கவனிக்க: இந்த மின்னூலைத் தனிப்பட்ட வாசிப்பு, உசாத்துணைத் தேவைகளுக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படுத்தலாம். வேறு பயன்பாடுகளுக்கு ஆசிரியரின்/பதிப்புரிமையாளரின் அனுமதி பெறப்பட வேண்டும்.
இது கூகிள் எழுத்துணரியால் தானியக்கமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட கோப்பு. இந்த மின்னூல் மெய்ப்புப் பார்க்கப்படவில்லை.
இந்தப் படைப்பின் நூலகப் பக்கத்தினை பார்வையிட பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்குச் செல்லவும்: Social Justice 1991.06
and many more revealing feature ar.
Registered as a
ice папne for a sad game
SRI LANKA for Sale
MMIGRATNTS - - become the victims of racism
news items an ticles in this iss Ue
Іewspaper at С.Р.0.
SOCIAL JUSTICE 5.
"Peoplisation" - a Nice Name
for a Sad Game Sri Lanka for Sale The Oxygen Share Scandal Beyond Socialism and
Unbridled Capitalism Commission of inquiry
into NGOs The Local Government
Elections immigrants Become the
Victims of Racism Peace in Middle East
Heading for Disaster Coconut Research
and Development The 'Other India Bookstore A New "Area" of
Female Prostitution Liberating. Education
for Women Letters to the Editor Biotechnology - the Facts
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st to The Manager, Social Justice, CSR,
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ith the impending and inevitable destabilization of
amocracy in India, which is likely to follow in the
otsteps of the dastardly assassination of Rajiv
andhi, waves of discomfiture are bound to radiate
om the heart of the largest democracy in the world
itwards, and into the surrounding South Asian
buntries. Sri Lanka is particularly vulnerable due to its
ve-hate relationship with its "big brother" neighbour,
hich stems from the LTTE foothold in Tamil Nadu.
ajiv Gandhi, the author of the controversial ACCORD,
as a happy-go-lucky pilot till he had greatness thrust
on him when his mother, indira Gandhi, was
moved from the scene. Surrounded by "yes men" hd his chosen favourites, rode the tide of politics for a
hile. But, the sect who swore to See an end to the
ehru dynasty, saw to it that he was first de-throned.
hether LTTE was used as an instrument of Wrath is : at to be verified. But the message that emerged loud hd clear is that Sri Lanka, situated as it is in the hadow of a tumultuous indian nation, must stay alert, pt only to the back lash of political instability which is osely knit to the holocaust in the North-East, but to e possible infiltration of cessionist ideology that the dian elections brought to the forefront. The best pproach would be to "hang in there".
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51. 3
"PEOPLISATION for a sa
Giving a bad name to those whom we wish to damn is one strategy of making a deadly blow palatable to the public. Another is to give a nice name to a sad reality. One is to make a devil of the enemy, the other is to sugarcoat a bitter pill. living beyond our means, Sri Lanka is deeply in debt to foreign countries. We cannot balance our budget. We need foreign assistance for this, and for the war in the NorthEast. The IMF and World Bank demand a price for the "aid" they give us. They want our productive sectors be given to foreign companies as this benefits the countries that determine their policies.
Sri Lanka is like the farmer who is so indebted that he has to portgage his crop before it is harvested in order to get a loan from the moneylender. Sometime later his situation worsens and he is obliged to sell his land itself in order to meet the interest and repay the capital of his loans. He ends up becoming a hired worker on his former farmland.
Now Sri lanka cannot refuse to accept the terms laid down by the IMF and WB. These agencies have demanded that several public sector industries and enterprises be privatized before the end of 1991, as the condition for further aid from the industrialized countries. Likewise they prescribe the reduction of public sector employment, resulting in situations such as the retirement of tens of thousands of able teachers.
The Government uses the term peoplisation to present this ultimatum to the public. If peoplisation means that the Sri Lankan people are to own these enterprises, it will be a good thing. But the reality is far from it. The workers will get 10% of the shares; this is a good thing. 30% of the shares may initially be bought by local capital. 60% of the capital is sold by tender to very big local or foreign businesses.
Eventually these enterprises are becoming either foreign owned or owned by big Sri Lankan firms or capital. These will have the majority of the shares. They will determine policies such as what is to be produced, under what conditions and for whose advantage. The purchase of raw materials, the hiring of foreign experts and the marketing of the products will be in their hands. the Sri Lankan workers will not be strong enough to determine policies especially in the international business ope
" - A nice name d game
The local capital and management will benefit from the oreignisation. They will get their share of the returns. Some speculators will benefit from the dealings in the stock exchange as in the case of the Ceylon Oxygen hares. (cf.p..5 ) The country and the people will be the losers when a profit making enterprise, like the Telecommunications Department or the State Distilleries Corporation is first made a corporation, then a company and finally probably foreignised through the share market. By such “peoplisation” (which is a misnomer, if not an untruth) the people as such lose ownership of their
We should not forget that in poor underdeveloped countries like ours, state enterprise has been important as a countervailing power to exploitation of the people by big foreign companies. The public sector has been useful for developing local enterprise, capital, research, technology and marketing. Some public enterprises like the railways serve an essential need of the people. They are a subsidy to the rest of the economy, even if they are run at a loss. Thus the private bus owners pay scant regard to public needs when they may not profit from it, as at off peak periods or on holidays. Others like telecommunications are vital for the security of the country With this spate of privatisation, the government will obtain some money by selling the people's assets to local big capital and foreign companies; there may be some spurt in economic growth as these will be interested in profits. But it is to be feared that they will not develop enterprises and industries for the benefit of the country and the people Our real industrial growth will be neglected, inequalities will worsen, and Sri Lankans will become cheap expendable labour for the benefit of their new economic overlords. Our mass media will carry their programmes and advertisements as they will have the funds. They will subside our political parties. They will trap the local elite to serve their interests as in colonial times. We will lose control over our economy. We will be an insignificant cog in their manipulation of the global economy,
It is a pity that little attention is given to viable alternatives towards economic growth in the present world economic situation. Can we not obtain capital and technology without selling the equity capital? Should we
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 4
not think developing economic cooperation within the SAARC region for the benefit of the countries and the good of their ordinary people. Within such a group we can make up for our deficiencies in size and even in technology and capital. Selling the state industrial and services sectors we leave us less bargaining power even within SAARC.
It is a tragedy that the fruit of decades of effort to build up the public enterprises and industries in Sri Lanka is being thus given away cheaply due to our inability. to resist the IMF-WB combine. Being debtors we have to pay Shylock's pound of flesh to our "donors" who are supposed to be helping us.
TSSA BALASURYA O.M.
(from a statement by a senior Treasury official in the Daily Divestiture being implemented under the Conversion of I Business Undertakings) Act no 23 of 1987 Four whol converted into public companies under the Government's “Under this Act, these undertakings have first to be col equity. Sixty per cent is then sold outright, 30% is a made
O Ceylon Leather Products Corporation 60% has been sold
Ceylon Tyre Corporation ..offers received. Ceylon State Hardware Corporation Ceylon Plywood Corporation tenders called ...one offer r Ceylon Oils and Fats Corporation State Distilleries Corporation Lanka Milk Foods (CWE td) Asian Hotels Corporation (Owners of the Hotel Lanka Ob
Subsidiaries of the CWE such as Sathosa Computers' S Group of Companies.
Mattegama Textile Mills Veyangoda Textile Mills
Pugoda Textiles (Lanka) Ltd. will be put on a public shar par will be on offer. 60% of the Pugoda equity is owned
O Thuihiriya Textile mills now owned by Kabool of Korea
United Motors 90% public ownership, with 5% owned by
O Ceylon Oxygen: 60% owned by Norsk Hydro of Norway
The Economist in the Sunday Times of 19-5-91.
O Dankotuwa Porcelain : 50% owned by a consortium of J.
10% will be transferred to the employees shortly
ON SALE TO TI IG IS' 31) DR
(a for sale
7 News of 18-5-91 page 1 and page 14) Public Corporations and G.O.B.U.’s (Government Owned ly Government owned industrial ventures will soon be peoplisation programme.
nverted into companies, with the Treasury holding 100% a public issue and 10% goes to the employees." to a Lankan corporation...in the red for the past three years.
ero) thosa Motors. Sathosa Printers and the Colombo Commercial
in mid-June 1991 Three million rupees worth of Rs 10 shares at y Lakshmi Textiles Ltd. of India.
