportunities to improve their in to the personal risks entailed by migrant age in new and Socially unacceptable Work, в Page 24А
Page 27 Such as selling illicit liquor. As a result of thes their community often stigmatises them. Although many women find it difficult to deal \ others in the community, they are proud that however, become the main players in the fa often forces them to drop out of school. It is financially difficult for single women to h that acceptance of the death is rendered mo whose fate is unknown. Several Women sti dead or disappeared, but encounter difficul harassment from security officers, and a dist living. There are also reports of an increase in dor which are often consequences of conflict-inc ratio of Women to men, lack of education and and the availability of weapons. Women Workers in the Export Processing: Sri Lanka's population is over 19 million, Sinhalese (the majority ethnic group), Tam population and of the labour force (of 6.6 millic Sri Lanka existed as an agrarian country f investment in the late 1970s, as many Asiar Export Processing Zone in the island was production of export-oriented goods only. Fo East Asian countries were lured by incentives tax holidays. But the main attraction for fore Submissive work force Consisting of young \ overwork and low wages. Today in many f stipulated wage increases are not granted prol The incentives offered and concessions gr. receiving a raw deal, with long working hour impossible hourly targets to complete Orders language by Supervisors and managers, loc Sometimes are assaulted as well. There are forced to limit toilet visits by the use of a "toilet Sometimes monthly attendance incentives ar leave entitlement is 21 days per annum and any leave until they have worked for one who factories are not adequate, and there have b result of workers not wearing protective clothin e changes and their degraded status in Society, Nith their changed status and the perception by they raise their children on their own. Children, mily's economic and emotional survival, which old a funeral for family members. This means re difficult, especially for disappeared spouses Il Continue their Search for anSWerS about the ties due to a lack of money, verbal sexual belief that their husbands and children are still mestic violence, and divorce or abandonment, luced community problems, such as a higher behaviour management in men, alcohol abuse Zone consisting of three main ethnic groups: the hils and Muslims. Over 50 percent of the bn) are women. or over 2500 years. It opened its doors to countries did, by liberalising trade. The first opened in June 1978 in Katunayake, for the reign investors from European, American, and such as the relaxation of labour laws and long ign investors was an educated, intelligent, and Nomen whose labour could be exploited with actories, annual increments and government mptly. anted to investors have resulted in Workers 's, including compulsory overtime, and almost ; in time. Workers are addressed in abusive al and foreign, for the slightest mistake, and also reports that workers in most factories are token' system. e denied for very minor infractions. The total in some factories new recruits are not allowed ble year. Health and safety measures at some een Several Cases of industrial accidents aSa 9.
Page 28 Since most of the workers are young and fron they often spend their money on clothes and j this can result in malnutrition. Most of them S villages. Away from the protection of their fam in some cases resulting in unwanted pregnanc / ReCOmme O Encourage research to identify proble East and in plantations o Concentrate on the five CCD partr economic and financial support for wo O Work closely with trade unions and changes in Sri Lanka's Labour Law Processing Zones TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 ངུ་མི:་སྤྱི་སྤྱི་སྤྱི་སྤྱི་བསང་སྔ༅་ཚུ྾་་་༠༨ n disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds, ewellery whilst eating sparingly to save money; end money regularly to poor parents in distant hilies, they are also vulnerable to Sexual abuse, cies and abortion. ndations N ms faced by women working in the North er villages and provide the necessary men, children and elderly organisations in Sri Lanka to influence to protect Women Working in the Export GS Page 26 kaj
Page 29 Keynote The Application of UN 1325 Presented by Ms Margaret Owen, Democracy and Member of the Alth est Cquae Wid ཀག་ 7. acti and bereaved, and are unable to promote an seems no end in sight to the violence, nor any human rights abuses to justice. Why is the conflict in Sri Lanka so ignore Secretariat and even the media? Sri Lanka could be the litmus paper for tes Conflict which, paradoxically, still can boast high levels of literacy, and the infrastructure tc cry from the situation in other conflict afflictec Congo, Burundi, Afghanistan, and Iraq). H justice system, and civil service seem to be corruption and lawlessness, a deficient justice intervention to persuade it to observe interr 1325), as an interference in its domestic affair The conflict has caused extreme suffering Unemployment and consequent poverty has prostitution, abductions and kidnapping. The Every day people go missing, but there is no are increasingly fearful of reporting disappea and killings and of giving evidence to the po body with the resources to conduct investigati There is no peace process in the pipeline responsibility then of drafting a peace policy, he had no knowledge of it. The government is committed to a military sol Women's organisations (such as the ASSOC Council Resolution 1325 is barely known in moves to develop a National Action Plan. negatively on the use of torture in detention human rights defenders, and on extra-judicial TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 e Address i: Special Focus on Sri Lanka Head of Widows for Peace through UK Bar Human Rights Committee hough there are no official statistics, it is imated that Sri Lanka's protracted conflict of a arter of a century has left more than 25,000 OWed heads of households in Jaffna. Tens of usands have been displaced from their homes the Security Forces, and IDP camps are full of ows. Many schools in the North-East are sed. Those that were destroyed in the tsunami 'e not been rebuilt, and many teachers have Ier lost their homes, left the country or are ong the internally displaced. Human rights Vists are themselves often homeless, destitute d support fundamental rights effectively. There / mechanisms for bringing those who perpetrate d - by the UK, the EU, the Commonwealth ting the clout of UN SCR 1325. A country in of economic growth, a thriving tourist industry, ) develop, implement and monitor policies (a far i countries such as the Democratic Republic of lowever, although the country's infrastructure, operating normally, there is in fact wide-spread ! system and a government that sees all outside lational Conventions and resolutions (including S. among the Tamil and Muslim communities. S Contributed to increased domestic violence, re is a prevailing climate of fear in the country. investigation of these disappearances. People Irances, of bringing complaints of torture, rape lice. Furthermore, there is no impartial official ons, and bring perpetrators of crimes to justice. . In 2006 the Minister for Science, with the did not mention the requirements of 1325 since ution to the conflict. Apart from efforts made by iation of War Affected Women) UN Security the island, and the government has made no UN Special Rapporteurs who have reported Centres, the situation of IDPs, the treatment of killings have been accused by the government Page 27