Mitusbishi of Japan and 5% by the employees. 30% public shareholding and 10% by employees. Cf.comment of
panese companies, 40% by the Employees Trust Fund (ETF), and
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 5
Is this fair 2
ASK THE CITIZENS WATCH DOGS
THE OXYGEN SH
The principles of allocation of the Ceylon Ox important issue on the peoplisation of governme
Shares of Ceylon Oxygen were offered much be of the principles on which the shares would consequence of these two reasons, considerable brokers.
The Secretary to the Treasury offered 1.8 millic 10 each in Ceylon Oxygen Limited at Rs. 15 pe. Ceylon Oxygen Limited were under-valued and more than twice the sale price.
In fact, it is widely known that - Norsk Hydro shares ws sold by the Government, was willing t Consequently, as was to be expected, there was which amounted to over four times the offer.
Should the Government have offered this share at less than a third of the expected market va shares as a partial gift to those who succeeded
State and the general public. Should the Gov section of the population, largely the affluent an
The most fundamental issue that has been raise the shares of business undertakings, held by the what are markedly lower than market prices. such a share issue, there is the question of equ who are knowledgeable about shares are li Government has lost revenue.
In this particular case, it could be estimated tha in the order of Rs. 27 million, at least. This is o 30. If the value at which Norsk Hydro AS was Rs. 40 is considered, then the Government has
The argument for selling shares at concenssio such a sale of shares at below market prices number of shares per person, that the owners that investment in the share market would be argument but we contend that if it is overstated shareholders entered the market and how ma market in the future. O
Yyll!!!UHHHHULUIII 会》 عج . . を売 . Y గ2 g ts V Yus ー"赤
4-/ 2ܢܝ\ ܟܠܝ 1
gen Limited shares offer have raised several int-owned business undertakings.
low their market value and the documentation be allocated was delayed far too long. As a sums of money are still being retained by the
in Ordinary Shares of the nominal value of Rs. r share. It was widely known that the shares of that the market value of the share would be
AS - the company to which 60 per cent of the o buy the remaining shares at Rs. 40 per share. a rush for the shares and an over subscription
issue at such a low price? By offering a share lue, the Government was in effect giving the in obtaining these shares at the expense of the ernment confer such gifts to what is a small d those acquainted with the share market?
d by the Ceylon Oxygen share offer is whether : Government should be put on the market at Apart from the problems created in handling ity as more affluent sections of the population kely to receive the benefits . In turn, the
t the loss in revenue to the Treasury would be n the basis of the market share value being Rs. willing to purchase the remaining shares, i.e. ost Rs. 45 million.
hal prices is twofold. It is contended that by
and by limiting share purchases to a small hip of shares would be more broad-based and bopularized. There may be some merit to this it would be interesting to know how many new ny of them would be continually in the share
the CHANGING FACE OF MODERN H
Beyond so unbridled
POLITICS - NeW forms of
The unexpected and promising significance of the events in recent years reached their climax in 1989 ir the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and ove a longer period of time embraced a wider geographi Cal area. In the course of the 80s, Certain dictatoria and oppressive regimes fell one by one in some Countries of Latin America and also of Africa and Asia in other cases there began a difficult but productive transition towards more prticpatory and more jus political structures,
"Af vozas appear at the Aree AWarset a 47ie Znosť eficievať //7strzVz77e/7ľ for utiŽziŽzé masPsourçes ama7 effactfive/Y massAoor7af/ing7 ta zesas. 4zf siere awe many /human meea Novázelo Žiliza/ malo Aakceso av7 tybe marzset arraf žr. As a staf azuay of Aste and trut not to a/o LCLML0LMLS L0 L L L L faz. '
Among the many factors involved in the fall o oppressive regimes, some deserve special mention Certainly, the decisive factor which gave rise to the changes was the violatin of the rights of workers, cannot be forgotten that the fundamental crisis o systems claiming to express the rule and indeed the dictatorship of the working class began with the grea upheavals which took place in Poland in the name O solidarity. It was the throngs of working people whic foreswore the ideology which presumed to speak ir their name. Also worthy of emphaisis is the fact tha the fall of this kind of "bloc" or empire wa: accomplished almost everywhere by means of peace ful protest, using only the weapons of truth an justice. While Mancism held that only by exacerbating social conflicts was it possible to resolve them througl violent confrontation, the protests which led to thi collapse of Marxism tenaciously insisted on trying every avenue of negotiation, dialogue, and witness t the truth, appealing to the conscience of the adversa. and seeking to reawaken in him a sense of share human dignity.
cialism and capitalism
t Colapse of Marxism
it seemed that the European order resulting from the Second World War and sanctioned by the Yalta Agreements could only be overturned by another war. Instead, it has been overcome by the non-violent Commitment of people who, while always refusing to yield to the force of power, Succeeded time after time in finding effective ways of bearing witness to the truth. This disarmed the adversary, since violence always needs to justify itself through deceit, and to appear, however falsely, to be defending a right
responding to a threat posed by others.
77e absence of stability, together with the Cozzotion of Aub/a of7cals anate saraad of Azaropersovaas of/owzaya/a/7a of easy Aur offes aferriwffraeg from #/egra/ awr. Ao amredw, saecumari/ve act/văes, COZstăzies O/2e Of Me C/e/ obstacas to aevelopment avao to the econome 42/2/2 *
The second factor to consider was the inefficiency of the economic system, which is not to be considered simply as a technical problem, but rather a consequence of the violation of the human right to private initiative, to ownership of property and to the freedom in the economic Sector. to this must be added the Cultural and national dimension. It is not possible to understand man on the basis of economics alone, nor to define him simply or the basis of class membership. But the true casue of the new developments was the Spiritual void brought about by athesim, which
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 7
deprived the younger generations of a sense of direction and in many cases led them, in the irrepressible search for personal identity and for the meaning of life, to rediscover the religous roots of their national cultures. Marxism had promised to uproot the need for God from the human heart, but the results have shown that it is not possible to succeed in this without throwing the heart into turmoil.
in situations strongly influenced by ideology, in which polarization obsured the awareness of a human dignity common to all, the Church affirmed clearly and forcefully that every individual - whatever his or her personal convictions - bears the image of God and therfore dserves respect. Further the events of 1989 are an example of the success of willingness to negotiate and of the Gospel spirit in the face of an adversary determined not to be bound by moral
“ 776 apar arasysapment is dhe erercise of Vierzg/brama/dzzy so seef GovZ fo Azzouy /p/77 ama/fo ffive Air7 accourasamcae? Dw7/7 thaf Atmonweage. ”
”Arz fie-alevelopsafaountries there is some1ä7es ar encessive Aromotor? of AureV vtÄ. L0 LLLLLSS S L0L LL0 CLMCMCMLMLL LMLL LLL LLLLCCMCLLOL an7a7 Azaraclizzatiomas folwaziras imealliante grantiž7a7fonz maÁzrg ira/7őcz/ fo recognize arra/resoecr tle Mis/arcy of the true valves of Auzan 627sfe/7Cs. '
principles. These events are a warning to those who, in the name of political realism, wish to banish law and morality from the political arena. Undoubtedly, the struggle which led to the changes of 1989 called for clarity, moderation, suffering and sacrifice. In a certain Sense, it was a struggle born of prayer, and it would have been unthinkable without immense trust in God, the Lord of history, who carries the human heart in his hands,
In the Crisis of Marxism, the natural dictates of the Consciences of workers have re-emerged in a demand for justice and a recognition of the dignity of work, in conformity with the social doctrine of the Church. The worker movement is part of a more general movement among workers and other people of good will for the liberation of the human person and for the affirmation of human rights, it is a movement which today has spread to many countries, and which, far from opposing the Catholic Church, looks to her with interest.
in the recent past, the sincere desire to be on the side of the oppressed and not to be cut off from the course
7rÁs urzaccelotabe fo say fiaf fie ae/ear of so-ca/eaf 7eza/socia/sra” Aeaves azzitalistav ázs the only mode/o/economic organisation. ArÁs marecessary to Abwasaazf azonozy tybes? Abazrzzsevs azza/ movarapo/Weses whic/o Aerarvso so maavoy cozzzzzzzeses ov7 feir magias of aevelopme/7 af27 to Avowale LLLLLL LL LLL LLLLL LL0 LLLLLCL LLLLLLLTL0LL L0S LL L0LL LLL0 LLL L0 LL L L0 aawaaaazez. '
of history has led many believers to seek in various ways, an impossible compromise between Marxism and Christianity. Moving beyound all that was shortlived. in these attempts, present circumstances are leading to a rreaffirmation of the positive value of an authentic theology of integral human liberation. Considered from this point of view, the events of 1989 are proving to be important also for the countries of the Third World, which are searching for their own path to development, just as they were important for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Assistance from other countries, especially the countries of Europe which were part of that history and which bear responsibility for it, represents a debt injustice. But it also corresponds to the interest and welfare of Europe as a whole, since Europe cannot live in peace if the various conflicts which have arisen as a result of the past are to become more acute because of a situation of economic disorder, Spiritual dissatisfaction and desperation.
This need, however, must not lead to a slackening of efforts to Sustain and assist the Countries of the Third World, which often Suffer even more serious conditions of poverty and want. What is called for is a Special effort to mobilize resources, which are not
” 77be9 social/ matuve9 of man7 dis mot comAz/ete/y férfi//ea in the State bevár és rea/izeaf Árv Ma//oc/s ff7fe/7/7eafan y grozygors. Aberg/7/7/7gy pwff/7 the falz7W ava i7Cavos/77 economic soca/ Apo/iática/ama/ Cultura/gwozas wyszlich sfeem? from:7 human nature itself and save their own autoMono, always with a view to the common 9.OOOZ PP
lacking in the world as a whole for the purpose of economic growth and common development, redefining the priority and hierarchies of values on the basis of which economic and political choices are made. Enormous resources can be made available by disarming the huge military machines which were
(continued on page 8 )
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
The Presidential Commission on NGOs continued its sittings in April. Mr. M.K. Fernando, the Exchange Controller, Mr. Dias Hettiarachchi, Assistant registrar for the registration companies and Mr. Keerthiratne Koswatte, Deputy Director of the Ministry of Planning and Plan implementation gave evidence,
Mr. M.K. Fernando in his evidence Stated that there were a lot of other means of bringing foreign Currency into the country apart from the Banking system.
Mr. Hettiarachchi in his evidence stated that there were about 350 registered NGOs in Sri Lanka at present. He also said that once registered, a company had to comply with the Company Act and had to have a name and declare its objectives. Mr. Hettiarachchi brought to the notice of the Commission that there was only a single clerk to handle all activities pertaining to 350 NGOs and one thousand and odd other organisations.
Mr. Keerthiratne Koswatte Said that there were about 38 foreign NGOs and all of them had entered into agreements with the Ministry of Public Administration and the Ministry of Social Services. Mr. Keerthiratne also said that besides these, there were 4 other NGOs.
Mr. Keerthiratne forwarded some statistics pertaining to NGOs like Redd Barna, SAP, etc. He further stated that a model application had been prepared to obtain more details from these organisations.
While the Commission of Enquiry into NGOs continued its fact finding, the state-controlled Lake House papers - particularly the Sunday Observer-continued its scathing attack on Sarvodaya one of the big NGOs in Sri Lanka. In its 7th April issue, the Sunday Observer published an expose and directly accused Mr. Harsha Navaratne, one of the important leaders of Sarvodaya and also a close relation of Dr. A.T. Ariyaratne, the leader of Sarvodaya. The article alleged that Mr. Navaratne had taken Rs.600,00 from the savings of the villagers of Rajangana, in 1906 and Rs.1.6 million from the Samusala wholesale shop in Anuradhapura, and hinted that the money had been used to produce 4 Sinhala films. Interestingly, the Sunday Observer of 25th April reproduced a front page article and an editorial from the Communist Party's newspaper Aththa of April 3, 1984. The article was about the Sale of Sri Lankan children to Western Countries and attempted to link Sarvodaya with the
NTS ON THE
Inquiry into NGOs
Seven years after the article appeared in Aththa the Sunday Observer must have thought it fit to reproduce it.
SOURCE: NFORM Situation Report April 1991
ACCeptance and Accountability of NGOs
The NGO Commission, while fulfilling its assigned tasks, could render a signal service to the country by recognizing the "peace with justice" efforts of many NGOs, it can recommend steps for their further development within a suitable public policy framework of the country. Sri Lanka is sorely in need of such groupS.
Sri Lanka had some of the advantages of a democratic Society, such as universal adult franchise, gifted to us by the British almost against the wish of the ruling elite of the day. During the past two decades there has been a trend towards authoritarianism as well as a safeguarding of democratic rights of the people.
Within such a framework it is necessary there there should be accountability of the NGO activities, particularly in relation to finances. A certain sense of Security concerning public policy is required for the NGOs to be able to serve the community on a long term basis. Some of the older generation of citizens opted for this type of work and life style on the basis of a certain commitment, and have the advantage of previous education and experience, Social contacts, and/or religious affiliations. But the younger generation would need more opportunties for their overal and ongoing education before they took up such types of work. They need encouragement to Continue in this service by a recognition and appreciation of its need and value.
The NGO Commission would render a great service if it were to recognise that some of the members of the NGOs have given their lives for the service of the community in periods of conflict. They too could be Counted among the non-violent heroes of our country. this might encourage younger persons to opt for this Service as a challenging and meaningful vocation.
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51. 9
in this connection the NGO Commission could identify what is an "NGO". Would it not be revelant for it to recommend that NGOs should not be subjected to more government surveillance and scrutiny than other private bodies 2. Should not accountability be more or less similar for all those who benefit from the inflow and outflow of funds to the country 2. Some of them are incorporated under the Companies Act, or regisbered under the Socieites Act or registered with a state agency such as the Social Services Department, and hence already subject to some type of state supervision. The NGO Commission may consider whether it is within their terms of reference to advice against policies which may give the impression of a selective severity on NGOs by the state, so commited to a liberal economy?.
The NGO Commission can make a positive contribution by recognizing the need and role of NGOS and by providing for their operation in a manner that safeguards the rights of all concerned, namely the State and foreign funders, the public, the NGO Workers,and their beneficiaries.
Example of the CSR
From its inception, the Centre for Society and Religion has participated in the people's efforts to defend their rights. We have campaigned for the freedom of the press, for the broad-basing of at least the direction and management of the state owned mass media including the radio and television.
As the situation evolved we had to relate to government policies. We supported steps such as the furtherance of human rights through the Constitution. We objected to steps that we considered bad and dangerous for the Common good of the country such as the removal of civic rights of the Leader of the Opposition by a process that left much to be questioned. A turning point in the Constitutional breakdown of the recent times was the Referendum of December 1982 by which the general elections due in 1983 were postponed for a further six years. We opposed this proposal along with the human rights groups and the "Pavidi Handa", an organization of Buddhist and Christian clergy. This opposition was physically silenced by the officers of the law acting on the instructions of the government of the day.
A significant activity of the CSR is our legal aid section. We are fortunate to have the Services of a retired senior public servant, (now) an attorney at law, who does this work pro Deo. We have many persons coming egvery afternoon to consult him. In the mornings he attends the courts for these cases. Much work has been done in this connection especially in the conditions of violence in the country.
if NGOs such as ours are to be accepted as part of the social fabric of our country they should be able to live with self-respect and acceptance as an honourable section of the community. We would find it useful if the NGO Commssion were to indicate What it would consider reasonable allowances for persons in NGOs like Ours at different levels. We can then advice the funding agencies accordingly. We would welcome Some way in which foreign funds, in So far as they are available, are made on a longer term basis to give us a certain possibility of ensuring continuity of service to our co-workers.)
SOURCE: Response from the CSR to the NGO Cornmission Questionaire.
(Continued from page 7 )
Beyond Socialism and unbridled Capitalism
Constructued for the Conflict between East and West. These resources could become even more abundant if, in place of war, reliable procedures for the resolution of conflicts could be set up, with the resulting spread of the principle of arms control and arms reduction, also in the countries of the Third World, through the adoption of appropriate measures against the arms trade. But it will be necessary above all to abandon a mentality in which the poor - as individuals and as peoples - are considered a burden, as irksome intruders trying to consume what others have produced. The poor ask for the right to share in enjoying material goods and to make good use of their capacity for work, thus creating a world that is more just and prosperous for all. The advancement of the poor constitutes a great opportunity for the moral, Cultural and even economic growth of all humanity.