Page 30 of supporting the LTTE. Even the former UN was branded as an LTTE supporter becaus abuses Committed by the state. The National Human Rights Commission ar paralysed, for political reasons. The HRC, cc to follow up and investigate the cases - such killings - reported to it. National peace initiativ political solution, nor have they tried to use 13, report has ever been published on the state Lanka. External Mediators and Peace Brokers Until 2007 Norway had the role of facilitator, a 2002. The accord was severely compromised its facilitator role. The Sri Lankan governme. "biased' in favour of the LTTE since they wo actively encouraged dialogue with the rebel gr process exists, composed of the UK, US, J. resources and is not active. It is possible that its place will be taken by investing in Sri Lanka Current Developments A delegation of UK MPs from the All Party labour MP Andrew Love, visited Sri Lanka in message reminding him of the importance of m talks with the Sri Lankan government. / ReCOmmé 1. Prepare for a meeting in Sri Lank ordinary women from the North-Ea and Women's NGOs in Sri Lanka, tc 2. Encourage networking between Wo Women's groups) and women's encourage and provide Solidarity invite high achieving leaders who h as Lily Thapa from Nepal, to speak 3. Facilitate Sri Lankan Women of diff factions to demonstrate to goverr action, should provide the basis of a 4. Train Women's groups in Sri La machinery: e.g. provision of Shad Adviser On Gender issues to the Ul for the implementation of 1325 TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 Human Rights Commissioner, Louise Arbour, se her report highlighted grave human rights hd national peace initiatives have also been mposed of government appointees, has failed as, disappearances, torture, and extra-judicial ses have also failed to promote dialogue and a 25 to bring women to the negotiating table. No of human rights and peace processes in Sri nd it did successfully broker a peace accord in in 2005 and Norway has now withdrawn from nt accused the Norwegian facilitators of being uld not agree to use the label "terrorist', and oup. A 'co-chair mediation group to the peace apan, Australia and Canada but it is without Japan or even China, which is also heavily Parliamentary Group on Sri Lanka, led by the first week of April. GAPS sent Mr Love a hentioning the status of 1325 in Sri Lanka in his endations a in the coming year on 1325, to enable st and the South, and other human rights ) be heard men's NGOs in Sri Lanka (including local groups across the globe to inspire, to Sri Lankan organisations. We could have emerged from grassroots level, such about how their NGOs have used 1325 erent ethnic groups, religions and political ment how dialogue, rather than military a road map for peace nka to use international human rights ow Reports to the Office of the Special N Secretary General, which is 二ン GS Page 28
Page 31 Challenges Facing Upcount Presentation by Mega Ms Shanmugalingam began by speaking Upcountry Tamils. When considering this, sh and experiences of these people who central provinces of Sri Lanka. For two hl group have been largely ignored by their Sril origin). Upcountry Tamils still toil in the struggling to make a living. The actual population of this group is gr suggest; an anomaly due to a lack of Cons Tamils. Following independence from Britain of discrimination against minorities propellec disenfranchised and for decades were no entitlements offered to other citizens of S situation, it was difficult to achieve positive stateless today. The struggle for rights such a given that some Upcountry Tamils have n citizenship. Ms Shanmugalingam pointed out that the pla dealt with by national authorities separately fr estates are sold to international companies a to be very hierarchical. The estate manage workers who therefore have little opportunity t Living conditions on the estates, first establis archaic in nature. Some housing Schemes W. of ownership rights. For instance, a house of to the estate management if the worker secur Health Health provision for plantation workers is mar Sri Lankan population. Health provision in t Trusts established by the Estate Owne circumstances, health needs are met On an ac Women on the estates are not targets of offic Women have faced forcible sterilisation wi methods. Furthermore, Schemes to addre residents; it is the needy who often fall througl Education This is another important sector that is negl school provision is not properly organised in that exist adhere to their OWn Standards and school teachers do not have any formal qualif WDF Genderconference May2008 দ্য লক্ষষ্ণুপ্রশ্লেস্কৃষ্ণুপ্রিন্থগুণ মৃত্যুঃস্থঃ ry Tamils in the 21 Century malar Shanmugalingam of the difficulties in defining the identity of e urged that we examine the history, problems have traditionally lived in and around the undred years, the problems experienced by this ..ankan neighbours and by India (their country of harsh environment of mountainous terrain, eater than official government statistics would sensus on the criteria for defining Upcountry l, Upcountry Tamils were the first casualties by the Sri Lankan government. They were it able to claim the citizenship rights and Sri Lanka. Despite six attempts to rectify this results, and many Upcountry Tamils remain as gender, children's and labour rights is difficult ot yet been granted the fundamental right of antation sector, as it is popularly referred to, is om other public sector undertakings. Plantation nd the management of individual estates tends 2r possesses overal responsibility over estate o secure rights in terms of land or home. hed by the British during colonial rule, are also ere established but failed to take off due to lack ered to a worker on an estate must be returned es employmentelsewhere. aged independently from that of the rest of the he plantations is administered by independent rS ASSociation and NGOS. Given these hoc basis and are totally inadequate. cial family planning advice strategies and some hout the offer of alternative family planning SS malnutrition often do not reach all estate In the safety net. ected in many plantations. For instance, prethe plantation sector and the few pre-schools are authoritarian in nature. Frequently, precations or training. TPage 29
Page 32 Children studying in plantation schools are un as they are indirectly denied opportunities to gained the qualifications required to secure p enter higher education. Economy Estate workers tend to lose out in wage neg( the government or do not take adequate a Women workers work longer hours than men, and children in the plantations. Elderly people The elderly are the most vulnerable group with are no longer of working age, the elderly hav employer nor the government provide suppor On the estates. Globalisation Globalisation has affected estate WOrkers mc Lanka. Vast areas of land, including product by hydro-electric schemes and other devel financed by multinational corporations or by implemented, workers are evicted from their them in terms of employment or accommodatic Violence Due to the ethnic conflict Upcountry Tamils sc of the local Sinhala population and by the arr arbitrary arrest and imprisonment without rec Tamil speakers in the legal system, they are legal contexts. Protection granted them ul deliberate harassment by law enforcement offi The problems faced by Upcountry Tamils are suppression of their basic rights and the lack challenges facing this population in the twenty TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 able to compete for places in higher education ) access it. In Some Cases, those who have laces at university have no financial Support to otiations. Trade Unions either Collaborate with ction to improve wages. Furthermore, most and there is widespread exploitation of women in the Upcountry Tamil community. Once they e no access to financial security. Neither their t, and there are no care homes for the elderly ore than other vulnerable labour groups in Sri Ve estates, are in danger of being Submerged opment projects. These developments are foreign governments. When the projects are dwellings with no alternative arrangements for D. metimes suffer retaliatory actions by members med forces, including arbitrary violence, rape, ourse to judicial review. Despite provision for often denied the right to use their language in nder the law is ineffective When faced with Cials. great and diverse in nature. The day-to-day of leadership in their community are the key first century. GS ឆ្នា” si ベ Page 30
Page 33 Gender, Rights and Empo Presented by Nesrina Jameell Background: Ms Mohamed began her presentation with Province, which consists of Trincomalee, Batt Sinhala Communities live in this area. The CC the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam has a Ampara and has destroyed the economic op though the community at large experiences ha the brunt of it. Problems experienced by women: o Poverty Lack of hygienic environment Inadequate educational opportunities Malnutrition Disrupted livelihood initiatives Sexual harassment, dowry issues and ( Why do we need to empower women in Am Statistics reveal that more Women than men from disadvantaged communities and are h elderly relatives and children. They have ve engage in livelihood initiatives due to lack of experience in engaging with the Outside WOric initiatives. Economic development o NGOs and the government are work agricultural production and to return th areas of rice production O Many have relied on deep-sea and f families. However, due to the Conflict parts of the sea. Once this problem ha return to fishing as a livelihood o Cottage industries, such as Weaving, support for these industries will help pe o Offering a market to sell the products w Safe environment o Women and girls need to be made awa not have to put up with domestic violet Workshops on these issues will help W( Ms Mohammed presented profiles of selectec in this area: THABILUVIL Though the village of Thambiluvil enjoys a val forward because the village is in the grip of LT TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 werment in Ampara District Vohamed, Field Officer, MUSDA background information about the Eastern icaloa and Ampara districts. Tamil, Muslim and Dnflict between the Sri Lankan government and affected the social fabric of the community in portunities for people living in this area. Even ardship, women living in Ampara appear to bear domestic violence para? in the area experience poverty. They may be eads of households, bearing responsibility for ry few opportunities to secure employment or skills and capital. Since they have very little , there is little motivation or confidence to drive cing together to help these women return to Ie district to being one of the country's leading esh-water fishing to earn an income for their , these fisher folk are denied access to some s been addressed, many families will be able to are widely spread throughout the district and ople to get back on their feet ill help these communities ire of their rights and to understand that they do hce, sexual harassment, rape, and child abuse. omen to claim and enforce their rights villages to illustrate the problems experienced iety of resources, residents are unable to move TE and the Sri Lankan army who restrict the Page 31ማ
Page 34 mobility of villagers. Only one third of the pad thirds uncultivated. Even though there are S very few women attend School after the age C form of employment; the rest remain in the h the tsunami disaster, but in the absence of distances for medical treatment. AKKARAIPATTU This village is unique in that Tamil, Muslim a Previously they lived in harmony, but the Curr amongst the villagers and an increase in hosti Conflict-related displacement, during rainy sea and move to higher ground. Though many villagers have completed their b for them; even skilled persons are unable to m displacement due to the rains or the conflict hygiene awareness. The villagers are aware that some of their bas non-enforcement of the right to education, ir position to challenge these rights violations. tension between school children. Village res ethnic conflict, harassment by armed gr vulnerability of certain members of Society, St safety. MARUTHAMUNA This village is occupied by Muslims and Tamil cyclone (in 1978), and the tsunami disaster ( area in Sri Lanka following the tsunami. The a result of these natural disasters and natural Educational opportunities are not utilised by professional workers are generally limited to th community is minimal and the hospital facilit villagers include: poverty, lack of employmer dowry issues. Women are unable to participate equally in competitive ability and educational qualificatio TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 dy fields are utilised by the villages, leaving two schools, the standard of education is low, and f 16. Only 2-3% of women are involved in any ome. Hygiene awareness has increased after a hospital, local villagers have to travel long nd Sinhala people inhabit this village together. ent displacement due to conflict causes tension lity between communities. Apart from suffering sons the villagers have to abandon their homes basic education there is insufficient employment haintain livelihood initiatives given their frequent However, people do have basic health and sic human rights are being denied (for example: stances of child labour) but they are not in a Conflict-related problems include increasing idents are concerned about a range of issues: oups, economic difficulties, alcoholism, the uch as Orphans and Widows and their personal s and in its past has suffered floods (in 1957), a in 2004). Marutamunai was the worst affected villagers have been displaced several times as ly their livelihood initiatives have been affected. women in the village. Amongst the Women, he weaving industry. Hygiene awareness in the ies are distant. Problems experienced by the ht, transport, alcoholism, forced marriages and development as they lack capital resources, ՈS, ॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐॐ
Page 35 Gender, Rights and Empov Presented by Ms Vathsala Panchad Within the Eastern Province are the districts province is rich in natural resources and is ht three communities traditionally lived in har tension between them. Batticaloa district has been severely affected by the LTTE at various points and fighting be has caused many casualties in the area. Ir disasters, such as floods, cyclone and the tsu Women have customarily participated in fishir but continuous displacement and lack of C Furthermore, Women have not been able to due to Cultural restrictionS. The Batticaloa Tamil community is a matrilin allowed to own possessions, such as house Secure dowries for their own use. However, i have been distorted and power has been tra this tendency, since armed groups are free to virtue of their military power. Tamil and Muslim Women in Batticaloa distri spouse, children and other family members. providing for their children, but the traditiona their efforts. Often they do not receive supp Conflict Sometimes arises Within families. Many women go to the Middle East as dome their communities, however, they are looked to refuse to marry women who have worked a Caste discrimination can also be a problem forced to reside in temporary shelters, and prejudice, occupying a lower social position in In refugee camps and temporary shelters, wo The Cramped conditions in camps have led t men, Sexual harassment of and violence tow Women are prey to different kinds of abuse and physical abuse. Government actors an rehabilitation have avoided addressing these to men is often more than that given to womer Women's participation in politics Within the Eastern Province, participation in largely due to the conflict. Many are too fri addition, lack of education, knowledge and sk TwbFGender conference May 2008" Verment in Batticaloa District charam, Field Officer, SYNERGY CCE of Trincomalee, Batticaloa and Ampara. The ome to Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim people. The mony, but the present conflict has increased by the conflict. Certain areas were controlled tween the rebel group and the Sri Lankan army addition, Batticaloa has Suffered from natural nami Of 2004. Ig, managing livestock and the weaving industry apital have affected their livelihood initiatives. participate in public life nor in decision-making eal one. According to this custom, women are 'S and land, have a say in their lives and can n the present consumer society, these customs nsferred to men. The Conflict has exacerbated ) take Control of individuals and possessions by ct face similar problems which include: loss of Many widows shoulder the responsibility for il Customs in their Communities tend to hinder ort from their extended family and, as a result, stic workers as a result of this poverty. Within down upon for doing so. It is common for men broad as maids. for displaced persons and families who are women may often suffer more due to caste the first place. men are exposed to a wide range of problems. o a high rate of alcoholism amongst displaced 'ards women, lack of privacy and child abuse. n these conditions, including verbal, emotional d international agencies providing support for issues; for example, the financial support given l. politics by both men and women is minimal, ghtened of reprisals to engage in politics. In ills restricts people from participating in politics. ~ " " (33
Page 36 Women, in particular, often lack the confide decisions for themselves and others. Problems experienced by women: No participation in decision-making Lack of livelihood initiatives and of mark Lack of health facilities Lack of security Non-participation in politics ReCommendations: o Offer livelihood initiatives to these WC wide range of skills training for wome implements for the livelihood activities o Provide a Safe and Secure environment violence which takes place not only in StatisticS reVeal that 60% Of WOmen Suf O Support Women's groups and empower focus on implementing programmes f community initiatives Women are not given the necessary supp employment. Nor are there support netwo problems and to make decisions regarding the do hold positions of responsibility and make c changes have occurred to improve the general TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 it in ince to attend political meetings or to make eting facilities men: the government needs to implement a n, together with sufficient capital to purchase for women: many women experience domestic temporary camps, but also in the work place fer gender-based violence ment of women: this must be prioritised, with a or education, employment and participation in Ort to Continue their education or to Secure rks which help them to overcome childcare air careers. Despite the fact that some women jecisions on behalf of the community, few real | Status of Women. GS
Page 37 Women's Capab Presented by Mrs Nalini Ratnarajah Council O The Context Women Constitute Over 50% of Sri Lan However, their capabilities are not effe potential offered by women to society result of Cultural, institutional, Social an Labour provided by Women in the dom the national economy Social research has revealed that won sexual exploitation, domestic violence high in the plantation, rural and industri In the North and East of Sri Lanka WO internal displacement Sri Lankan women tend to be under-re Opportunities to promote women's capabil Sri Lanka is a member Of the UN Its political system is a parliamentary d UNSCR 1325 in its domestic law) The country has a civil administrations The centralised political institutions are the 13" amendment to the Constitutio Since the 1970s a ministerial portfolio h government Several provincial governments have a A Parliamentary Act has been enforce A special bureau on women and ( department Sri Lanka enforces the Voluntary Servi NGOs to carry out social and charitabl issues) There are several civil society organisa Sri Lanka has ratified CEDAW, along including the International Declaration ( Weaknesses that hinder the promotion of v TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 Divisions within civil society The values, norms and traditions in ap State and local bureaucracy Under-representation of women in polit Lack of education for rural Women Lack of strategic gender education in th Large number of internally displaced W. Nationalist and feudal attitudes which a Lack of political will to address gender Widespread view of Women as a sexua Lack of awareness amongst Women politics ilities in Sri Lanka District Coordinator, National Peace f Sri Lanka ca's population ctively utilised for development purposes. The , the polity and the economy is hindered as a d political impediments estic sphere is not recognised as contributing to hen in Sri Lanka, as a group, are vulnerable to and labour exploitation. This vulnerability is al Sectors men are more vulnerable to armed Conflict and presented in the political sphere ities in Sri Lanka: emocracy (and is therefore is required to enact ystem to devolve power at some point (according to n) as been dedicated to Women's affairs in Central ministry for women's affairs d on violence against Women children has been established in the police Ces Act, No.13 of 1980 that enables NGOs and e work (thus facilitating work on Women's rights tions working on women's issues with other UN instruments on gender issues, on Violence against Women women's capabilities in Sri Lanka: atriarchal society ics and decision-making at all levels le Country Dmmer dvocate Women's Subordination SSUeS commodity themselves of importance of participation in Page 3.5"