Finally, development must not be understood solely in economic terms, but in a way that is fully human. It is not only a question of raising all peoples to the level Currently enjoyed by the richest countries, but rather of building up a more decent life through united labour, of Concretely enhancing every individual's dignity and Creativity, as well as his capacity to respond to his personal vocation, and thus to God's call. The apex of development is the exercise of the right and duty to Seek God, to know him and to live in accordance with that knowledge, O
FOOTNOTE: Part 11 of this serial feature deals with Land tenure, Private property and Material goods.
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
The local Govel
Sri Lanka has always exhibited democratic tendencies E ethnic conflicts, which are not alien in other parts of the 1956 after which the people selected a centre-life party. elected. Since 1977 the country has seen the birth anc incumbent Ranasinghe Premadasa, a man from the General Election held in February 1990 put into power District Development Council Elections in 1981 and t Government Elections was held in 1979. Thus, a local go
On May, 11th 1991, except in the North and the Eastern
local government elections ordinance of 1977, in the tes policemen manned the election where 6,293,929 voters covered 237 councils and 7 provinces, it involved sele Councils and 194 Pradeshiya Sabhas, The election was parties and 82 independent groups who contested the UN P Which Cotested 234 local bodies Won 9 MC's, 27 79.74% of total local bodies. The UNP and its allied CWC this basis UNP together with its allies controls 80.59% of won 1 MC, 2 UC's and 33 Pradeshiya Sabhas which is and WOn 2 Pradeshlya Sabhas which is 0.84% of local b UC and 2 Pradeshiya Sabhas which is 1.26% of local
Similarly, SLMP contest 120, BEP 12, NLSSP 43, SLMC E
DISTRICT UNF SLFP SLMP SLMC MEP NSSP
Anuradhapura I, 37,470 99,895 3,829 2.250 553 660 Polonnaruwa 61,273 49296 2,523 319
Bஆடி 1,74322 83,473 5,764 1,644 379 2,493 Mடுgேt; 66,871. 47,076 2,929
Haibarta 88.693 86,418 1936 3352
Matara 1,37,720 101,520 2,758 200 1,134
:ே 1,95,004. 153,665 22,168 1,853 2,397 4,485 Putnikau 15,123 76,578 2,787 5,278 2,539 Kurunegala 2,89580 2.09,892 22,774 6.399 1,615 14,079 நீர்ே 264.265 161,329 15885 12,726 738 1435 NTEHyn 63,479 53,329 449 1,650 Malale 94746 44820 7,12| 2,187 1970 : 1,71,142 93,382 2,l 19 3,944 523 - 1,66,113. 37,632 4,830 615 12.993 Grph 2.98,993 2.75,661 19,135 3,748 2,253 Kalutara 1,89,694. 162,582 9,142 3,759 3,103 75 Colombо 3,43,534 127,028 25.324 11,888 59,884 13,356
Total 28,63,022 1963,576. 153,472 56,195 73,755 59,192
ven though there has been spells of terrorism, despotism civilized World. Since 1948 a single party was in power till In 1977 it was changed and the present party in power Was | fall of the first president rule and in 1989, the president grassroots unlike the elitist Jayawardane took power. A the United National Party. Before this there has been the he Provincial Council Elections in 1980. The last Local wernment election held after 12 years cannot be ignored.
Provinces, local government elections were held under the E of the country. Nearly 75,000 public servants and 20,000 }olled from a total registered 8,625,145 Voters. The election cting representatives to 10 Municiple Councils, 33 Urban conducted in 7499 polling booths. There were 11 political local bodies. The outcome of the Elections was that the UC's and 153 Pradeshiya Sabhas totalling 189 which is ; Contested 2 local bodies and captured power in them. On local bodies. The SLFP which contested 202 local bodies 15.18% of all local bodies, MEP contested 18 local bodies Odies, The SLCP contested 6 local bodies and won only 1 bodies. LSSP contested 10 local bodies and Won none, i5, SLPF 2 and won no seats. However, independents and
SULTS BY PARTY
BNP LSSP IND I IND 2 IND3 CP Regd. Voles Spoilt
342. E39 358,811 2,73,900 - 24,062 1,081 1,72,700 128,928 14,437
2,201 2,857 ES 397.322 3,2964. 38,950 2,949 1,89,573 134,678 14,853
2.93. 296,123, 2,04,696 2.367
16.357 30,912 467,337 3,21,133 30,532
13,698 5,935.24 432,552 39.282
12,208 3.28,407 233,070 18,557
9,142 9,744 8,07984, 6, 19426. 5620 1,606 1,172 6,555 684 C.W.C. 681,910 5,16,637 4926 1918 24, 174 807 909 159.294 || 336.820 242.372 36,685 0.274 SLPF 236,148 1,81538 20,420 28,363 11,623 1,553 11,929 4,492.24 356,443 31,865 5,393 5,05,094 370,798 43,212
19,53 9,60,866, 6,70.00351,060 7889 21,451 2,674 6O1755 440,676. 39.62
75.984 11,77,887 720,558 56,560 9.209 37,424 238,275 5,026 86,2,485 61,60,3725869:
SOURCE: THE SUNDAY TIMES May 19, 1991
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
independent groups contested 75 local bodies and W. 2 Pradeshiya Sabhas. One independent group w Alquiressa (was backed by the UNP/CWC).
Thus, it is evident that the UNP has gained votes O Within 10 years the total UNP votes have increased The SLFF" has kost 293.040 between 1989-1991 wher same period the UNP has gained 341,237.
The popularity of the UNP has been due to:
(a)The personal charisma of the President (b)The lack of an alternative leadership who could offe (c)The Janasaviya programme (d)The anti-corruption, waste programme (e)The recurrent political campaign by the UNP using (The land and water resource development programr (a)The urban/rural housing programmes (h) The offering of marketable leadership of the candid The Local Government Election results were as follows The pattern of Local Government Election results re
ELECTION RESULTS BY PERCEN
Total polled by the UNP - 2,90,436 ) s 33.74% of total regi ) = 46.242 of total pol. by the CC 59,294 ) - 0.68% of total reg: ) s 0.942 of total pol. by the UNP/CWC - ) = 0.17% of total reg: ) s 0.22% of total pol. backed
Independents 1441 2.984l41 = 34.59% of tota 1 reg: (Akuressa) nnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
s 4741 of total pol. Total polled by the SLFP - 1996,820 - 23.15 of total registered
of total polled
Total votes polled by
all other parties and groups excluding SLFP
24,027 = 8
of total registered
of total polled
In Summary overall results reveals
* Only UNP - Teceived 342 of registered or 46 of polled vote
UNP and its allies - received 34 of registered or 47 of polled vote
* SLF? - received 23 of registered or 32 of polled vote
Others - received 8 of registered or 114 of polled vote
The votes of the two major parties at the local elections are worth coa with past electios.
1981 DC Elections 1989 Presidential 990 General 1991
Elections Elections Elle
NP 1,515,06 2,569,99 2,837,961 29 SLFP Boycotted 2,289,860 1,780,599 1,9.
on 2 UC's and hO Contested
LOCAL COVERNMENT ver the years. ELECTIONS - RESULTS ANALYSIS by 1,395,330, eas Within the
(1) Total Registered 8,625,145 (2) Total Polled 6,293,929
(3) Total Walid 5,704,990
(4) 2 of 2 of 1 72.97 r stability (5) 2 of 3 of 1 66.14
avery opportunity to get closer to electorates
ates offered by the party
On the basis of local bodies.
vealed the following:-(A) Reversal of the Centres of
AGE The Presidential Elections of 1989 revealed .
that the Nuwara-Eliya, Matale, Badulla, Kandy, Putalam, Moneragala, Ratnapura,
red Kegalle, Polonnaruva, Vanni, Kurunegala sered districts were favourable to the UNP. in the ed Parliamentary Elections of 1990. Kandy, ಸ್ಟ್ರೀred N’Eliya, Matale, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Stere Kegalle, Ratnapura, Badulla districts polled ed heavily with the UNP. In the Local govern
ment elections all agricultural and plantation districts voted with the UNP and the dometry districts around the Colombo city voted with the SLFP. SLFP supporters polled heavily in Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara, parts of Mahaweli, Ratnapura. It reveals that in urban and semi-urban areas government is not popular despite the urban housing programme. High cost of living, high cost of land, high transport cost, ineffective and corrupt urban/local bodies (eg. Panadura UC) explains the cause of the failure of local UNP. The Janasaviya programme was
3,436 effective in attracting more votes to the
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 1.