Page 38 Further opportunities: Support from international agencies, Human Rig along with Sri Lanka's commitment to CEDAW used to pressure the government to establish human rights. Threats: Obstacles to the realisation of Women's human child recruitment into armed groups, urban sec exploitation of women in the plantation, rural and Recommendations: o Promote organised efforts to improve Women in their economic and educatio support and show solidarity for Such initi Large Scale education on human rights Implementation of gender policies Institutionalisation of sustained dialogue ( Sustained collaboration between the gov and development issues, with the aim of / ReCOmm o Promote organised efforts to impr empower Women in their econom should be encouraged to support O Large Scale education on human o implementation of gender policies o Institutionalisation Of Sustained dia o Sustained Collaboration betwee organisations on gender and ( promoting holistic approaches TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 ghts institutions and Women's organisations, and its accountability to the UN can all be systems protecting and promoting Women's rights include: the protracted ethnic conflict, tor prostitution, unplanned urbanisation and industrial SectOrS. women's capabilities. These should empower nal opportunities. Men should be encouraged to atives on gender equity ernment and civil society organisations on gender promoting holistic approaches endations N ove women's capabilities. These should nic and educational opportunities. Men and show solidarity for such initiatives rights alogue On gender equity in the government and civil Society levelopment issues, with the aim of ン
Page 39 Refugee and Asylum Seeking Wome Presented by Mala Ms Ponusamy began by pointing out that different from that of men, and that this is not is determined. Procedures might be based ( man engaged in fairly formal political activity political cultures in the country of origin a experience of being at risk is often ignored, wil providing food and shelter or passing messa gender identity itself might be a political issue. Western governments often consider sexual rather than coming within the public sphere, e norms (for example, the treatment of women who have been subjected to torture, forced m personal interviews without the presence off to information, advice and Services as men do The 1951 UN Refugee Convention Female asylum seekers and refugees are protection and Social assistance measures f encouraged participants to consider. The Refugee Convention should be properly who demonstrate a well founded fear of perse reason of any of the five enumerated grounds, persecution grounds may account for Wome serious harm takes a gender-specific form. Determination of status Determination of status is founded On two persecution, and the second concerns the g violence constitute persecution for the purpos to be little dispute that sexual violence carrie does constitute persecution, agreement on th out by groups outside government control, or provide protection for women, there is a tend status to characterise sexual violence as strict Detention Asylum seekers should not be detained unles should be made to avoid the detention of nurs pregnancy. Where detention takes place, sep Women except where specific requests to C family. Confidential medical assistance fros request, and any recommendation for release the Consent of the detainee, be taken into acCC Health w Refugee and asylum-seeking Women should h chronic needs. They should also have the TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 n: Challenges, Changes and Choices Ponusamy, Solicitor women's experience of persecution is often always taken into account when asylum status on the model of an asylum seeker as a young against the state and an assumption that the re the same in Western Europe. Women's nen their political activity is less formal, such as ages. There is also a lack of recognition that violence against Women as a personal issue ven when connected to political aims or Cultural by their communities following rape). Women arriage or mutilation should have the choice of amily members and should have equal access inable to benefit equitably from current legal or a number of reasons which Ms Ponusamy interpreted as providing protection for women cution, including gender-related persecution, by either singly or in combination. Any of the five en's experiences of persecution, even where points. The first concerns what constitutes grounds for recognising status. Does sexual e of Status determination? While there seems d out by state agents in their official capacity e issue stops there. Where violence is carried When the government is unable or unwilling to ency for domestic bodies determining refugee y personal. s it is absolutely essential, and particular effort sing mothers and women in the later stages of arate facilities should be available for men and Ohabit are received from all members of the n a female doctor should be available upon ! made by a medical professional should, with punt by the detaining authorities. lave aCCeSS to health care, for both urgent and choice of being attended by female medical Page 37
Page 41 Sri Lankan Wome Presented by This Status of Women in Sri Lanka The introduction of a market-Oriented econom resulting from globalisation, have had a trem Lanka. They have increased both opportun traditional role as house wife into a more enha Sri Lanka's labour force is largely made up workforce is only half that of males. However country's foreign remittances and since the labour from Sri Lanka has been noted. Gender Promotion Programme Working Pa migrant workers, 590,420 are women and 78% in the unskilled category, which includes hous & Dias portray the averaဗူe female migrant children, educated to the 5" or 6" standard an Reasons for migration of women: o High rate of unemployment among fem o Poverty: migration becomes a strategy O Seeing foreign employment as a con Such as alcohol addiction in male mem Labour migration to the Middle East Sri Lanka's first women migrant workers left it foreign employment may seem an opportunit serious human rights violations. Women migr o Harassment and intimidation Threats to themselves and to their famil Racial discrimination Economic and sexual exploitation Xenophobia Poor working conditions Increased health riskS Trafficking into forced labour Debt bondage Involuntary servitude Situations of captivity Case study Sumali left for Saudi Arabia in April 2001 household with nine children. On one occasio leg. Her employer provided no first aid or n became infected and Sumali escaped her plac High Commission. There she received hospita In Migrant Workers shanthini Mestiyage lic policy in 1978, and changing labour markets hendous impact on the status of women in Sri ities and pressure for women to change their unced role. of men and the percentage of women in the , migrant Women add a large percentage to the 1990s a steady acceleration of female migrant per 9 states that of the 858,000 Sri Lankan % of these migrant employment placements are emaids. Case studies carried out by Gamburd domestic worker as "poor, married, with two Id not employed in the formal labour market'. ales in Sri Lanka for family survival venient means to escape domestic problems, bers of the family ts shores in the 1970s. Although departure for y, in reality it exposes women to the threat of ant workers experience: ies to Work as a housemaid. She WOrked in a n she accidentally dropped boiling water on her nedical treatment, despite her pleas. The leg ce of Work and made her way to the Sri Lankan al treatment and was sent back to her family.
Page 42 Regulatory framework in Sri Lanka and ther The labour migration policy of Sri Lanka encou country's foreign earnings. The Sri Lanka supposed to provide the following safeguards fo O Negotiating contracts of employment Making agreements with foreign authoriti Providing assistance and guidance to mi Dealing with the welfare and protection o Implementing model contracts to ensure Society's responsibilities towards migrant w David Soyza, Director of the Migrant Service change in Society by bringing about voting right that SLBFE is the body responsible for training and effective programmes that will empower wo A landmark move for migrant workers O In Kuwait two groups of employment ag together to pledge to support and to prov O Job agents are perhaps undergoing si article by Feizal Samath in the Sri Lanka 2008 Suggestions for future interventions: O Encourage coordination between the enhance the quality of migrant worke Workers O Introduce regulations for recruitme exploitation o Provide support networks and mecha at the Workplace, and when returning O Offer health insurance, pension rights appropriate training for Workers, and g O Reduce human Smuggling and risky tr TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 in ecruitment process rages migration as a method of boosting the Bureau of Foreign Employment (SLBFE) is r foreign workers: 6eS grant Workers f migrant workers fair Wages Orkers S Centre, highlights the need for attitudinal S for migrant workers. Dudley Wijesiri asserts migrant workers and should offer meaningful rkers employed abroad. Jents from Sri Lanka and Kuwait have come ide for the welfare of migrant workers Ome soul-searching as demonstrated in an in Sunday Times Online of Sunday 27 April, ministries of Health, Education and Labour to rs and to provide for the well-being of returnee nt agencies to protect Workers and avoid nisms to migrant workers prior to employment, from overseas work placements Counselling while on the job, model Contracts, guarantees for back payments ansportation
Page 43 Workshop 4: Laying the Founda Facilitated by Maduri Rajkum Aim: The aim of the workshop was to examine how to for young Tamil people living in the UK. The participants from diverse backgrounds and expe aside, several innovative ideas were put forward The group discussed social issues affecting youn o This includes the pressure from parents ex gap between the two generations o The importance of Saturday Tamil School to maintain contact with their culture and Tamil community. ldeas discussed included: Youth magazine: Suggestions were put forward young Tamil people, featuring debates and disc offer an opportunity to young people to expres distributed to a fixed number of people, with the participating in the workshop Volunteered to take Youth flyer: An information bulletin highlighting i considered useful. However, help will be required Networking: Many present in the workshop revea fund-raising organisations. However, they stat charitable interests. Therefore, a database could networking. ReCOmme o To develop a youth magazine and circul O To develop a database of individuals inti tions for Future Generations har and Sinthuja Visahan lay the foundations for establishing a forum 2 workshop group consisted of twenty-five riences, but only a few young people. This and discussed at length by participants. g Tamil people in the UK: (perienced by young people and the growing s which offer opportunities for young people o network with other young people from the o write and distribute a youth magazine aimed at ussions of relevant topics. The magazine would s themselves. Initially, the publication could be inclusion of new recruits over time. A journalist On the task. mportant events of interest to young people was from TIC for this initiative. aled that they were involved with other charitable, 2d that very little was known about these other be developed to share information, expertise and ndations ate arested in community work GS
Page 44 Workshop 5: Promotir Facilitated By Dr. Sh The Context in Brief: 1. 2. Sri Lanka is a democratic republic with a p more than 50% are Women Women Constitute 33.7% of the labour forC 3. A key issue in Sri Lanka is that women's 7. utilised for the country's development. W economy is limited due to cultural, social an In Sri Lanka, Women's Contribution to th (Compared to developed countries). Howe are not officially recognised as contributing Social research has revealed that Sri Lanka domestic violence and exploitation in the la particularly a problem within the plantation, In the North and East, Women are mor displacement Women are under-represented in the politic However, there are some reasons for optimism 1. Sri Lanka is a member of the UN and has gi 2. Sri Lanka is a parliamentary democracy, a 3. domestic law and to implement the resolutic been dedicated to Women's affairs in Ce Affairs. Several provincial governments hi Women's Parliament has introduced a specific Act to t క్ట్ల?ళళ్లస్టోస్టళ్లు TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 ng Women's Capability anthy Parameswaran opulation of approximately 19 million, of which e in Sri Lanka capabilities are not effectively and efficiently somen's potential for society, politics and the d political impediments he household market Sector is considerable ver, women who work in the domestic sphere towards the national income n Women are vulnerable to sexual exploitation, pour market. Exploitation of Women's labouris rural and industrial Sectors e Vulnerable to armed Conflict and internal al sphere ven support to UNSCR 1325 ind should be able to enact UNSCR 1325 in on. Since the 1970s, a ministerial portfolio has ntral government: the Ministry for Women's ave also established ministries dedicated to issues ackle violence against Women سمبر Page 42