UNP. The Presidential Mobile programme also accou Provincial Council system, low prices for paddy, landle
(B) The High Percentage of Rejected Votes The percentage of rejects at the local elections reveals (a)a protest vote (b)a lack of understanding of the preferential system ofvotes
(c)a protest by unhappy UNP against "new" elements like C Kandyan areas
(d)the infighting within UNP to get a place under the preferential :
(C) The Role of CWC and independent Groups
The CWC claims to represent Kandyan areas due to the new ele in a future elections of CWC decides to Contest alone in the r parochial groupe, the Sinhalese voters are going to openly dive Can CWC who managed to win the election represent Kandyan S
(D) The Disarray among the Opposition The disunity among the opposition groups acted as an advantag in the electorates. (E) The Lack of Alternative Party to Government This is clearly evident from election results
The agricultural areas where paddy prices were low (eg. Polon UNP, revealing that the Janasaviya has been an effective instrum local government elections reveals a popular rupport to the Presi
CSB – A TORNEY - A Question: What is the law regarding registration of m
Answer: Every motor vehicle should be duly registe the Commissioner of Motor Traffic.
Question: What documents should a motorist obtain Answer: (i) The certificate of registration on payment
(i) The Third Party insurance Certificate (as a minimu accidents, theft, fire etc, but these are not compulsory
(iii) The revenue licence for the year (iv) The Fitness Certificate in the case of lorries, buse Question: What are the regulations regarding driving
Answer: You should obtain the relevant form fr age, you could apply for a driving test with required to know the Highway Code and the
ced for the success, inspite of negative factors like the Sness, ineffective credit policies.
IC who wants to represent Sinhala traditional homelands in the
ystem - and failing which spoiling the votes
toral process. This will create problems to both the UNP and SLFP ext General Elections. A similar factor is the SMC. Due to these t and find othe extra parliamentary measures to kook after their lot. inhalese? This is a question silently discussed by Sinhala voters.
2 to the UNP. The left seems to be koot, and SLFP is loosing ground
haruwa) or had no irrigation waters (eg. Bakamuna) voted with the
ent in the results being infabour of the UNP. Thus, the results of the dent Ranasinghe Premadasa. O
otor Vehicles? ed with the Registrar of Motor Vehicles, at the office of
in this Connection? of the fees relevant to the class of Vehicle m -you may get comprehensive insurance cover against
om the RMV office, and if you are over 18 years of Iwo photographs and the required fee. You are oad signs, and be certified medically fit to drive
SOCIAL JUSTICE 5).
Immigrants Victims of rac
The problem for an open Europe predicted this journal in 1988, "is how to close it against Immigrants and refugees from the Third World Today the structures for that closure are being Set in place in the informal meetings of the Trevi group of ministers and police chiefs and the discussions of the Inter-state treaty makers of Schengen. And, as before, the danger for democratic government, for accountable administration, shows itself in the erosion of the rights of some
of its citizens and, therefore, for all of its citizens. For although Emerging
Trevi is meant to be addressing the problem of terrorists and fՅCISՈ d
drug-runners and Schengen the problem of illegal immigrants ThriC WOl
and refugees, a common cul- 3S immig
ture of European racism, which
defines all Third World people as immigrants and refugees, refugees
ge immigra ಕ್ಲೈಜ್ಡ refuge # terroris Early their passports on drug-r
And it is these aspects of the emergence of an institutionalised racism on a pan-European basis, fomenting and fomented by popular racism, that portend the drift towards an authoritarian European state.
To understand that, however, one has to understand the way that the different types of European racism have taken shape in the crucible of their particular national histories. Thus, where German racism would appear to stem directly from the aggregation of one Volk into a nation exclusive of all other Volk, French racism seems to have taken shape at the point where the Enlightenment, carrying the nation state in its arms, stubbed its toe against the colonies. Unlike Britain which treated its colonies as peoples apart, to be acculturated only to be exploited, France saw the Cultural assimilation of its subject peoples into a greater France as the burden of its Enlightenment. Where British racism was driven by the economic
become the Sm A sivANANDAN čS
imperatives of the industrial revolution, French racism was driven by the cultural imperatives of the Enlightenment Both racisms, however, were imbricated in the Creation of the nation state. German racism, On the other hand, formed the very basis of that creation,
While these same processes of industrialisation and nation-building with, of course, their different timespans and their differential Coonial encounters - appear to have shaped the national European racisms of Europe, it was their need for cheap labour in the efines all period of post-war reconstruction that gave these racisms
ld people their particular point and purpose, invariably, Such labour
rantS and came from either the Colonies and ex-Colonies of the Third
and all World or from the then poor south of Europe, and were "sad
ՈtS and dled with diferent Cultures, different Colours, different Creeds. 6S 3S What Europe wanted, though, was the labour not the labourer tS and and towards that end racism
was ready instrument.
But, with the passing of industrial society, that labour isno konger needed. The problem for European governments now is how to settle the labor that refuses to go back whilst evolving, at the same time, a common policy that will keep out any further intake of labour in the form of refugees and asylum-seekers. And yet, it is precisely such peripatetic migrants who form the ideal workforce, flexible and ad hoc, required by the manufacturing and service sectors of post-industrial society. Hence these governments are faced with two sets of contradictions. On the one hand, they are compelled, as a part of the tidying-up process for the new open Europe, to regularise the status of long-standing "immigrants', but risk the danger of being thrown out of power by the popular racism that they themselves have engineered. On the other hand, they want to appease their racist constituencies by keeping out Third World migrants and refugees, but run the risk of undermining the black economy and the increased prosperity it brings countries, and a growing anxiety about who is to do the work.
Already the cracks are beginning to show in the battlements of Fortress Europe even as its foundations are being threatened by the revolts of the new natives in Lyon and Lesjofors. (SOURCE: EUROPE-VARATIONS ON A THEME OF RACISM)
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51.
CAMOS FROM SLC
FRANCE || ITA
in France, the same term "immigrant The origins of used to describe widely differing pop in Italy correspondt lations which, taken together, total nee of migration: the eas our and a half million people, out of a the period from 197 populatin of approximately 56 million, just which began after
inder 7 per cent of the total. For years, gain employment i people from various European countries aye. On the on particularly Portugal, Italy and Spain, but employed in areas w also Belgium, Poland and Yugoslavia dored by Italians. have come to France for seasonal or more accepting employ permanent work. A significant populatio ich italians refus
has also arrived as refugees: recent asy Unsatisfied dem lum-seekers have come from South-East sectors, in agricultu Asia South America and the Middle East are used for the
Bn there are those from the Overseas Departments of France (such as Guade loupe, Martinique, French Guinea, etc.), o, while having full rights as French itizens, are in practice subjected to the ost flagrant discrimination. Finally there are large communities of Algerians, Moroccane and Tunisians ( and to a lesse scient Indo-Chines), whose presence, like that of the Martiniquans and Guadelou pans, is inextricably linked with France's Coloniad history. There are now mae of the market econo different communities settled in France activities have rapic over several generations. There is no for immigrant labo satisfactory concept, and hence no ter travelling sales is minology for a community that falls bet- illegal organistions een the “immigrant’ outsider and that of maximum advantag the assimilated French - only disputed able section of immi terms to describe specific groups such as that this type of exp beurs’’ (Parisian back-silang for Arab) or is only possible whe "populatione of immigrant origins". acuum in immigrati
The presence of black people in the Scandinavian countrie are subject to has, however, a long history behind it. Norway (indirectly) from the colonial system, and imbibed racist theories lic development. One such factor is the discovery of oil it Middle Eastern and other overseas newspapers. They were want and, not least, to take on the unwanted jobs in the service indu
e late 1960s, but more arrived in the 1970s. Before then, there
many, but restrictions in Germany and the 1970 ban c 够 ards. Seven Pakistaniworkers arrived one winter night att it towards them: "Those of you who can tie this tie can stay." Th get a work permit was not difficut.
This laissez-faire period, however, was over by 1975, wher immigrants, but " to make conditions better for those who hau emained. Its tre function was to maintain state control over til between the trade unions and the employers and was racist in th:
several regions in
south. They recei ofern hawe i no wo sequently, no legal smal and medium
he north are increa labour already in illegaly, to underta ages which talian looks at the eitual appears that the mc
"European identity is no longer an imperial, ex imperialism is past. The era of decolonisation is
European chauvinism now is prosperous, complac expansionist but critial. The prospect is that of Eu Bosphorus for moats, and parts of the Third World
D EUROPEAN CoUNTRIES
inmigrants now living By the end of 1989, Switzerland had o two different phases according to official statistics, an alie rtier, mainly covering population pf just over one millio O to 1985: the rece (1,040,325), which is 15.6 per cert of the
S. ss population of 6.67 milion. Of these e have settlement permits, are free to ange employment, can novo from one canton to another and can have thei
rhich have been
in other words, by residence permits extended without limi Trent On Cordi Annual residents' on the other hand, have
e, 弱酸莓 O
ed stay of one year, their families ma
them. According to 1987 figures, there
various harvests, both the north and are , in addition, 156.725 so-called ses ve derisory sonal workers, who are allowed to work
and live in Switzerland for a maximurn of nine months in any one year.
*နီးမိုးမီး Swiss nationals and those with
taly, either legally o imited residence permits have prior
tion more closely, it further back, the seasonal workers. But pre or less lega zones orst off of all are the asylum-eeekers my which control suc countries like Turkey, Sri Lanke ily created a de Tano n, Yugoslavia Iran, Iraq, Angole Jr. in fact, immigrant Zaire. They have to accept the obec
e most temporary nature, no one else ants. And they are the butt of racism. Fo ith the growth in Third Workd refugees he 1980s has corne an increase in those seeking asylum in Switzerland and, cor respondingly, a growth of Swiss raciem.
largely controlled b
which have take e of the most vulner grant labour, it is clea loitation of immigrants n there is a complete on policy.
OUNTRIES - NORWAY
s is quite recent; the injustice and discriminatory mechanisms th
the North Sea. Workers were needed, yelled the daily ads in bd not only in the off-shore oil industry, but also in timber and st stries. The first immigrants from the Third World started coming i tad been only a few dozen black people living in Norway. on immigration in Denmark were the main factors in the mov he border. The border guard was drunk, he undid his tie and th ree of them came across the border. Once a person got work,
the first immigration ban was introduced, not, ostensibly, to sto d already arrived." The conditions never got better, but the b he influx of labour; it was a mediating instument for gov at it was aimed directly at people from the Third World.
(pansionist identity in the old sense. The era of past and Third Worldism is no longer a la mode. ent, aloof. Fortress Europe in cultural uniform, is not rope as a fort, with the Straits of Gibraltar and the as hinterlands, and optional labour reserves." O
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
Peace in Middle
The fighting in the Gulf war ended on March 3 in triumph for the allies, when General Norman Schwarzkopf sat down with British and Saudi Colleagues in a military tent pitched on the Safwan airbase deep in occupied iraq. They faced three Iraqi generals who had just experienced the humiliation of being escorted over their own territory by US troops. "I am here," said Schwarzkopf, "to tell them exactly what we expect thern to do.'
The Outcome seemed so certain then. Two months on, the clarity has gone. Saddam still rules, with army and terror apparatus intact, while visions of peace in the Middle East and a new world order dissolve amid reassertions of national interests. The permanent ceasefire entrusted to the UN shows signs of running into the sand, while Saddam skilfully plays for time.
it has taken some 27 days from the adoption of Security, Council Resolution 678 for a permanent ceasefire to confirm the first two appointments to the three special commissions needed to oversee the terms of the peace deal.
it is a start, but it leaves roughly 43 special commission seats to fill. The figure is uncertain because, although each commission (on weapons of mass destruction, borders, and compensation) will have about 15 members, they are still trying to agree the exact number.
Many are puzzled. After a winter of dynamic action which appeared at last to harness the potential energy of the UN, Spring has brought little but the slow grinding of bureaucratic wheels. As one diplomat said: "Our job here is, after all, to talk."
General Schwarzkoph in conference with defeated Iraqut ger
East heading for
thought wha t
next. Instead of controllin events, we are now bein dragged along b
Each day there is news of the agonies of the Kurds stranded in the mountains in flight from Saddam and of the fears of the Shia in the South who also rose and failed, in Baghdad, Saddam tinkers with the apparatus of govement, bent on presenting a reforming face to his people and foreign states.
British and US forces are unilaterally dispatched to the mountains to help the sick and dying. The UN queries the legality of this while being urged by John Major to hasten an official relief effort under the umbrella of its troops.
The UN, On whose resolutions the coalition forces fought the war, has been handed the job of supervising the peace and, in both the popular mind and expert opinion, little is happening. "The situation is utterly disgusting; it is cruel and heartless," says Elie Kedourie, Emeritus Professor of Politics at London University. "All the words in the dictionary cannot describe the nature of this ceasefire agreeement with Iraq. These poor millions in Iraq, what is their future?"
Kedourie, an expert on Middle East politics, is angry at the outcome of the war and contemptuous of White House policy. Hesays the UN was dragged into the conflict unnecessarily; he supports Mrs. Thatcher's original argument that, as Kuwait had asked for help in defending itself, there was no need to involve the Security Council, and that the US and Britain - "the only coalition that mattered" - were justified under international law in taking military action on their Own.
"What went wrong from the start was all the hullabaloo about the UN,” he says. “We are now predictably entrapped in this resolution and that resolution, while Saddam gets away with literal
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51. 16
murder yet again. The allies should have weeded out every last trace of Saddam's Ba'athist regime."
Derek Hopwood, director of the Middle East Centre at St. Antony's, Oxford, makes a less virulent analysis but arrives at a similar conclusion. "Just a few weeks later, Saddam seems hardly to have suffered a military defeat at all," he says. "He has his army, his equipment and does not appear to be under threat in Baghdad. Things are disappearing into the usual channels - in which most things get bogged down."
On path to disaster
Reports from American intelligence suggests that Saddam is already beating the embargo by smuggling in urgently needed stocks of military spares and equipment, at the same time as resuming Small-scale oil exports by road to Jordan. And Baghdad has made no effort to return looted treasures, ranging from medical equipment and computers to civilian airliners and the al-Sabah's Collection of historic artefacts Seized from the Kuwaiti National Museum.
"it is not alarmist to say that the peace is heading for disaster - disaster in the sense of nothing happening," Says Hopwood.
in the meantime, the UN works on to set up its Commissions. No detail is too small to cause delay - even the location of an office. The Dutch feel they should play host in The Hague; the British in London. Officials are confident of a solution within the week.
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THE UN'SSEVEN STEPSTO
RESOLUTION 678, adopted on April 3 (1991), makes provisions for peace under seven headings...
* CEASEFIRE. This formally began when Iraq officially accepted the resolution.
* BORDERS: Iraq and Kuwait must respect the disputed 1963, border; the UN must demarcate it, the Security Council guarantee it, setting up a commission to that end.
* PEACEKEEPING: UN military observers to monitor border | zone.
* WEAPONS: Iraq must accept destruction or removal of biological and chemical weapons, missiles with a range of more than 95 miles, and nuclear weapons-useable materials. Iraq must furnish a declaration of all such weapons. The UN is to set up a special commission to deal with inspection and destruction within 45 days of the resolution's adoption.
* COMPENSATION: Iraq is liable for damages arising from its actions. Funds based on oil revenues to be established, with supervision by a special commission.
* SANCTIONS: The embargo on food to be lifted, and eased on some civilian essentials, and the Sanctions Committee of the Security Council to review the embargo every 60 days.
All sanctions on Iraq exports to be lifted once dangerous weapons have been removed and the council agrees a compensation mechanism. Arms embargo to be maintained.
* OTHER PROVISIONS: States to prevent iraq suing for contracts broken by the war or sanctions. Iraq must co-operate with the Red Cross on the repatriation of Kuwaitis and others. Iraq must pledge not to support international terrorism. O
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SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 1.