Page 45 There are cultural and social obstacles that p. A. Differing values, traditions and cultural Sri Lanka. Hindu Tamils, Buddhist Sinh of women in different lights B. Under-representation of women in poli public and private Sectors C. Lack of education and health Care in the also a problem for many women. D. Certain attitudes which advocate the Su Society. All political parties claim to be although none put their words into practi in light of the above, Sri Lankan women attemp Women's committees of their political parties. possess sufficient power to confront male-dom that women have only been able to assume le from husbands or fathers, e.g. Srimavo Bar Furthermore, none of the parties elect leaders Compete on an equal basis with their male colle Women in Sri Lanka are Seen as Sexual COmm Children. In the Context of domestic Subse acceptable. Women's lack of education, comb makes them vulnerable to abuse and exploitat to Women's issues by politicians, there is a la rights in Sri Lanka. In the workplace, women found in high positions, particularly in the privat Recommendations: 1. Promote organised networking Increase the awareness of human rights an domestic violence if violence against wom Organising Women groups ('sangam") in villa women's human rights. 2. Education on equal rights Education on rights and gender issues s example. It should be communicated to yo both men and woman, perhaps in the cont approach but eventually we would hope to Women's equality. 3. Implementing policy advocacy Women in Sri Lanka need to advocate opportunities. Equality of opportunity in the sector, but also in the private sector. Th commission with sufficient authority to enfor Households should also be encouraged to legal documents. revent women from developing their potential: norms within the three main ethnic groups in alese, Christians and Muslims all view the role tics and general decision-making both in the も。 rural and plantation areas. Unemployment is bordination of women hold sway in Sri Lankan committed to equal opportunities for women, Ce bt to influence government policies through the Unfortunately, women's committees do not inated political parties. It is interesting to note adership roles as a form of political inheritance ndaranayake or Chandrika Kumaranathunga. on merit, meaning that women are unable to eagues. Odities whose principal role is to bear and rear :rvience, violence and marital rape become bined with ignorance about their human rights, ion. Despite the nominal verbal support given ck of political commitment to women's human are often discriminated against, and are rarely e SectOr. nongst women and men. Men must condemn hen is to stop. This could take the form of ages and distributing information leaflets about hould begin at an early age; at school, for ung people that human rights apply equally to ext of humanities studies. This is a long term See sustainable charges in the recognition of for the implementation of policies on equal : workplace should apply, not only in the state e government could consider establishing a ce and monitor such policies. include women as joint property owners on
Page 46 4. Sustained dialogue on gender equality Sri Lanka needs a Consistent and COntinuous government's Commitment and obligation Standards. Training should be prioritised on skills for di Cooking, and simple preventive health meas Strategies must be put in place to encourag then be able to read for and educate their p overcoming poverty and discrimination, an medical care for themselves and their child young age. 5. Collaboration between Government ar women's rights issues Following the 2002 ceasefire agreement b LTTE, Women's sub-Committees were creat committees highlighted the importance of wc advocated UNSCR 1325. Unfortunately, participation in peace talks ended. We must government and civil society organisations v Collaborative Work, thus fostering further won TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 T S policy discussion on gender equality and the in this regard according to international aily life, e.g. working within a budget, healthy ures, such as boiling drinking water. ge children to learn basic skills; children may arents. Education offers the best Chance for d educated Women are more likely to seek ren, and less likely to become pregnant at a hd Civil Society Organisations involved in etween the Sri Lankan government and the ed to coordinate on gender issues. The subDmen's participation in the peace process and the peace process collapsed and women's encourage a strong relationship between the working for Women's human rights to facilitate men’s interests.