LEARNING FROM OTHERS
J. L. AMARATUNGA, Director caع)
Statistics (1985) indicate that among Coconut growing Countries in the world Sri Lanka has the highest average yield per ha. as compared to almost 12 other Countries growing Coconuts, the coconut growers are not getting adequate income to meet the high cost of production. The environment for growing coconuts in Sri Lanka is good, Compared with Kerala. Southern Kerala has a similar rainfall pattern to Sri Lanka, and ground water is readily available throughout the year and the soils are also deер.
The coconut holdings in Kerala are small because of the high population density. Approximately 98% of the holdings are less than 2 hectares in extent, Land ceiling in the State is 15 acres in extent. The average yield is 23 nuts per palm per year.
A significant feature is the outlook of the growers shifting from Monoculture cultivation of coconuts, to Coconut based agro-forestry system. This system needs to be fully investigated and adopted in Sri Lanka. The Cropping pattern is a multi-storeyed system utilising both Sunlight and space factors with a view to high inputs and high productivity and profits.
in most areas irrigation of coconuts by surface or drip irrigation systems were provided to maximise production.
A simple gravity flow system was seen at the Central Plantation Crop Research institute in Kasaragod North Kerala. The farmers are more convinced of the returns from irrigating coconuts than the use of fertilizer for increased production. According to statistics, only about 2% of the acreage is fertilized.
Mr. V.T. Markose, Director of the Coconut Development Board based in Cochin Summed up the main Constraints of increasing productivity and profitability in a Small holder coconut Sector as follows:
1.Uneconomic holding size (i.e. less than 2 ha. uneconomic).
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2.Gestation period of 3 years to realise fertilizer effectS.
3.Not convinced about the returns from fertilizer application. 4.Social priorities and attitudes inhibit the investments to from achieving high productivity.
These constraints listed above may apply to Sri Lankan conditions. A study of these problems will provide the solutions to increase productivity in the Small holder Sector in the wet Zone.
Productivity of Coconut Holdings
in the wet zone in Sri Lanka most of the Coconut holdings are Small, but could be made more productive by better extension programs. In CPCRi Kasaragod in India, agricultural extension appears to be effectively carried out. Extension training programs are drawn up duarterly for all Government Officers. Research officers regularly appear on TV programmes on research aspects concluded. They have organised training courses, seminars, exhibitions, film shows and regular visits to demonstration plots organised by the extension division of CPCR. The demonstration plots include animal husbandry which includes rabbits, poultry, quail, high yielding milk cows stall-fed and with bio-gas production units.
AS mentioned earlier, coconut growers are convinced of the advantages of irrigated Coconuts combined with high density intercropping and mixed farming systems. Throughout Kerala, it is difficult to see a single farming plot without intercropping with bananas, lime, pepper, cloves, nutmegs, pineapples etc.
The high density Coconut based intercropping model at the CPCRi Kerala has a variety of crops with large canopy perennials like jak, breadfruit, nutmeg and medium canopy perennials like mango, lime and
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 18
pepper and small canopy annuals and perennials like Coffee, papaya, pineapples, yams, Colacasia and tapioca.
Coconut production in India is vital to the agricultural economy of millions of small farmers in the country. They have stressed that adequate attention is required for the effective transfer of improved technology available with the research institutes. The Small farmers are updated with the latest scientific findings on all aspects of crop protection through TV and radio programmes. Publicity programmes are not merely confined to periodicals, but participation at exhibitions is encouraged to provide information to Coconut
THE OTHER INI
An unique institution that promotes
More than four decades into political independenc Anagazines, newspapers and journals from a group States. The resultant "knowledge imperialism" is formi
Attempts to change this situation have not borne fruit institutions like the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Cooperation (SAARC). Persistent currency and exc western academic scholarship in the Third World have instance, to get books and journals written, printed a Philippines or Kenya.
in 1986 a group of intellectuals and activists from indi be done about this depressing state of affairs, their ans
er three years, through sustained efforts, the OIB ha
Books and periodicals from the Philippines, Malaysia Pakistan began to be available by 1987 in Indian book pinions and prejudices, the OB has succeeded in rom other Third World countries, provided the product
From its inception to OIB has followed a few importar marketed by the bookstore have to be written by Thirc Third Vrold country. The bookstores most importa rate in the Country of origin.
Having successfully introducted Thrid World books int. her countries. India produces thousands of books e Indian publishing industry has to offer. Titles selected a
in addition to Third World writing, the OiB uses the sar publications brought out by voluntary groups, NG! utlet specializing in such publications: the ultimate
non-commercial publishers, small activist groups, alter
opies of the OlB 1990 Catalogue( $1-postage) ar Development Alternatives), 13 Alipur Rd, Delhi 110054,
farmers. Several research cum demonstration plots are organised at different locations Covering various aspects such as performance of hybrids, fertilizer use, Coconut based high density Cropping Systems and irrigation. The Indian Government, in order to encourage farmers to irrigate their coconuts and other crops, provides a subsidy of Rs.1000/- to purchase water pumps,Rs.3000/- per ha for planting new areas, and Rs. 10,000/- per ha for drip irrigation systems.
it is suggested that these aspects of development in Kerala High Density intercropping systems should be adopted by Coconut growers in Sri Lanka. O
books among Third World people
e, countries like India are still flooded by books, of powerful publishers in England and the United dable and almost impossible to combat.
, despite the emergence of strong southern politica and the South Asian Associatkon for Region hange problems combined with the dominance o made it practically impossibe for readers in India, for ind published by Colleagues and writers in, say, the
a got together and decided that something ought to wer: The Other India Bookstore (OlB).
s now dramatically changed the existing scenario.
, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and stores. This was the first step. Contrary to established proving that people in india are ready to buy books is of good quality.
it principles. With precious few exceptions, all books Wrold writers, and must be printed and published in it achievement: it sells books at practically the same
) India, the Olb is now set to promote indian books in sery year. Olb editors select the best titles the prolific regenerally with the global audience in mind.
he infrastructure built for marketing the entire volume DS, and environmental groups in India. It is the only one-stop shop for whatever is produced in India by lative thinkers and change-makers.
available from FDA (International Foundation for India,
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51.
A new "area" of
The media have been singing paeans of praise to the "nimblefingered" females who monopolize - in their numbers only - the Garment industry in this country. It is still, so it is claimed, "Lanka's top export" and grosses Rs.25.2 billion for 1990 as against 17.6 billion the previous year (Central Bank figures).
In addition mate emplo garment fa 60 per cent young wom in this trad away to pra oldest profe to civilizatic
ensnared in they find it to get away
While we are perturbed that only around 30 per cent of the value of garment exports is an actual earning by the country, due to the fact that 70 per cent of gross earnings are inputs, we are even more dismayed at the sinister fact that 30 percent of the females working in this industry are on full-time prostitution, How, you might well wonder, are they also then, working in the Industry or designated as "workers" (garment workers)?
it is not as mystifying as it seems According to Sources within the industry, that refused to be named for obvious reasons, and who themselves are deeply disturbed by this phenomenon, the workers, usually younger than the stipulated and legal age for employment, are recruited privately and only ostensibly as garment workers. They never, thereafter, even see the "inside' of a garment factory or stores! They are really recruited as prostitutes and serve the top management, both local and foreign, their guests and business contacts, also both local and foreign, and even "junket tours' that apparently come in quite Covertly though legitimately into the country.
it is a well known fact that about 60 per cent of these Women workers have from time to time also hired Out their bodies in "part time' prestitution, if that term can used in this context. In other words they have felt free to go out with men after working hours for money and whatever else in material terms they can get, and even may be to ensure their promotions and higher positions in their respective places of work. This is not new, and the Garment industry itself, we might remind ourselves, is about four decades in existence and doing business in Sri Lanka.
to legiti- AN EXPOSE BY OUR ment in ROVING REPORTER tories about
But this type of prostitution, usually
employed withocameo men in the are lured factories themselves, even in the ctice the higher echelons of management ision known were exercises, however irregular, n, once မျိုး ဂို) “ဝှိမြို့မြို့ပြိုး"
8OUS. at is sinister e the web new trend is that 95 per cent of the impossible
young girls are duped and the selection made from marginalised families so that they have little choice except to leave the 'job' and return to their sink of poverty if they are finicky about giving of their 'services'. What is perturbing also is that no-one is Concerned about the health, both the physical and mental health of these unfortunate girls.
incidentally it is worth finding out how many garment factories provide free medical aid to their workers and workers' families. How often are girls checked for their health Conditions, even though working on assembly lines is now known to be detrimental to well being, both mental and physical and it has been found that the damage done to eye-sight working under artificial light for long periods or engaging in sewing which takes a toll of the eyes is a common one in the garment industry all over the Third World. Little attention is also paid by employers, intent only on profit motives, to the psychological health of their Workers.
Girls engaged to work in garment factories and then 'elegated to prostitution suffer from a truly traumatic 2xperience as far as most of them are concerned. The human factor is too much neglected", said one voman involved in training in this area. "Too soon the girls are treated like machines and become like machines."
While Some attention has been paid by the authorities D ensuring better working conditions for these girls, here is still room for the provision of better facilities in host factories, both in the free trade zone region and other industrial sectors along the south-west coast.
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 2C
Our sources feel that an investigation into the malpractice is imperative, "it is essential to discover how and why these girls are being lured into vice especially as all of them, after a time, are left destitute and their exploitation in this maner will in the long run be detrimental to the industry itself" said one spokesman who desires to remain anonymous. "it has been noticed", he added, "that about 10 per cent are leaving the industry altogether as they prefer to be "poor but honest'." The question is: what action should be taken in this regard? What is deplored is "organised' prostitution - a matter for urgent action. O
Now there is a new concept of WOMEN'S EDUCATION "Women's Education" is one way of learning things made new through the women's perspective. From this view, one would realize how some knowledge about women had been hidden or missed from the general treatment of persons because the male is the norm. Women find difficulty identifying with a body of knowledge that subordinated our identities as Women when We are subsumed under the maSCuline pronoun\"he" or the generic term "man".
Free from bondage
Women's Education becomes liberating because it frees us from the bondage of gender-based roles, of stereotypes, of being boxed according to men or women. Women's Education helps us in the discovery of ourselves and our uniqueness as persons without losing our femininity or masculinity.
For who wouldn't grab the opportunity of exploring one's talents and potentials without the inhibition based on gender? Who wouldn't want God to be portrayed as having the qualities of a mother? Who isn't fed up with media spewing out images of women as sex objects and in their traditional role ALONE? Who wouldn't want every person developed to his/her fullest and integrated according to choice in all spheres of production and reproduction?
Women's Education is an education worth welcoming if we realize that we could drop our defenses, our charade in acting to the expectations of what and how we were conditioned to be instead of what and how we are as persons. Through it, we understand that partnership, not domination is the preferred structure of relationships.
it is not an independent subject but Women's Education is fully a part of every subject. it is
ation for Women
integrated in psychology, history, religion, culture, and ecology, it is fully a part of any subject from childrearing to building a house, it cuts across races, economic status, political and religious affiliations. In short, it is a unifying education amongst people that shall propel us to unknown heights of full human development and truy life giving relationships.
Women's Education is not a magic wand transforming unjust social arrangements into life-giving structures for all, it is a process of Consciously raising women's issues and advocacy work for the transformation of persons and structures. It is a lifetime Commitment of re-thinking and re-doing things in a perspective that recognizes women and men as equal partners in development.
Integration with formal education
Formal Education is just one area where we see how women's education could be integrated. It is a challenge to focus on Formal Education and its capacity for Social transformation.
Formal Education shapes every person who has undergone it. With most of the early part of our life spent within the premises of formal education, we find great importance in it because our thoughts, feelings, and actions are molded by our classmates, teachers, and administrators through the aid of subjects and books, it is not an exaggeration to say that what we become in later life depends on the influence of formal education.
But what education have we undergone?.
Lifetime training Upon graduation, did we feel the urgency of going
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
back to our rural communities and apply our knowledge to uplift our communities from poverty? Or did we opt to stay in the urban areas because we failed to see the relevance of our degree to our rural communities' needs and situation? Did We Set Our minds to applying our earned skills and knowledge in other countries? Or have the knowledge we gained changed some of our basic positive Cultural values?
As a regular reader of your paper and as a Sri Lankan who has made the deliberate option and choice of living and working in this country despite "The State of the Nation" wish to respond to the President's address to Parliament as reported in the Daily News of Saturday, 20 April 1991
It is strange but true that the "Thought for the Day" in the front page of that issue are words from one of my favourite leaders, the aesasinated Black American Southern Baptist Pastor Martin Luther King Jr; his words being "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere"
So I am glad that our President in his address has spoken about the need to restore normalcy. This feel is the NEED OF THE HOUR in fact I feel that all the other dreams which the President has spelt out in his address will be either nullified or not achieved fully, if we do not as a nation return to normalcy SOO.
Enough, I think, is enough. How long more are we as a nation, as a people, going to play this game? We are not fighting a foreign power; we are fighting among ourselves, we are destroying each other.
Those of us who work with people from Point Pedro in the North to Dondra Head in the South, know only too well the misery that our people are going through. The suffering, the insecurity and death our people face, the wounds, the pain and the trauma that they are experiencing we know for we meet thern and we listen to them. Ours is a human problem. We are at the cross roads of history; our civilisation and culture are at stake. This suffering of humanity in our land must end. We can no longer afford to play the game of party politics.
As a product of the Peradeniya School of Political Science, after having sat at the feet of George Lerski and Alfred Jeyaratnam Wilson, know the difference between politics and power and party politics. The latter despise; the former being the affairs of the city, relish. Being a Third World country we cannot continue to play this game of party and power politics aлупmore.
it is a sad commentary onour political life that the S.L.F.P M.E.P. and U.S.A. members of Parliament were not present when the President addressed the House. I have friends in these parties, some of whom were with me at Trinity College, Kandy. My dear friends of the opposition, it is tima that we thought of our people and not of our parties. We seek the vote of our people, as we are doing right now with the Local Government elections in the horizon. After we position ourselves in some legislature what do we do? Do we think of our people and their misery? Let us not forget the lessons of history. During the Second World War, Winston Churchill was given all the support that he needed to win the war. After the victory the Labour Partywas invited by the people of Britain to form the new government and govern Britain.
Or did we realize that we have undergone an education that perpetuated some unjust structures? Or did it allow us to choose our roles and our careers according to our capabilities?
Do we discover that our education has alienated us from ourselves as persons and as cultural communities? As igorots, how did our education make us proud of our identity as Philippino? O
it is time that we as a people get together to addrees Our minds as a nation to restore normalcy so that the deep-rooted political, economic, social and cultural problems may be solved thereafter.
Bismarck, the leader of Prussia, had the concept of blood cement. He said that blood cements a nation by bringing the people together. Have we not shed enough of Sri Lankan blood? Where are the flowers of our youth gone? Haven't they reddened the rivers of Sri Lanka?
As a Sri Lankan hope that we Sri Lankans will get together and solve the Sri Lankan problem so that our people will have the future they ought to have as a nation.
(Rev.) Sydney Knight
ADASARZ//2777729 AZAVZEKS 4 SC2AAP/WMVG AZAZWYCZARKS
Every sensible person will be ashamed to witness the present unholy and pitiful scenes in the country, not only in the north-east, but also in the south-west, where politicians and some communal-minded monks were the root cause for the present plight. The average man has been badly cheated by them with broken promises. Most of our former members of parliament are now in foreign lands for safety and some of them, it is saddening to know, are doing pawn broker and eating house business. Recently one attorney-at law sold yams in the market as the courts have been levelled to the ground. His wife got ashamed, pawned her jewellery and sent him to the West to do some jobs of any type.
it will fill volumes to mention in detail all the sad scenes in the North. I have no paper to write about it in detail. One typing sheet is 75 cents, a litre of petro adulterated is sold at 500 rupees; a box of matches with just a few sticks at four rupees, an average coconut at 25 rupees, manioc at 25 rupees per kilo, country rice at 50 rupees a measure. There are no druge, no cycle bowls, no 3-in-one oil to lubricate the domestic machines. The newspapers use cardboard as there is an acute scarcity of newsprint. The Yari Devi express train is still being held up as the rolling stocks have been damaged or pilfered north of Vavuniya. The people go to bed early as there is no fuel to light even a bottle lamp. The priests are compelled to give conmunion in tiny pieces as there is a shortage of holy hosts. The people use bicycles for public transport. Some of them went to Colombo by cycle, sold it, and proceeded to the West. Plenty of people are planning to leave the peninsula for good.
Thank you once again for all the good work you are rendering to mould a just and righteous society.
SOCIAL JUSTICE 51
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