Page 47 VM Ann ܀ United Nations Security Counci the North-East and Plan The ongoing conflict in Sri Lanka has had people. With the disintegration of civil society ever increasing burden of caring and provic struggling to survive on the margins of a war-r The Tamil Women Development Forum (TV women living in the North-East and plantatio struggle and to empower them to become a fo A formidable tool that strengthens this ende Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on Women, Peace UN tO: o build a gender perspective within its wi o involve women at every level as decisi lt urges Member States and all parties to arme Representation of women (Article 1) This article urges Member States to ensu decision-making levels in national, regional a for the prevention, management, and resolutic Negotiating and implementing peace agree Calls on all actors involved, when negotiating a gender perspective, including: o The special needs of women and girl rehabilitation, reintegration and post-co o Measures that support local women's conflict resolution, and that involve Wor the peace agreements; O Measures that ensure the protection c girls, particularly as they relate to the c the judiciary, Comply with legal obligations (Article 9) Calls upon all parties to armed conflict to r rights and protection of women and girls as ci them under: o the Geneva Conventions of 1949, o the Refugee Convention of 1951 o the United Nations Convention On the F and to bear in mind the provisions of the Rom exe 1 il Resolution 1325 and Women in station Areas of Sri Lanka a devastating impact on the lives of ordinary t, women within the civilian population carry the ling for their families and the wounded, while avaged local economy. WDF) aims to focus on the specific needs of n areas in order to support them in their daily roe for positive change. avour is the United Nations Security Council and Security which places an obligation on the ork on conflict resolution and peace processes On makers and field Workers 2d conflict to do the following: re increased representation of women at all nd international institutions and in mechanisms on of Conflict; ments (Article 8) and implementing peace agreements, to adopt s during repatriation and resettlement and for nflict reconstruction; peace initiatives and indigenous processes for men in all of the implementation mechanisms of if and respect for human rights of Women and onstitution, the electoral system, the police and espect fully international law applicable to the vilians, in particular the obligations applicable to Rights of the Child of 1989 e Statute of the International Criminal Court;
Page 48 Take measure to protect women and girls ( Calls on all parties to armed conflict to take from gender-based violence, particularly rape forms of violence in Situations of armed Conflict Put an end to impunity (Article 11) Emphasizes the responsibility of all States to responsible for genocide, crimes against hur sexual violence against Women and girls, anc these crimes, where feasible, from amnesty pri Refugee camps and settlements (Article 12) Calls upon all parties to armed conflict to resp refugee camps and settlements, and to take in girls, including in their design. Planning for disarmament (Article 13) Encourages all those involved in the pla reintegration to consider the different needs o into account the needs of their dependants. The TWDF intends to put to maximum use political, financial and technical support of the and empower women living in the Tamil homel Tamil Women Development Forum (TWDF) C/o. Centre for Community Development Bridge End Close Kingston-upon-Thames KT26PZ United Kingdom 17 May 2008 TWDF Gender Conference - May 2008 " Article 10) special measures to protect Women and girls and other forms of Sexual abuse, and all other put an end to impunity and to prosecute those nanity, war crimes including those relating to | in this regard, stresses the need to exclude DVisions. )ect the civilian and humanitarian character of to account the particular needs of women and nning for disarmament, demobilization and f female and male ex-Combatants and to take the power of UNSCR 1325 to leverage the UN and the international community to support ands of Sri Lanka. Page 46
Page 49 Ann Collective Cultural Bereavement The civil war in Sri Lanka has raged for nearl conflict. The chronic nature of the war, comp losses and general hardship, continues to problems of members of society caught in the At an individual level, losses resulting from t losses, as in the majority of cases, have experienced is even more severe and disablin with before the grief associated with the loss drug abuse in these circumstances is not uncC underlying depression. Suicide rates in Sri Lanka are the highest in us, for example, about a father who saw his tw as terrorist suspects. He turned from social almost 24 hours of the day in a semi-drunke killings of his children, and alcohol helped him this was a coping mechanism. His wife not on time, to alcohol; she became depressed and la A number of psychological problems have separation anxiety, sleep problems, behaviour It has also been shown that trauma Can induc become irritable, suspicious and aggressive both at home and WOrk. When an individual suffers the family suffers irrevocably changed by the long-standing Co markedly diminished. Traditionally fathers t traumatised by experience of the conflict, thei the father is viewed as powerless and incomp Sons witness their fathers behaving submiss Outside the home, and lose their Confidence protection and, as a result, feel insecure. Ir behaviour. Aggressive behaviour is now common among them to engage in gang warfare, using guns, k been used during gang fights. Furthermore, a higher incidence of single pare a conflict situation males are more frequent number of female headed households. In the out of education and look for work. Similarly, r their families, in a reversal of traditional roles. friends and neighbours, which can sometimes eXe 2 y 27 years. There is no winner or loser in this ounded by abductions, killings, displacements, exacerbate the physical and psychological middle. he war have led to immense grief. When the resulted from a traumatic event, the grief g. The trauma of the event has to be first dealt can be handled. Not surprisingly alcohol and ommon as many use this as a way to overcome South East Asia. Anecdotal evidence informs 'O young Sons questioned by the army and shot drinking to alcohol abuse, eventually spending n state. He had felt powerless to prevent the to forget the incident for at least a short time; ly lost her two sons, but also her husband, this ter Committed Suicide. been noted in children too, Such as fear, problems and other post traumatic disorders. e personality changes in an individual. People leading to relationship problems and conflicts as well. The traditional family unit has been nflict. Children's respect for their elders has ook the lead at home but if they have been parenting skills are affected. In this situation, )etent by his children, particularly by his sons. sively towards the army and other authorities in him. They no longer trust their father for security can promote aggressiveness in their st younger people and it is commonplace for nives and other weapons; even grenades have nt families is impacting on family dynamics. In tly victims of violence, resulting in a greater sehouseholds, Sons are often forced to drop nothers also become financially responsible for When Women are at Work, child care is left to lead to child abuse.
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Page 52 Thulasi Bridge End Close (Off Clifton Road), Kingston Upon Thames KT26PZ, (UK) Telephone: +44 (0)20 8546 1560 Fax. +44 (0)2085465701 E-mail: twdficcd(asangu.org The TWDF's mission is to develop and advocate for Tamil speaking women of Sri Lankan origin equality in global policy a communities. The project fulfills this purpose through research, advocacy, community based services and programmes a enpowerment and social justice, in SriLanka and abroad. Centre For Community Development The Centre for Community Development (CCD) is a humanitarian organisation Committed to supporting poor and disadva people's organisations benefitting poor and marginalised communities irrespective of gender, ethnicity or religion. Email: Registered Charity No. 1109368 as they support their families and and by Working in partnership with antaged people and Works with admin.cCdGsangu.org